From: Boreal, Emily To: Picual, Jim , Joss, Lillian , Gupta, Mohan Cc: Executive Committee You sent me to find the god of a dying world, and I found her, but it didn't turn out the way you expected. I'm not sorry for what I did, but I do owe you an explanation. Those of you reading this know very well the problem we faced, but I assume this message will be forwarded to at least one board member,
It might sound strange to think of storytelling as a climate solution, but after spending five years documenting 1,001 voices on climate change in 20 countries, I believe one of the most powerful forms of climate action is to listen deeply to people already affected by the crisis. To ensure that solutions actually help communities most at risk, we must first hear their stories. Climate change is
In the world of water, 2021 was yet another year for the record books. Parts of Western Europe reeled from deadly floods that sent rivers surging to levels not seen in 500 to 1,000 years. Destructive floods hit central China as well, displacing more than a quarter of a million people from their homes. Meanwhile, a large swath of the southwestern United States remained locked in a megadrought—the
When Ahsan Rehman graduated from one of Pakistan's top engineering universities in 2016, he knew he wanted a job that would help people. He did not have to look far for ideas. At his home in Karachi, his family often went days without getting any water from the city's pipes. Initially, they had dug a well, boring into the aquifer that runs beneath the city. When that began drying up, they turned
In the waning weeks of 2017, many residents of Cape Town, South Africa, lined up day and night to fill old jugs with water from the city's few natural springs. Palpable angst hung in the air. After months of warnings through an anomalously long drought, Cape Town was on the verge of becoming the world's first major city to run out of water. Freshwater dams had dipped below 25% of capacity, and le
Every day, the Linggiu Reservoir does quiet battle with the ocean, feeding rainwater into the Johor River in southern Malaysia to keep its salt levels low enough to treat. Singapore, which built the reservoir in 1995, had been entitled to extract some 250 million gallons per day from the 123-kilometer-long river, meeting more than half its national needs. But a prolonged dry spell in 2016 saw re
As we were closing this issue, I came across a video on Twitter of a highway just outside Vancouver, submerged in water. It wasn't the only one. The densely populated urban heart of British Columbia was cut off from the rest of Canada by flooding and mudslides after an atmospheric river barreled through. The country's busiest port lost access to rail service, stranding containers. Hundreds of mot
Nature, Published online: 23 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03799-3 An investigation into the nature of genetic connections between individuals interred in the same chambers of an ancient tomb in Britain about 5,700 years ago sheds light on kinship in an early society.
Ingeniøren udpeger hvert år de fem bedste danske forskningsresultater inden for teknik og naturvidenskab. Jens Ramskov fortæller om vinderen og de fire 'runner-ups'. I årets sidste udgave af Transformator kigger vi desuden tilbage på de vigtigste teknologiske nyheder og tendenser i 2021.
After laying eggs on a deserted Thai beach, a green sea turtle dives back into the turquoise-coloured waters of the Andaman Sea—a welcome sight for biologists who say the absence of tourists spurred the marine animal's return.
Det første selskab er blevet købt og solgt alene på baggrund af et AI-system. Men vi snakker for lidt om de langsigtede effekter ved at overlade investeringsbeslutninger til algoritmer, mener professor.
122 articles in 90 journals by 735 contributing authors Physical science of climate change, effects Interpreting Observed Temperature Probability Distributions Using a Relationship between Temperature and Temperature Advection Linz & Chen Journal of Climate Open Access pdf 10.1175/jcli-d-20-0920.1 An assessment of radiative impacts of CO2 on baroclinic instability using idealized life cycles Kavi
Yesterday, daily cases in the UK exceeded 100,000 for the first time since the pandemic began. Despite this, the government has stuck to its guns in refusing to introduce any restrictions in England before Christmas Day. Yesterday also saw the publishing of a report from a team at Imperial College London that suggests, in the UK, the risk of a hospital stay is 40% lower with Omicron than Delta .
Under anesthesia, patients are often given muscle-relaxing neuromuscular blockers to make intubations easier and reduce the skeletal muscle tone during surgery. Using a drug to remove the blocking agent after the operation improves patient recovery and reduces the risk of complications. A research team has now reported a novel broad-spectrum antidote. It consists of two 'chalices' that are linked
The cochlear implant (CI) is the most successful neural prosthesis worldwide. Thanks to direct stimulation of the auditory nerve, it enables more than half a million people worldwide to hear, even though those affected were born deaf or deafened. Researchers have developed a method to convert the stimulation electrodes of common CIs into electrochemical sensors. With the help of this novel sensor
Researchers have observed interfacial phonon modes which only exist at the interface between silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). This discovery shows experimentally that decades-old conventional theories for interfacial heat transfer are not complete and the inclusion of these phonon modes are warranted.
