Nedenfor er fund om honningsvampes spiselighed (et emne der diskuteres): Fundet ved Googlesøgning på "Armillaria & edibility" og sekundære links fra fundene. Hentet fra Internettet 22. okt. 2018 kl. 15-17.
Honey Fungus are regarded in Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Germany and other European countries as one of the best wild mushrooms. They are commonly ranked above morels and chanterelles and only the cep / porcini is more highly prized. However, honey fungus must be thoroughly cooked as they are mildly poisonous raw. One of the four UK species can cause sickness when ingested with alcohol. For those unfamiliar with the species, it is advisable not to drink alcohol for 12 hours before and 24 hours after eating this mushroom to avoid any possible nausea and vomiting. However, if these rules are followed this variety of mushroom is a delicacy with a distinctive mushroomy and nutty flavor. Reference texts for identification are Collins Complete British Mushrooms and Toadstools for the variety of field pictures in it, and Roger Philips' Mushrooms for the quality of his out of field pictures and descriptions.
Bei Speisepilzsammlern steht der oft massig wachsende Hallimasch hoch im Kurs, sofern sie ihn vertragen.
Hallimasche sind im Allgemeinen als Speisepilze bekannt. Sie sind in vielen Gegenden, beispielsweise dem nordostitalienischen Venezien, auf den Gebieten der ehemaligen Tschechoslowakei und UdSSR, sehr beliebte, in Zentnermengen gesammelte und vermarktete Speisepilze. Der zähe Stiel wird meist entfernt.
Die Pilze sind in rohem Zustand giftig, manchmal sogar tödlich, deshalb müssen sie vor dem Verzehr ausreichend gegart sein (mindestens acht Minuten lang). Auch können gelegentlich, trotz korrekter Zubereitung, Unverträglichkeitsreaktionen auftreten, so wie auch bei vielen anderen Lebensmitteln. Die Angaben zum Speisewert treffen für alle Arten zu.
L'armillaire couleur de miel est un comestible jeune honorable, mais les sujets âgés sont parfois indigestes. Comme il reste longtemps en place avant de pourrir, on veillera à se limiter aux exemplaires les plus jeunes.
Sa consommation de façon rapprochée peut entraîner un syndrome digestif qui pourrait faire penser à un empoisonnement. Les dérangements gastro-intestinaux sont parfois très importants, mais généralement sans aucune gravité14.
[Maskinoversættelse: … er som ung hæderlig mad, men de ældre er nogle gange ufordøjelige. … begræns til de yngste eksemplarer … kan føre til et fordøjelsessyndrom, der kunne minder om forgiftning. Gastrointestinale forstyrrelser er til tider meget vigtig, men generelt ikke alvorlig 14 ]
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armillaria_solidipes (tidligere Armillaria ostoyae)
Ingen omtale af spiselighed
Honungsskivlingarna ansågs för ätliga och de kunde i Finland säljas, men de ätliga arterna är mycket svåra att skilja från den giftiga mörkfjälliga honungsskivlingen. Honungsskivlingarna skall aldrig ätas råa, de skall tillredas med omsorg och endast små mängder skall ätas första gången.
Los sombreros jóvenes de Armillaria son comestibles si se cocinan bien, ya que de lo contrario pueden tener un ligero efecto tóxico. Los tallos son demasiado tenaces y por tanto incomestibles. Algunas personas son intolerantes a Armillaria y han de abstenerse de su consumo. Jamás deben comerlas los cerdos, pues para ellos resulta mortal.
[maskinoversættelse: Unge Armillaria hatte er spiselige, hvis de er kogt godt, ellers kan de have en lille toksisk virkning. Stokkene er for seje og derfor uspiselige. Nogle mennesker er intolerante over for Armillaria og må afholde sig fra at spise dem. Svin må aldrig spise dem, fordi de for dem er dødelige.]
[maskinoversættelse: Svampesamlere skal være særlig forsigtige med Galerina spp. som kan vokse side om side med Armillaria spp. og også vokser på træ. ]
Armillaria mellea mushroom are considered good edibles, although some individuals have reported "allergic" reactions that result in stomach upsets. Some authors suggest not collecting mushrooms from the wood of various trees, including hemlock, buckeye, eucalyptus, and locust. The mushrooms have a taste that has been described as slightly sweet and nutty, with a texture ranging from chewy to crunchy, depending on the method of preparation. Parboiling mushrooms before consuming removes the bitter taste present in some specimens, and may reduce the amount of gastrointestinal irritants. Drying the mushrooms preserves and intensifies their flavour, although reconstituted mushrooms tend to be tough to eat. Can also be pickled and roasted.
Several bioactive compounds have been isolated and identified from the fruit bodies. The triterpenes 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene, friedelane-2α,3β-diol, and friedelin were reported in 2011. Indole compounds include tryptamine, L-tryptophan and serotonin.
