Last year, former Feinstein Institutes neuroengineer Viktor Tóth set a simple goal: he wanted to teach rats to play the classic 1994 video game "Doom II." No, it wasn't just a strange hobby. No, he wasn't trying to start a Twitch channel. The Hungarian software engineer and neuroscientist wanted to learn more about brain computer interfaces, while showcasing the potential insights researchers cou
Data from 329 aerospace engineers and 72 neurosurgeons suggests they are not necessarily cleverer than general population It may not be rocket science, but researchers have found aerospace engineers and brain surgeons are not necessarily brighter than the general population. Researchers examined data from an international cohort of 329 aerospace engineers and 72 neurosurgeons who completed 12 tas
The evolutionary origin of endothermy (the ability to maintain a warm body and higher energy levels than reptiles), currently believed to have originated separately in birds and mammals, could have occurred nearly 300 million years ago.
Nasty winter tornadoes—like the deadly ones last week that hit five states—are likely to be stronger and stay on the ground longer with a wider swath of destruction in a warming world, a new study shows.
Companies come and go, but the claims remain the same, that you can (insert claim) with (insert product) without any evidence. A new company offering magical footpads are just putting new wine in old bottles. The post first appeared on Science-Based Medicine .
A team from UCF has developed the world's first optical oscilloscope, an instrument that is able to measure the electric field of light. The device converts light oscillations into electrical signals, much like hospital monitors convert a patient's heartbeat into electrical oscillation.
Pollen can travel far through the air, allowing scientists who find them to trace the winds of the past. Maaike Zwier writes about her new study from South Georgia, where ancient pollen may reveal shifts in the dominating westerlies.
For years, amateur aurora watchers from Canada have noticed mysterious streaks of pale purple and green light that seemed to dance across the nighttime sky. But it wasn't until 2016 that they shared their colorful images with scientists, who soon identified the lightshow as a new type of upper-atmosphere phenomenon that was jokingly named STEVE. Additional contributions from citizen scientists are
Have you ever had a great idea right before you fell asleep — only to forget it the next morning when you wake up? A new study says there's a reason for that. Researchers have discovered that humans experience a "creative sweet spot" in the moments right before we fall asleep, according to a new study published in the journal Science Advances. More specifically, it occurs during a sleep phase cal
An Amazon warehouse collapsed in Edwardsville, Illinois on Friday night, killing six people during a series of deadly tornadoes. Now, as recovery efforts are still underway, the tech giant is under fire for its controversial workplace cell phone ban — devices which many rely on to keep updated during emergencies, Bloomberg reports . The policy, which Amazon has had in place for years, restricted
Cheap, lightweight killer robots are just around the corner — and major military powers, including the US, are doing very little to stop them. In an interview with TheNextWeb , MIT artificial intelligence and weapons researcher Max Tegmark warned that the kind of "slaughterbots" that militaries are already working hard on may soon be in the hands of civilians as well. "They'll be small, cheap and
The Great Rivalry The race for tech dominance between China and the US is heating up — but it's starting to look like Beijing is taking the lead. A new report, spotted by The South China Morning Post and published last week by the Harvard Kennedy School, found that China is rapidly gaining steam in the realms of artificial intelligence, quantum computing, 5G, semiconductors, biotechnology, and gr
Tesla CEO Elon Musk isn't one to follow rules, particularly when he thinks they're bogus. The billionaire likes to envision a world, or perhaps a much smaller society on Mars, in which everybody can do as they please without a greater hierarchy of power. "If there's a utopia where people have access to any goods or services that they want, there's plenty for everyone," Musk told Time magazine aft
One "fat finger"-ed NFT enthusiast made a typo that ended up costing him hundreds of thousands of dollars. As CNET reports , a "Bored Ape Yacht Club" fan named maxnaut (real name Max) meant to sell his ennui primate NFT for 75 ether — the Ethereum equivalent of about $300,000 — but accidentally listed it for 0.75 ether instead. Before he could correct the "fat finger error," as maxnaut put it to
Billionaire Coinbase founder Brian Armstrong has launched a new "epigenetic reprogramming" company, called NewLimit, with the goal of greatly extending the human lifespan. Armstrong is collaborating with Blake Byers, a Silicon Valley entrepreneur with a Stanford PhD in bioengineering, to stop aging in its tracks. "NewLimit will start by deeply interrogating epigenetic drivers of aging and develop
Deadly Practices As more tragic details emerge from the deadly Amazon warehouse collapse, some employees are claiming that the company has refused to give workers time off during severe weather — and even that it failed to warn them as the weekend's tornado approached. A new report from The Intercept found that warehouse managers at the company refused to grant time off to workers so they could s
The research finds that the medicine, called Paxlovid, was effective in preventing hospitalization and death when taken by people with mild to moderate illness within a few days of symptoms. (Image credit: Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
The long-running series in which readers answer other readers' questions on subjects ranging from trivial flights of fancy to profound scientific and philosophical concepts Five hundred years or so ago a significant number of people thought the world was flat. In 500 years' time, which current scientific theories will be relegated to the same level as the flat Earth theory is now? Richard Cutsfor
One guest is an antivaxxer, another is allergic to your cats, the turkey is still raw and your best friends are splitting up in the sitting room. Here is how to face down festive fiascos It's that time of year when you wake up sweating and can't figure out why. Did you accidentally wear your thermals in bed? Do you have tuberculosis? No, dummy, it's just that it's almost Christmas, it's your turn
Certification encouraged vaccination in countries with low coverage, especially among young people Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Coronavirus passports could lead to increased uptake of vaccines, especially among young people, a study suggests. Research by the University of Oxford found Covid-19 certification led to increased jab uptake 20 days before and 40 days af
Lab Grown Steak Israeli lab-grown meat company MeaTech 3D says it has successfully bioprinted a 3.67 ounce steak that's composed out of layers of lab-grown fat and muscle cells — making it the world's largest lab-grown steak. The company claims it's the "largest cultured steak produced to date," meaning it would serve as an "important milestone toward the goal of scaled production of cultivated b
Air Delivery SpaceX is embarking on a bold new adventure: making rocket fuel out of thin air. "SpaceX is starting a program to take CO2 out of atmosphere & turn it into rocket fuel," CEO Elon Musk tweeted on Monday . "Please join if interested." Such a process — using in-situ resources to generate fuel — could have great implications during our transition to becoming interplanetary, according to
This article contains spoilers through the ninth episode of Succession Season 3. If the broad strokes of Succession season finales can feel familiar by now—Kendall will be emotionally wrecked, the org chart will shift, and people will sell their soul for the promise of power—the show always excels at the details. Like that of Kendall, at the end of Season 1, returning to a wedding after witnessin
It is no surprise that he is proving unfit to be prime minister, writes Paul Connew , while Kevin Donovan points out the PM's hypocrisy with regard to the NHS It is hard to disagree with John Harris's devastating assessment of Boris Johnson ( Boris Johnson's crises boil down to one thing: contempt for the rest of us, 12 December ). Except, perhaps, when he writes that Johnson is "so arrogant and
The link between tornadoes, like the ones that hit Kentucky over the weekend, and climate change isn't as clear as it is for other extreme weather events, though scientists say the clues are there. (Image credit: Brendan Smialowski/AFP via Getty Images)
Plastic Planet In a study that truly underscores the profound and devastating impact humans have on the environment, researchers have found that microscopic bugs are evolving to eat plastic. The study, published in the journal Microbial Ecology , found a growing number of microbes that have evolved to carry a plastic-degrading enzyme. These bugs could hold the key to creating enzymes that break d
W hen I met with Crystal Mason recently at her home in Rendon, Texas, we sat on a wide couch that served as the center of her domain, with plenty of space for children, grandchildren, nephews, and nieces. Their photographs filled the house . Mason's mother called to her from another room, needing advice; later, her eight-month-old grandson, Carter, joined us on the couch after waking up from an a
Deputy prime minister offers reassurance over gatherings as government faces record rebellion Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Further Covid restrictions between Christmas and New Year are under discussion in government, Dominic Raab has said, but stressed he believed plan B measures should be enough to allow people to spend the season with loved ones. Raab's comments
Governments urged to use 'peace dividend' to help UN tackle pandemics, climate crisis and extreme poverty More than 50 Nobel laureates have signed an open letter calling for all countries to cut their military spending by 2% a year for the next five years, and put half the saved money in a UN fund to combat pandemics, the climate crisis, and extreme poverty. Coordinated by the Italian physicist C
A bold proposal: that by 2050, a 70-year-old will look and feel like they're 50. That's the gamble that 35-year-old James Peyer is taking with this Cambrian Biopharma "longevity startup," the Times of London reports . "Of our 100,000-year-plus history as a species, it's been for only about 75 years that these diseases of ageing have been the primary predators of humankind," he told the newspaper.