Emergency room and urgent care clinics are typically busy and patients often have to wait many hours before they can be seen, evaluated and receive treatment. Waiting for x-rays to be interpreted by radiologists can contribute to this long wait time because radiologists often read x-rays for a large number of patients. A new study has found that artificial intelligence (AI) can help physicians in
Happy Holidays. In this special issue we are reprinting our top stories of the past year. This article first appeared online in our "Wonder" issue in February, 2021. Suppose aliens existed, and imagine that some of them had been watching our planet for its entire four and a half billion years. What would they have seen? Over most of that vast timespan, Earth's appearance altered slowly and gradua
Happy Holidays. In this special issue we are reprinting our top stories of the past year. This article first appeared online in our "Intelligent Life" issue in September, 2021. Do you ever feel like someone is watching you? They could be. And I'm not talking about the odd neighbors at the end of your street. This summer, at the Carl Sagan Institute at Cornell University and the American Museum of
Happy Holidays. In this special issue we are reprinting our top stories of the past year. This article first appeared online in our "Universality" issue in April, 2021. I grew up in a small village in a very rural part of England. It was a landscape capped with the huge skies of a low-lying coastal zone. Gently rolling fields, long hedgerows, and a lot of farms. Some of the people running those f
As the data comes in, experts are confident the new variant will soon be dominant – if it isn't already Hospitalisation rates: how is Australia's health system coping? Follow our Covid live blog for the latest updates Vaccine rollout tracker ; Cases and data tracker Get our free news app ; get our morning email briefing The Omicron variant of Covid-19 is now the dominant variant in England , Sout
In the sports arena, spectators sometimes create a spectacle known as a wave, as successive groups stand up in unison to yell with arms in the air. Now, researchers have shown that small freshwater fish known as sulphur mollies do a similar thing, and for life or death reasons. The collective wave action produced by hundreds of thousands of fish working together helps to protect them from predator
Analysis of ancient DNA from one of the best-preserved Neolithic tombs in Britain has revealed that most of the people buried there were from five continuous generations of a single extended family. By analysing DNA extracted from the bones and teeth of 35 individuals entombed at Hazleton North long cairn in the Cotswolds-Severn region, the research team was able to detect that 27 of them were clo
The smallest fish in the world, the Paedocypris, measures only 7 millimeters. This is nothing compared to the 9 meters of the whale shark. The small fish shares many of the same genes and the same anatomy with the shark, but the dorsal and caudal fins, gills, stomach and heart, are thousands of times smaller! How do organs and tissues of this miniature fish stop growing very quickly, unlike those
Astronomers have produced the most comprehensive image of radio emission from the nearest actively feeding supermassive black hole to Earth. The emission is powered by a central black hole in the galaxy Centaurus A, about 12 million light years away. When viewed from Earth, the eruption from Centaurus A now extends eight degrees across the sky — the length of 16 full Moons laid side by side.
An interdisciplinary Danish team of researchers has used new astronomical knowledge to establish an exact time anchor for the arrival of trade flows from the Middle East in Viking-age Scandinavia. The results are published in the leading international journal Nature.
Meteorites are remnants of the building blocks that formed Earth and the other planets orbiting our Sun. Recent analysis of their isotopic makeup led settles a longstanding debate about the geochemical evolution of our Solar System and our home planet.
The growing interest in deep-space exploration has sparked the need for powerful long-lived rocket systems to drive spacecraft through the cosmos. Scientists have developed a tiny version of a Hall thruster propulsion system that increases the lifetime of the rocket and produces high power.
Quantum effects in superconductors could give semiconductor technology a new twist. Researchers have identified a composite material that could integrate quantum devices into semiconductor technology, making electronic components significantly more powerful.
A novel carbon-based biosensor is set to drive new innovations in brain-controlled robotics. The biosensor adheres to the skin of the face and head in order to detect electrical signals being sent by the brain. These signals can be translated into commands to control autonomous robotic systems. The sensor, made of epitaxial graphene grown onto a silicon carbide on silicon substrate, overcomes thre
Researchers have discovered that Toxoplasma parasites lay dormant and undetected inside neurons (brain cells) and muscle cells by releasing proteins that switch off the cells' ability to alert the immune system.
