Tanya Frank's son Zach has lived with mental illness since he was a teenager. But after years journeying through the traditional healthcare system, could radical alternatives save him from an endless cycle of hospital stays and drugs?
There are nights when I wake up and, in the disorientation of those first conscious moments, I am right back there. Los Angeles, 2009. Winter. Zach has entered my room, perched on the edge of my bed, and begged: "Mum. What is going to happen to me? You must know."
I see him in all his anguish – my younger son in his last teenage year. He has just been discharged from hospital after having what the doctors had called a psychotic break, when he thought that his friends weren't his friends but were out to harm him, that our house was bugged and that helicopters were instruments of surveillance, trained on him. Years before, it would have been called a nervous breakdown. I don't like either term much, but I think the connotations of a nervous breakdown feel more apt. It was this sense of nervousness that I witnessed on the night I first took my boy to the psychiatric hospital.Continue reading…
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36540-xCrowding effects have long been established as powerful guiding forces in natural assembly processes. Here the authors report a bioinspired approach translating this phenomenon to artificial supramolecular polymers.
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Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36767-8To date, studies of topological band theory have mostly dealt with Euclidean space. Here, the authors use classical electric-circuit networks to realize topological insulators in 2D negatively-curved (hyperbolic) space with non-trivial second Chern number.
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36853-xThe implementation of Li metal anode with high-voltage Ni/Co rich cathode is plagued by low coulombic efficiency and inferior cycling stability. Here authors propose an anion-enriched interface to facilitate the columnar-structure of Li deposits to solve this issue.
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36826-0Long noncoding RNA molecules are RNA transcripts long thought to remain untranslated. In this study, the authors demonstrate that certain lncRNA can be translated into peptides that are immunogenic to CD8+ T cells and promote anti-tumour responses when delivered as vaccine vectors in mice.
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36793-6The energy content of non-aqueous lithium batteries is limited by the electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte solution. Here, the authors report a monofluoride ether-based electrolyte to stabilize high-voltage lithium metal batteries at high current rates and low temperatures.
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36631-9The interplay of migration and adaptation was key in shaping species' responses to Quaternary climate change. Illustrating this, Luqman et al. show that adaptive responses in a plant species emerged from climate-induced range shifts due to heterogenous sieving of adaptive alleles across space and time.
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36813-5Fluorescence imaging in the near-infrared region yields high-quality images that overcome the current depth limitations. Here, the authors report a Tm3 + -based nanoprobe for NIR-IIb/c imaging, providing references to future bioimaging beyond 1700 nm.
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36790-9The inference of clonal architectures in
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36765-wTandem pore (K2P) potassium channels set the cellular resting membrane potential in tissues throughout the body. Here, authors show how the composition of phospholipid within the bilayer may directly alter gating in this family of ion channels.
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36815-3The authors present an implementation of mid-infrared single-photon computational imaging with a single-element silicon detector. In addition to unique features of single-pixel simplicity and room-temperature operation, the infrared imager offers a superior sensitivity at the single-photon level.
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36752-1Endosomal escape and subsequent cytosolic delivery of siRNA therapeutics is inefficient, and quantification is difficult. Here the authors report a confocal microscopy-based method to quantify cytosolic delivery of fluorescently labelled siRNA during lipid-mediated delivery.
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36729-0Effective antivirals are critical for combatting
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Currently watching Meghan movie. How far away are we from something like this? Could you program chat gpt into a robot and basically teach it any task you like?
The concept of archiving human feelings and voices after death with code is a relatively new one, but it has gained attention as technology has advanced. Essentially, the idea is to use digital technology to create a record of a person's voice and personality, which can then be used to simulate interactions with that person even after they have passed away.
One way this is being done is through chatbots and conversational AI.
Another approach is to create a digital avatar of the person, which can be used to create virtual reality experiences that allow people to interact with a simulation of the deceased.
There are both ethical and practical concerns with this kind of technology. Some people may find the idea of interacting with a simulation of a deceased loved one comforting, while others may find it creepy or disrespectful.
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Spend your weekend with a cup of warm coffee and our National Magazine Award–nominated articles.
But first, here are three new stories from The Atlantic.
- People forgot how war actually works.
- Shoppers are stuck in a dupe loop.
- Permission-slip culture is hurting America.
Yesterday, the American Society of Magazine Editors announced the finalists for this year's National Magazine Awards, and The Atlantic was recognized for a range of work. The magazine received nominations for five individual stories, as well as a nomination for the General Excellence award, a finalist place in the Best Digital Illustration category, and a win in the Best Print Illustration category. (Winners in other nominated categories will be announced in March.)
