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Social media and fake news in the 2016 election

H AllcottM Gentzkow – Journal of economic perspectives, 2017 – aeaweb.orgFollowing the 2016 US presidential election, many have expressed concern about the
effects of false stories ("fake news"), circulated largely through social media. We discuss the
economics of fake news and present new data on its consumption prior to the election …Cited by 1760Related articlesAll 24 versionsWeb of Science: 284[PDF] sciencemag.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

The science of fake news

DMJ LazerMA BaumY BenklerAJ Berinsky… – …, 2018 – science.sciencemag.orgThe rise of fake news highlights the erosion of long-standing institutional bulwarks against
misinformation in the internet age. Concern over the problem is global. However, much
remains unknown regarding the vulnerabilities of individuals, institutions, and society to …Cited by 436Related articlesAll 11 versionsWeb of Science: 107[HTML] wiley.comFull View

Automatic deception detection: Methods for finding fake news

NJ Conroy, VL RubinY Chen – Proceedings of the Association …, 2015 – Wiley Online LibraryThis research surveys the current state‐of‐the‐art technologies that are instrumental in the
adoption and development of fake news detection."Fake news detection" is defined as the
task of categorizing news along a continuum of veracity, with an associated measure of …Cited by 227Related articlesAll 7 versions[PDF] arxiv.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news detection on social media: A data mining perspective

K ShuA SlivaS WangJ TangH Liu – ACM SIGKDD Explorations …, 2017 – dl.acm.orgSocial media for news consumption is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, its low cost,
easy access, and rapid dissemination of information lead people to seek out and consume
news from social media. On the other hand, it enables the wide spread of\fake news", ie, low …Cited by 320Related articlesAll 9 versions

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With Facebook, blogs, and fake news, teens reject journalistic "objectivity"

R Marchi – Journal of Communication Inquiry, 2012 – journals.sagepub.comThis article examines the news behaviors and attitudes of teenagers, an understudied
demographic in the research on youth and news media. Based on interviews with 61 racially
diverse high school students, it discusses how adolescents become informed about current …Cited by 226Related articlesAll 6 versionsWeb of Science: 54[PDF] tandfonline.comFull-text via KB/KUB

Defining "fake news" A typology of scholarly definitions

EC Tandoc Jr, ZW Lim, R Ling – Digital journalism, 2018 – Taylor & FrancisThis paper is based on a review of how previous studies have defined and operationalized
the term "fake news." An examination of 34 academic articles that used the term "fake news"
between 2003 and 2017 resulted in a typology of types of fake newsnews satire, news  …Cited by 239Related articlesAll 4 versionsWeb of Science: 71[PDF]

" liar, liar pants on fire": A new benchmark dataset for fake news detection

WY Wang – arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.00648, 2017 – arxiv.orgAutomatic fake news detection is a challenging problem in deception detection, and it has
tremendous real-world political and social impacts. However, statistical approaches to
combating fake news has been dramatically limited by the lack of labeled benchmark …Cited by 196Related articlesAll 5 versions

Reuters Institute digital news report 2017

N NewmanR FletcherA Kalogeropoulos, D Levy… – 2017 –… The report focuses on the issues of trust in the era of fakenews, changing business models and
the role of platforms … Our qualitative data suggest that users feel the combination of a lack of rules
and viral algorithms are encouraging low quality and 'fakenews' to spread quickly …Cited by 760Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF]

[PDF] The spread of fake news by social bots

C ShaoGL CiampagliaO Varol… – arXiv preprint …, 2017 – massive spread of fake news has been identified as a major global risk and has been
alleged to influence elections and threaten democracies. Communication, cognitive, social,
and computer scientists are engaged in efforts to study the complex causes for the viral …Cited by 119Related articlesAll 5 versions[PDF]

[PDF] Fake news or truth? using satirical cues to detect potentially misleading news

V Rubin, N Conroy, Y ChenS Cornwell – Proceedings of the second …, 2016 – aclweb.orgSatire is an attractive subject in deception detection research: it is a type of deception that
intentionally incorporates cues revealing its own deceptiveness. Whereas other types of
fabrications aim to instill a false sense of truth in the reader, a successful satirical hoax must …Cited by 126Related articlesAll 5 versions


A stylometric inquiry into hyperpartisan and fake news

M PotthastJ Kiesel, K Reinartz, J Bevendorff… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2017 – arxiv.orgThis paper reports on a writing style analysis of hyperpartisan (ie, extremely one-sided)
news in connection to fake news. It presents a large corpus of 1,627 articles that were
manually fact-checked by professional journalists from BuzzFeed. The articles originated …Cited by 114Related articlesAll 7 versions[PDF] tandfonline.comFull View

The role of journalist and the performance of journalism: Ethical lessons from "fakenews (seriously)

SL Borden, C Tew – Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 2007 – Taylor & FrancisSome have suggested that Jon Stewart of The Daily Show with Jon Stewart (TDS) and
Stephen Colbert of The Colbert Report (TCR) represent a new kind of journalist. We
propose, rather, that Stewart and Colbert are imitators who do not fully inhabit the role of …Cited by 157Related articlesAll 2 versions

[BOOK] The Stewart/Colbert effect: Essays on the real impacts of fake news

A Amarasingam – 2014 – Daily Show with Jon Stewart and The Colbert Report have attracted much interest in
recent years from popular audiences as well as scholars in various disciplines. Both Jon
Stewart and Stephen Colbert have been named on Time magazine's list of the most …Cited by 78Related articlesAll 2 versions[PDF] sagepub.comFull View

When fake news becomes real: Combined exposure to multiple news sources and political attitudes of inefficacy, alienation, and cynicism

M Balmas – Communication Research, 2014 – journals.sagepub.comThis research assesses possible associations between viewing fake news (ie, political
satire) and attitudes of inefficacy, alienation, and cynicism toward political candidates. Using
survey data collected during the 2006 Israeli election campaign, the study provides …Cited by 142Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 32[HTML] tandfonline.comFull View

Fake news: The narrative battle over the Ukrainian conflict

I Khaldarova, M Pantti – Journalism Practice, 2016 – Taylor & FrancisThe crisis in Ukraine has accentuated the position of Russian television as the government's
strongest asset in its information warfare. The internet, however, allows other players to
challenge the Kremlin's narrative by providing counter-narratives and debunking distorted …Cited by 97Related articlesAll 7 versionsWeb of Science: 34[HTML] tandfonline.comFull View

Fake news and the economy of emotions: Problems, causes, solutions

V Bakir, A McStay – Digital journalism, 2018 – Taylor & FrancisThis paper examines the 2016 US presidential election campaign to identify problems with,
causes of and solutions to the contemporary fake news phenomenon. To achieve this, we
employ textual analysis and feedback from engagement, meetings and panels with …Cited by 109Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 28Full-text via KB/KUB

Google and Facebook take aim at fake news sites

N Wingfield, M Isaac, K Benner – The New York Times, 2016 – mediapicking.comGoogle kicked off the action on Monday afternoon when the Silicon Valley search giant said
it would ban websites that peddle fake news from using its online advertising service. Hours
later, Facebook, the social network, updated the language in its Facebook Audience …Cited by 52Related articles[PDF]

Automatic detection of fake news

V Pérez-RosasB Kleinberg, A Lefevre… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2017 – arxiv.orgThe proliferation of misleading information in everyday access media outlets such as social
media feeds, news blogs, and online newspapers have made it challenging to identify
trustworthy news sources, thus increasing the need for computational tools able to provide …Cited by 69Related articlesAll 7 versions[PDF] arxiv.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Csi: A hybrid deep model for fake news detection

N RuchanskyS SeoY Liu – Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on …, 2017 – dl.acm.orgThe topic of fake news has drawn attention both from the public and the academic
communities. Such misinformation has the potential of affecting public opinion, providing an
opportunity for malicious parties to manipulate the outcomes of public events such as …Cited by 102Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] researchgate.netFull-text via KB/KUB

Prior exposure increases perceived accuracy of fake news.