Some of the same brain systems known to play a role in learning from trial and error also are engaged when people conform to social norms, scientists report in a new study. The findings are important, the researchers said, because changing one's behavior to align with one's peers can contribute to community-building or — depending on the goals and values of the group — societal breakdown.
Fitness functions map biological sequences to a scalar property of interest. Accurate estimation of these functions yields biological insight and sets the foundation for model-based sequence design. However, the fitness datasets available to learn these functions are typically small relative to the large combinatorial space of sequences; characterizing how much…
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmissible coronavirus responsible for the global COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we provide evidence that SARS-CoV-2 spreads through cell–cell contact in cultures, mediated by the spike glycoprotein. SARS-CoV-2 spike is more efficient in facilitating cell-to-cell transmission than is SARS-CoV spike, which reflects,…
Photosystem II (PSII) enables global-scale, light-driven water oxidation. Genetic manipulation of PSII from the mesophilic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has provided insights into the mechanism of water oxidation; however, the lack of a high-resolution structure of oxygen-evolving PSII from this organism has limited the interpretation of biophysical data to…
Insect life plays an unrivalled role in ecosystem function, and many insects are critical to agricultural production. However, insects face continuing threats from anthropogenic stresses related to habitat loss, pesticides and pollution, and climate change (1). No insect group captures as much public and scientific attention as pollinators, especially bees,…
The function and architecture of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) multienzyme complex is one of the most fascinating and fundamental topics covered by basic biochemistry courses (1–4). PDH converts the pyruvate generated by glycolysis to acetylCoA that can then be fueled into the Krebs cycle. Three enzymes—E1p, E2p, and E3—and five…
In a large-scale, preregistered experiment on informal political communication, we algorithmically matched participants, varying two dimensions: 1) the degree of incidental similarity on nonpolitical features; and 2) their stance agreement on a contentious political topic. Matched participants were first shown a computer-generated social media profile of their match highlighting all…
Policies that require most or all university employees to report any sexual misconduct they learn about to a designated university official, including victims' names, even if the victim does not want such a report to be made, have been widely implemented in institutions of higher education (1). Despite the widely…
Opioids continue to ravage large swaths of the United States. Buffeted by social isolation, financial pressures, and limited mental health resources during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, addiction and its ill effects have only worsened in the past year. More than 100,000 people died from drug overdose between April…
It doesn't feel right to see a toddler walking down the street by themselves. Toddlers don't just go rogue, and if they do they are quickly chased down by a parent or grandparent or teacher and brought back where they belong. Most planets are like toddlers: They follow a well-behaved orbit around a star. It could be a yellow star, or a red one, a young or old star, or even a system with more than
British people tend to overestimate the prevalence of different minority demographics, beliefs, and behaviors among the public, according to a study publishing December 22 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE.
Researchers studying the wreckage of the last U.S. slave ship, buried in mud on the Alabama coast since it was scuttled in 1860, have made the surprising discovery that most of the wooden schooner remains intact, including the pen that was used to imprison African captives during the brutal journey across the Atlantic Ocean.