These nominations highlight a range of exceptional stories, including a rigorous yearslong investigation, two illuminating political profiles, and an unforgettable personal account of fleeing Afghanistan and leaving everything behind. Spend time with this collection of our finalists and winners over the weekend.
Your Weekend Reads
I Smuggled My Laptop Past the Taliban So I Could Write This Story
By Bushra Seddique
My escape from Afghanistan (Winner, Best Print Illustration, by Sally Deng)
By George Packer
America's chaotic withdrawal from Afghanistan added moral injury to military failure. But a group of soldiers, veterans, and ordinary citizens came together to try to save Afghan lives and salvage some American honor. (Finalist, Reporting)
By Clint Smith
America still can't figure out how to memorialize the sins of our history. What can we learn from Germany? (Finalist, Columns and Essays)
By Caitlin Dickerson
The secret history of the U.S. government's family-separation policy (Finalist, Public Interest)
By Graeme Wood
Asked about the murder of Jamal Khashoggi, Mohammed bin Salman said, "If that's the way we did things, Khashoggi would not even be among the top 1,000 people on the list." (Finalist, Profile Writing)
By Jennifer Senior
Steve Bannon is still scheming. And he's still a threat to democracy. (Finalist, Profile Writing)
By Keisha N. Blain
Joetha Collier, a young Black woman, was killed by a white man in 1971, near the Mississippi town where Emmett Till was murdered. Why isn't her case known nationally today? (Finalist, Best Digital Illustration, by Esiri Essi)
- The White House warned that Russia may be planning to give fighter jets to Iran.
- An independent analysis of EPA data collected in the weeks following the February 3 train derailment in East Palestine, Ohio, found elevated levels of nine different air pollutants in the area.
- Hundreds of warm daily-temperature records were set this week across the eastern U.S., in addition to numerous cold-weather records in western states.
- Brooklyn, Everywhere: The removal of a street sign in Brooklyn reveals how history gets erased, Xochitl Gonzalez argues.
- The Books Briefing: Kate Cray asks: How should we teach the story of our country?
Explore all of our newsletters here.
The Parent Test Stokes American Parenting's Worst Impulses
By Lydia Kiesling
If you are an American parent, you are mired in contradiction wherever you look: Children are too coddled, a strident Facebook post might shout at you, right before you read an article about the dangers of letting kids go outside alone. It takes a village, you are told, but also, everyone hates it when you bring your toddler on a plane or into a restaurant. You read that modern American parenting is uniquely isolating and expensive, then watch in befuddlement while Congress lets the expanded child tax credit expire.
The Parent Test, a new reality-TV show on ABC, promises to throw confused parents a lifeline and identify "today's most effective parenting style." The show is hosted by Adolph Brown—a clinical psychologist, motivational speaker, and father of eight—and the actor Ali Wentworth, mother of two. It follows 12 families, each embodying a different style of parenting, and assesses each style for its likelihood of producing eventual adults who are "emotionally whole," and able to have "healthy relationships" and "navigate today's world." Each family is filmed doing a series of parenting challenges, and the rest of the parents analyze the footage, voting one style out after every round. In the finale, the families choose one parenting style to rule them all. It's American Gladiators gone domestic, set in a cozy amphitheater. But the battle metaphor ripples outward, painting a lonely picture of American parents fighting for their children's success and safety in a dangerous world while everyone watches, judges, and weighs in.
More From The Atlantic
- Can a million Chinese people die and nobody know?
- The Supreme Court actually understands the internet.
- Antony Blinken: Zelensky is right to demand that the U.S. "do even more and do it even faster."
Read. These books can help you come to terms with death.
Watch. In theaters, Return to Seoul is a story of adoption and belonging that resists easy sentimentality.
On TV, Apple TV+'s Hello Tomorrow! is a show about mistaking hype for progress.
And there's always Titanic, which feels different 25 years after its release.
Listen. Caroline Polachek's new album, Desire, I Want to Turn Into You, is pure magic.
Our final recommendation for the weekend: Take a break from the screen and listen to audio versions of our articles. We've got a selection of stories now available in the Hark app, including my Daily colleague Tom Nichols's exploration of the narcissism of some angry young men and Jennifer Senior's etiquette guide for loved ones dealing with long COVID.
Whichever stories, movies, or books you choose to spend your weekend with, I hope you enjoy them.
Kelli María Korducki contributed to this newsletter.