G PennycookTD CannonDG Rand – Journal of experimental …, 2018 – psycnet.apa.orgThe 2016 US presidential election brought considerable attention to the phenomenon of
"fake news": entirely fabricated and often partisan content that is presented as factual. Here
we demonstrate one mechanism that contributes to the believability of fake news: fluency via …Cited by 108Related articlesAll 13 versionsWeb of Science: 10

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[PDF] Selective exposure to misinformation: Evidence from the consumption of fake news during the 2016 US presidential campaign

A GuessB NyhanJ Reifler – European Research Council, 2018 – ask-force.orgThough some warnings about online "echo chambers" have been hyperbolic, tendencies
toward selective exposure to politically congenial content are likely to extend to
misinformation and to be exacerbated by social media platforms. We test this prediction …Cited by 140Related articlesAll 6 versionsFull-text via KB/KUB

Post-truth: Study epidemiology of fake news

A Kucharski – Nature, 2016 – nature.comThe results of the 2016 US presidential election and the UK vote to leave the European
Union (Brexit) have raised questions about the influence of fake online news and social-
media 'echo chambers'(see also P. Williamson Nature 540, 171; 2016). The propagation of …Cited by 66Related articlesAll 8 versionsWeb of Science: 13[PDF] ieee.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Lies, damn lies, and fake news

H Berghel – Computer, 2017 –… Lies, Damn Lies, and FakeNews Hal Berghel, University of Nevada, Las Vegas The Oxford
Dictionaries selected "post-truth" as the 2016 international word of the year. This is such a
preposterous recognition from a heretofore august publication that I just can't … EDITOR HAL …Cited by 57Related articlesAll 10 versionsWeb of Science: 14

Fake news: A legal perspective

D Klein, J Wueller – Journal of Internet Law (Apr. 2017), 2017 – papers.ssrn.comThe concept of "fake news" has garnered substantial attention in recent years, evolving from
its satirical literary origins into a passionately criticized Internet phenomenon. Whether
described as rumors,"counterknowledge," misinformation,"post-truths,""alternative facts" or …Cited by 52Related articlesAll 2 versions[PDF]

Some like it hoax: Automated fake news detection in social networks

E Tacchini, G Ballarin, ML Della Vedova… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2017 – arxiv.orgIn recent years, the reliability of information on the Internet has emerged as a crucial issue of
modern society. Social network sites (SNSs) have revolutionized the way in which
information is spread by allowing users to freely share content. As a consequence, SNSs are …Cited by 85Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF] sagepub.comFull View

Spreadable spectacle in digital culture: Civic expression, fake news, and the role of media literacies in "post-fact" society

P Mihailidis, S Viotty – American Behavioral Scientist, 2017 – journals.sagepub.comThis article explores the phenomenon of spectacle in the lead up and immediate aftermath
of the 2016 US presidential election. Through the spread of misinformation, the
appropriation of cultural iconography, and the willing engagement of mainstream media to …Cited by 114Related articlesAll 3 versionsWeb of Science: 31[PDF] erudit.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news: A definition

A Gelfert – Informal Logic, 2018 – erudit.orgDespite being a new term,'fake news' has evolved rapidly. This paper argues that it should
be reserved for cases of deliberate presentation of (typically) false or misleading claims as
news, where these are misleading by design. The phrase 'by design'here refers to systemic …Cited by 57Related articlesAll 6 versionsWeb of Science: 13[PDF]

This just in: Fake news packs a lot in title, uses simpler, repetitive content in text body, more similar to satire than real news

BD HorneS Adali – Eleventh International AAAI Conference on Web and …, 2017 – aaai.orgThe problem of fake news has gained a lot of attention as it is claimed to have had a
significant impact on 2016 US Presidential Elections. Fake news is not a new problem and
its spread in social networks is well-studied. Often an underlying assumption in fake news  …Cited by 95Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF]

Truth of varying shades: Analyzing language in fake news and political fact-checking

H RashkinE ChoiJY JangS Volkova… – Proceedings of the 2017 …, 2017 – aclweb.orgWe present an analytic study on the language of news media in the context of political fact-
checking and fake news detection. We compare the language of real news with that of satire,
hoaxes, and propaganda to find linguistic characteristics of untrustworthy text. To probe the …Cited by 90Related articlesAll 7 versions[PDF]

[PDF] We tracked down a fakenews creator in the suburbs. Here's what we learned

L Sydell – National Public Radio, 2016 – drwho.virtadpt.netA lot of fake and misleading news stories were shared across social media during the
election. One that got a lot of traffic had this headline:" FBI Agent Suspected In Hillary Email
Leaks Found Dead In Apparent Murder-Suicide." The story is completely false, but it was …Cited by 64Related articlesAll 2 versions

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[PDF] News you don't believe": Audience perspectives on fake news

RK NielsenL Graves – … -perspectives-fakenews, 2017 – this RISJ Factsheet, we analyse data from 8 focus groups and a survey of online news
users to understand audience perspectives on fake news. On the basis of focus group
discussions and survey data from the first half of 2017 from the United States, the United …Cited by 46Related articlesAll 3 versions

Is Fake News the Real News?

MK McBeth, RS Clemons – … on the real impacts of fake news, 2011 – of the impact of popular culture on political and social life have increased in the past
decade (Foy 2010; Cantor 2003). Yet, even without the plethora of good social science
studies (Fox, Koloen, Sahin 2007; Colletta 2009; Holbert and Geidner 2009 and …Cited by 39Related articles[PDF] sagepub.comFull View

The agenda-setting power of fake news: A big data analysis of the online media landscape from 2014 to 2016

CJ VargoL GuoMA Amazeen – New media & society, 2018 – journals.sagepub.comThis study examines the agenda-setting power of fake news and fact-checkers who fight
them through a computational look at the online mediascape from 2014 to 2016. Although
our study confirms that content from fake news websites is increasing, these sites do not …Cited by 104Related articlesAll 6 versionsWeb of Science: 24[HTML] sciencedirect.comFull-text via KB/KUB

[HTML] Lazy, not biased: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning

G PennycookDG Rand – Cognition, 2019 – ElsevierWhy do people believe blatantly inaccurate news headlines ("fake news")? Do we use our
reasoning abilities to convince ourselves that statements that align with our ideology are
true, or does reasoning allow us to effectively differentiate fake from real regardless of …Cited by 109Related articlesAll 12 versionsWeb of Science: 11[HTML] tandfonline.comFull View

Miley, CNN and The Onion When fake news becomes realer than real

D BerkowitzDA Schwartz – Journalism Practice, 2016 – Taylor & FrancisFollowing a twerk-heavy performance by Miley Cyrus on the Video Music Awards program,
CNN featured the story on the top of its website. The Onion—a fakenews organization—
then ran a satirical column purporting to be by CNN's Web editor explaining this decision …Cited by 64Related articlesWeb of Science: 16[PDF]

Deception detection for news: three types of fakes

VL RubinY Chen, NJ Conroy – Proceedings of the 78th ASIS&T Annual …, 2015 –… ABSTRACT A fakenews detection system aims to assist users in detecting and filtering out
varieties of potentially deceptive news … This research ultimately supports the development of an
automated fakenews detection system as part of a broader news verification suite …Cited by 157Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF] sagepub.comFull View

Fake news and ideological polarization: Filter bubbles and selective exposure on social media

D Spohr – Business Information Review, 2017 – journals.sagepub.comThis article addresses questions of ideological polarization and the filter bubble in social
media. It develops a theoretical analysis of ideological polarization on social media by
considering a range of relevant factors. Over recent years, fake news and the effect of the …Cited by 73Related articlesAll 2 versions

[CITATION] From headline to photograph, a fake news masterpiece

S Shane – The New York Times, 2017Cited by 39Related articles[HTML] sagepub.comFull View

[HTML] Fake news, post-truth and media–political change

J Corner – 2017 – journals.sagepub.comMedia researchers may well experience a degree of difficulty in relating to the strident arrival
of 'post-truth'and 'fake news' as key markers of the current media–political situation, the focus
both of countless commentaries in newspapers and magazines and a spate of new books …Cited by 47Related articlesWeb of Science: 15

[BOOK] Fake news: Falsehood, fabrication and fantasy in journalism

B McNair – 2017 – content.taylorfrancis.comFake News: Falsehood, Fabrication and Fantasy in Journalismexamines the causes and
consequences of the 'fake news' phenomenon now sweeping the world's media and political
debates. Drawing on three decades of research and writing on journalism and news media …Cited by 46Related articlesAll 3 versions

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Welcome to the era of fake news

J Albright – Media and Communication, 2017 – ssoar.infoFor the news industry, information is used to tell stories, which have traditionally been
organized around" facts". A growing problem, however, is that fact-based evidence is not
relevant to a growing segment of the populace. Journalists need facts to tell stories, but they …Cited by 36Related articlesAll 5 versionsWeb of Science: 6[PDF] oup.comFull View

The impact of real news about "fake news": Intertextual processes and political satire

PR BrewerDG Young… – International Journal of …, 2013 – academic.oup.comThis study builds on research about political humor, press metacoverage, and intertextuality
to examine the effects of news coverage about political satire on audience members. The
analysis uses experimental data to test whether news coverage of Stephen Colbert's Super …Cited by 51Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 13[PDF] arxiv.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

The fake news spreading plague: was it preventable?