Millions have died unnecessarily of Covid and millions more will in 2022 unless something changes. Justice must be done Millions more people will die from Covid-19 in the coming year, and most will be unvaccinated. The vaccines that could save millions of lives are not reaching the poor majority of the world's population. The contrast is stark: the current share of people fully vaccinated in high
Vintern är en tid för både julmys och snölekar. Sedan kommer årstiden också med en lite mindre kul grej – nämligen vinterkräksjukan. Men kan man bara få vinterkräksjukan under vintern? Rolf Gustafson, docent i infektionssjukdomar reder ut.
Laser beams can do more than just heat things up; they can cool them down too. That is nothing new for physicists who have devoted themselves to precision spectroscopy and the development of optical atomic clocks. But what is new is the extremely low temperature that researchers at the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have been able to reach with their highly char
A sneaker company known for photoshopping a "cybershoe" onto Elon Musk has been purchased by Nike — in yet another sign, arguably, that the relationship between the physical and digital worlds is changing forever. As The Verge reports , Nike has acquired the sneaker company RTFKT (which is supposedly pronounced like "artifact," though it's more fun to say "ratfucked") for an undisclosed sum, with
Analysis: Sajid Javid estimates there are 200,000 new cases a day – here's why the experts suggest that number will soon multiply Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage When Savid Javid revealed on Monday that an estimated 200,000 people a day are getting infected with Omicron, it brought understandable concern – especially as just 4,713 cases of the variant had been confir
Experimental antiviral pill Paxlovid is also effective against the Omicron variant, company announces A pill manufactured by the prominent Covid-19 vaccine provider Pfizer is highly effective in protecting against severe disease from coronavirus , the company said on Tuesday. The experimental antiviral pill Paxlovid is also effective against the Omicron variant that is spreading rapidly across th
Killer T cells, as their name might imply, are not known for their mercy. When these immunological assassins happen upon a cell that's been hijacked by a virus, their first instinct is to butcher. The killer T punches holes in the compromised cell and pumps in toxins to destroy it from the inside out. The cell shrinks and collapses; its perforated surface erupts in bubbles and boils, which slough
Health secretary says scientists have never seen variant that can spread so quickly; MPs debate Covid passports and other rules ahead of crunch vote UK PM warns of 'huge spike' of Omicron cases ahead of Commons vote Sunak warns over multibillion pound cost of booster programme Sajid Javid clears England's travel red list as Omicron takes hold Nicola Sturgeon announces new Covid advice for Scotlan
On a Saturday morning in December of 2020, the RRS Discovery floated in calm waters just east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the massive undersea mountain range that runs from the Arctic nearly to the Antarctic. The team onboard the research vessel, mostly from the UK's National Oceanography Centre, used an acoustic signaling system to trigger the release of a cable more than three miles long from it
Scientists have discovered a way to transform millions of predatory bacteria into swirling flash mobs reminiscent of painter Vincent Van Gogh's "The Starry Night" as the unexpected result of experiments on a genetic circuit the creatures use to discern friend from foe.
Lawsuit Madness Tesla has been hit with a sexual harassment suit by a factory worker — for the second time in two weeks. As Reuters and others report , a woman who worked on the assembly line at Tesla's Fremont, California factory said she suffered "sexual harassment on a near-daily basis" from her manager. Along with repeated inappropriate behavior that included unwanted massages and comments ab
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Columbia Engineering have discovered a new method to improve the toughness of materials that could lead to stronger versions of body armor, bulletproof glass and other ballistic equipment.
Businesses that want to be digital leaders in their markets need to embrace automation, not only to augment existing capabilities or to reduce costs but to position themselves to successfully maneuver the rapid expansion of IT demand ushered in through digital innovation. "It's a scale issue," says John Roese, global chief technology officer at Dell Technologies. "Without autonomous operations, i
Except for maybe pasta and work-life balance, no topic makes liberal Americans wish they were European more than health care. So when President Joe Biden announced a plan earlier this month mandating that private insurers reimburse people for rapid coronavirus tests that they take at home, some commentators cried out that his plan was not enough . The new rule won't help everyone, and getting rei
Last week, at a small funeral home in Northwest Washington, D.C., I attended the funeral of a teacher I knew from my time working in Prince George's County schools eight years ago, Yvonne Brown. Ms. Brown loved literature. She wrote and self-published a novel. She started her school's poetry club. She loved the magic of words. She loved her students. During the service, one young man discussed ho
The winning images have been announced in the sixth edition of the Red Bull Illume Image Quest photo competition. The contest invited photographers to submit images of the world of action-and-adventure sports in one of 10 categories, including Energy, Playground, and Raw. This year the competition received 41,447 entries from photographers around the world. Red Bull was kind enough to share some
Black soldier fly larvae devour food waste and other organic matter and are made of 60% protein, making them an attractive sustainable food source in agriculture. But increasingly, black soldier larvae are dying before they reach livestock facilities as animal feed.
Object is among nearly 50,000 finds by hobbyists in 2020, according to Portable Antiquities Scheme report Rare runes and Roman hoards: five treasures discovered in UK last year Some spent the lockdowns of 2020 baking bread, perfecting yoga poses or learning a few words of Japanese. Others got into a slightly more unusual hobby: amateur treasure hunting. These people contributed to the 50,000 arch
Spin waves, a change in electron spin that propagates through a material, could fundamentally change how devices store and carry information. These waves, also known as magnons, don't scatter or couple with other particles. Under the right conditions, they can even act like a superfluid, moving through a material with zero energy loss.
This is an evolving story, and we will update as we learn more. A paper in Springer Nature's Scientific Reports claiming there was essentially no evidence that lockdowns prevented COVID-19 deaths has been retracted. As of late Tuesday US Eastern time, while the PDF of the paper was marked "RETRACTED ARTICLE," a link to the … Continue reading
Rife with Sexism A former SpaceX engineer claims that the company fostered a culture of misogyny and wanton sexual assault that forced her to eventually quit. Ashley Kosak, a former mission integration engineer at SpaceX, penned an essay in Lioness in which she described the company as "so rife with sexism, the only remedy is for women to leave." She says it was a work environment in which "count
Despite astrophysical evidence for the existence of dark matter, direct detection of its interaction with particles and fields of the standard model has not been achieved. Illuminating dark matter is the best hope of making progress in understanding the universe and would provide insights into astrophysics, cosmology and physics beyond the standard model.
University of Adelaide experts, who are part of the international community of researchers investigating the fundamental physical properties of atoms, may have come across a new paradigm for the way atomic nuclei are built.
Now is the best time to get a glimpse of Comet C/2021 A1, better known as Comet Leonard. It's named for its discoverer, Gregory Leonard, a senior research specialist at the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory.
A piece of corrugated rubber can function as a simple computer, displaying memory and displaying the ability to count to two. Leiden physicists researching mechanical metamaterials publish about the computing rubber in the journal PNAS. "Simple materials can process information, and we want to find the principles behind that."
Different combinations of human hunting and climate change caused Australia's famed 'giant' species to go extinct, and now it turns out that for some species, changing food availability made things worse.
Humans and fruit flies respond to many of the same tastes—sweet, salty, bitter and so on. The receptors that identify these substances, however, are very different between us and insects. Except when it comes to sour.