- First At-Home Test for Flu and Covid Is OK'd by the FDA
In spite of government reassurances, things are starting to look freakier than ever in East Palestine, Ohio, where a new official tally puts the animal death toll at over 43,000 following the catastrophic train derailment there.
As News 5 Cleveland reports, state officials said that more than 43,000 fish and other aquatic animals were found dead in rivers and streams in the waterways surrounding East Palestine where a Norfolk Southern train carrying a bunch of toxic chemicals derailed, resulting in both a chemical spill and a controlled burn of the noxious compounds aboard to avoid explosion.
"Do not feel they've been upfront," local resident John Hammer told CBS News, "not from day one."
Just last week, the head of the Ohio Department of Agriculture attempted to reassure residents that "there's nothing that we've seen with the livestock that poses any concerns," the Washington Post notes in its reporting on the updated animal death toll.
News 5 Cleveland notes that so far, the government has not reported any land-walking mammal deaths — but folks who live near the disaster site have said that their animals, including chickens, cats, and foxes, have become sick and died in the wake of the derailment.
Residents of the region are understandably concerned about their health and safety in the wake of the derailment in, spite of official reassurances that the one-time evacuation zone is safe.
Distrust in government fortitude following the Norfolk Southern crash is so high, in fact, that many are convinced that an Environmental Protection Agency official who drank the water in East Palestine didn't actually imbibe.
As of right now, it's far too early to say what the long-term effects of the catastrophic accident will be — but if this latest fish death toll is any indication, there's reason to be concerned.
More on the East Palestine derailment: There's a Super Bizarre Coincidence Surrounding the Ohio Train Disaster
of Thousands of Animals Died for Miles Around Toxic Spill, Officials Admit appeared first on Futurism.
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Empire State Asteroid
NASA has gotten a close-up look at a mysteriously-shaped asteroid, once identified as a potential danger for colliding with the Earth, as it whizzed by our planet.
The asteroid, dubbed 2011 AG5 and which came within just 1.1 million miles earlier this year, is unusually oblong and shares the same rough proportions as the Empire State Building at 1,600 feet in length and approximately 500 feet in width.
"Of the 1,040 near-Earth objects observed by planetary radar to date, this is one of the most elongated we've seen," said Lance Benner, a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab, who led the observations, in a statement.
While the asteroid was first discovered over a decade ago, we've finally been able to get a detailed look at its shape and orbit.
Using the Goldstone Solar System Radar antenna dish at the Deep Space Network's facility in California, astronomers were also able to confirm that the asteroid slowly rotates around its own axis every nine hours.
Astronomers were also able to refine the path the asteroid takes as it orbits the Sun. A full orbit takes roughly 621 days, and it won't make a close pass of Earth until 2040.
The asteroid was once deemed a potential threat.
"Interestingly, shortly after its discovery, 2011 AG5 became a poster-child asteroid when our analysis showed it had a small chance of a future impact," said Paul Chodas, the director of NASA's Center for Near Earth Object Studies, in the statement.
Fortunately, for now, we can gaze upon the strange Empire State Building in the sky without having to worry about an imminent collision.
"Continued observations of this object ruled out any chance of impact, and these new ranging measurements by the planetary radar team will further refine exactly where it will be far into the future," he added.
More on asteroids: Baby Asteroid Photobombs James Webb On Accident
The post Strangely Shaped Asteroid Whizzes Past Earth appeared first on Futurism.
A team of astronomers has used some of the most powerful telescopes on (and orbiting) Earth to make a first-of-its-kind observation. They've spotted a pair of dwarf galaxies containing supermassive black holes on a collision course. Then, they did it again. Yes, two pairs of colliding dwarf galaxies, both extremely distant but at different phases of merging. Scientists hope this discovery can help shed light on how large galaxies like the Milky Way came to be.
A dwarf galaxy is one with less than 3 billion solar masses, about one-twentieth of the Milky Way's mass. There are plenty of those drifting around in our corner of the universe, including several orbiting the Milky Way. None of them are about to collide, though. The current scientific consensus holds that the large galaxies common today arose from the merger of smaller ones, but ancient galactic mergers are difficult to observe because of their distance. The team, led by astrophysicist Marko Micic from the University of Alabama, got around that by combining data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared observations from NASA's Wide Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and optical data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT).
The orbiting Chandra observatory was particularly valuable in this study as it revealed the black holes, which are becoming more active as the galaxies move toward each other. The disk of super-heated material spiraling toward the event horizon heats up to millions of degrees, causing it to emit X-ray energy. This data pinpointed the colliding dwarf galaxies, and the visible and infrared data showed how the galaxies are interacting as they approach each other.