When you're trying to pinpoint where the enemy team is approaching from or scouting the nearest weapons drop, you don't want to get distracted by static sounds and communication delays from your teammates. Most gamers can handle slight disruptions, but when your headset cannot maintain a signal at all it becomes a real problem, significantly affecting your gameplay and potentially ruining the fun
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04234-3 MicroRNAs encode sorting sequences that determine whether they are secreted in exosomal vesicles to regulate gene expression in distant cells or retained in cells that produced them, with different sequences used by individual cell types.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04241-4 Archaeological and ancient DNA analyses of 35 individuals entombed at Hazleton North long cairn approximately 5,700 years ago are used to reconstruct kinship practices in Early Neolithic Britain.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04201-y Decoupling spin-polarized edge states using substitutional N-atom dopants along the edges of a zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) reveals giant spin splitting of a N-dopant edge state, and supports the predicted emergent magnetic order in ZGNRs.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04244-1 Restriction of dietary valine reduces growth of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia through altered valine tRNA biogenesis and reduced translation of mRNAs that encode subunits of mitochondrial complex I.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04197-5 A silicon nitride microresonator is used for coherent phase modulation of a transmission electron microscope beam, with future applications in combining high-resolution microscopy with spectroscopy, holography and metrology.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04171-1 An electric-field-induced topological phase transition from a Mott insulator to a quantum anomalous Hall insulator in near-60-degree-twisted (or AB-stacked) MoTe2/WSe2 heterobilayers is reported.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04235-2 'Candidatus Methanoliparum' overexpresses genes encoding alkyl-coenzyme M and methyl-coenzyme M reductases—markers of archaeal multicarbon alkane and methane metabolism—and thrives on a variety of long-chain alkanes and n-alkylcyclohexanes, and n-alkylbenzenes with long n-alkyl (C≥13) moieties.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04242-3 Studies using neural ensemble recordings in rats show that cells in the piriform cortex carry a spatial representation of the environment and link locations to olfactory sensory inputs.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04261-0 HELQ is differentially regulated by RAD51, which stimulates helicase activity, and RPA, which inhibits helicase activity and stimulates annealing.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04247-y Intra- and inter-specific grafting is possible in most orders of monocotyledonous plants, and this process could be used to combat diseases that affect crops, such as Panama disease in bananas.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04101-1 Two very-high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (at 2,132 Hz and 4,250 Hz) are detected within the initial hard spike of a magnetar giant flare originating from the galaxy NGC 253, and detailed temporal and spectral analyses are performed.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04252-1 The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-loading complex—a complex in which Hsp70 loads GR onto Hsp90 and Hop—is described, providing insights into how the chaperones Hsp90 and Hsp70 coordinate to facilitate GR remodelling for activation.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04153-3 Microbial methanogenesis converts up to 19% of the carbon dioxide injected into an oil field to methane, suggesting that microbial methanogenesis may be a globally important subsurface process.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04236-1 Studies based on cryo-electron microscopy structures of Hsp90 chaperone complexes reveal the molecular mechanism of the chaperone-mediated maturation of the human glucocorticoid receptor.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04156-0 The reported network of connectivity between atomic ensembles is entirely programmable and independent of its geometrical arrangement, because of the interaction with an optical cavity.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04189-5 A study reports and characterizes a high-entropy electrocaloric polymer that switches under low fields, and discusses its potential suitability for use in caloric heat pumps.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04168-w An electrochemical process stimulates the progression toward the electrode of isolated or 'dead' lithium in a battery, recovering its electrical connection, and the effect is demonstrated by increased cycle life.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04151-5 Inelastic neutron scattering measurements show that superconductivity in UTe2 is associated with a resonance near antiferromagnetic order that suggests an unexpected spin-singlet component to the electron pairing.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03729-3 A microorganism that dwells in an underground oil reservoir has been found to degrade various petroleum compounds and use them to produce methane through a previously unreported biochemical pathway.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03769-9 Advances in the precision of radiocarbon dating can offer year-specific data. Analyses of archaeological sites in Denmark and Canada provide insights into the chronology of the global networks of the Viking Age.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03767-x An optical device designed to control the properties of electron waves inside an electron microscope demonstrates that clever platforms for integrated photonics need not be powered by expensive laser systems.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03768-w The inclusion of nitrogen atoms stabilizes the zigzag edges of carbon-based nanoribbons, enabling the ribbons to be decoupled from a substrate and providing a probe for their unconventional magnetism.
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03770-2 The genomes of hundreds of individuals who lived in Great Britain and in continental Europe during the Bronze Age provide evidence for a migration of people from the continent to southern Britain between 1000 and 875 bc.
Populations of peninsular spiders that make aerial spider webs and move around the air by ballooning (using the silk threads as parachutes) present a more homogeneous genetics structure and are better connected between them. However, species of nocturnal spiders, which hunt on the ground and have a low dispersal capacity, show less genetically connected populations and are more vulnerable to local
Researchers have found that higher visual cognitive functions can arise spontaneously in untrained neural networks. A research team has shown that visual selectivity of facial images can arise even in completely untrained deep neural networks. This new finding has provided revelatory insights into mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive functions in both biological and artificial neural
There is renewed debate in California and other states over whether to ban offshore oil and gas drilling, two months after a ruptured underwater pipeline off Huntington Beach spewed tens of thousands of gallons of crude oil into the ocean.