The fungus produces cytotoxic compounds known as melleolides. Melleolides are made from orsellinic acid and protoilludane sesquiterpene alcohols via esterification. A polyketide synthase gene, termed ArmB, was identified in the genome of the fungus, which was found expressed during melleolide production. The gene shares ca. 42% similarity with the orsellinic acid synthase gene (OrsA) in Aspergillus nidulans. Characterization of the gene proved it to catalyze orsillinic acid in vitro. It is a non-reducing iterative type 1 polyketide synthase. Co-incubation of free orsellinic acid with alcohols and ArmB showed cross-coupling activity. Therefore, the enzyme has transesterification activity. Also, there are other auxiliary factors suspected to control substrate specificity. Additionally, halogen modifications have been observed. Overexpression of annotated halogenases (termed ArmH1-5) and characterization of the subsequent enzymes revealed in all five enzymes the chlorination of mellolide F. In vitro reactions of free standing substrates showed that the enzymes do not require auxiliary carrier proteins for substrate delivery.
Although all Armillaria species were for many years generally considered edible when thoroughly cooked, members of the honey fungus group (including Armillaria mellea, the type species of this genus) that occur on hardwoods are considered by some to be suspect, as cases of poisoning have been linked to eating these fungi; this is most probably due to a small but significant proportion of people being adversely affected rather than a universal human reaction to these fungi. We therefore recommend that this species is not collected for the pot.
Considered edible if well cooked, but some people find this mushroom indigestible.
Although all Armillaria species were for many years generally considered edible when thoroughly cooked, members of the honey fungus group (including Armillaria mellea, the type species of this genus) that occur on hardwoods are considered by some to be suspect, as cases of poisoning have been linked to eating these fungi; this is most probably due to a small but significant proportion of people being adversely affected rather than a universal human reaction to these fungi. Armillaria ostoyae, which occurs on conifers and particularly often on spruces, is generally considered edible when properly cooked. (The stems are tough and are best discarded.) As with all fungi, it is advisable to eat only a small portion initially until you are sure that you do not have any adverse reactions to this particular species.
The fruiting bodies of the fungus, known as honey mushrooms, may not be welcome in the garden but they are at the dinner table. Many people enjoy their nutty and sweet flavor, and their chewy texture also allows them to remain firm during longer cooking times.
Despite the appealing name, these mushrooms can also be slightly bitter and are known to cause some gastric distress. That's why many people recommend parboiling them for one or two minutes before cooking. Parboiling is the process of partially cooking something in boiling water but removing it before it cooks all the way.
To parboil honey fungus, fill a pot with water and bring it to a boil. Toss in your mushrooms and let them cook for one minute, two tops. Then drain them and run cold water over them so they don't cook further and become mushy.
Parboiling removes some of the stomach irritants and bitterness. After that they can be wiped off and sliced for cooking. The stems of these mushrooms can be quite tough, and some people prefer to discard them.
Honey mushrooms go well with pasta dishes, stuffings, and soups. Adding them to French onion soup will create a wonderfully earthy/sweet taste to the soup's normal saltiness. They're also good when sauteed on their own.
Be sure to cook these mushrooms well, as they may still cause you to get sick. Also, only eat a small amount if trying them for the first time.
Edibility: Choice with caution.
Armillaria mellea is a honey mushroom often used in the traditional Chinese medicine “Tianma”. Currently, this medicinal mushroom is also used as a dietary supplement in numerous Western and Eastern countries. Armillarikin was isolated from A. mellea, and we previously discovered that it induced cytotoxicity in human leukemia cells. In this study, we further investigated the cytotoxicity of armillarikin against liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer cells. Armillarikin was cytotoxic against human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7, HA22T, and HepG2 cells based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and alamarBlue® assays. Armillarikin treatment also induced the collapse of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential of these cells. Furthermore, armillarikin-induced apoptotic cell death was demonstrated by sub-G1 chromosomal DNA formation by using flow cytometry. In addition, the apoptosis was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk. Immunoblotting also revealed the armillarikin-induced activation of procaspase-3, -8, and -9 and upregulation of the apoptosis- and cell cycle arrest-related phospho-histones 2 and 3, respectively. Moreover, reactive oxygen species scavengers also inhibited the armillarikin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that reactive oxygen species formation played an important role in the armillarikin-induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. In conclusion, our study indicates the potential of armillarikin as an effective agent for hepatoma or leukemia therapies.
It is an edible mushroom that is used for its medicinal and health-promoting properties worldwide. For example, the fermented mycelia extracts are used as dietary supplement products. In Chinese herbal medicine, A. mellea is an important component of “Tianma” (“Tian-ma” or “Tien-ma”, literally translated as “heavenly hemp”)1–3 because it grows symbiotically with Gastrodia elata blume. The orchid G. elata relies on A. mellea to provide its nutrition and both have become common components of Tianma. In Chinese herbal medicine, A. mellea is indicated for the treatments of palsy, dizziness, hypertension, headache, insomnia, vertigo, and neurasthenia.
