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Alkohol-&-gener

Undersøgelse viser, hvordan gener påvirker tobak og alkoholbrug.

Udgivet 22. februar 2019

Kilde bionyt.dk/ref./12553.asp = : https://www.deccanchronicle.com/lifestyle/health-and-wellbeing/220219/genetics-linked-to-the-use-of-alcohol-and-tobacco.html
Forbrug af alkohol indikerer en mekanistisk kompleksitet.  (Foto: Repræsentativ / Pixabay)

Foto: Pixabay

Washington :  Et studie har opdaget flere gener, der er forbundet med øget brug af alkohol og tobak.  Undersøgelsen, der blev offentliggjort i tidsskriftet Nature Genetics, var et samarbejde mellem flere forskergrupper over hele verden, herunder en gruppe fra Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) og K. G. Jebsen Center for Genetisk Epidemiologi.

Medforfatter professor Kristian Hveem fortæller: "Vi opdagede flere gener, der er forbundet med øget brug af alkohol og tobak. Vi kiggede også på sammenhængen mellem disse gener og risikoen for at udvikle forskellige sygdomme og lidelser. "

Forskningsgrupperne opdagede i alt 566 genvarianter på 406 forskellige steder i det menneskelige genetiske materiale, der kan knyttes til brugen af ​​alkohol eller tobak. Et hundrede og halvtreds af disse steder er knyttet til brugen af ​​både tobak og alkohol. Alkoholforbruget blev målt i forhold til antallet af standard-alkoholenheder. Tobaksbrug blev målt som antallet af cigaretter, som personerne røg dagligt.

Kristian Hveem siger: "Studiegruppen, der var genetisk disponeret for rygning, var også genetisk disponeret for en række sundhedsmæssige problemer, herunder fedme, diabetes, ADHD og forskellige psykiske sygdomme, hvorimod en genetisk risiko for alkohol var forbundet med lavere sygdomsrisiko. Dette indebærer ikke, at forbrug af mere alkohol forbedrer sundheden, men indikerer en kompleksitet, der skal undersøges yderligere. "

Eksperterne fremlagde bevis for involvering af mange naturlige signal-givere for brug af tobak og brug af alkohol, herunder gener, der er involveret i kroppens håndtering af nikotinsyre, dopamin-signalstoffer for nerveceller og  glutamat-signalstoffer for nerveceller, som til en vis grad kan give en biologisk forklaring på, hvorfor vi søger sådanne kunstige stimuli.

De data, der blev indsamlet, kom fra en række tidligere studier og omfattede forskellige aldersgrupper, samfund med forskellige holdninger til brug af stoffer og forskellige mønstre af brugen af alkohol og nikotin.

Resultaterne viste imidlertid, at sammenhængen mellem genetisk risiko og udvikling af forskellige sygdomskategorier, kun varierede lidt mellem befolkningsgrupperne.

Denne forskningen giver nyt indblik i kompleksiteten af ​​de genetiske og miljømæssige faktorer, der tvinger nogle mennesker til at drikke og ryge mere end andre. Det er også interessant at bemærke, at nogle af de gener, der er forbundet med øget brug af alkohol, faktisk reducerer risikoen for visse sygdomme.

ENGELSK ORIG. TEKST: Study reveals how genes affect tobacco and alcohol use.

Published Feb 22, 2019

Kilde: https://www.deccanchronicle.com/lifestyle/health-and-wellbeing/220219/genetics-linked-to-the-use-of-alcohol-and-tobacco.html
Consuming alcohol indicates a mechanistic complexity. (Photo: Representational/Pixabay)

 Consuming alcohol indicates a mechanistic complexity. (Photo: Representational/Pixabay)

Washington: A recent study now has discovered several genes associated with an increased use of alcohol and tobacco. Notably, the use of alcohol and tobacco is closely linked to several diseases, and is a contributing factor in many deaths.

The study, published in the journal Nature Genetics saw involvement of several research groups around the world, including a group from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) and the K.G. Jebsen Center for Genetic Epidemiology.

Speaking about it, co-author Professor Kristian Hveem, “We discovered several genes associated with an increased use of alcohol and tobacco. We also looked at the correlation between these genes and the risk of developing various diseases and disorders.”

The research groups discovered a total of 566 gene variants at 406 different sites in the human genetic material that can be linked to the use of alcohol or tobacco. One hundred fifty of these sites are linked to the use of both tobacco and alcohol. Alcohol consumption was measured in terms of the number of standard alcohol units. Tobacco use was measured in the number of cigarettes per day.

Hveem said, “The study group that was genetically predisposed to smoking was also genetically predisposed to a number of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, ADHD and various mental illnesses, whereas a genetic risk for alcohol was associated with lower disease risk. This does not imply that consuming more alcohol improves health, but indicates a mechanistic complexity that needs to be investigated further.”

The experts reported evidence for the involvement of many natural signalling agents in tobacco and alcohol use, including genes involved in nicotinic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmission which to some extent may provide a biological explanation for why we seek artificial stimuli.

The data that was collected came from a number of studies and included different age categories, societies with different attitudes to the use of drugs, and different patterns of alcohol and nicotine use.

However, results showed that the correlation between genetic risk and the development of different disease categories varied little between the population groups.

The research gives new insight into the complexity of genetic and environmental factors that compel some of us to drink and smoke more than others. It is also interesting to note that some of these genes linked to increased use of alcohol, reduce the risk for some diseases.

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