E MustafarajPT Metaxas – Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on web …, 2017 – dl.acm.orgIn 2010, a paper entitled" From Obscurity to Prominence in Minutes: Political Speech and
Real-time search" won the Best Paper Prize of the WebSci'10 conference. Among its
findings were the discovery and documentation of what was labeled a" Twitter bomb", an …Cited by 41Related articlesAll 9 versions[PDF] jhu.eduFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news and partisan epistemology

R Rini – Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 2017 – muse.jhu.eduThis paper does four things:(1) It provides an analysis of the concept 'fake news.'(2) It
identifies distinctive epistemic features of social media testimony.(3) It argues that
partisanship-in-testimony-reception is not always epistemically vicious; in fact some forms of …Cited by 37Related articlesAll 6 versionsWeb of Science: 8[PDF]

Fake news mitigation via point process based intervention

M FarajtabarJ YangX YeH XuR Trivedi… – Proceedings of the 34th …, 2017 – dl.acm.orgWe propose the first multistage intervention framework that tackles fake news in social
networks by combining reinforcement learning with a point process network activity model.
The spread of fake news and mitigation events within the network is modeled by a …Cited by 40Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF]

[BOOK] The future of free speech, trolls, anonymity and fake news online

H Rainie, JQ Anderson, J Albright – 2017 – elon.eduMany experts fear uncivil and manipulative behaviors on the Internet will persist–and maybe
get worse. This will lead to a splintering of social media to AI-patrolled and regulated'safe
spaces' separated from free-for-all zones. Some worry this will hurt the open exchange of …Cited by 56Related articles[PDF] asu.eduFull-text via KB/KUB

Tracing fakenews footprints: Characterizing social media messages by how they propagate

L WuH Liu – Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM International …, 2018 – dl.acm.orgWhen a message, such as a piece of news, spreads in social networks, how can we classify
it into categories of interests, such as genuine or fake news? Classification of social media
content is a fundamental task for social media mining, and most existing methods regard it …Cited by 55Related articlesAll 7 versions[PDF]

[PDF] In Washington pizzeria attack, fake news brought real guns

C Kang, A Goldman – New York Times, 2016 – mediapicking.comBy CECILIA KANG and ADAM GOLDMAN DEC. 5, 2016 WASHINGTON—Edgar M. Welch, a
28 yearold father of two from Salisbury, NC, recently read online that Comet Ping Pong, a
pizza restaurant in northwest Washington, was harboring young children as sex slaves as …Cited by 27Related articles[PDF] sciencemag.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news on Twitter during the 2016 US presidential election

N GrinbergK JosephL Friedland… – …, 2019 – science.sciencemag.orgThe spread of fake news on social media became a public concern in the United States after
the 2016 presidential election. We examined exposure to and sharing of fake news by
registered voters on Twitter and found that engagement with fake news sources was …Cited by 69Related articlesAll 9 versionsWeb of Science: 16[PDF]

'Fake news': the best thing that's happened to journalism

C Beckett – POLIS: Journalism and Society at the LSE, 2017 – News has upset a lot of people and caused real damage but it's been good news for
journalism analysts like me. I've never had more interest in a media issue than this. I've
never been busier talking and researching a topic and its consequences.(This article by …Cited by 27Related articles

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Live From New York, It's the Fake NewsSaturday Night Live and the (Non)Politics of Parody

A Day, E Thompson – Popular Communication, 2012 – Taylor & FrancisThough Saturday Night Live's "Weekend Update" has become one of the most iconic of fake
news programs, it is remarkably unfocused on either satiric critique or parody of particular
news conventions. Instead, the segment has been shaped by a series of hosts who made a …Cited by 49Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF]

A simple but tough-to-beat baseline for the Fake News Challenge stance detection task

B Riedel, I AugensteinGP Spithourakis… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2017 – arxiv.orgIdentifying public misinformation is a complicated and challenging task. An important part of
checking the veracity of a specific claim is to evaluate the stance different news sources take
towards the assertion. Automatic stance evaluation, ie stance detection, would arguably …Cited by 43Related articlesAll 3 versions[HTML] sciencedirect.comFull-text via KB/KUB

[HTML] Third person effects of fake newsFake news regulation and media literacy interventions

SM JangJK Kim – Computers in Human Behavior, 2018 – ElsevierAlthough the actual effect of fake news online on voters' decisions is still unknown, concerns
over the perceived effect of fake news online have prevailed in the US and other countries.
Based on an analysis of survey responses from national samples (n= 1299) in the US, we …Cited by 42Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 12[PDF]

[PDF] Fake news onslaught targets pizzeria as nest of child-trafficking

C Kang – The New York Times, 2016 – mediapicking.comWithin hours, menacing messages like "we're on to you" began appearing in his Instagram
feed. In the ensuing days, hundreds of death threats—one read "I will kill you personally"—
started arriving via texts, Facebook and Twitter. All of them alleged something that made Mr …Cited by 31Related articles[PDF] academia.eduFull View

[PDF] Satirical fake news and/as American political discourse

I Reilly – The Journal of American Culture, 2012 – academia.eduOver the past decade, satirical fake news has emerged as a ubiquitous form of popular
political discourse that questions, above all else, the logic and integrity of contemporary
journalistic practices. Through various manifestations, satirical fake news has incited a much …Cited by 34Related articlesAll 5 versions[PDF] sciencemag.orgFull View

The spread of true and false news online

S VosoughiD RoyS Aral – Science, 2018 –… In our current political climate and in the academic literature, a fluid terminology has arisen around
"fakenews," foreign interventions in US politics through social media, and our understanding
of what constitutes newsfakenews, false news, rumors, rumor cascades, and other …Cited by 868Related articlesAll 16 versionsWeb of Science: 251[PDF] psycharchives.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Making up history: False memories of fake news stories

DC Polage – 2012 – psycharchives.orgPrevious research has shown that information that is repeated is more likely to be rated as
true than information that has not been heard before. The current experiment examines
whether familiarity with false news stories would increase rates of truthfulness and …Cited by 36Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF] sagepub.comFull View

The small, disloyal fake news audience: The role of audience availability in fake news consumption

JL NelsonH Taneja – New Media & Society, 2018 – journals.sagepub.comIn light of the recent US election, many fear that "fake news" has become a force of
enormous reach and influence within the news media environment. We draw on well-
established theories of audience behavior to argue that the online fake news audience, like …Cited by 35Related articlesAll 5 versionsWeb of Science: 10[PDF] arxiv.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Leveraging the crowd to detect and reduce the spread of fake news and misinformation

J KimB TabibianA OhB Schölkopf… – Proceedings of the …, 2018 – dl.acm.orgOnline social networking sites are experimenting with the following crowd-powered
procedure to reduce the spread of fake news and misinformation: whenever a user is
exposed to a story through her feed, she can flag the story as misinformation and, if the story …Cited by 45Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF]

Fake news: public policy responses

D Tambini – 2017 – apparent proliferation of inaccurate and misleading news stories has led to calls for new
policy interventions, from fact checking by social media companies to new laws imposing
fines for posting or sharing fake news. This raises some difficult issues in media policy. Is …Cited by 27Related articlesAll 2 versions

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Fake news detection through multi-perspective speaker profiles

Y LongQ LuR XiangM LiCR Huang – Proceedings of the Eighth …, 2017 – aclweb.orgAutomatic fake news detection is an important, yet very challenging topic. Traditional
methods using lexical features have only very limited success. This paper proposes a novel
method to incorporate speaker profiles into an attention based LSTM model for fake news  …Cited by 32Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] researchgate.netFull-text via KB/KUB

[PDF] Filter bubbles and fake news.

D DiFranzo, MJK Gloria – ACM Crossroads, 2017 – researchgate.netPage 1. 1 Filter Bubbles and FakeNews The results of the 2016 Brexit referendum in the UK and
presidential election in the US surprised polls and traditional media, and social media is now
being blamed in part for creating echo chambers that encourage the spread of fakenews that …Cited by 29Related articlesAll 2 versions[HTML] emerald.comFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news: belief in post-truth

N Rochlin – Library hi tech, 2017 – emeraldinsight.comThis paper discusses 'fake news' indicating that in post-trust era, facts and evidence have been
replaced by personal belief and emotion, and the nature of news and what people accept as
news are shifting toward a belief and emotion-based market … The purpose of this paper is …Cited by 38Related articlesWeb of Science: 9[PDF] ed.govFull-text via KB/KUB

The Challenge That's Bigger than Fake News: Civic Reasoning in a Social Media Environment.

S McGrew, T Ortega, J Breakstone, S Wineburg – American educator, 2017 – ERICSince the November 2016 presi-dential election, coverage of "fake news" has been
everywhere. It's hard to turn on the TV without hearing the term. Google and Facebook have
pitched plans for fighting the menace. 1 State legislators have even introduced bills to …Cited by 40Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF]

[PDF] Fakenewsnet: A data repository with news content, social context and dynamic information for studying fake news on social media

K Shu, D Mahudeswaran, S Wang… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2018 – researchgate.netSocial media has become a popular means for people to consume news. Meanwhile, it also
enables the wide dissemination of fake news, ie, news with intentionally false information,
which brings significant negative effects to the society. Thus, fake news detection is …Cited by 30Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF] wiley.comFull-text via KB/KUB

Who falls for fake news? The roles of bullshit receptivity, overclaiming, familiarity, and analytic thinking

G PennycookDG Rand – Journal of personality, 2018 – Wiley Online LibraryObjective Fake news represents a particularly egregious and direct avenue by which
inaccurate beliefs have been propagated via social media. We investigate the psychological
profile of individuals who fall prey to fake news. Method We recruited 1,606 participants from …Cited by 52Related articlesAll 8 versions[HTML] tandfonline.comFull View

Truth is what happens to news: On journalism, fake news, and post-truth

S Waisbord – Journalism studies, 2018 – Taylor & FrancisHere I propose that the phenomenon of "fake news" is indicative of the contested position of
news and the dynamics of belief formation in contemporary societies. It is symptomatic of the
collapse of the old news order and the chaos of contemporary public communication. These …Cited by 35Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 12[PDF]

