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Hash-nedsætter-hukommelsen

Cannabis er nu lovlig i Canada og flere amerikanske stater, men dets virkninger på hjernen er ikke fuldt ud forstået

En ny undersøgelse tilbyder "overbevisende beviser" for, hvordan midlertidigt at afslutte ryge marihuana påvirker unges hjerner.

Her er noget information, som kan bruges af teenagere: Husk at hvis man undgår hash i en måned kan det forbedre hukommelsen. (Så kan det jo bare være at man ikke husker så meget fra den tid forinden, hvor man brugte hash)

En undersøgelse fra Massachusetts General Hospital gav "overbevisende beviser" på, at unge og unge voksne, der afstår fra hash i 30 dage, er bedre til at erhverve og opbevare nye oplysninger i forhold til andre, der fortsætter med at bruge hash.

Hukommelsesforbedringer – specielt evnen til at huske ny information og få adgang til denne hukommelses-erindring på et senere tidspunkt (den type hukommelse, som kan gengives med ord) – kunne ses så tidligt som efter en uges afholdenhed, fortæller forskerne bag studiet, der blev offentliggjort i et peer reviewed Journal af Clinical Psychiatry.

'Denne undersøgelse giver overbevisende tegn på, at unge og unge voksne kan opleve forbedringer i deres evne til at lære nye oplysninger, når de holder op med at bruge cannabis.'

"Deklarativ hukommelse (f.eks. gengivelse af ord), og specielt kodning af ny information, var det hukommelsesaspekt, der var mest påvirket af cannabis-afholdenhed," konkluderede forskerne.

Anvendelse af hash er "udbredt" og vil sandsynligvis stige. I studiet tog forskerne en stikprøve af 88 unge fra Boston-området, der alle var hash-rygede og mellem 16 og 25 år. De, der blev valgt ud til at skulle afstå fra at bruge hash, måtte aflevere urinprøver.

Faktisk er nogle teenagere mere tilbøjelige til at bruge hash end at drikke alkohol. De fleste af de 55 millioner brugere af hash for "rekreativ anvendelse" i USA er følge efter år 2000 ifølge en Yahoo News undersøgelse fra 2017. Den nuværende generation af unge i USA drikker langt mindre alkohol end tidligere generationer ifølge en årlig national undersøgelse af Monitoring the Future Study af 50.000 unge i Amerika.

Undersøgelsen kommer på et tidspunkt, hvor legalisering af hash er indført i visse dele af USA samt i hele Canada. Rekreativ brug af hash er i USA lovlig fra 21-års alderen i District of Columbia og ni stater, herunder Massachusetts.

Andre stater i USA, herunder New Jersey, overvejer fuld legalisering. Medicinsk cannabis er lovlig i yderligere 22 stater i USA, hvor læger mener at have fundet at canabis kan bruges mod kronisk smerte og øjensygdommen glaukom. Canada legaliserede brugen af ​​rekreativ hash den 17. oktober 2018.

De unge i studiet, der fastholdt afholdenhed, lærte og huskere flere fremmedord end de, der fortsatte med at bruge cannabis.

"I denne tid med udbredt cannabis-legalisering bør vi gennemføre flere forebyggelsesprogrammer for unge," siger Randi Schuster, der er undersøgelsens hovedforfatter. 

Randi Schuster, der er assistent professor i psykiatri på Harvard Medical School, bemærkede, at resultaterne fokuserer på en kritisk tid i personens liv, nemlig medens hjernen stadig modnes, og personen går i skole.

Seniorforfatteren til studiet, A, Eden Evins, der er en psykiatriprofessor ved Harvard Medical School, sagde, at undersøgelsen omfattede "weekendbrugere", som kan have fået det indtryk, at en skæv lørdag aften ikke ville have betydning for en kommende test. "Det er måske ikke korrekt," sagde A. Eden Evins. "Det kan måske være ok at have testen efter en uges tid."

Der blev fundet forskelle i deltagernes evne til at absorbere ny information, såsom et bredere ordforråd, altså fremmedord.

"De, der fastholdt afholdenhed, lærte flere fremmedord end dem, der fortsatte med at bruge cannabis," viste undersøgelsen.

Studiet omfattede ikke en kontrolgruppe, som slet ikke brugte hash. En bredere version af eksperimentet er planlagt ved hjælp af 13- til 19-årige og med en sådan kontrolgruppe af unge, som ikke bruger hash, sagde Randi Schuster.

Det kommende studie vil se på hukommelse og opmærksomhed, men også andre mentale opgaver såsom beslutningstagning, sagde hun. Inkludering af en kontrolgruppe af ikke-brugere af hash vil hjælpe forskere med at bestemme, om afholdenhed genopretter bestemte kognitive opgaver tilbage til en normal basislinje, sagde Randi Schuster. 