In January of 2020, agents arrived at Harvard University looking for Charles Lieber, a renowned nanotechnology researcher who chaired the school's department of chemistry and chemical biology. They were there to arrest him on charges of hiding his financial ties with a university in China. By arresting Lieber steps from Harvard Yard, authorities were sending a loud message to the academic communi
As England moves to plan B, Boris Johnson has announced that all adults will be offered a booster vaccine by the end of December. But will that be enough to protect the NHS from being overwhelmed? Madeleine Finlay speaks to the Guardian's science editor, Ian Sample, about the spread of Omicron, and what we can do to prevent a tidal wave of cases Archive: The Guardian, The Sun Continue reading…
Antibiotics cure many bacterial infections. However, some patients suffer a relapse. A research group at the University of Basel has now discovered why some bacteria can survive antibiotic therapy. The team uncovered where the bacteria hide in the body and how the body's own immune system also plays an important role.
A trio of researchers at the University of Vienna has found that women with low 2D:4D ratios tend to have stronger grip strength than women with higher ratios. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Nora Bäck, Katrin Schaefer and Sonja Windhager describe measuring finger length and grip strength in volunteer women.
A common refrain among Americans when faced with China's export machine—which pumps out 5G telecoms gear, plastic Christmas trees, and just about everything in between—is the complaint that the United States "doesn't make anything anymore." Yet the U.S. retains a commanding advantage in one, especially critical export: ideas. From inalienable rights to Iron Man, Americans churn out the concepts a
Which came first, MHC class I or MHC class II? For decades, it has been debated which of these two similar classes came first in evolution. Now, Keiichiro Hashimoto and his group at Fujita Health University, Japan, in collaboration with European research groups, have provided an answer to this question in a new article in PNAS. They discovered an ancient category of MHC molecules, MHC-W, that repr
A new Stanford University study shows rising temperatures may intensify the unpredictability of weather in Earth's midlatitudes. The limit of reliable temperature, wind and rainfall forecasts falls by about a day when the atmosphere warms by even a few degrees Celsius.
Clearing California's forests of dense overgrowth is a critical first step for curbing catastrophic wildfire in the state. But forest restoration—whether through prescribed burning or thinning—comes at a high price: Not only are these treatments costly, but cutting down or burning vegetation can release stored carbon dioxide, accelerating the impacts of climate change.
Lightning is one of the most destructive forces of nature, as in 2020 when it sparked the massive California Lightning Complex fires, but it remains hard to predict. A new study led by the University of Washington shows that machine learning—computer algorithms that improve themselves without direct programming by humans—can be used to improve lightning forecasts.
The solutions to today's problems Earlier today I set you three questions from a Russian maths competition used to promote the International Congress of Mathematicians, which will be held in July next year in St Petersburg. 1. Pet swap Continue reading…
Using cannabis alongside other drugs may come with a significant risk of harmful drug-drug interactions, new research suggests. The researchers looked at cannabinoids–a group of substances found in the cannabis plant — and their major metabolites found in cannabis users' blood and found that they interfere with two families of enzymes that help metabolize a wide range of drugs prescribed for a v
The tiny, pale surf clam about the size of a fingernail that most people have seen and collected on beaches around the world holds clues in its shell to Earth's past. For the first time, researchers have been able to identify the monthly, and even weekly, ocean temperatures recorded in these smooth clam shells. Because ancient civilizations consumed these ubiquitous clams and left the shells at ar
Back in 2020, Cristen Willer, a professor of cardiovascular medicine at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, was leading her laboratory on a search for the genetic underpinnings of an often deadly heart condition called aortic dissection. As the results came in, she was troubled by some of the answers she was getting. They were quite clear — but they had the potential both to help and hurt…
Finding transparent snails with a length of only a few millimeters on muddy cave walls is no easy feat. "Nevertheless, we succeeded in collecting 57 gastropod populations from various caves in northern Spain. We have now studied them, both in terms of morphology and molecular genetics," explains Dr. Adrienne Jochum of the Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum in Frankfurt and t
NASA will launch four Earth science missions in 2022 to provide scientists with more information about fundamental climate systems and processes including extreme storms, surface water and oceans, and atmospheric dust. Scientists will discuss the upcoming missions at the American Geophysical Union's (AGU) 2021 Fall Meeting, hosted in New Orleans between Dec. 13 and 17.
On April 28, 2021, NASA's Parker Solar Probe reached the sun's extended solar atmosphere, known as the corona, and spent five hours there. The spacecraft is the first to enter the outer boundaries of our sun.
Researchers have shown, in a small clinical trial, that an immunotherapy harnessing pre-activated natural killer cells can help some children and young adults with recurrent AML and few other treatment options.
New research shows that physics measurements of just a small portion of reef can be used to assess the health of an entire reef system. The findings may help scientists grasp how these important ecosystems will respond to a changing climate.
Using autonomous vehicle guidelines, a team has developed a system to improve interactions between people and robots. The way people interact safely with robots is at the forefront of today's research related to automation and manufacturing, explains a researcher. She is one of several researchers who are working to develop systems that allow humans and robots to interact safely and efficiently.
Hydra vulgaris constantly replenish the cells in their heads and grow new ones to reproduce asexually. But gene expression analyses reveal that regenerating a head after an injury is a very different process.
The United States should immediately move to create a collection of strategic forest reserves in the Western U.S. to fight climate change and safeguard biodiversity, according to a scientific collaboration led by an Oregon State University ecologist.
New research clarifies the legend behind the Queen of Sheba, and why we tend to think of her as Black. Halle Berry played her in a 1995 made-for-TV movie. On her album Black Is King, Beyoncé described herself as an heir to her legacy. And a recent article at the online Jewish feminist site Alma declared her the "Black Jewish queen … you probably didn't learn about in Hebrew school." "…in the 'Keb
Just like humans, groups of baboons sometimes break off relations. Scientists have studied the dynamics of such breakups and say baboons tend to split up in a cooperative, egalitarian way. (Image credit: Paula Bronstein/Getty Images)
Astronomers have obtained the deepest and sharpest images to date of the region around the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. The new images zoom in 20 times more than what was possible before the VLTI and have helped astronomers find a never-before-seen star close to the black hole. By tracking the orbits of stars at the centre of our Milky Way, the team has made the most precis
Ten thousand years ago, a group of hunter-gatherers buried an infant girl in an Italian cave with a rich selection of their treasured beads and pendants, showing that even the youngest females were recognized as full persons in their society. The excavations and analysis of the discovery offer insight into the early Mesolithic period, from which few recorded burials are known.
The positive impact of meditation on human well-being is well documented, yet its molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We applied a comprehensive systems biology approach starting with whole-blood gene expression profiling combined with multilevel bioinformatic analyses to characterize the coexpression, transcriptional, and protein–protein interaction networks to identify a meditation
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major route of entry of cargos into cells and thus underpins many physiological processes. During endocytosis, an area of flat membrane is remodeled by proteins to create a spherical vesicle against intracellular forces. The protein machinery which mediates this membrane bending in plants is unknown. However,…
Thioredoxin (Trx) is a protein that mediates the reducing power transfer from the photosynthetic electron transport system to target enzymes in chloroplasts and regulates their activities. Redox regulation governed by Trx is a system that is central to the adaptation of various chloroplast functions to the ever-changing light environment. However,…
Photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides were engineered to vary the electronic properties of a key tyrosine (M210) close to an essential electron transfer component via its replacement with site-specific, genetically encoded noncanonical amino acid tyrosine analogs. High fidelity of noncanonical amino acid incorporation was verified with mass spectrometry…
Diamond is the hardest known material in nature and features a wide spectrum of industrial and scientific applications. The key to diamond's outstanding properties is its elasticity, which is associated with its exceptional hardness, shear strength, and incompressibility. Despite many theoretical works, direct measurements of elastic properties are limited to…
The arsenal of tools available to today's neuroscientists to study the function and structure of neurons in the brain and retina is impressive. Fluorescent probes that indicate functional activity are becoming faster and more sensitive (1), as are the imaging systems that are being developed to observe them (2). Electrode…
If 5-year-olds could read academic research reports, they might be alarmed by what they'd find in a recent one from the Stanford Center on Longevity. It opened with a bit of promising news: "In the United States, demographers predict that as many as half of today's 5-year-olds can expect to live to the age of 100." But that was followed, several pages down, by a haunting prediction: "Over the cou
Gavin Newsom wants to believe that what's good for Texas is good for California. Shortly after the conservative majority on the Supreme Court allowed a narrow challenge to Texas's anti-abortion law to go forward while the law remains in force, the Golden State governor vowed that he would pursue passage of gun restrictions modeled on the Texas law's unusual structure . "If that's the precedent th
On April 28, 2021, at 0933 UT (3:33 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time), NASA's Parker Solar Probe reached the sun's extended solar atmosphere, known as the corona, and spent five hours there. The spacecraft is the first to enter the outer boundaries of our sun.