In the image above, the left composite shows a merger in galaxy cluster Abell 133, about 760 million light-years from Earth. Since the galaxies are in the late stages of merging, it's been given a single name: Mirabilis, after an endangered species of hummingbird. On the right are the dwarf galaxies Elstir and Vinteuil, which are a reference to the Proust novel "In Search of Lost Time." These galaxies are still separate, but a bridge of stars and gas has started to form between them. These objects are located in the Abell 1758S cluster some 3.2 billion light-years away.
With these objects identified, astronomers will be able to conduct follow-up observations that will reveal the processes taking place as they merge. In time, both pairs of galaxies will become larger dwarf galaxies with even bigger central black holes. This could cause more draw more small galaxies toward them, resulting in more mergers. Given the time scales involved, we can't just stare at Elstir and Vinteuil until that happens, but astronomers have other sources of data. The James Webb Space Telescope recently revealed the Sparkler Galaxy, which appears to be a mirror image of a young Milky Way, studded with glowing globular clusters. This, too, could offer insight into how our galaxy evolved over the eons.
After a train derailed in East Palestine, Ohio, on February 3, national attention was slow to turn to the crash. That has now changed decisively. In the past 10 days, EPA Administrator Michael Regan, former President Donald Trump, and Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg have all visited the town. A lively national political debate has also emerged, but it's one that, like the burning rail cars, has produced a lot of heat, but not a great deal of light.
The disaster has become a proxy battle where existing political divides are playing out—and where the failings of both of the contemporary parties are on clear display. The Democratic Party struggles to respond effectively to a crisis with empathy rather than technocratic policy lectures. The Trump-era Republican Party, meanwhile, says all the right things and advocates for all the wrong ones.
The conversation on the right is especially revealing. Some factions of conservative media have accused the mainstream press and Democratic establishment of ignoring the story, though in fact Fox News was just as late as its competitors. Nonetheless, Trump and other MAGA-minded Republicans, like Ohio's newly elected senator, J. D. Vance, have embraced East Palestine as an example of how the Democratic Party has abandoned white working-class areas of the industrial Midwest. Tucker Carlson has gone farther, arguing that the response has been slow because the town is conservative and largely white.
[Read: Could Positive Train Control have prevented the Washington wreck?]
The derailment is a curious type of crisis, because the material effects are so unclear. Unlike some other recent rail catastrophes, no one died in the initial derailment and fire—contrast that with the 47 people who died in a 2013 wreck in Quebec, near the U.S. border. The longer-term environmental effects are still uncertain. State and federal authorities claim that the water is safe to drink and that the chemicals that burned shouldn't have long-term health harms. Many residents, who were evacuated, experienced odors and rashes, and saw the flames, are understandably not convinced.
Both the diagnosis and policy ideas that the MAGA Republicans have advanced offer little hope. Speaking in East Palestine on Wednesday, Trump claimed that the Biden administration had offered assistance only because he had come to visit. "They were intending to do absolutely nothing for you," he said. Vance made a similar charge. But Governor Mike DeWine, a Republican, though not close to Trump, said he had declined federal assistance: "Look, the president called me and said, 'Anything you need.' I have not called him back after that conversation. We will not hesitate to do that if we're seeing a problem or anything, but I'm not seeing it." The EPA did eventually move to take over the disaster response, likely in part because of pressure from Trump—but that's different from ignoring the situation.
Vance has offered a more interesting perspective, describing a disaster that "stands at the intersection of corporate power and government power." He's right, and he's also right that many residents of the region don't trust the federal government. But these points run into the fundamental paradox of MAGA, which is the mullet of politics: populist in the front, corporatist in the back. Vance has said he wants to see higher fines for corporations like Norfolk Southern, the railroad whose train crashed. Yet when Trump was in office (as the Biden White House has been eager to point out), his signature initiatives included rolling back environmental regulations, cutting fines to corporate wrongdoers, and reducing government oversight. That even extended to eliminating rules around safety for trains transporting chemicals.
[David A. Graham: The art of the dealer]
Trump has discovered that he can get away with taking actions that don't actually help if he's able to show up and make people feel he's on their side. His ability to do that is one reason that East Palestine twice voted heavily for Trump. Democrats seem incapable of communicating effectively to voters in places like East Palestine, despite having the better arguments about corporate accountability and environmental safety.