[PDF] Measuring the reach of "fake news" and online disinformation in Europe

R FletcherA CorniaL GravesRK Nielsen – Reuters institute factsheet, 2018 – press.isThe production, consumption, and dissemination of online disinformation has become a
serious concern in many countries in recent years. Against the backdrop of increased online
news use, and growth in the use of social media to find news (Newman et al. 2017) …Cited by 36Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF] jhu.eduFull-text via KB/KUB

Caveat LectorFake News as Folklore

R Frank – The Journal of American Folklore, 2015 – JSTORWe are awash in words and images that sound and look like real news, but are not. This
article considers certain kinds of fake news as a genre of digital folklore and attempts to sort
out the differences among fake news hoaxes, pranks, satires, and parodies. It offers …Cited by 26Related articlesAll 7 versionsWeb of Science: 11[PDF] ieee.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news detection using naive Bayes classifier

M Granik, V Mesyura – 2017 IEEE First Ukraine Conference on …, 2017 – paper shows a simple approach for fake news detection using naive Bayes classifier.
This approach was implemented as a software system and tested against a data set of
Facebook news posts. We achieved classification accuracy of approximately 74% on the test …Cited by 29Related articles

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Fighting fake news: Image splice detection via learned self-consistency

M HuhA LiuA Owens… – Proceedings of the …, 2018 – openaccess.thecvf.comAdvances in photo editing and manipulation tools have made it significantly easier to create
fake imagery, highlighting the need for better visual forensics algorithms. However, learning
to detect manipulations from labelled training data is difficult due to the lack of good datasets …Cited by 39Related articlesAll 4 versions[HTML] tandfonline.comFull View

Stopping fake news: The work practices of peer-to-peer counter propaganda

M HaighT HaighNI Kozak – Journalism studies, 2018 – Taylor & FrancisWhen faced with a state-sponsored fake news campaign propagated over social media, in a
process we dub "peer-to-peer propaganda," a group of volunteer Ukrainian journalistic
activists turned fact checking into a counter-propaganda weapon. We document the history …Cited by 34Related articlesAll 5 versionsWeb of Science: 11[PDF]

[BOOK] Combating fake news in the digital age

JM Burkhardt – 2017 – journals.ala.orgThe issue of fake news has become very prominent in recent months. Its power to mislead
and misinform has been made evident around the world. While fake news is not a new
phenomenon, the means by which it is spread has changed in both speed and magnitude …Cited by 37Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF] pnas.orgFull View

News Feature: The genuine problem of fake news

MM Waldrop – Proceedings of the National Academy of …, 2017 – National Acad SciencesIn 2010 computer scientist Filippo Menczer heard a conference talk about some phony news
reports that had gone viral during a special Senate election in Massachusetts."I was struck,"
says Menczer. He and his team at Indiana University Bloomington had been tracking early …Cited by 22Related articlesAll 6 versions[PDF] sciencedirect.comFull-text via KB/KUB

The current state of fake news: challenges and opportunities

Á FigueiraL Oliveira – Procedia Computer Science, 2017 – ElsevierThe authenticity of Information has become a longstanding issue affecting businesses and
society, both for printed and digital media. On social networks, the reach and effects of
information spread occur at such a fast pace and so amplified that distorted, inaccurate or …Cited by 33Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF]

[PDF] Who falls for fake news? The roles of analytic thinking, motivated reasoning, political ideology, and bullshit receptivity

G PennycookDG Rand – SSRN Electronic Journal, 2017 – researchgate.netFake news represents a particularly egregious and direct avenue by which inaccurate
beliefs have been propagated via social media. Here we investigate the cognitive
psychological profile of individuals who fall prey to fake news. We find a consistent positive …Cited by 41Related articles[PDF]

[PDF] Exploiting tri-relationship for fake news detection

K ShuS WangH Liu – arXiv preprint arXiv:1712.07709, 2017 – pdfs.semanticscholar.orgSocial media for news consumption is becoming popular nowadays. The low cost, easy
access and rapid information dissemination of social media bring benefits for people to seek
out news timely. However, it also causes the widespread of fake news, ie, low-quality news  …Cited by 32Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF]

[PDF] The Implied Truth Effect: Attaching Warnings to a Subset of Fake News Headlines Increases Perceived Accuracy of Headlines Without Warnings

G PennycookA BearE Collins… – … to a subset of fake news …, 2019 – researchgate.netWhat can be done to combat political misinformation? One widely employed intervention
involves attaching warnings to news stories that have been disputed by third-party
factcheckers. Prior work shows that the impact of such warnings may be undermined by …Cited by 35Related articles[PDF] academia.eduFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake tweet buster: a webtool to identify users promoting fake news ontwitter

D Saez-Trumper – Proceedings of the 25th ACM conference on Hypertext …, 2014 – dl.acm.orgAbstract We present the" Fake Tweet Buster"(FTB), a web application that identifies tweets
with fake images and users that are consistently uploading and/or promoting fake
information on Twitter. To do that we mix three techniques:(i) reverse image searching,(ii) …Cited by 21Related articlesAll 2 versions[PDF] researchgate.netFull-text via KB/KUB

Misleading online content: Recognizing clickbait as false news

Y Chen, NJ Conroy, VL Rubin – Proceedings of the 2015 ACM on …, 2015 –… Keywords Clickbait, fakenewsnews verification, automated deception detection, automation,
reader behavior … Often misleading and unverified, and seldom corrected, these types of headlines
are a major contributor to the spread of fakenews on the internet [Silverman, 2015] …Cited by 144Related articlesAll 3 versions

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Audiences' acts of authentication in the age of fake newsA conceptual framework

EC Tandoc JrR LingO Westlund… – New Media & …, 2018 – journals.sagepub.comThrough an analysis of relevant literature and open-ended survey responses from 2501
Singaporeans, this article proposes a conceptual framework to understand how individuals
authenticate the information they encounter on social media. In broad strokes, we find that …Cited by 41Related articlesAll 4 versionsWeb of Science: 11[HTML] sciencedirect.comFull-text via KB/KUB

[HTML] Dangerous arachnids—Fake news or reality?

TJ Hauke, V Herzig – Toxicon, 2017 – ElsevierThe public perception of spiders and scorpions is skewed towards the potential harm they
can inflict in humans, despite recent scientific evidence that arachnid venom components
might be useful as bioinsecticides or even human therapeutics. Nevertheless, arachnids are …Cited by 21Related articlesAll 11 versionsWeb of Science: 12[PDF]

News verification by exploiting conflicting social viewpoints in microblogs

Z JinJ CaoY ZhangJ Luo – Thirtieth AAAI Conference on Artificial …, 2016 –… Fakenews spreading in social media severely jeopardizes the veracity of online content.
Fortunately, with the interac- tive and open features of microblogs, skeptical and oppos- ing voices
against fakenews always arise along with it … supportive voices in the case of fakenews …Cited by 94Related articlesAll 2 versions[PDF] uci.eduFull-text via KB/KUB

Deep stories, nostalgia narratives, and fake news: Storytelling in the Trump era

F PollettaJ Callahan – Politics of meaning/meaning of politics, 2019 – SpringerCharacterizing Trump supporters either as "duped" by Fox News or as speaking from their
lived experience misses the fact that both are true. We draw on scholarship on narrative and
on the media to trace the ways in which elite-produced stories simultaneously reflect and …Cited by 32Related articlesAll 5 versionsWeb of Science: 9[HTML] tandfonline.comFull View

The fake news game: actively inoculating against the risk of misinformation

J Roozenbeek, S van der Linden – Journal of Risk Research, 2019 – Taylor & FrancisThe rapid spread of online misinformation poses an increasing risk to societies worldwide.
To help counter this, we developed a 'fake news game'in which participants are actively
tasked with creating a news article about a strongly politicized issue (the European refugee …Cited by 27Related articlesAll 7 versionsWeb of Science: 12[HTML] tandfonline.comFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news as a floating signifier: hegemony, antagonism and the politics of falsehood

J FarkasJ Schou – Javnost-The Public, 2018 –"Fake news" has emerged as a global buzzword. While prominent media outlets, such as
The New York Times, CNN, and Buzzfeed News, have used the term to designate
misleading information spread online, President Donald Trump has used the term as a …Cited by 30Related articlesAll 10 versionsWeb of Science: 9[HTML] tandfonline.comFull-text via KB/KUB

Researching fake news: A selective examination of empirical studies

NW Jankowski – Javnost-The Public, 2018 – nca.tandfonline.comThe term "fake news" came to dominate public political discourse in late 2016 regarding
possible efforts by Russian agents to manipulate the US Presidential election. A similar
alarm was raised during subsequent European elections the following year. This …Cited by 23Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 4[HTML] emerald.comFull-text via KB/KUB

Getting out the truth: the role of libraries in the fight against fake news

O Batchelor – Reference services review, 2017 – emeraldinsight.comThis paper examines the role of libraries in the fight against fake news and reveals that fake news
and misinformation are widespread and detrimental to democracy, and a misinformed electorate
undermines the political system … The purpose of this paper is to inform library professionals …Cited by 32Related articlesWeb of Science: 9[PDF] arxiv.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news detection in social networks via crowd signals

S Tschiatschek, A SinglaM Gomez Rodriguez… – … Proceedings of the The …, 2018 – dl.acm.orgOur work considers leveraging crowd signals for detecting fake news and is motivated by
tools recently introduced by Facebook that enable users to flag fake news. By aggregating
users' flags, our goal is to select a small subset of news every day, send them to an expert …Cited by 32Related articlesAll 6 versions[PDF] via KB/KUB

