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KILDER til BioNyt Videnskabens Verden nr. 172: 

 

Ref.1: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.52

Ref.2: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.110

Ref.3: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.367

Ref.4: Irwin W. Sherman: Twelve Diseases that changed our world, 2007. s.78

Ref.5: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.2-3

Ref.6: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.199

Ref.7: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.135

Ref.8: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.340

Ref.9: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.135

Ref.10: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.322

Ref.11: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.60

Ref.12: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.47

Ref.13: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.367

Ref.14: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.48

Ref.15: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.122

Ref.16: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.59

Ref.17: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.114

Ref.18: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.145

Ref.19: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.222

Ref.20: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.219

Ref.21: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.220

Ref.22: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.146

Ref.23: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.12

Ref.24: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.307

Ref.25: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.145

Ref.26: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.49

Ref.27: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.50

Ref.28: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.308

Ref.29: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.215

Ref.30: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.225

Ref.31: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.47

Ref.32: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.322-23

Ref.33: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.61

Ref.34: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.67

Ref.35: Irwin W. Sherman: Twelve Diseases that changed our world, 2007. s.79

Ref.36: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.224

Ref.37: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.59

Ref.38: Ole Jørgen Benedictow: The Black Death and later Plague Epidemics in the Scandinavian Countries: Perspectives and Controversies s. xiv

Ref.39: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.60

Ref.40: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.88

Ref.41: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.76

Ref.42: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.234

Ref.43: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.127

Ref.44: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.133

Ref.45: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.134

Ref.46: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.235

Ref.47: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.9

Ref.48: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.236

Ref.49: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.83

Ref.50: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.161

Ref.51: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.162

Ref.52: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.121

Ref.53: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.91

Ref.54: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.95

Ref.55: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.32

Ref.56: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.12

Ref.57: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.311

Ref.58: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.9

Ref.59: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.33

Ref.60: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.89

Ref.61: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.163

Ref.62: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.21

Ref.63: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.83

Ref.64: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.122

Ref.65: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.13

Ref.66: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.115

Ref.67: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.6

Ref.68: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.112

Ref.69: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.116

Ref.70: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.234

Ref.71: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.104

Ref.72: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.109

Ref.73: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.110

Ref.74: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.120

Ref.75: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.91

Ref.76: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.88

Ref.77: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.89

Ref.78: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.146-147

Ref.79: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.88

Ref.80: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.118

Ref.81: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.135

Ref.82: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.60

Ref.83: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.83

Ref.84:   Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.50

Ref.85: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.20

Ref.86: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.130

Ref.87: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.144

Ref.88: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.156

Ref.89: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.52-53

Ref.90: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.138

Ref.91: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.143

Ref.92: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.130

Ref.93: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.70

Ref.94: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.116

Ref.95: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.117

Ref.96: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.49

Ref.97: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.75

Ref.98: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.17

Ref.99: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.92

Ref.100: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.93

Ref.101: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.148

Ref.102: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.110

Ref.103: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.148

Ref.104: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.31

Ref.105: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.112

Ref.106: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.110

Ref.107: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.78

Ref.108: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.111

Ref.109: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.125

Ref.110: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.83

Ref.111: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.18

Ref.112: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.51

Ref.113: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.98

Ref.114: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.115

Ref.115: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.183

Ref.116: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.189

Ref.117: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.188

Ref.118: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.128

Ref.119: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.47

Ref.120: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.96

Ref.121: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.123

Ref.122: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.77

Ref.123: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.87

Ref.124: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.88

Ref.125: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.92

Ref.126: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.85

Ref.127: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.91

Ref.128: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.83

Ref.129: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.84

Ref.130: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.78

Ref.131: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.81

Ref.132: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.89

Ref.133: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.93

Ref.134: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.148

Ref.135: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.92

Ref.136: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.35

Ref.137: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.44

Ref.138: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.6 og 20

Ref.139: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.19

Ref.140: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.85

Ref.141: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.65

Ref.142: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.66

Ref.143: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.82

Ref.144: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.43

Ref.145: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.22

Ref.146: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.111

Ref.147: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.109

Ref.148: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.147

Ref.149: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.25 og https://doi.org/10.7146/tfss.v5i8.578