The Andes Mountains are much taller than plate tectonic theories predict they should be, a fact that has puzzled geologists for decades. Mountain-building models tend to focus on the deep-seated compressional forces that occur when tectonic plates collide and send rocks skyward. A new study demonstrates how modern top-down models that account for climate-related factors combined with traditional b
One could imagine when researchers and people outside academia work together in a "co-production" process, things do not always run smoothly. With competing interests, agendas and ways of seeing the world, tensions can certainly arise. Think about high-level climate meetings like COP26. But with the right approach, tension can be used to create broad ownership and action for transformative change,
Set to launch on Dec. 22, NASA's James Webb Space Telescope is the largest space observatory in history, and it has an equally gargantuan task: to collect infrared light from the distant corners of the cosmos, enabling scientists to probe the structures and origins of our universe and our place in it.
New tools developed by University of Alberta researchers will better track methane emissions from northern permafrost ecosystems, ultimately allowing for more accurate global predictions of future greenhouse gas emissions.
The World Economic Forum and Scientific American team up to highlight technological advances that could change the world–from self-fertilizing crops, on-demand drug manufacturing,… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
There's less light pollution along Southern California beaches than in densely populated inland areas. But even lower levels of artificial light along the coast disrupt the normal biological behaviors of fish and birds native to the region.
The 24th SpaceX cargo resupply services mission, targeted to launch in late December from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carries scientific research and technology demonstrations to the International Space Station. The experiments aboard include studies of bioprinting, crystallization of monoclonal antibodies, changes in immune function, plant gene expression changes, laundering clothes i
Whether it's warm outside or cold, people generally eat about the same amount. But a fish's appetite can vary enormously with the temperature. As coldblooded animals, their metabolism is governed by external conditions: It's slow going for a cold fish, but high temperatures kick them into high gear.
Scientists have discovered a way to transform millions of predatory bacteria into swirling flash mobs reminiscent of painter Vincent Van Gogh's The Starry Night. The transformation is the unexpected result of experiments on a genetic circuit the creatures use to discern friend from foe. Researchers have studied Myxococcus xanthus for decades as a model system for social cooperation and bacterial
The internet of things and smart devices are everywhere, which means computing needs to be everywhere, too. And this is where edge computing comes in, because as companies pursue faster, more efficient decision-making, all of that data needs to be processed locally, in real time—on device at the edge. "The type of processing that needs to happen in near real time is not something that can be haul
Colloidal crystals and glasses are tunable, iridescent, nonfading and nontoxic materials that can be used to develop structural colors. In a new report now published in Science Advances, Jong Bin Kim, and a team of researchers in chemistry and advanced materials in the Republic of Korea, developed direct writing of structural color graphics with high brightness and saturation using colloidal inks.
A breathalyzer that reverse-transcribes RNA from airborne SARS-CoV-2 in breath predicts lower respiratory tract involvement and is less invasive than alternative testing approaches, report researchers.
It's time for the Geminids, the annual December meteor shower! Every year, Earth passes through the debris trail from the asteroid 3200 Phaethon. The pea-sized rocks it leaves behind burn up in our atmosphere, producing glowing trails in the night sky. People around the world will stare skyward and marvel at these meteors, also known as shooting stars.
2021 was a good year for research of all kinds. The strongest coronal mass ejection in years made headlines this past May, prompting experts around the world to urge world leaders to take it as a warning. Future storms, many noted, could wreak havoc on electrical grids, satellites and the internet. The time to act is now, they strongly suggested.
The Arctic continues to deteriorate from global warming, not setting as many records this year as in the past, but still changing so rapidly that federal scientists call it alarming in their annual Arctic report card.
How effective is the promotion of low-meat diets at reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to carbon pricing when the effectiveness of mitigation policies is measured against methane's long-term behavior? An international team of researchers explored how focusing either on the short- or long-term warming effects of methane can affect climate mitigation policies and dietary transitions in agric
University of Adelaide scientists have developed a new simple, inexpensive and fast method to detect and measure very low concentrations of agricultural lime in soils, which is generally a time consuming and difficult exercise.
The childhood playground can be a tough place with insults flying faster than dodgeballs, and while some children outgrow the name calling, others never seem to. Hurling slurs as adults only exacerbates problems. The use of anti-gay slurs by heterosexual men against other heterosexual men is the focus of a new study by Nathan Grant Smith, an associate professor of counseling psychology and chair o
The early universe was dark, filled with a hot soup of opaque particles. These condensed to form neutral hydrogen which coalesced to form the first stars in what astronomers call the epoch of reionisation (EoR).
Last month was Australia's wettest November on record, and summer in Queensland and parts of New South Wales is also expected to be soggy for the second consecutive year. So why is our summer parade being rained on yet again?
New research, led by the University of Bristol and Peking University, has discovered that emissions coming from China of the ozone-destroying chemical, dichloromethane, have more than doubled over the last decade.
Conspiracy theories are powerful forces in the U.S. They have damaged public health amid a global pandemic, shaken faith in the democratic process and helped spark a violent assault on the U.S. Capitol in January 2021.
An ancient layer of rocky, dusty material, covered by periodic lava flows and now buried under the lunar surface, could provide new insight into the moon's deep past, according to a new research. "Using careful data processing, we found interesting new evidence that this buried layer, called paleoregolith, may be much thicker than previously expected," says Tieyuan Zhu, assistant professor of geo
Researchers investigating ways to develop a novel class of antiviral drugs to treat coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, have developed a platform that can rapidly screen thousands of compounds to identify potential candidates. The team, led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, used their new high-throughput platform to screen drug compounds
The number of microbial enzymes with the ability to degrade plastic is growing, in correlation with local levels of plastic pollution. That is the finding of a new study from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, that measured samples of environmental DNA from around the globe. The results illustrate the impact plastic pollution is having on the environment, and hint at potential new solution
How are relationships established between groups? And how do we learn to distinguish who leads and who controls? A publication led by researchers from the Department of Psychology at the University of Chicago with the collaboration of the postdoctoral researcher Jesús Bas from the UPF Center for Brain and Cognition (CBC) found that it is more intuitive to understand who is in control in a conflict
While scrolling through iNaturalist—a social network where professional and citizen scientists share their photographs, in order to map biodiversity observations from across the globe—a group of students from Croatia discovered a couple of curious pictures, taken in 2008 in the Peruvian rainforest and posted in 2018. What they were looking at was a pygmy grasshopper sporting a unique pattern of li
Vast amounts of energy flow around the ocean as waves, tides and currents, eventually impacting coasts, including coral reefs that provide food, income and coastal protection to more than 500 million people. This water movement is foundational to reef success, bringing nutrients and food and removing waste, yet far less research has been focused on the physics in comparison to the biology of these
A highly unusual movement of light emitting particles in atomically-thin semiconductors was experimentally confirmed by scientists from the Würzburg–Dresden Cluster of Excellence ct.qmat–Complexity and Topology in Quantum Matter. Electronic quasiparticles, known as excitons, seemed to move in opposite directions at the same time. Professor Alexey Chernikov–newly appointed physicist at the Technisc
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems has published the results of a "mini-review" examining 46 peer-reviewed studies that compared site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) approaches for rice against existing farmer fertilization practices. The study's scope included research examples extracted from 11 countries conducted between 2001 and 2020—using 43 studies from Asia and 3 from Africa.