Alternative facts and fake news entering journalistic content production cycle

M Himma-Kadakas – Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An …, 2017 – information into journalistic content in contemporary news media creates a
favorable environment for the distribution of misleading and fake information. This paper
analyzes the distribution of alternative facts and fake news as a phenomenon characterizing …Cited by 24Related articlesAll 6 versionsWeb of Science: 5

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From clickbait to fake news detection: an approach based on detecting the stance of headlines to articles

P Bourgonje, JM Schneider, G Rehm – Proceedings of the 2017 EMNLP …, 2017 – aclweb.orgWe present a system for the detection of the stance of headlines with regard to their
corresponding article bodies. The approach can be applied in fake news, especially clickbait
detection scenarios. The component is part of a larger platform for the curation of digital …Cited by 33Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] buffalo.eduFull-text via KB/KUB

Eann: Event adversarial neural networks for multi-modal fake news detection

Y WangF MaZ JinY YuanG XunK Jha… – Proceedings of the 24th …, 2018 – dl.acm.orgAs news reading on social media becomes more and more popular, fake news becomes a
major issue concerning the public and government. The fake news can take advantage of
multimedia content to mislead readers and get dissemination, which can cause negative …Cited by 30Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF]

[PDF] Real fake news and fake fake news

L Levi – First Amend. L. Rev., 2017 – HeinOnline" Fake news" has become the central inflammatory charge in media discourse in the United
States since the 2016 presidential contest.! The phrase has numerous meanings, and the
phenomenon presents a spectrum of dangers. 2 In the political realm, both intentionally …Cited by 19Related articlesAll 3 versions

A Field Guide to'Fake News' and Other Information Disorders

L BounegruJ GrayT Venturini… – … Field Guide to" Fake News …, 2018 – papers.ssrn.comAbstract A Field Guide to "Fake News" and Other Information Disorders explores the use of
digital methods to study false viral news, political memes, trolling practices and their social
life online. It responds to an increasing demand for understanding the interplay between …Cited by 22Related articlesAll 7 versions[HTML] sciencemag.orgFree from Publisher

[HTML] Less than you think: Prevalence and predictors of fake news dissemination on Facebook

A GuessJ NaglerJ Tucker – Science advances, 2019 – advances.sciencemag.orgSo-called "fake news" has renewed concerns about the prevalence and effects of
misinformation in political campaigns. Given the potential for widespread dissemination of
this material, we examine the individual-level characteristics associated with sharing false …Cited by 56Related articlesAll 8 versionsWeb of Science: 13[PDF]

[PDF] Illiberal Democracy: The Toxic Mix of Fake News, Hyperpolarization, and Partisan Election Administration

AJ Gaughan – Duke J. Const. L. & Pub. Pol'y, 2016 – HeinOnlineThe 2016 presidential election shook American democracy to its foundations. In an
unprecedented development, the CIA and FBI concluded that the Russian government
hacked and leaked Democratic Party emails in an effort to help Donald Trump win the …Cited by 26Related articlesAll 10 versions[PDF] ieee.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Alt-News and Post-Truths in the" Fake News" Era

H Berghel – Computer, 2017 – checking must be done as a public good, but it's pointless to direct the results at those
who can't change their mind and won't change the subject. Our focus should be on
developing a set of online tools to facilitate the fact-checking process and make it easily …Cited by 18Related articlesAll 6 versionsWeb of Science: 10[HTML] nature.comFull View

[HTML] Influence of fake news in Twitter during the 2016 US presidential election

A BovetHA Makse – Nature communications, 2019 – nature.comThe dynamics and influence of fake news on Twitter during the 2016 US presidential
election remains to be clarified. Here, we use a dataset of 171 million tweets in the five
months preceding the election day to identify 30 million tweets, from 2.2 million users, which …Cited by 37Related articlesAll 12 versionsWeb of Science: 6[PDF]

Identifying and countering fake news

M Verstraete, DE Bambauer, JR Bambauer – 2017 – papers.ssrn.comFake news has become a controversial, highly contested issue recently. But in the public
discourse,"fake news" is often used to refer to several different phenomena. The lack of
clarity around what exactly fake news is makes understanding the social harms that it …Cited by 18Related articlesAll 4 versions

The role of images in framing news stories

P Messaris, L Abraham – Framing public life, 2001 –… Using a fakenews item read by a real television newsman and inserted into a tape of a real
broadcast, Mandell and Shaw (1973) found that viewers' evaluations of the power of a person
mentioned in that fakenews item were affected significantly by the camera angle from …Cited by 433Related articlesAll 4 versions

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[HTML] 'Fake news': Incorrect, but hard to correct. The role of cognitive ability on the impact of false information on social impressions

A Roets – Intelligence, 2017 – ElsevierAbstract The present experiment (N= 390) examined how people adjust their judgment after
they learn that crucial information on which their initial evaluation was based is incorrect. In
line with our expectations, the results showed that people generally do adjust their attitudes …Cited by 33Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 18[PDF] mdsoar.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Faking sandy: characterizing and identifying fake images on twitter during hurricane sandy

A GuptaH LambaP KumaraguruA Joshi – Proceedings of the 22nd …, 2013 –… crisis events. There are both positive and negative effects of social media coverage
of events, it can be used by authorities for effective disaster management or by
malicious entities to spread rumors and fakenews. The aim …Cited by 345Related articlesAll 12 versions

[CITATION] Broadcast hysteria: Orson Welles's War of the worlds and the art of fake news

AB Schwartz – 2015 – MacmillanCited by 28Related articlesAll 2 versions

News parody in global perspective: Politics, power, and resistance

G Baym, JP Jones – News Parody and Political Satire Across the …, 2013 –… Upon closer inspection, news parody appears as a truly universal phenomenon; in any culture
where television is used as a means of disseminating authoritative information about the real,
parody—what some have labeled, or mislabeled "fakenews"—plays an increasingly …Cited by 87Related articlesAll 3 versions[HTML] tandfonline.comFull View

From the "Little Aussie Bleeder" to Newstopia: (Really) Fake News in Australia

S Harrington – Popular Communication, 2012 – Taylor & FrancisThis article offers an overview of the key characteristics of "fakenews in the Australian
national context. Focusing on two television shows, The Norman Gunston Show and
Newstopia, it historicizes "fakenews within Australian television culture, situating it as part …Cited by 19Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] tandfonline.comFull View

Fake news

L Frederiksen – Public Services Quarterly, 2017 – Taylor & FrancisColumn description. The Best of the Literature column is intended to keep librarians,
administrators, and staff up to date with the most recent, relevant, and useful literature of the
field. Columns may focus on a specific theme or topic or they may be a review of significant or …Cited by 10Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] arxiv.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Polarization and fake news: Early warning of Potential misinformation targets

MD VicarioW QuattrociocchiA Scala… – ACM Transactions on the …, 2019 – dl.acm.orgUsers' polarization and confirmation bias play a key role in misinformation spreading on
online social media. Our aim is to use this information to determine in advance potential
targets for hoaxes and fake news. In this article, we introduce a framework for promptly …Cited by 24Related articlesAll 4 versionsWeb of Science: 1

Detection of online fake news using N-gram analysis and machine learning techniques

H Ahmed, I TraoreS Saad – … , and Dependable Systems in Distributed and …, 2017 – SpringerFake news is a phenomenon which is having a significant impact on our social life, in
particular in the political world. Fake news detection is an emerging research area which is
gaining interest but involved some challenges due to the limited amount of resources (ie …Cited by 23Related articlesFull-text via KB/KUB

Making sense of lies, deceptive propaganda, and fake news

B Brennen – Journal of Media Ethics, 2017 – Taylor & FrancisWe are living in an unusual time that cannot be ignored, particularly from a media ethics
perspective. The assault on truth, including but not limited to fake news, alternative facts, and
post-truth, have created a moral panic and a threat to democratic life. In late 2016, Sissela …Cited by 16Related articlesAll 3 versionsWeb of Science: 5[PDF] wiley.comFull View

News in an online world: The need for an "automatic crap detector"

Y Chen, NJ Conroy, VL Rubin – Proceedings of the Association …, 2015 – Wiley Online Library… This paper argues the need for two complementary efforts to counter the spread of rumors, hoaxes,
and fakenews online: a) an increase in awareness of online misinformation and proactive public
engagement by educators, librarians, and information specialists to promote …Cited by 66Related articlesAll 6 versions

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The Fake, the False, and the Fictional: The Daily Show as News Source

M Gettings – The Ultimate Daily Show and Philosophy: More …, 2013 – Wiley Online LibraryAccording to a survey conducted by the Pew Research Institute, regular Daily Show viewers
seem to learn about current events from the self‐billed "fake news" program. The question of
how fake news can inform people about real news touches on a question posed by …Cited by 15Related articles[HTML] sciencedirect.comFull-text via KB/KUB

[HTML] The spread of medical fake news in social media–the pilot quantitative study