Stable and high oxide-ion conductors based on a new hexagonal perovskite-related oxide has been reported by scientists at Tokyo Tech, Kojundo Chemical Laboratory Co. Ltd. and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in a recent study. These high-performance oxide-ion conductors could pave the way for the development of solid electrolytes for next-generation batteries and clea
Thyme and oregano are not only popular herbs for cooking, but also valuable medicinal plants. Their essential oils contain thymol and carvacrol which impart the typical flavors and are medically important. A team has now fully identified how the plants produce these two substances. The results could simplify the breeding process and improve the pharmaceutical value of thyme and oregano.
The interaction of fungi and bacteria in the transport of viruses in the soil ecosystem has been examined in a recent study. The scientists showed a novel mechanism of viral transport by bacterial shuttles traveling along fungal hyphae. Bacteria thereby benefit from taking along viruses on the conquest of new habitats.
Microorganisms can convert oil into natural gas, i.e. methane. Until recently, it was thought that this conversion was only possible through the cooperation of different organisms. In 2019, Rafael Laso-Pérez and Gunter Wegener from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology suggested that a special archaeon can do this all by itself, as indicated by their genome analyses. Now, in collaborati
DNAzymes are precision biocatalysts that destroy unwanted RNA molecules. However, major obstacles to their use in medicine remain. Together with Jülich Research Centre (FZJ) and the University of Bonn, a research team from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has investigated with atomic resolution how DNAzymes work in real time. They have now presented these important fundamental findings a
A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket beat the rain and launched at 5:08 a.m. Tuesday from Kennedy Space Center to bring 6,500 pounds of cargo that includes a variety of medical experiments to the International Space Station.
Nature Communications, Published online: 21 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27487-y Reports on the origin of European wine grapes are controversial. Here, the authors perform population genetics analyses on a large set of representative wine-making varieties and reveal a single domestication event at the origin of the entire germplasm followed by repeated introgression from wild populations
National University of Singapore scientists have developed a general wet-chemistry approach for the scalable and automated synthesis of a library of ultra-high-density single-atom catalysts (UHD-SACs) for 15 common transition metals on chemically distinct carriers via a controlled two-step thermal annealing strategy.
According to a paper titled "Enacting theories of change for food systems transformation under climate change," published in Global Food Security, food systems are responsible for a third of global greenhouse gas emissions from human activity, and agricultural yields are at risk due to climate change impacts. And yet, there is not a clear picture of the different elements of the agricultural resea
An international research team led by Associate Professor Giovanni Strona from the University of Helsinki has identified a general macroecological mechanism that calls for a reconsideration of global conservation strategies.
The American Heart Association has published a corrected version of a controversial meeting abstract which claimed to show that Covid-19 vaccinations "dramatically" increased a person's risk for serious heart problems. The study was the work of Stephen Gundry, a cardiac surgeon who now sells dietary supplements of questionable efficacy on his website. Gundry also sees … Continue reading
A New York-based, multi-institutional research team has found high levels of three toxic metabolites produced by gut bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma samples of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The important findings further scientists' understanding of how gut bacteria can impact the course of neurological diseases by producing compounds that are toxic to nerve cells.
A researcher has identified the proteins necessary for efficient regeneration of skeletal muscles after acute injury and in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) clearing the way for drug development for skeletal muscle diseases.
Some engineered living materials can combine the strength of run-of-the-mill building materials with the responsiveness of living systems. Think self-healing concrete or paint that changes color when a specific chemical is detected. Critical early research sheds new light on this exciting advancement, which would revolutionize construction and maintenance, with wide-reaching economic and environme
To overcome the slow charging times of conventional lithium-ion batteries, scientists have developed a new anode material that allows for ultrafast charging. Produced via a simple, environmentally sound and efficient approach involving the calcination of a bio-based polymer, this novel material also retained most of its initial capacity over thousands of cycles. The findings of this study will pav
Ansjovishyllan gapar tom i matbutiken och julfriden är hotad när Janssons frestelse står utan den salta fisken. Men varför är den slut när vi behöver den som mest? Och vad är ansjovis egentligen? Kerstin Johannesson, professor i marin ekologi, reder ut begreppen. Inlägget dök först upp på forskning.se .
PLUS. Fem uger efter at den russiske militærsatellit Cosmos 1408 tilsyneladende blev ramt af et missil, kan der nu spores knap 600 større fragmenter, som gør livet farligt i 300 til 800 kilometers højde.