Over the past few decades, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called malignant hepatoma) has been one of the five most deadly cancers worldwide4 and is especially prevalent in less developed countries. For example, liver cancer was the second most deadly cancer in males in 2012,4 and the first or second most deadly cancer in a decade in Taiwan. HCC is more prevalent in Asian countries, but its incidence has also increased in Western countries due to chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, alcoholic fatty liver disease, and other risk factors, such as aflatoxin, obesity, type II diabetes, and smoking.4,5 Current aggressive therapies include surgical treatment, chemotherapy, transhepatic arterial chemoembolization, radiation therapy, radiofrequency ablation, and targeted therapy with multiple drugs. However, effective cures for HCC are urgently needed because of the associated poor prognosis with a relatively low 1-year survival rate and less than 10% 5-year survival rate.6–8
Several compounds found in A. mellea have potential antitumor or cytotoxicity effects, including armillarikin,2,9,10 armillaridin,3,11–13 other melleolides,9,12,13 and arnamial.14 Other biological activities of A. mellea extracts or components include induction of maturation in human dendritic cells,15upregulation of concanavalin A- or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation,16 antifungal activity, and antioxidant properties.17
Programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis, is a common form of anticancer drug-induced cytotoxicity. In our previous study, we demonstrated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis of human leukemia cells induced by armillarikin.2 Therefore, we speculated whether armillarikin would also be useful for hepatoma treatment and, here, demonstrated its cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects against HCC cells.
Honey mushrooms are one of the best fall mushrooms I’ve eaten.
Many mycological societies ban the serving of honey at mushroom gatherings and cookouts since some people have become ill after eating them. The biggest thing to remember is that they need a bit of extra cooking to make sure that they don’t give you any gastric upset.
Apparently some people are more sensitive to certain species too, so start out serving small amounts to check for allergies. I’ve also heard people say that the suspect species that can give intestinal upset is not the complex of honey mushrooms that grow in deciduous woods, but the coniferous species, Armillaria gallica. My advice is just make sure to cook them all completely through.
Don’t be scared though-I’ve seen more people become sick after eating thoroughly cooked black morels than I have honey mushrooms. When properly cooked, the Honey mushrooms are delicious and rich, with a slightly sweet finish.
They can be pickled, roasted to concentrate their sugars and then marinated, there are plenty of ways to enjoy them. You should know though, honeys, like some amanita, lactarius and fried chicken mushrooms give off mucilage when cooked in liquid. To avoid this, blanch the honey mushrooms in salted water before adding to a pickle liquid.
People around the world have been enjoying honey mushrooms regardless of the mucilagenous qualities for years though. Packed in pickling jars they can be a little snotty, but if you cook them in something like a soup or broth they will thicken it nicely, which means you can thicken a broth or soup without adding roux.
(Om navn i Ukraine): The fungus is often referred to as pidpenky (Ukrainian: підпеньки), from the Ukrainian term, "beneath the stump".
Edible – Choice. Honey Fungus are considered in Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Germany and other European countries to be one of the best wild mushrooms and highly prized. They are commonly ranked above morels and chanterellesand only the cep / porcini is more highly prized. However pidpenky must be thoroughly cooked as they are mildly poisonous raw. Additionally one of the four UK species identified can lead to sickness when ingested with alcohol. Therefore for the non expert mycologist it is advisable not to drink alcohol for 12 hours before and 24 after eating this mushroom to avoid any possible nausea and vomiting. However, if these rules are followed this variety of mushroom is a delicacy with a strong distinctive mushroomy and nutty flavour.
Those who collect the honey mushroom for food prefer solid, young, unopened buttons. When cooked, it is firm and granular. To some it is moderately sweet in flavor, but its edibility is marred for others by a mild bitter aftertaste and a somewhat gelatinous surface. Occasional incidents of gastric upsets have been reported with this mushroom so caution should be used when it is first eate
This mushroom is admired in many countries of the world for its firm meaty texture. Most recipes call for combining it with other ingredients, rather than preparing it alone. It can be substituted in any basic recipe. Because of its dense consistency, it tolerates long cooking without losing its shape. For those people who experience a slightly bitter aftertaste, it is advised to parboil the caps for 5 minutes and to discard the water.
When dried and reconstituted, the honey mushroom is quite agreeable in soups, stews, and mushroom loaves. Many people pickle the buttons in their favorite spices for immediate or later use.
Apparently honey mushrooms are not well thought of in the mushroom world. Mediocre was the universal report. Slimy, remarked another. Then I read that the Russians, Poles and Ukrainians loved these things, and that there is a traditional pierogi made in Ukraine with honey mushrooms. There was my dish!
Cooked honey mushrooms have a special characteristic. Most sources say to cook them for at least 15 minutes, which seemed like no problem for a pierogi filling. So I dry sauteed them in a pan until they began releasing their water, then added butter, chopped onions and a little stock. Then a funny thing happened: Everything in the pan became thick and soupy.
It is a choice edible species, but because of its toughness, must be cooked longer than the average mushroom. – one usually does not eat the stem. The mushroom is also a good candidate for drying. I parboil them for 15 minutes or so first, drain, then use.