PM Waszak, W Kasprzycka-Waszak… – Health Policy and …, 2018 – ElsevierObjectives Fake news: misinformation and falsehood of health news in social media
constitute a potential threat to the public health, but the scope of this issue remains unclear.
Our pilot study is an initial attempt to measure a number of the top shared health …Cited by 26Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 7[PDF] erichorvitz.comFull-text via KB/KUB

Geographic and temporal trends in fake news consumption during the 2016 US Presidential Election

A FourneyMZ Racz, G Ranade, M Mobius… – Proceedings of the 2017 …, 2017 – dl.acm.orgWe present an analysis of traffic to websites known for publishing fake news in the months
preceding the 2016 US presidential election. The study is based on the combined
instrumentation data from two popular desktop web browsers: Internet Explorer 11 and …Cited by 20Related articlesAll 9 versions[PDF] arxiv.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Automatically identifying fake news in popular twitter threads

C BuntainJ Golbeck – 2017 IEEE International Conference on …, 2017 – quality in social media is an increasingly important issue, but web-scale data
hinders experts' ability to assess and correct much of the inaccurate content, or" fake news,"
present in these platforms. This paper develops a method for automating fake news  …Cited by 21Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF]

[BOOK] Journalism, fake news & disinformation: handbook for journalism education and training

C Ireton, J Posetti – 2018 – serve as a model curriculum, this handbook is designed to give journalism educators and
trainers, along with students of journalism, a framework and lessons to help navigate the
issues associated with 'fake news'. We also hope that it will be a useful guide for practising …Cited by 27Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF]

[PDF] Combating fake news: An agenda for research and action

N Mele, D LazerM BaumN Grinberg… – … –fakenews-agenda …, 2017 – shorensteincenter.orgRecent shifts in the media ecosystem raise new concerns about the vulnerability of
democratic societies to fake news and the public's limited ability to contain it. Fake news as a
form of misinformation benefits from the fast pace that information travels in today's media …Cited by 15Related articlesAll 4 versions

[BOOK] Post-truth, fake news: Viral modernity & higher education

MA Peters, S Rider, M Hyvönen, T Besley – 2018 – edited collection brings together international authors to discuss the meaning and
purpose of higher education in a "post-truth" world. The editors and authors argue that
notions such as "fact" and "evidence" in a post-truth era must be understood not only …Cited by 16Related articlesAll 5 versions[HTML] sagepub.comFull View

Fake news and journalism education

N Richardson – Asia Pacific Media Educator, 2017 – journals.sagepub.comIn a contested information environment, the phrase 'fake news' represents the existential
challenge to journalists dealing with an audience losing its faith in what journalism does.
The traditional role of the Fourth Estate and the responsibilities to inform and keep those in …Cited by 14Related articlesAll 3 versionsWeb of Science: 5[PDF] ieee.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

News credibility evaluation on microblog with a hierarchical propagation model

Z JinJ CaoYG JiangY Zhang – 2014 IEEE International …, 2014 –… However, it is also filled with fakenews … However, before any further analysis, we need to
determine how trustworthy are these contents. In fact, at the absence of supervision and
self-discipline, many malicious entities use Microblog to spread rumors or fakenews …Cited by 67Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF]

[PDF] Wielding claims of 'fake news,'conservatives take aim at mainstream media

JW Peters – The New York Times, 2016 – drwho.virtadpt.netWASHINGTON—The CIA, the FBI and the White House may all agree that Russia was
behind the hacking that interfered with the election. But that was of no import to the website
Breitbart News, which dismissed reports on the intelligence assessment as "left-wing fake  …Cited by 12Related articlesAll 3 versions

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Fake news in social networks

C AymannsJ FoersterCP Georg – arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.06233, 2017 – arxiv.orgWe model the spread of news as a social learning game on a network. Agents can either
endorse or oppose a claim made in a piece of news, which itself may be either true or false.
Agents base their decision on a private signal and their neighbors' past actions. Given these …Cited by 13Related articlesAll 9 versions[PDF]

Fake news stance detection using stacked ensemble of classifiers

J Thorne, M Chen, G Myrianthous, J Pu… – Proceedings of the …, 2017 – aclweb.orgFake news has become a hotly debated topic in journalism. In this paper, we present our
entry to the 2017 Fake News Challenge which models the detection of fake news as a
stance classification task that finished in 11th place on the leader board. Our entry is an …Cited by 14Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF]

[PDF] Junk news and bots during the US election: What were Michigan voters sharing over Twitter

PN HowardG Bolsover… – CompProp, OII …, 2017 – …… (2) Social media users in Michigan shared a lot of political content, but the amount of professionally
researched political news and information was consistently smaller than the amount of extremist,
sensationalist, conspiratorial, masked commentary, fakenews and other forms …Cited by 53Related articlesAll 5 versions[HTML] sagepub.comFull View

[HTML] "Fake news" False fears or real concerns?

T McGonagle – Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 2017 –"Fake news"has become a much-used and much-hyped term in the so-called "post-truth"era
that we now live in. It is also much-maligned: it is often blamed for having a disruptive impact
on the outcomes of elections and referenda and for skewing democratic public debate, with …Cited by 24Related articlesAll 6 versionsWeb of Science: 4[PDF]

[PDF] 'Cult Crimes' and Fake News: Eye-Gouging in Shanxi

H Folk – The Journal of CESNUR, 2017 – cesnur.netOn August 24, 2013, a six-year old boy called Guo Xiaobin was kidnapped by a woman who
gouged out his eyes. The investigation on the horrific crime was followed with considerable
emotion by Chinese public opinion, and was concluded by the police early in September …Cited by 13Related articlesAll 2 versions[PDF]

Fake news: A survey of research, detection methods, and opportunities

X ZhouR Zafarani – arXiv preprint arXiv:1812.00315, 2018 – arxiv.orgThe explosive growth in fake news and its erosion to democracy, justice, and public trust has
increased the demand for fake news analysis, detection and intervention. This survey
comprehensively and systematically reviews fake news research. The survey identifies and …Cited by 24Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF]

The problem of fake news

MRX Dentith – 2016 – philpapers.orgLooking at the recent spate of claims about "fake news" which appear to be a new feature of
political discourse, I argue that fake news presents an interesting problem in epistemology.
Te phenomena of fake news trades upon tolerating a certain indiference towards truth …Cited by 13Related articlesAll 4 versions[HTML] jamanetwork.comFull View

Protecting the value of medical science in the age of social media and "fake news"

RM Merchant, DA Asch – Jama, 2018 – jamanetwork.comNew threats to effective scientific communication make it more difficult to separate science
from science fiction. Patients can be harmed by misinformation or by misplaced trust; for
example, patients with cancer using complementary medicine are more likely than patients …Cited by 15Related articlesAll 4 versionsWeb of Science: 9[HTML] sciencedirect.comFull-text via KB/KUB

[HTML] A computational approach for examining the roots and spreading patterns of fake news: Evolution tree analysis

SM Jang, T Geng, JYQ LiR XiaCT Huang… – Computers in Human …, 2018 – ElsevierTo improve the flow of quality information and combat fake news on social media, it is
essential to identify the origins and evolution patterns of false information. However,
scholarship dedicated to this area is lacking. Using a recent development in the field of …Cited by 23Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 6

[BOOK] European Communication Monitor 2018. Strategic communication and the challenges of fake news, trust, leadership, work stress and job satisfaction. Results …

A ZerfassR TenchP VerhoevenD VercicA Moreno – 2018 – key trends like fake news, the ECM 2018 survey explores communications'
contributions to organisational success as well as the work environment for communication
professionals in Europe. Work engagement and stress, job satisfaction and its drivers as …Cited by 23Related articles

Fake news detection with deep diffusive network model

J Zhang, L Cui, Y FuFB Gouza – arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.08751, 2018 – arxiv.orgIn recent years, due to the booming development of online social networks, fake news for
various commercial and political purposes has been appearing in large numbers and
widespread in the online world. With deceptive words, online social network users can get …Cited by 16Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF]

Early detection of fake news on social media through propagation path classification with recurrent and convolutional networks

Y Liu, YFB Wu – Thirty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial …, 2018 – aaai.orgIn the midst of today's pervasive influence of social media, automatically detecting fake news
is drawing significant attention from both the academic communities and the general public.
Existing detection approaches rely on machine learning algorithms with a variety of news  …Cited by 26Related articlesAll 4 versions[HTML] sciencedirect.comFull-text via KB/KUB

[HTML] "Ferrule comes first. Post is second!" fake news and alternative facts? A systematic review

M Naumann, M Schmitter, R Frankenberger… – Journal of endodontics, 2018 – ElsevierIntroduction Both the role of an endodontic post and the ferrule effect have been discussed
for decades. The clinical impact of endodontic posts compared with post-free restoration with
or without ferrule support was not systematically reviewed so far. It was assumed that the …Cited by 15Related articlesAll 7 versionsWeb of Science: 9Full-text via KB/KUB

How Facebook, fake news and friends are warping your memory

L Spinney – Nature News, 2017 – nature.comStrange things have been happening in the news lately. Already this year, members of US
President Donald Trump's administration have alluded to a'Bowling Green massacre'and
terror attacks in Sweden and Atlanta, Georgia, that never happened.The misinformation was …Cited by 12Related articlesAll 5 versions[PDF] ala.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