Thanks to a symbiotic fungus, many species of morning glories contain elements of powerful psychedelic drugs called ergot alkaloids, according to new research. The seeds of the common tropical vine, whose namesake trumpet-like blooms only open in the morning, contain compounds that could be useful for treating mental and physical diseases as well as promoting well-being, says plant and fungal bio
"Wheel of Time," the 14-book epic fantasy now turned into an Amazon Prime TV series, is a medieval-style adventure set in the Third Age of the World of the Wheel. While not explicit in the storyline, notes from the late author suggest that the First Age was actually modern-day Earth, which ended with a dramatic event (perhaps even climate change). From these notes, we estimate the show takes place
An assistant professor of sociology and anthropology from The University of Texas at Arlington, who also chairs the national Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology, is advocating for more diversity and inclusion in her field.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and partners have joined together to launch approximately 100 new Argo floats across the Atlantic Ocean to collect data that supports ocean, weather and climate research and prediction. These will bolster the international Argo Program, which maintains a global array of about 3,800 floats that measure pressure, temperature, and salinity of the upper 2,00
During the evening hours of Dec. 10, a flurry of tornadoes ravaged several states, claiming close to 100 lives and leaving whole communities in wreckage. According to the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the storms were at least the 19th weather or climate disaster to cause more than $1 billion in damage this year, coming on the heels of droughts, wildfires, severe co
If you're heading to the beach this summer, the thought of sharks might cross your mind. I don't mean wondering whether a shark will take you for dinner (that's very, very unlikely) but rather, how these remarkable creatures are faring in the marine ecosystem.
The collection of data on a person's sex—that is, whether they are male or female—has become controversial in recent years, and a number of public bodies have moved away from collecting data on sex as a result. For example, Scotland's chief statistician recently issued guidance stating that data on sex should only be collected in exceptional circumstances. This move has been greeted with alarm by
PLUS. »Havde vi vidst det, havde vi selvfølgelig handlet anderledes,« lyder det fra Refshaleøens Ejendomsselskab, der har ansvaret for den dokport ved B&W's gamle skibsværft på Refshaleøen i København, som i november pludselig styrtede i vandet.
Earth is in the midst of a climate crisis. Thanks to rising CO2 emissions since the early 20th century, global temperatures are rising, triggering a positive feedback cycle that threatens to make it worse. According to recent analyses, even if the industrialized nations agree to slash carbon emissions drastically, global warming will not begin to slow until mid-century. For this reason, emission r
Catheters are of paramount importance for minimally invasive surgery. They enable interventions such as the removal of blood clots, the insertion of implants, or the targeted administration of drugs, and are intended to be particularly gentle for patients. In general, the less invasive the catheter procedure, the lower the risk of medical complications and the shorter the recovery time.
A new study shows that a toxin from the microbe that causes anthrax can silence multiple types of pain in mice. Researchers found the toxin targets pain-sensing cells to alter signaling and block pain. Building on that finding, researchers engineered an anthrax protein vehicle to deliver different types of treatments into pain receptors and modulate nerve-cell function. The findings can inform the
Nature Communications, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26472-9 Immune checkpoint blockade has become standard care for patients with recurrent metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here the authors present the results of a non-randomized phase Ib/IIa trial, reporting safety and efficacy of neoadjuvant nivolumab monotherapy and nivolumab plus ipilimum
Nature Communications, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26902-8 Using gene silencing to regulate lymphocyte function is a promising therapeutic approach for autommunity, inflammation and cancer. Here the authors use a heteroduplex oligonucleotide for improved potency, efficacy and longer retention times.
On a dirt path, forked yellow tongue darting from its mouth, a member of the world's largest lizard species lazes on an island in eastern Indonesia's Komodo National Park as tourists snap photos. And about 18 miles (30 kilometers) away on another park island that harbors Komodo dragons, trees have been removed and concrete poured for new tourist facilities that have aroused the ire of residents an
A toxic cloud spewing from an erupting volcano in Tonga could dump acid rainfall across the Pacific kingdom, potentially poisoning drinking water and damaging people's skin and eyes, emergency services have warned.
Filmen The Matrix Resurrections har premiär, och biobesökarna får återigen se huvudpersonen Neo ställas inför frågan om vad som egentligen är verkligt. Forskning & Framstegs Anna Davour reflekterar över behovet att ta vår egen digitala verklighet på allvar.