Madison, Erasmus University Rotterdam, and University of Maryland introduce the special issue on "New Technologies in Marketing" in the Journal of Marketing and provide several frameworks for thinking about how new technologies affect the marketing discipline. These frameworks identify potential gaps worthy of further study and propose an agenda for future research.
A major intervention against a global hotspot for illegal river gold mining proved to be only narrowly effective at halting environmental degradation in the Madre de Dios region of Peru, according to new research that will be presented on Wednesday, 15 December at AGU Fall Meeting 2021.
(Image: Vuity.com) One inescapable fact of life, alongside death and taxes, is once you careen over the hill into your 40s your vision starts to get a little blurry. For a lot of people this newfound condition requires the use of reading glasses, which magnify things that are close to your face, such as phones, computer, and those things people call books. This requires over one hundred million A
When a company decides it wants to launch a subscription service and convert free users to paying customers, there are two basic ways to go about it. One method is to create new product features or service tiers that are only available to subscribers while keeping free benefits the same as they were before. Another is to remove services that were formerly free and lock them behind a paywall. The
The number of microbial enzymes with the ability to degrade plastic is growing, in correlation with local levels of plastic pollution. That is the finding of a new study that measured samples of environmental DNA from around the globe. The results illustrate the impact plastic pollution is having on the environment, and hint at potential new solutions for managing the problem.
An international team of astronomers, led by researcher Chervin Laporte of the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona (ICCUB-IEEC), has used data from the Gaia space mission to create a new map of the Milky Way's outer disc. Intriguingly, newly found structures include evidence for fossil spiral arms. The team published the new work in a paper in Monthly Notices of the Royal A
The world's first 3D simulation simultaneously considering dust motion and growth in a disk around a young star has shown that large dust from the central region can be entrained by and then ejected by gas outflows, and eventually fall back onto the outer regions of the disk where it may enable planetesimal formation. This process can be likened to volcanic "ashfall" where ash carried up by gas du
A new 3D imaging method may help doctors more accurately determine the aggressiveness of a person's prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer for men and, for men in the United States, it's the second leading cause of death. Some prostate cancers might be slow-growing and can be monitored over time whereas others need to be treated right away. To determine how aggressive someone'
The European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (ESO's VLTI) has obtained the deepest and sharpest images to date of the region around the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. The new images zoom in 20 times more than what was possible before the VLTI and have helped astronomers find a never-before-seen star close to the black hole. By tracking the orbits
By 2100, the UN estimates that the world's population will grow to just over 11 billion people. Architect Vishaan Chakrabarti wants us to start thinking about how we'll house all these people — and how new construction can fight climate change rather than make it worse. In this visionary talk, Chakrabarti proposes a "Goldilocks" solution to sustainable housing that exists in the sweet spot betwee
Nature, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03734-6 From Omicron to a Mars helicopter to an Alzheimer's firestorm, our news editors choose the defining moments in science and research this year.
Nature, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03735-5 Nature has made progress in improving the representation and participation of women at scientific conferences — but there is still much more to do.
The mammoth pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus probably jumped at least 8 feet into the air before lifting off by sweeping its wings, according to new research. With a wingspan nearing 40 feet, Quetzalcoatlus is the largest known animal to take to the sky. But just how such a massive animal got airborne has been mostly a matter of speculation. Some think it rocked forward on its wingtips like a vampire bat
In a new study, researchers did not observe the benefits of physical activity on brain volume and health when the environment had higher levels of polluted air. The study of more than 8,000 people also shows that air pollution is associated with a decrease in brain volume and health. "This study shows that air pollution is associated with worse brain health, including white matter lesions, which
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. Russia and Ukraine remain on the edge of conflict; opposing forces are reportedly facing each other from just 50 yards apart . The standoff threatens to engulf the international community at a pre
Artificial intelligence (AI) models that evaluate medical images have potential to speed up and improve accuracy of cancer diagnoses, but they may also be vulnerable to cyberattacks. Researchers simulated an attack that falsified mammogram images, fooling both an AI breast cancer diagnosis model and human breast imaging radiologist experts.
Researchers combined multiple meta-analyses of the five big personality traits and examined their effect on job performance. Researchers examined the effect of personality traits — conscientiousness, openness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism — on performance in different occupations.
If there is an injury to the central nervous system such as after a stroke, the brain needs to compensate for this by reorganising itself. To do this, a dense network of molecules between the nerve cells — known as the extracellular matrix — must loosen. This is the job of a wide variety of enzymes that ultimately regulate how plastic or how stable the brain is. Researchers studied what happens
Researchers have demonstrated the ability to both excite and detect spin waves in a two-dimensional graphene magnet, but they couldn't measure any of the wave's specific properties. Now, researchers have demonstrated a new way to measure the quintessential properties of spin waves in graphene.
Large amounts of bread are wasted every year and are at most used for biogas production. This is a shame, says Pedro Brancoli, who recently received his doctorate at the University of Borås, Sweden, in the research area Resource Recovery. The results of his doctoral project show that bread waste would do more good for the environment and the economy if it were instead transformed into new food and
Hi, we're students from the Cognitive Science programme at University of Gothenburg, Sweden. We would need more patricipants in our study we're doing for a memory module. The study is about spatial working memory and all you need is 5-10 min, a computer and a pair of headphones. Click the link to participate, thank you! https://www.psytoolkit.org/c/3.4.0/survey?s=ueFC3 submitted by /u/Wide-Top-21
From record-breaking heat waves to massive wildfires, floods and long-running drought, the impacts of climate change across the U.S. have been impossible to ignore in 2021. While conditions vary from one region to another, it is clear that no part of the nation will be unaffected.
At et offentligt sundhedsvæsen til en årlig pris på ca. 170 mia. kr. kan være under hårdt pres af 450 indlagte coronapatienter, viser med al tydelighed, at der er noget fundamentalt galt med kapacitet, struktur og prioritering i sundhedsvæsenet, skriver Bodil Lyngholm og Kristian Sandvej, praktiserende læger.
Att dra ner på flygandet och rösta på ett parti man tycker för en vettig klimatpolitik kan många tänka sig. Men att avstå från att skaffa barn i klimatets namn är svårare. I den här antologins avslutande essä borrar filosofen Timothy Campbell ner sig i argumenten kring den mest existentiella av klimatfrågor – och kommer fram till att svaret på frågan om att "ha eller inte ha barn" inte är så enkel
Trots att 80 procent av svenskarna är positiva till att bli donator är organbristen stor. I snitt dör nästan en person i veckan i kön till en transplantation. Varför är det så? I boken Ur döden liv berättar vetenskapsjournalisten Lisa Kirsebom om de hinder som kan förklara Sveriges mediokra placering på listan över antal donatorer per miljon invånare.
Den amerikanske fysikern Brian Greene har skrivit flera populärvetenskapliga böcker med tyngdpunkt på strängteori och kosmologi. I sin senaste bok, Till tidens slut, tar han ett stort grepp på världsalltet, men sätter människan själv i centrum. Genom allt går det han kallar för entropins tvåstegsdans som en röd tråd, där lokala mönster av ordning kan uppstå genom att oordningen ökar ännu mer någon
Meditation är en bra start för den som vill utforska sitt eget medvetande, enligt Pontus Wasling, författare till Knaster. Bland övriga metoder han testat finns floating och schamanistiska trumseanser. 1 | Vad är det för slags bok du har skrivit?