. History of Fake News

JM Burkhardt – Library Technology Reports, 2017 – journals.ala.orgForms of writing inscribed on materials like stone, clay, and papyrus appeared several thousand
years ago. The information in these writings was usually limited to the leaders of the group
(emperors, pharaohs, Incas, religious and military leaders, and so on). Controlling information …Cited by 14Related articlesAll 3 versions

3han: A deep neural network for fake news detection

S SinghaniaN FernandezS Rao – International Conference on Neural …, 2017 – SpringerThe rapid spread of fake news is a serious problem calling for AI solutions. We employ a
deep learning based automated detector through a three level hierarchical attention network
(3HAN) for fast, accurate detection of fake news. 3HAN has three levels, one each for words …Cited by 16Related articles[PDF]

[PDF] Fake or real? How to self-check the news and get the facts

W Davis – NP R, 2016 – cs.millersville.eduThese stories have gotten a lot of attention, with headlines claiming Pope Francis endorsed
Donald Trump in November's election and sites like American News sharing misleading
stories or taking quotes out of context. And when sites like DC Gazette share stories about …Cited by 11Related articlesAll 2 versions[PDF] ieee.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Understanding user profiles on social media for fake news detection

K ShuS WangH Liu – 2018 IEEE Conference on Multimedia …, 2018 – news from social media is becoming increasingly popular nowadays. Social
media brings benefits to users due to the inherent nature of fast dissemination, cheap cost,
and easy access. However, the quality of news is considered lower than traditional news  …Cited by 20Related articlesAll 6 versions

[BOOK] The Daily show and philosophy: moments of zen in the art of fake news

J Holt – 2009 – entertaining and insightful examination of the Emmy-award winning American satirical
news show, broadcast on Comedy Central in the US, and (in an edited edition) on More4 in
the UK and CNN International around the world. Includes discussion of both The Daily Show …Cited by 17Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF]

A retrospective analysis of the fake news challenge stance detection task

A HanselowskiA PVSB Schiller, F Caspelherr… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2018 – arxiv.orgThe 2017 Fake News Challenge Stage 1 (FNC-1) shared task addressed a stance
classification task as a crucial first step towards detecting fake news. To date, there is no in-
depth analysis paper to critically discuss FNC-1's experimental setup, reproduce the results …Cited by 21Related articlesAll 4 versions

Create alert[HTML] sciencedirect.comFull-text via KB/KUB

[HTML] Belief in fake news is associated with delusionality, dogmatism, religious fundamentalism, and reduced analytic thinking

MV BronsteinG PennycookA BearDG Rand… – Journal of Applied …, 2019 – ElsevierDelusion-prone individuals may be more likely to accept even delusion-irrelevant
implausible ideas because of their tendency to engage in less analytic and less actively
open-minded thinking. Consistent with this suggestion, two online studies with over 900 …Cited by 23Related articlesAll 2 versionsWeb of Science: 2[PDF]

DeClarE: Debunking fake news and false claims using evidence-aware deep learning

K PopatS MukherjeeA YatesG Weikum – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2018 – arxiv.orgMisinformation such as fake news is one of the big challenges of our society. Research on
automated fact-checking has proposed methods based on supervised learning, but these
approaches do not consider external evidence apart from labeled training instances. Recent …Cited by 24Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF] arxiv.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Studying fake news via network analysis: detection and mitigation

K ShuHR BernardH Liu – … in Computational Social Network Analysis and …, 2019 – SpringerSocial media is becoming increasingly popular for news consumption due to its easy
access, fast dissemination, and low cost. However, social media also enables the wide
propagation of "fake news," ie, news with intentionally false information. Fake news on social …Cited by 19Related articlesAll 10 versions[HTML] tandfonline.comFull View

THE REALITY OF A FAKE IMAGE News norms, photojournalistic craft, and Brian Walski's fabricated photograph

M Carlson – Journalism Practice, 2009 – Taylor & FrancisA few weeks into the start of the Iraq War in 2003, the front page of the Los Angeles Times
featured a large photograph depicting a dramatic scene in which a British soldier motions to
Iraqi civilians to stay down while a father carrying a child creeps across the dirt. The image …Cited by 52Related articlesAll 4 versionsWeb of Science: 25

[BOOK] Messing with the enemy: Surviving in a social media world of hackers, terrorists, Russians, and fake news

C Watts – 2018 – dl.acm.orgAbstract A former FBI Special Agent, US Army officer and leading cyber-security expert offers
a devastating and essential look at the misinformation campaigns, fake news, and electronic
espionage operations that have become the cutting edge of modern warfareand how we can …Cited by 12Related articles[PDF]

[PDF] Lies, Line Drawing, and Deep Fake News

MJ Blitz – Okla. L. Rev., 2018 – HeinOnlineBefore the computer-generated virtual reality of the 1999 movie The Matrix, there was The
Cosmic Puppets-a 1957 book by Philip K. Dick in which a man, after many years living
elsewhere, drives back to his hometown and discovers it is not merely the town that has …Cited by 15Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF]

Fake news propagation and detection: A sequential model

Y Papanastasiou – Available at SSRN 3028354, 2018 – papers.ssrn.comIn the wake of the 2016 US presidential election, social media platforms are facing
increasing pressure to combat the propagation of" fake news"(ie, articles whose content is
fabricated). Motivated by recent attempts in this direction, we consider the problem faced by …Cited by 12Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF] cambridge.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Sex trafficking, Russian infiltration, birth certificates, and pedophilia: A survey experiment correcting fake news

E PorterTJ Wood, D Kirby – Journal of Experimental Political …, 2018 – cambridge.orgFollowing the 2016 US election, researchers and policymakers have become intensely
concerned about the dissemination of "fake news," or false news stories in circulation (Lazer
et al., 2017). Research indicates that fake news is shared widely and has a pro-Republican …Cited by 11Related articlesAll 6 versions

[BOOK] Fake News: La verdad de las noticias falsas

MA García – 2018 –¿ No sabes qué son las fake news? Lee este libro.¿ Lo sabes y crees que no van contigo?
Lee este libro.¿ Te crees capaz de diferenciar una noticia falsa de una noticia verdadera?
Lee este libro.¿ Compartes noticias en Internet sin importarte si son o no verdad? Lee este …Cited by 24Related articles

[BOOK] Fake news and alternative facts: Information literacy in a post-truth era

NA Cooke – 2018 – of so-called fake news, what it is and what it isn't, is front and center across the media
landscape, with new calls for the public to acquire appropriate research and evaluation skills
and become more information savvy. But none of this is new for librarians and information …Cited by 19Related articles

Create alert

[BOOK] The Routledge companion to news and journalism

S Allan – 2009 –… Cultural Values maRgueRiTe moRiTZ 31 The Broadcast News Interview: Questions of Discourse
maRTin monTgomeRy 32 Tabloidization of News david Rowe 33 Television News in the Era
of Global Infotainment DAYA KISHAN THUSSU 34 Real News/FakeNews: Beyond the …Cited by 103Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] ieee.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

The economics of "fake news"

N KshetriJ Voas – IT Professional, 2017 – information has economic, political, and social consequences. The authors analyze
the real and perceived costs and benefits to those that engage in the creation and platform
support of false information. Special consideration is given here to digital advertising …Cited by 11Related articlesAll 5 versionsWeb of Science: 1[PDF]

TI-CNN: Convolutional neural networks for fake news detection

Y YangL ZhengJ Zhang, Q Cui, Z Li… – arXiv preprint arXiv …, 2018 – arxiv.orgWith the development of social networks, fake news for various commercial and political
purposes has been appearing in large numbers and gotten widespread in the online world.
With deceptive words, people can get infected by the fake news very easily and will share …Cited by 13Related articlesAll 2 versions[PDF] wiley.comFull View

Human values and trust in scientific journals, the mainstream media and fake news

N VermaKR Fleischmann… – Proceedings of the …, 2017 – Wiley Online LibraryWhat factors influence trust in online information? Americans increasingly get information
from social media, public distrust in the mainstream media is growing and "fake news" is an
important new phenomenon. This paper examines the factors that influence trust in scientific …Cited by 13Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] ieee.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Evaluating machine learning algorithms for fake news detection

S Gilda – 2017 IEEE 15th Student Conference on Research and …, 2017 – paper explores the application of natural language processing techniques for the
detection offake news', that is, misleading news stories that come from non-reputable
sources. Using a dataset obtained from Signal Media and a list of sources from …Cited by 15Related articles[PDF]

[PDF] Implausibility and illusory truth: Prior exposure increases perceived accuracy of fake news but has no effect on entirely implausible statements

G PennycookT CannonDG Rand – Unpublished Paper …, 2017 – researchgate.netAbstract The 2016 US Presidential Election brought considerable attention to the
phenomenon of "fake news": entirely fabricated and often partisan content that is presented
as factual. Here we demonstrate one mechanism that contributes to the believability of fake  …Cited by 15Related articles[PDF] heinonline.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

[PDF] The Marketplace of Fake News

AE Waldman – U. Pa. J. Const. L., 2017 – HeinOnlineWe are often told that fake news is the price we pay for afree society, or thatfake news is part
of the" marketplace of ideas." Indeed, most arguments against any kind of regulation offake
news-and even some arguments in favor-rest on the presumption that lies, distortions …Cited by 11Related articlesAll 5 versions