So often that I am faced with two difficult choices on a multiple choice exam, I am leaning towards to correct answer choice, but because the stakes are high I end up becoming overly critical of it that I just end up selecting the other (wrong) answer choice without much scrutiny at all. But had I compared the two answer choices fairly, it is obvious that the shortcomings of the right answer choi
Nature, Published online: 22 December 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03589-x Deaths caused by university lab blasts have some scientists in China concerned about a lack of oversight and standardized safety protocols, especially in teaching labs.
A study of restored wetlands on the Danish island of Funen reveals that plant species richness remains extremely poor many years after wetlands restoration. It is widely assumed that restored wetlands will increase local biodiversity and come to resemble natural wetlands over time. However, more must be done to catalyze recovery according to researchers behind the study.
Earth's ancient oceans likely contained much more salt than they do today, scientists say. The finding may clarify how its life, atmosphere, and climate evolved. In a new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , researchers suggest that for the first 500 million years of Earth's existence, its oceans may have contained a salt level as high as 7.5%. Today's oceans, by compari
Small, unique antibody-like proteins known as VNARs — derived from the immune systems of sharks — can prevent the virus that causes COVID-19, its variants, and related coronaviruses from infecting human cells, according to a new study.
Hi, I am currently conducting an experiment to examine language processing in adults aged between 50-65 years. It is quite simple and takes approx. 10-15 minutes to complete on a laptop or PC only. Participants must also be right-handed and speak English as a first language. The experiment has received ethical approval from Maynooth University`s Research Ethics Subcommittee (SRESC-2021-2450172).
Intelligent packaging with sensors that monitor goods, such as vegetables, on long transport routes is a trend for the future. Yet printed and disposable electronics also cause problems: Metals in printing inks are expensive — and disposing of them in an environmentally sound manner is costly and exacerbates the problem of electronic waste.
If the perspective of space and time is not properly applied to plant research, the understanding of biological processes is limited as well as the response to the threats that endanger the life of plants worldwide.
Intensive lifestyle intervention with plenty of exercise helps people with prediabetes improve their blood glucose levels over a period of years and thus delay or even prevent type 2 diabetes. In particular, individuals with prediabetes at highest risk benefited from intensive lifestyle intervention.
To solve the mysteries of how learning and memory occur, scientists have created a system to track millions of connections among brain cells in mice — all at the same time — when the animals' whiskers are tweaked, an indicator for learning.
Exercise not only trains the muscles but can also prevent the development of fatty liver. A new study shows which molecular adaptations, in particular of the liver mitochondria, can be observed in this process.
By improving the calibration of a conventional optical microscope, researchers have for the first time measured the volume of individual droplets smaller than 100 trillionths of a liter with an uncertainty of less than 1%. That is a tenfold improvement over previous measurements.
Researchers have created DNA-like magnetic nanostructures that form strong inter-helix magnetic bonds. These produce topological textures in the magnetic field, opening the door to the next generation of magnetic devices, and patterning magnetic fields on the nanoscale.
What does a quantum computer have in common with a top draft pick in sports? Both have attracted lots of attention from talent scouts. Quantum computers, experimental machines that can perform some tasks faster than supercomputers, are constantly evaluated, much like young athletes, for their potential to someday become game-changing technology.
For many applications making use of quantum effects, the light has to be in a certain state — namely a single photon state. But what is the best way of generating such single photon states? Researchers have now proposed an entirely new way.
Unlike studies of antibody-rich transfusions in hospitalized patients, which overall have not found clear benefits, a new randomized trial finds that early convalescent plasma treatment cuts hospitalizations in half.