And neither party has much to offer after the initial cleanup, though the intense attention on the wreck might help produce some immediate assistance to East Palestine. The town depends on the railroad, which produces some inherent risk even with good safety rules. The prospects for new economic development are dim. Trump peddles resentment, racial and otherwise, as a salve. Biden's enormous stimulus plans may reshape the American economy but are unlikely to make much of a dent in small, depressed towns like East Palestine. "We are here and will stay here for as long as it takes to ensure your safety and to help East Palestine recover and thrive," Norfolk Southern CEO Alan Shaw wrote in a statement over the weekend. That's a promise he probably can't keep. Recovery may be possible, but thriving is remote.
Surprise! It turns out that the process to create "biofuels" from plastic waste — a hallmark of
's "climate-friendly" fuel pledge — would be so toxic, it could literally cause
As The Guardian reports in tandem with ProPublica, records obtained by the news outlets reveal that, per the
's calculations, pollution from the plastic-derived jet fuel Chevron intends to start making would carry a one-in-four risk of cancer for anyone living near facilities that manufacture it.
Yet for some reason, the EPA signed off on the Chevron project, according to the reporting — and even skipped some key steps that would normally bar this sort of risky chemical from being produced.
Proposed as part of the Biden Administration's response to the global climate crisis, plastic-derived biofuels seem, on their face, to provide both a solution to petroleum's greenhouse gases and a way to tackle the overwhelming plastic waste problem to boot.
But the reality is far darker because, as this investigation and other big ones have found, the process by which plastic is broken down can produce emissions that could actually be worse for the environment than the burning of fossil fuels.
To add insult to injury, Pascagoula, the Mississippi town where Chevron plans to make the plastic-derived fuel — with the permission of the EPA, in spite of the known risks — is home to a primarily Black community. Given the increasingly well-documented realities of environmental racism, experts that the news outlets spoke to have expressed serious misgivings.
The one-in-four risk of cancer from the smoke stack pollution the Chevron facility will carry is, as the joint reporting notes, a whopping 250,000 times higher than what the EPA normally allows when approving new chemicals.
But as records obtained by The Guardian and ProPublica show, the agency not only approved the Chevron jet fuel while being aware of that staggering cancer risk, but also skipped a number of key tests that would normally be undertaken with such a seemingly-toxic chemical.
When asked why those tests weren't done, an EPA spokesperson told the news outlets that the agency "does not believe these additional test results would change the risks identified nor the unreasonable risks finding."
But when the outlets' reporters asked Maria Doa, a veteran EPA official who is now the senior director of chemical policy at the nonprofit Environmental Defense Fund, if the jet fuel should be allowed to be produced, her answer was a resounding "no."
"EPA should not allow these risks in Pascagoula or anywhere," Doa said.
As toxicologist and former National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences director Linda Birnbaum told the news outfits, the move seems like bad news.
"That kind of risk is obscene," Birnbaum said. "You can't let that get out."
More on the environment: A Shocking Amount of US "Recycling" Goes Straight to the Landfill
The post Chevron's Jet Fuel Made From Plastic Very Likely to Cause Cancer, EPA Documents Say appeared first on Futurism.
An unusually dry winter in Europe is causing Venice, Italy's world-famous canals to dry up, as seen in alarming new images — a growing climate crisis rearing its head.
It's been a perfect storm: a winter heatwave, as well as a severe lack of rain and snow, have caused major waterways in Europe to plummet to shockingly low levels.
The timing couldn't be worse, considering the continent had already experienced severe droughts last year.
Italy in particular has been hit hard, with its longest river Po bringing in a shocking 61 percent less water than usual at this time of year, CNN reports.
Venice is suffering in a particularly concrete way, with gondolas and other water taxis grinding to a halt due to drying canals.
The UNESCO World Heritage site, which dates back to the fifth century, has in many areas been reduced to a mud pit, to the shock of the city's many visitors.
Photos show long stretches of the city's canals reduced to a puddle, exposing the mud and the adjacent buildings' foundations.
Not just tourists are affected by the water level drop. The city relies on water ambulances, which use the canals as a way to get around, according to Agence France-Presse.
It's a grimly peculiar situation since Venice is usually dealing with high, not low, water levels, especially between October and January, when it's not uncommon for central parts like the city's main square to be partially submerged.
City officials are now praying for some much-needed rain — roughly 50 days of it — as experts told AFP, to reverse a crisis that has been building since the winter of 2020.