[BOOK] Russian Election Interference: Europe's Counter to Fake News and Cyber Attacks

E Brattberg, T Maurer – 2018 – carnegieendowment.orgThe Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a unique global network of policy
research centers in Russia, China, Europe, the Middle East, India, and the United States.
Our mission, dating back more than a century, is to advance peace through analysis and …Cited by 13Related articles[PDF] researchgate.netFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news: Fundamental theories, detection strategies and challenges

X ZhouR ZafaraniK ShuH Liu – … Conference on Web Search and Data …, 2019 – dl.acm.orgThe explosive growth of fake news and its erosion to democracy, justice, and public trust
increased the demand for fake news detection. As an interdisciplinary topic, the study of fake
news encourages a concerted effort of experts in computer and information science, political …Cited by 13Related articlesAll 7 versions[PDF] futuremedicine.comFull-text via KB/KUB

Fake news portrayals of stem cells and stem cell research

AR MarconB MurdochT Caulfield – Regenerative medicine, 2017 – Future MedicineAim: This study examines how stem cells and stem cell research are portrayed on websites
deemed to be purveyors of distorted and dubious information. Methods: Content analysis
was conducted on 224 articles from 2015 to 2016, compiled by searching with the keywords …Cited by 12Related articlesAll 3 versionsWeb of Science: 5

[PDF] sagepub.comFull View

Contextualizing fake news in post-truth era: Journalism education in India

H BhaskaranH MishraP Nair – Asia Pacific Media Educator, 2017 – journals.sagepub.comThe current debate on fakenews is heavily focused on American and British post-truth
politics and the tactical use of 'alternative facts'. However, the concerns about the impact of
fake news on journalism are not restricted to European and American contexts only. This …Cited by 12Related articlesAll 4 versionsWeb of Science: 2[PDF] sagepub.comFull View

Effects of popular exemplars in television news

J Lefevere, K De Swert… – Communication …, 2012 –… Download article citation data for: Effects of Popular Exemplars in Television News. Jonas
Lefevere, Knut De Swert, and Stefaan Walgrave. Communication Research 2011 39:1, 103-119.
Download Citation … View. Explore More. Effects of Popular Exemplars in Television News …Cited by 75Related articlesAll 11 versionsWeb of Science: 36[PDF] researchgate.netFull-text via KB/KUB

The medium is the fake news

J Bean – interactions, 2017 – dl.acm.orgCircuits of Drive, a 2010 book by Jodi Dean that I read shortly after it was published [3]. A
dense work of literary theory, its basic argument is that the participation afforded by blogs is
the coup de triomphe of capitalism. At the time, the argument seemed like an overreach, but …Cited by 7Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] researchgate.netFull-text via KB/KUB

Crowdsourcing the verification of fake news and alternative facts

RJ Sethi – Proceedings of the 28th ACM Conference on Hypertext …, 2017 – dl.acm.orgFake news and alternative facts have dominated the news cycle of late. In this paper, we
present a prototype system that uses social argumentation to verify the validity of proposed
alternative facts and help in the detection of fake news. We utilize fundamental …Cited by 11Related articlesAll 4 versions

[CITATION] Most Americans who see fake news believe it, new survey says

C Silverman, J Singer-Vine – BuzzFeed News, 2016Cited by 97Related articlesFull-text via KB/KUB

Post-truth and fake news

MA Peters, S Srider, T Besley – Educational Philosophy and Theory, 2017 – SpringerHistory is, of course, littered with such tales: the curious and scarcely acceptable behaviour
of individuals who suddenly set out to juggle the views of the rest, be they voters, victims or
the marginally disinterested. The consequences of such creativity or strained imagination …Cited by 8Related articlesAll 3 versionsWeb of Science: 2[PDF] proquest.comFull View

[PDF] Not Necessarily Not the News: Gatekeeping, Remediation, and" The Daily Show"

A McKain – The Journal of American Culture, 2005 –… Presumably, they are among the one million-plus viewers who continue to tune in to the latter
program each night." These figures tell us that one out of five young adults prefers to receive
his or her news from self- described "fakenews" than get their news from the news (more …Cited by 92Related articlesAll 3 versions[HTML] tandfonline.comFull View

The Comical Inquisition: Striscia la Notizia and the Politics of Fake News on Italian Television

G Cosentino – Popular Communication, 2012 – Taylor & FrancisThis article presents a discussion and analysis of the most prominent fake news show on
Italian television, Striscia la Notizia, to demonstrate how it can effectively mount critiques
against the political class, expose institutional inefficiencies, and mobilize audiences for …Cited by 12Related articlesAll 2 versionsFull-text via KB/KUB

Post-truth, fake news: Viral modernity and higher education

S Rider, MA Peters – Post-truth, fake news, 2018 – SpringerOutside of philosophy department seminar rooms, truth would seem to be an obvious and everyday
affair. We do not need it explained to us; in our way of life, truth and its cognate concepts
(right, correct, accurate, real) and truth-telling activities are central to our institutions of …Cited by 9Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] ijoc.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

From critique to mobilization: The Yes Men and the utopian politics of satirical fake news

I Reilly – International Journal of Communication, 2013 – ijoc.orgTo date, communication and media scholars have placed significant emphasis on the
professionalized forms of satirical fake news currently operating within the structures of
corporate media, pointing to their continued efforts to counter the prevailing attitudes and …Cited by 14Related articlesAll 4 versionsWeb of Science: 4

Full View

A to I editing in disease is not fake news

P Bajad, MF JantschL Keegan, M O'Connell – RNA biology, 2017 – Taylor & FrancisAdenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are zinc-containing enzymes that
deaminate adenosine bases to inosines within dsRNA regions in transcripts. In short,
structured dsRNA hairpins individual adenosine bases may be targeted specifically and …Cited by 10Related articlesAll 5 versionsWeb of Science: 9[PDF] arxiv.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

The rise of guardians: Fact-checking url recommendation to combat fake news

N Vo, K Lee – The 41st International ACM SIGIR Conference on …, 2018 – dl.acm.orgA large body of research work and efforts have been focused on detecting fake news and
building online fact-check systems in order to debunk fake news as soon as possible.
Despite the existence of these systems, fake news is still wildly shared by online users. It …Cited by 14Related articlesAll 6 versions[HTML] pnas.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook

AL SchmidtF ZolloM Del Vicario… – Proceedings of the …, 2017 – National Acad Sciences… out; My Cart. Main menu. Home; Articles: Current; Latest Articles; Special Features;
Colloquia; Collected Articles; PNAS Classics; Archive. Front Matter; News: For the Press; …
Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook. Ana Lucía Schmidt …Cited by 91Related articlesAll 17 versionsWeb of Science: 25[HTML] sciencedirect.comFull-text via KB/KUB

[HTML] Fake news

M Brigida, WR Pratt – The North American Journal of Economics and …, 2017 – ElsevierThis analysis uses Twitter stock and options prices sampled at a 30 s frequency around the
fake news announcement, of a bid for a controlling stake in Twitter stock, to investigate how
noise trading and informed trading is disseminated into equity and option markets. We find …Cited by 9Related articlesAll 6 versionsWeb of Science: 1[PDF] jstor.orgFull-text via KB/KUB

The market for news

S Mullainathan, A Shleifer – American Economic Review, 2005 – aeaweb.orgPage 1. The Market for News By SENDHIL MULLAINATHAN AND ANDREI SHLEIFER* We
investigate the market for news under two assumptions: that readers hold beliefs which they like
to see confirmed, and that newspapers can slant stories toward these beliefs …Cited by 1195Related articlesAll 19 versionsWeb of Science: 340[HTML] ahajournals.orgFull View

Are meta-analyses a form of medical fake news? Thoughts about how they should contribute to medical science and practice

M Packer – Circulation, 2017 – Am Heart AssocNovember 28, 2017 Circulation. 2017; 136: 2097–2099. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.
117.030209 2098 few games, without paying attention to who participated and who was the
competing team. Add the uncertainty that certain games were played under special rules …Cited by 14Related articlesAll 3 versionsWeb of Science: 12[PDF]

Social media networks, fake news, and polarization

M AzzimontiM Fernandes – 2018 – nber.orgWe study how the structure of social media networks and the presence of fake news might
affect the degree of misinformation and polarization in a society. For that, we analyze a
dynamic model of opinion exchange in which individuals have imperfect information about …Cited by 9Related articlesAll 9 versions

[CITATION] Many Americans believe fake news is sowing confusion

M Barthel, A Mitchell, J Holcomb – Pew Research Center, 2016Cited by 181Related articles[PDF]

[PDF] With 'fake news,'Trump moves from alternative facts to alternative language

D Kurtzleben – … /17/515630467/with-fakenews-trump-moves-from …, 2017 – drwho.virtadpt.netAnyone who has followed the news knows this isn't what" fake news" meant just a few
months ago. Back then, it meant lies posing as news, made up by people from Macedonian
teenagers to a dad in the Los Angeles suburbs. The stories impacted the election to some …Cited by 9Related articles

[CITATION] Fake news. It's complicated

C Wardle – First Draft News, 2017Cited by 139Related articlesAll 2 versions

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