Ref.150: Irwin W. Sherman: Twelve Diseases that changed our world, 2007. s.82

Ref.151: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.73

Ref.152: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.74

Ref.153: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.197

Ref.154: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.199

Ref.155: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.206

Ref.156: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.207

Ref.157: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.210

Ref.158: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.50

Ref.159: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.213

Ref.160: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.228

Ref.161: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.221

Ref.162: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.45

Ref.163: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.222

Ref.164: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.224

Ref.165: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.213

Ref.166: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.214

Ref.167: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.91

Ref.168: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.225

Ref.169: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.47

Ref.170: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.228

Ref.171: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.216

Ref.172: Lone Leegaard: Pesten – Europa i katastrofens tegn, 2007. s.217

Ref.173: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.65

Ref.174: Irwin W. Sherman: Twelve Diseases that changed our world, 2007. s.79

Ref.175: Irwin W. Sherman: Twelve Diseases that changed our world, 2007. s.80

Ref.176: Irwin W. Sherman: Twelve Diseases that changed our world, 2007. s.81

Ref.177: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.130

Ref.178: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.131

Ref.179: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.132

Ref.180: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.133

Ref.181: Andrew B. Appleby forsøgte i en artikel fra 1980 "The Disapparance of Plague – A Continuing Puzzle (Economic History Review 2nd series 33, s.161-173; der er omtalt i Rasmus Rosengaard, "Pesten Paradigme: Fra fødsel til fald" (speciale), Københavns Universitet 2006)

Ref.182: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.131

Ref.183: Paul Slack: Plaque – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. s.87

Ref.184: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.341

Ref.185: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.340

Ref.186: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.63

Ref.187: Irwin W. Sherman: Twelve Diseases that changed our world, 2007. s.78

Ref.188: Joseph P. Byrne: "Encyclopedia Of The Black Death" 2012. s.62

Ref.189: Irwin W. Sherman: Twelve Diseases that changed our world, 2007. s.81

Ref.190: Litteratur om hvad middelalderen var eller ikke var:

1) Ole Georg Moseng: "Climate, Ecology and Plague: The Second and the Third Pandemic Reconsidered". i "Living with Black Death" redigeret af Lars Bisgaard og Leif Søndergaard (Odense, Syddansk universitetsforlag 2009, s. 23-45.

 

2) "Pestilential Complexities: Understanding the Medieval Plague". Redaktør: Vivian Nutton. Medical History, suppl. nr.27, 2008.

 

3) Robert E. Lerner: "Fleas: Some Scratchy Issues Concerning the Black Death", The Historian nr. 8, 2008, s.205-229.

 

4) Karl Birkelbach: "Plague Debate: An Historiographical Analysis of the Retrospective Diagnosis of the Black Death". PhD. afhandling, University of Western Australia, 2010.

 

5) Ole Benedictow: "What disease was plague?: On the controversy of the microbiological identity of plague epidemics of the past", 2010

 

Ref.191: Artikel i Cell fra 21. juni 2021 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109278.

Ref.192:  Artikel i Cell fra 22. oktober 2015 med Eske Willerslev: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.009.

Ref.193: https://www.livescience.com/64246-ancient-plague-swedish-tomb.html.

Ref.194: mSystems 19.feb.2019 bd.4 (1): e00217-18 doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00217-18.

Ref.195: da.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djengis_Khan.

Ref.196: (en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/bubonic_plaque#History)

Ref.197: (en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_plague_pandemic).

Ref.198: (Søg "Early anthropocene" i engelsk Wikipedia og "The anhropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago". Climatic Change bd.61, s.261-93, William (Bill) F.Ruddiman 2003)-

Ref.199: (en.m.wikipedia.org/wik/William_Ruddiman)

Ref.200:  https://www.nature.com/articles/s41435-019-0065-0 (evolution, virulens, immunvirkning, vaccination, diagnostik).

Ref.201 https://www.nature.com/articles/ismej2011105 (teori om at pestbakterien har bevaret gener som tillader den at leve i døde pattedyr såkaldt "post-mortem path")

Ref.202 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020149/ (om funktionen af pla-genet der laver Plasminogen-aktivator-protease : "Pla degrades the apoptotic signaling molecule Fas ligand (FasL) to prevent host cell apoptosis and inflammation").

Ref.203: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336565/ (Pla fungerer dels som et adhæsin der klæber bakterien til væv, og dels kan dets proteolytiske funktion undertrykke tidlig neutrofil-tilstrømning i lungerne og dets enzymatiske aktivitet bidrager til bakteriel resistens over for neutrofil-fremkaldt dræbning.

Ref.204: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8533540/ (om forskning, der er vigtig for infektionsbegrænsning og sygdomsbehandling).af bakterien)

Ref.205: https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Den_sorte_d%C3%B8d

Ref.206: [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plague_(disease), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubonic_plague]

Ref.207: usatoday.com/news/health/2007-11-10-plague

Ref.208: ["Poor vector competence of the human flea, Pulex irritans, to transmit Yersinia pestis", 10. juni 2021, Parasites & Vector br.14 artikel nr. 317, 2021, A. Miarinjara m.fl.].

Ref.209: (I.F.C.Hecker: The Black Death in the Fourteenth Century. 1833 (Genoptryk: Trieste 2017) s.6, 14)

Ref.210: en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/bubonic_plague.

Ref.211: en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_plague_pandemic.

Ref.212: (who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/plague)

Ref.213: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8533540/

Ref.214: en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death

 

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