Det antages at tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) i cannabis hæmmer hjernens modning. THC er det kemikalie, der giver brugeren en følelse af at være "høj".

En anden komponent af hash er cannabidiol (CBD), som angiveligt hjælper mod angst og betændelse uden at give personen en følelse af at blive "høj".

https://www.marketwatch.com/story/what-a-30-day-break-from-smoking-weed-does-to-your-brain-2018-10-30?utm_source=zergnet.com&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=zergnet_4117045

Original engelsk tekst:

What a 30-day break from smoking marijuana does to your brain

Published: Apr 20, 2019 9:33 a.m. ET  60 

Cannabis is now legal in Canada and several U.S. states, but its effects on the brain aren’t fully understood

A new study offers “convincing evidence” of how temporarily quitting smoking marijuana affects young people’s brains.

Here’s something pot-using teens should remember: Swearing off marijuana for a month may improve memory.

A recent study from Massachusetts General Hospital offers “convincing evidence” that adolescents and young adults who abstain from marijuana for 30 days are better at acquiring and storing new information compared to their counterparts who persist in the pot puffing.

The memory improvements — specifically the capacity to absorb new information and access it at a later date — could be seen as early as a week into abstinence, researchers said in the findings, published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

‘This study provides convincing evidence that adolescents and young adults may experience improvement in their ability to learn new information when they stop using cannabis.’

“Declarative memory, particularly encoding of novel information, was the aspect of memory most impacted by cannabis abstinence,” it concluded.

“This study provides convincing evidence that adolescents and young adults may experience improvement in their ability to learn new information when they stop using cannabis,” they wrote, noting adolescent marijuana use is “widespread” and will likely increase. Researchers worked from a sample of 88 Boston-area marijuana smokers between the age of 16 and 25. The people selected to forgo marijuana had to take urine tests.

In fact, some teens are more likely to use weed than they are to drink alcohol. The majority of the 55 million recreational marijuana users in the U.S. are millennials, according to a 2017 Yahoo News poll. Meanwhile, millennials drink far less alcohol than past generations, an annual national survey of 50,000 adolescents and young adults in America from the Monitoring the Future Study found.

More U.S. states have legalized marijuana

The study comes as fully legalized marijuana use is taking root in some parts of the U.S. and nationwide in Canada. Recreational marijuana use is legal for ages 21 and up in the District of Columbia and nine states, including Massachusetts.

Other states, including New Jersey, are eyeing full legalization. Medical marijuana is legal in another 22 states, as doctors note the drug’s benefits for conditions like chronic pain and glaucoma. Canada legalized the use of recreational marijuana on Oct. 17.

Those who maintained abstinence learned more words than those who continued to use cannabis.

“In this era of widespread cannabis legalization, we need to be mindful of more prevention programs for adolescents and young adults,” Randi Schuster, the study’s lead author, told MarketWatch. The study noted that two years ago high-school senior perceptions of regular marijuana use as harmful were “at or near historic lows.”

Schuster, an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, and senior author A. Eden Evins noted that the findings focus on a critical time in a person’s life, while their brain is still maturing and they are going to school.

Evins, a psychiatry professor at Harvard Medical School, said the study included “weekend users” who might be under the impression that a hazy Saturday night didn’t matter for an upcoming test. “That may not be the case,” Evins said. “They may be okay for the test in a week’s time.”

The authors said the study was the first of its kind to examine whether cognitive improvement happened with abstinence, and when that improvement happened. “What we found was surprising,” said Schuster. There was a lot of improvement in just one week, the study found.

The tell-tale differences were found in participants’ ability to absorb new information, like a broader vocabulary.

The tell-tale differences were found in participants’ ability to absorb new information, like a broader vocabulary. “Those who maintained abstinence learned more words than those who continued to use cannabis,” the study said.

Experimenters acknowledged they lacked a non-using control group to measure the improvements. A broader version of the experiment is planned, using 13- to 19-year-olds and a control group comprised of people, Schuster said.

The forthcoming study will look into memory and attention, but also other mental tasks like decision-making, she noted. Including a non-using control will help researchers determine if abstinence returns certain cognitive tasks back to a normal baseline, Schuster said. Findings are expected in about a year.

The newly-released study noted marijuana is thought to impact brain maturation through tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is the chemical that causes the user’s high and the study involved changes in THC levels.

But there’s a whole other angle to the budding cannabis market, and its effects are still being studied as well. Another component of marijuana is cannabidiol,which reportedly helps with anxiety and inflammation without any high. The CBD market is estimated to grow to $2 billion by 2020.

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https://www.marketwatch.com/story/what-a-30-day-break-from-smoking-weed-does-to-your-brain-2018-10-30?utm_source=zergnet.com&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=zergnet_4117045

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