Sleep on it. That's the advice we've all heard when challenged with a seemingly impossible dilemma. A new study suggests it's not just folklore. When over 100 volunteers were given the chance to nap, if just for a few minutes, their ability to creatively solve a taxing mathematical problem improved. But there's a twist. The trick only worked before drifting off into deeper stages of sleep. In oth
The U.N. weather agency said Tuesday it has certified a 38-degree Celsius (100.4 Fahrenheit) reading in the Russian town of Verkhoyansk last year as the highest temperature ever recorded in the Arctic, the latest in a string of "alarm bells about our changing climate."
In recent years, polar bears in the Beaufort Sea have had to travel far outside of their traditional arctic hunting grounds which has contributed to an almost 30% decrease in their population. The bears' home range, or the amount of space they need for food and other resources, was around 64% larger from 1999-2016 than it was in 1986-1998, according to a recent study.
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Vejledning fra Danske Regioner og Sundhedsstyrelsen fastslår, at hvis der opstår mangel på intensivpladser på sygehusene, så hviler ansvaret for generel 'bortrationering' af behandling af kritisk syge patienter ikke på den enkelte læge. Det er Christian Wamberg, formand for intensivlægerne, tilfreds med, men han mener, at vejledningen i praksis er ubrugelig, når der konkret skal prioriteres på af
A new algorithm applied to internet search data, developed by a team of international researchers led by Royal Holloway has suggested that domestic violence incidence may have risen in London by up to 40 percent during the first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020: a figure 7–8 times larger than estimates based on police data.
When it comes to household duties such as changing diapers, handling chores and meals and managing family schedules and activities, many couples who don't have children expect that they will more or less share the work equally should they have kids one day.
The largest parachute set to fly on Mars has completed its first successful high-altitude drop test, a critical milestone for ensuring the ExoMars mission is on track for launch in 2022. Both the first and second stage parachutes have now successfully flown this year.
Data collected from a long-term study by British Antarctic Survey (BAS) scientists shows declining populations of an already relatively rare Antarctic seabird, the South Georgia shag. Published in the journal Polar Biology, a 40-year census from Signy Island in the remote South Orkney Islands and a 30-year census from Bird Island, close to the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, have shown sign
Nazli Choucri is a professor of political science and an expert on climate issues, who also focuses on international relations and cyberpolitics. She is the architect and director of the Global System for Sustainable Development, an evolving knowledge networking system centered on sustainability problems and solution strategies. The author and/or editor of 12 books, she is also the founding editor
Just weeks after Prince Edward Island became the first province in Canada to pass a bill restricting the use of non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) on Nov. 17, some harms of NDAs have been in the news. NDAs are contracts in which parties agree not to disclose certain information.
When biology student Mike Groenhof was making a phylogenetic tree of fifty shrimp species for his internship, one specimen turned out to be an undescribed species. The animal was collected by Naturalis scientist 18 years ago, and had been under the radar ever since.
Engineers have developed the first optical oscilloscope, an instrument that is able to measure the electric field of light. The device converts light oscillations into electrical signals, much like hospital monitors convert a patient's heartbeat into electrical oscillation.
The deadly tornado outbreak that tore through communities from Arkansas to Illinois on the night of Dec. 10–11, 2021, was so unusual in its duration and strength, particularly for December, that a lot of people including the U.S. president are asking what role climate change might have played—and whether tornadoes will become more common in a warming world.
Inside the nucleus of a human cell, there are approximately two meters of DNA folded into a multi-layered 3D structure called chromatin, which allows all of our genetic information to be compacted into a tiny little space.
With another smoggy winter hanging over the vast and thickly populated Indo-Gangetic plains, there are fears of serious health consequences to more than 600 million people living in northern India and Nepal as well as in eastern Pakistan and Bangladesh.
The human brain works differently than a computer – while the brain works with biological cells and electrical impulses, a computer uses silicon-based transistors. Scientists have equipped a toy robot with a smart and adaptive electrical circuit made of soft organic materials, similarly to the biological matter. With this bio-inspired approach, they were able to teach the robot to navigate indepen
Researchers have solved a major mystery in cancer research: How cancer cells remain dormant for years after they leave a tumor and travel to other parts of the body, before awakening to create metastatic cancer.
I love the fact that three years ago no one would have any idea what the title of this post meant, and now pretty much everyone does. It's a testament to the rapid pace of cultural change driven by digital technology. Over the last two years of the pandemic many people have become familiar with the app Zoom, which is a video conferencing app that was in the right place at the right time with the
Hur lång tid tar det innan en avverkad och återplanterad skog tar upp mer koldioxid än den släpper ut? Det är en omdebatterad fråga som är viktig för både skogsbruket och miljön. Forskare vid Linnéuniversitetet har svaret. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
The pandemic has held back the learning of the youngest schoolchildren. A recent report has found that children in year one in the 2020-2021 academic year—those who had missed significant periods of their reception year education during COVID-19 school closures—were three months behind the expected level in reading, and one month behind in math.
The steady decline in lethal gun violence in the EU came to halt in 2012 and some countries, such as Sweden, have even noticed an increase since then. An arms race among drug criminals and an increase in the availability of illegal firearms could lead to more criminal and gun violence. This is one of the noteworthy conclusions from Project TARGET, a new, extensive European study coordinated by the
A taste receptor sensitive to acidity in fruit flies is in the same group as human sour receptors, research finds. The new study identifies and describes a taste receptor sensitive to acidity in fruit flies . The protein is in the same group as a family of ion channels in humans known as otopetrins. The results will appear in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . "What's exciting
Nature, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03700-2 Publications co-authored by scientists from the West are sometimes discounted by grant and hiring committees. That needs to change.
Museum of Tropical Queensland and ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University (Coral CoE at JCU), Senior Curator of Marine Invertebrates, Dr. Sue-Ann Watson said that to date, Australia has done a good job in protecting giant clams that inhabit the Great Barrier Reef.
Patienter i behandling med kemoterapi for lymfekræft har øget risiko for senere hen at brække knogler. Den risiko kan dog muligvis minimeres ved at behandle patienterne med alendronat i forbindelse med kemoterapibehandlingen.
FN's Meteorologiske Organisation, WMO, ringer med alarmklokkerne efter officielt at have anerkendt den højeste temperatur nogensinde målt i Arktis. Det er blot en af flere mulige rekorder, som kan tilskrives klimaforandringerne.
Nature, Published online: 13 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03754-2 Merck's oral COVID drug appears to be less effective than originally thought. Plus, promising vaccines for the respiratory virus RSV, and the most stunning science photos of the year.
Strange year. A year of starts and stops , of feeling better but still bad , of muffled crises and a hazy future . Who can maintain focus when viruses are mutating along with the currency system ? How did anyone have patience for the sobfests and statement albums that dominated the pop-music discourse? I needed songs that itched for attention, that evaded routines, that could tell a joke, and tha
Nature, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03677-y The gigantic flying reptile Quetzalcoatlus northropi, which lived in the age of the dinosaurs, could also walk and even run, with the help of 'ski pole' front limbs.
A physics journal has retracted a 2017 paper after learning that the authors had tried to pass off the ideas of others as their own. Normally, we'd just call that a case of plagiarism and move on. But in this case, the charge goes a bit deeper – less cribbing a few lines of the … Continue reading
Ny forskning, der er blevet præsenteret på ASH, viser, at klonal hæmatopoiese, der normalt er associeret med øget risiko for udvikling af blodkræft og hjertesygdom, faktisk sænker risikoen for at udvikle Alzheimers.
For weeks, the CDC's vaccine tracker reported rates of vaccination for seniors that conflicted with state records. The questionable numbers illustrate one of the potential data collection problems health experts have flagged. For public health efforts, knowing these rates accurately is vital.
Nature Communications, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27500-4 Author Correction: Dynamic transformations of cubic copper catalysts during CO 2 electroreduction and its impact on catalytic selectivity
Nature Communications, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27316-2 Here the authors provide the interim analysis of an ongoing phase 1/2 study of the BNT162b2 vaccine in healthy Japanese adults. They report mainly mild to moderate local reactions and no serious adverse events as well as good antibody induction one month after the second dose.