While the social sciences have made impressive progress in adopting transparent research practices that facilitate verification, replication, and reuse of materials, the problem of publication bias persists. Bias on the part of peer reviewers and journal editors, as well as the use of outdated research practices by authors, continues to…
The learning of first object names is deemed a hard problem due to the uncertainty inherent in mapping a heard name to the intended referent in a cluttered and variable world. However, human infants readily solve this problem. Despite considerable theoretical discussion, relatively little is known about the uncertainty infants…
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are a clinically mature technology for the delivery of genetic medicines but have limited therapeutic applications due to liver accumulation. Recently, our laboratory developed selective organ targeting (SORT) nanoparticles that expand the therapeutic applications of genetic medicines by enabling delivery of messenger RNA (mRNA) and gene editing…
Although it is well known that activity-dependent motor cortex (MCX) plasticity produces long-term potentiation (LTP) of local cortical circuits, leading to enhanced muscle function, the effects on the corticospinal projection to spinal neurons has not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate a spinal locus for corticospinal tract (CST) plasticity…
Biomaterial characteristics such as surface topographies have been shown to modulate macrophage phenotypes. The standard methodologies to measure macrophage response to biomaterials are marker-based and invasive. Raman microspectroscopy (RM) is a marker-independent, noninvasive technology that allows the analysis of living cells without the need for staining or processing. In the…
The understanding of O–O bond formation is of great importance for revealing the mechanism of water oxidation in photosynthesis and for developing efficient catalysts for water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis. The chemical oxidation of the RuII 2(OH)(OH2) core with the vicinal OH and OH2 ligands was spectroscopically and theoretically investigated…
Chemical transformations, such as ion exchange, are commonly employed to modify nanocrystal compositions. Yet the mechanisms of these transformations, which often operate far from equilibrium and entail mixing diverse chemical species, remain poorly understood. Here we explore an idealized model for ion exchange in which a chemical potential drives compositional…
Signal tranducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) plays a critical role in mediating cellular responses following cytokine stimulation. STAT proteins critically signal via the formation of dimers, but additionally, STAT tetramers serve key biological roles, and we previously reported their importance in T and natural killer (NK) cell biology….
Dynamic lane formation and long-range active nematic alignment are reported using a geometry in which kinesin motors are directly coupled to a lipid bilayer, allowing for in-plane motor diffusion during microtubule gliding. We use fluorescence microscopy to image protein distributions in and below the dense two-dimensional microtubule layer, revealing evidence…
Researchers in areas as diverse as computer science and political science must increasingly navigate the possible risks of their research to society. However, the history of medical experiments on vulnerable individuals influenced many research ethics reviews to focus exclusively on risks to human subjects rather than risks to human society….
For over three decades, developmental neurobiologist John L. R. Rubenstein has been a leader in research on the forebrain, the seat of higher-order brain functions. The Nina Ireland Distinguished Professor in Child Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Rubenstein has identified transcription factor (TF) genes, transcriptional and…
Content on Twitter's home timeline is selected and ordered by personalization algorithms. By consistently ranking certain content higher, these algorithms may amplify some messages while reducing the visibility of others. There's been intense public and scholarly debate about the possibility that some political groups benefit more from algorithmic amplification than…
Millions of species are currently being sequenced, and their genomes are being compared. Many of them have more complex genomes than model systems and raise novel challenges for genome alignment. Widely used local alignment strategies often produce limited or incongruous results when applied to genomes with dispersed repeats, long indels,…
Planktonic organic matter forms the base of the marine food web, and its nutrient content (C:N:Porg) governs material and energy fluxes in the ocean. Over Earth history, C:N:Porg had a crucial role in marine metazoan evolution and global biogeochemical dynamics, but the geologic history of C:N:Porg is unknown, and it…
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a pivotal second messenger with an essential role in neuronal function. cAMP synthesis by adenylyl cyclases (AC) is controlled by G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling systems. However, the network of molecular players involved in the process is incompletely defined. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9–based screening to…
Twitter defines the current political landscape. Ordinary observations attest to this, and now we have some rigorous evidence. As a feature of modern democracies, Twitter merits close examination; the article "Algorithmic Amplification of Politics on Twitter" (1) provides exactly that. Their findings should give us all a reason to pause—Twitter's…
Researchers teamed up to develop a machine-learning program that can be connected to a human brain and used to command a robot. The program adjusts the robot's movements based on electrical signals from the brain. The hope is that with this invention, tetraplegic patients will be able to carry out more day-to-day activities on their own.
A team led by the Graduate School of Engineering Science at Osaka University, including Professor Daisuke Kurabayashi of the Department of Systems and Control Engineering at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), has shed light on the search behavior of moths using a specially constructed virtual reality system that can independently apply visual, wind, and odor stimulation. This work may hel
In the nineteenth century, Javanese peasants were forced to work on plantations for low wages. This was an economic success, but at the cost of a large number of lives, reveals a study conducted by Pim de Zwart, Daniel Gallardo-Albarrán and Auke Rijpma, titled "The demographic effects of Colonialism: Forced Labor and Mortality in Java 1834-1879," jointly researched by Wageningen University & Resea
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