Nature Communications, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27535-7 The photophysical mechanism by which nucleosides dissipate energy after UV light irradiation is still under debate. Here the authors, using ultrafast time resolved optical spectroscopies and quantum chemical computations, resolve the early steps of such mechanism in uridine and 5-methyluridine in aqueous sol
Nature Communications, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27356-8 Little is known about the genetic landscape of people living in the Nile region prior to the Islamic migrations of the late 1st millennium CE. Here, the authors report genome-wide data for 66 ancient individuals to investigate the genetic ancestry of a Christian Period group from Kulubnarti.
Nature Communications, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27328-y Outdoor workers may need to adapt to warming by moving labor from midday to cooler hours. Here the authors find this adaptation strategy loses efficacy under additional climate change due to increased heat exposure in the coolest hours of the day.
Nature Communications, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27434-x Antibodies targeting OX40 or CD137, two T cell costimulatory receptors, have been shown to improve antitumor immunity. Here the authors design a phospholipid-derived nanoparticle to deliver OX40 or CD137 mRNA to T cells in vivo, improving efficacy of anti-OX40 and anti-CD137 antibody therapy in preclinical t
Nature Communications, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27592-y Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) is an unregulated ozone depleting substance whose emissions have strongly increased in recent years. Here, the authors show that rising emissions of dichloromethane in China between 2011 and 2019 can explain much of this global increase.
Nature Communications, Published online: 14 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27366-6 The neural and computational mechanisms underpinning pitch perception remain unclear. Here, the authors trained deep neural networks to estimate the fundamental frequency of sounds and found that human pitch perception depends on precise spike timing in the auditory nerve, but is also adapted to the statisti
Tsuyoshi Hachisuka gently places skewered eel on a grill, preparing a much-loved Japanese delicacy that is now so endangered it commands eyewatering prices and the attention of international traffickers.
Indonesia lifted a tsunami alert Tuesday following a magnitude 7.3 undersea earthquake that struck off Flores Island, triggering panic in a region prone to fatal quakes but apparently causing no major damage or casualties.
Nyanlända som splittrats från sina familjemedlemmar löper en ökad risk att drabbas av psykisk ohälsa. Det är slutsatsen i en studie från Malmö universitet som undersökt psykisk ohälsa bland nyanlända som kom till Sverige mellan 2015 och 2016.
As England moves to plan B, Boris Johnson has announced that all adults will be offered a booster vaccine by the end of December. But will that be enough to protect the NHS from being overwhelmed? Madeleine Finlay speaks to the Guardian's science editor, Ian Sample, about the spread of Omicron, and what we can do to prevent a tidal wave of cases. Help support our independent journalism at theguard
På grund af den gode behandling til personer med diabetes kan deres risiko for at udvikle hjerte-kar-sygdom være lavere sammenlignet med personer med prædiabetes. Der skal større fokus på behandling af prædiabetes, siger forskere.
We present PyTorch Connectomics (PyTC), an open-source deep-learning framework for the semantic and instance segmentation of volumetric microscopy images, built upon PyTorch. We demonstrate the effectiveness of PyTC in the field of connectomics, which aims to segment and reconstruct neurons, synapses, and other organelles like mitochondria at nanometer resolution for understanding neuronal communi
Researchers report they were able to ameliorate Fragile X syndrome symptoms after inserting the Fmr1 gene into the brains of very young transgenic mice that had been genetically engineered to lack this gene. When the researchers measured brain activity for signs of anxiety and hyperactivity in response to stimuli such as stresses and sounds, they found that the reactivation of the gene in these mi
Kvinnors arbetstid påverkas mest av att ha barn. Och de har svårast att gå upp i önskad arbetstid när barnen blir större. Män jobbar ungefär lika mycket som innan de fick barn, men allra mest jobbar män över femtio fast de kanske inte borde.. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Kroppstemperaturen får inte sjunka under 36 grader. Att hålla patienter varma före, under och efter kirurgi är livsviktigt. Men i Sverige år det få patienter som värmebevarande åtgärder. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Hur gjorde Donald Trump för att visa upp USA:s militära muskler under ett digitalt möte med övriga G20-länder förra året? Det har forskaren Elsa Hedling visat i en studie av hur makthavare demonstrerar sin status i digitala möten. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Mobbning är inte lika vanligt i klasser där elever tror att deras klasskamrater utan undantag tycker att mobbning är fel, att den som utsätts far illa och att de som mobbar inte kan skylla ifrån sig. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Den 9 december firas pepparkakans dag. Även om den inte slagit igenom lika starkt som kanelbullens dag, är december tveklöst pepparkakans månad för svenska folket. Läs måltidsforskaren Richard Tellströms betraktelse över pepparkakan genom tiderna. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Ofta när elever i svenskämnet blir ombedda att göra en kritiskt granskning av en text pekar de på om källan är pålitlig eller ej. Textens innehåll lämnas däremot i många fall utanför granskningen. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Människor infekterade med corona släpper ut massor av pyttesmå virusladdade partiklar bara genom att andas. De kallas aerosoler och kan hålla sig svävande i luften länge. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Det finns ett glapp mellan politiska ambitioner om tillgänglighet och hur verkligheten faktiskt ser ut. Trots lagstiftning och löften så kvarstår många hinder och många känner sig utestängda. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Maskininlärning för att analysera persondata inom verksamheter som e-handel, sjukvård och inom finansiella tjänster. Men känsliga personuppgifter kan läcka i processen. Forskare vid Högskolan i Skövde, föreslår nu bättre sätt att anonymisera data Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
En del föredrar att jobba eller plugga med musik. Andra vill ha tyst. Hur vi uppfattar ljud är väldigt individuellt. Musik sägs ofta öka kreativiteten, men nu tyder forskning på att det kan vara precis tvärtom. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
En ny metod gör att självkörande fordon kan visa en förmåga att resonera som liknar människans sunda förnuft – något som inte har gått att åstadkomma i självkörande fordon eller andra AI-tekniker som enbart baseras på maskininlärning. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Över 150 mänskliga skelett och närmare 500 föremål – bland annat guldsmycken, ädelstenar och keramik – från omkring 1350 f.Kr. Det är några av fynden utgrävningen av två gravar i bronsåldersstaden Hala Sultan Tekke på Cypern. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
Imagine the world 150+ years from today with three dominant colonies. Each reflecting the ideology and the culture of the three most influential men. Which one do you want to belong to? submitted by /u/schweken [link] [comments]
Computer- and smartphone-based treatments appear to be effective in reducing symptoms of depression, and while it remains unclear whether they are as effective as face-to-face psychotherapy, they offer a promising alternative to address the growing mental health needs spawned by the COVID-19 pandemic, according to new research.
Combining two agents to block a parasitic worm's life cycle boosted survival from a potentially deadly tropical disease to 85% in animal models, far better than either treatment alone, according to a proof-of-concept study.
The tiny, pale surf clam about the size of a fingernail that most people have seen and collected on beaches around the world holds clues in its shell to Earth's past. For the first time, researchers have been able to identify the monthly, and even weekly, ocean temperatures recorded in these smooth clam shells. Because ancient civilizations consumed these ubiquitous clams and left the shells at ar
Researchers have looked at what limits the efficiency of a promising solar material to reveal the nature of multiple different kinds of defects, their varied roles in device efficiency and their responses to treatment.
Nature, Published online: 13 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03674-1 The pairing of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination against it confers powerful protection, but data from Israel show that that protection gradually declines.
Lithium peroxide is the crucial storage material in lithium–air batteries. Understanding the redox properties of this salt is paramount toward improving the performance of this class of batteries. Lithium peroxide, upon exposure to p–benzoquinone (p–C6H4O2) vapor, develops a deep blue color. This blue powder can be formally described as [Li2O2]0.3…
Fisheries induce one of the strongest anthropogenic selective pressures on natural populations, but the genetic effects of fishing remain unclear. Crucially, we lack knowledge of how capture-associated selection and its interaction with reductions in population density caused by fishing can potentially shift which genes are under selection. Using experimental fish…
Sleep and wakefulness are not simple, homogenous all-or-none states but represent a spectrum of substates, distinguished by behavior, levels of arousal, and brain activity at the local and global levels. Until now, the role of the hypothalamic circuitry in sleep–wake control was studied primarily with respect to its contribution to…
Anthropogenic activities have led to widespread contamination with mercury (Hg), a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates through food webs. Recent models estimated that, presently, 200 to 600 t of Hg is sequestered annually in deep-sea sediments, approximately doubling since industrialization. However, most studies did not extend to the hadal zone (6,000-…
Decades of air pollution regulation have yielded enormous benefits in the United States, but vehicle emissions remain a climate and public health issue. Studies have quantified the vehicle-related fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-attributable mortality but lack the combination of proper counterfactual scenarios, latest epidemiological evidence, and detailed spatial resolution; all needed…
Two classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, MHC class I and class II, play important roles in our immune system, presenting antigens to functionally distinct T lymphocyte populations. However, the origin of this essential MHC class divergence is poorly understood. Here, we discovered a category of MHC molecules (W-category)…
In mammals, cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) bind and activate STING to initiate an antiviral type I interferon response. CDNs and STING originated in bacteria and are present in most animals. By contrast, interferons are believed to have emerged in vertebrates; thus, the function of CDN signaling in invertebrates is unclear. Here,…
We provide evidence that human sleep is a competitive arena in which cognitive domains vie for limited resources. Using pharmacology and effective connectivity analysis, we demonstrate that long-term memory and working memory are served by distinct offline neural mechanisms that are mutually antagonistic. Specifically, we administered zolpidem to increase central…
The current high mortality of human lung cancer stems largely from the lack of feasible, early disease detection tools. An effective test with serum metabolomics predictive models able to suggest patients harboring disease could expedite triage patient to specialized imaging assessment. Here, using a training-validation-testing-cohort design, we establish our high-resolution…
We investigated historical redlining, a government-sanctioned discriminatory policy, in relation to cardiovascular health (CVH) and whether associations were modified by present-day neighborhood physical and social environments. Data included 4,779 participants (mean age 62 y; SD = 10) from the baseline sample of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; 2000 to…
The COVID-19 pandemic presented enormous data challenges in the United States. Policy makers, epidemiological modelers, and health researchers all require up-to-date data on the pandemic and relevant public behavior, ideally at fine spatial and temporal resolution. The COVIDcast API is our attempt to fill this need: Operational since April 2020,…
Short-term forecasts of traditional streams from public health reporting (such as cases, hospitalizations, and deaths) are a key input to public health decision-making during a pandemic. Since early 2020, our research group has worked with data partners to collect, curate, and make publicly available numerous real-time COVID-19 indicators, providing multiple…
The US COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey (CTIS) is a large, cross-sectional, internet-based survey that has operated continuously since April 6, 2020. By inviting a random sample of Facebook active users each day, CTIS collects information about COVID-19 symptoms, risks, mitigating behaviors, mental health, testing, vaccination, and other key priorities….
Simultaneously tracking the global impact of COVID-19 is challenging because of regional variation in resources and reporting. Leveraging self-reported survey outcomes via an existing international social media network has the potential to provide standardized data streams to support monitoring and decision-making worldwide, in real time, and with limited local resources….
Epidemic forecasting has garnered increasing interest in the last decade, nurtured and scaffolded by various forecasting challenges organized by groups within the US federal government, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1–3), Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) (4), and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)…
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a diverse class of medicinal plant natural products. Nearly 500 dimeric bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids (bisBIAs), produced by the coupling of two BIA monomers, have been characterized and display a range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antiarrhythmic activities. In recent years, microbial platforms have been engine
Extreme phenotype sequencing has led to the identification of high-impact rare genetic variants for many complex disorders but has not been applied to studies of severe schizophrenia. We sequenced 112 individuals with severe, extremely treatment-resistant schizophrenia, 218 individuals with typical schizophrenia, and 4,929 controls. We compared the burden of rare,…
Local blood flow control within the central nervous system (CNS) is critical to proper function and is dependent on coordination between neurons, glia, and blood vessels. Macroglia, such as astrocytes and Müller cells, contribute to this neurovascular unit within the brain and retina, respectively. This study explored the role of…
In the past decade, a great effort has been devoted to develop new biosensor platforms for the detection of a wide range of analytes. Among the various approaches, magneto-DNA assay platforms have received extended interest for high sensitive and specific detection of targets with a simultaneous manipulation capacity. Here, using…
Aerobic fermentation, also referred to as the Crabtree effect in yeast, is a well-studied phenomenon that allows many eukaryal cells to attain higher growth rates at high glucose availability. Not all yeasts exhibit the Crabtree effect, and it is not known why Crabtree-negative yeasts can grow at rates comparable to…
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection relies on immediate early proteins that initiate viral replication. Among them, ICP0 is known, for many years, to facilitate the onset of viral gene expression and reactivation from latency. However, how ICP0 itself is regulated remains elusive. Through genetic analyses, we identify that the viral…
Gene coexpression networks yield critical insights into biological processes, and single-cell RNA sequencing provides an opportunity to target inquiries at the cellular level. However, due to the sparsity and heterogeneity of transcript counts, it is challenging to construct accurate gene networks. We develop an approach, locCSN, that estimates cell-specific networks…
How genome instability is harnessed for fitness gain despite its potential deleterious effects is largely elusive. An ideal system to address this important open question is provided by the protozoan pathogen Leishmania, which exploits frequent variations in chromosome and gene copy number to regulate expression levels. Using ecological genomics and…
KRAS is mutated in 90% of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). To function, KRAS must localize to the plasma membrane (PM) via a C-terminal membrane anchor that specifically engages phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). This anchor-binding specificity renders KRAS–PM localization and signaling capacity critically dependent on PM PtdSer content. We now show that…
Fast oscillations in cortical circuits critically depend on GABAergic interneurons. Which interneuron types and populations can drive different cortical rhythms, however, remains unresolved and may depend on brain state. Here, we measured the sensitivity of different GABAergic interneurons in prefrontal cortex under conditions mimicking distinct brain states. While fast-spiking neurons…
The axial skeleton of tetrapods is organized into distinct anteroposterior regions of the vertebral column (cervical, trunk, sacral, and caudal), and transitions between these regions are determined by colinear anterior expression boundaries of Hox5/6, -9, -10, and -11 paralogy group genes within embryonic paraxial mesoderm. Fishes, conversely, exhibit little in…
RNA-dependent RNA polymerases play essential roles in RNA-mediated gene silencing in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2) physically interacts with DNA-dependent NUCLEAR RNA POLYMERASE IV (Pol IV) and their activities are tightly coupled, with Pol IV transcriptional arrest, induced by the nontemplate DNA strand, somehow enabling RDR2 to…
MacDonald et al. (1) propose that Middle Pleistocene fire use signaled the onset of widespread cultural diffusion and that it was "the first clear evidence of the emergence of cultural diffusion in the evolution of humankind" and "a distinctive characteristic of the cultural behavior of Homo sapiens." They attribute such…
McGrew (1) objects to the proposal that Middle Pleistocene fire use signaled the onset of widespread cultural diffusion in our lineage (2). He argues that, given the commonness of cultural diffusion among chimpanzees, cultural diffusion plausibly emerged already as long ago as the Last Common Ancestor of chimpanzees and humans,…
Katalin Karikó's path to scientific excellence was as peripatetic as her rise to fame in the midst of a pandemic was meteoric. Born in Hungary, Karikó emigrated with her family to the United States in 1985, hoping to scale the ranks of academia and settle into a scientific career. Early…
Although males are a ubiquitous feature of animals, they have been lost repeatedly in diverse lineages. The tendency for obligate asexuality to evolve is thought to be reduced in animals whose males play a critical role beyond the contribution of gametes, for example, via care of offspring or provision of…
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), continues to be a pressing health concern. In this study, we investigated the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on host microRNA (miRNA) populations in three human lung-derived cell lines, as well as in nasopharyngeal swabs from SARS-CoV-2–infected…
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