READ MORE: 'Never-ending drought emergency': Italy's iconic Venice canals have dried up [USA Today]
More on droughts: Earth Should Brace Itself For Multi-Decade "Mega-Droughts"
The post Venice Looks Pretty Alarming With Its Canals Drained appeared first on Futurism.
Nature, Published online: 24 February 2023; doi:10.1038/d41586-023-00473-8A committee found that Priyanga Amarasekare broke rules after she alleged discrimination by colleagues. It recommended light sanctions — but the university chancellor issued stronger ones.
No matter the US political climate, young, single, and less educated men seemed to be at higher risk for deportation than other undocumented Mexican immigrants from 2001 to 2019, according to a new study.
For the study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers analyzed deportation and voluntary return migration data encompassing the administrations of US Presidents George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump.
"Even through the Trump administration's anti-immigrant rhetoric advocated deporting all undocumented immigrants, particularly from Mexico, the characteristics of Mexican immigrants deported during the Trump years were not dramatically different from previous administrations," says lead author Heeju Sohn, assistant professor of sociology at Emory University.
The researchers examined trends in socio-demographic characteristics of undocumented immigrants from Mexico deported by the US along with those who chose to return to Mexico.
While the study does not predict or offer any absolute probabilities, it provides insight into relative potential risks. On average, each administration annually deported about 893,000 people with the majority of them Mexican citizens.
"Despite each administration's differing approach and rhetoric, who was actually being deported or deciding to leave didn't change all that much," Sohn says. "Just because an undocumented person voluntary leaves the US doesn't always mean they felt they had a choice in that decision either."
Fewer immigrants were deported annually during the Trump administration than under Obama or Bush who had the highest number of deportations. During Obama's first term, there was an increase in deportation of Mexican immigrants with criminal convictions but that percentage decreased in the last two years of his presidency.
While Trump's administration prioritized all undocumented immigrants for deportation, the result shows deportation focused more on young adults and those with less education, groups which already face higher deportation risks.
"Policy makers and the public need to understand the consequences of the immigration policies that are implemented—whether they work or not," says coauthor Anne Pebley, a faculty fellow at the University of California, Los Angeles Center for Population Research.
"While the Trump administration's anti-immigrant rhetoric and policies had many negative effects on immigrants and Americans, they did not do what they were apparently intended to in terms of deporting a larger and more diverse group of undocumented immigrants."
The Trump administration's anti-immigrant rhetoric and heightened enforcement didn't appear to motivate a more diverse group of undocumented immigrants to leave voluntarily. Rather, voluntary return migration to Mexico was a trend that began early in the Obama administration after the great recession of 2007-2009, according to the study.
"People who are leaving or being deported do not exist in a vacuum," Sohn says. "You can't isolate them separately from the social and family connections they have interwoven in US society. So, what happens to undocumented people that society has neglected has a direct effect on the well-being of US citizens. We have a duty to not discriminate and there is a need for additional research."
The experiences of undocumented children living in the US is a blind spot in national data; the youngest age group in this study is 18 to 31.
"Moving across countries is a disruptive life event," Sohn says. "This is an age group where people take major steps as adults—finding a partner, having children, or establishing a career. This can have reverberating consequences for the rest of their lives."
For the study, Sohn and colleagues combined deportees' and voluntary returnees' data from both sides of the border—the Migration Survey on the Borders of Mexico-North (EMIF-N) and US Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC). It's the first time these two major sets of data were combined for research purposes and studied in a novel way.
"It was critical that we understood the nuances of the data and sampling strategy. We took a lot of time and effort making sure our method accounted for the differences," Sohn says.
"This is part of a bigger desire to make sure the lives of underrepresented groups have adequate representation," she adds. "A lot of the research in social sciences are based on large data sets that don't put much focus on the smaller groups or ones that are harder to measure. I hope getting this important topic published will get visibility to a wider audience."
Additional coauthors are from UCLA and Princeton University. The NIH Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded the work.
Source: Emory University
The post Deportation risk hasn't been the same for all undocumented Mexican immigrants appeared first on Futurity.
Nature, Published online: 24 February 2023; doi:10.1038/d41586-023-00543-xAnti-Asian scrutiny has only intensified since the controversial programme ended one year ago, researchers say.
Nature, Published online: 24 February 2023; doi:10.1038/d41586-023-00579-zThe agency is considering giving peer reviewers one-time vetoes to push through support for unconventional science.
"Mind the gap."
A short while ago we published a blog post discussing the rate of modernization of our energy supply with updated, superior replacements for fossil fuel combustion. Given the point of the piece it attracted a good deal of attention and careful scrutiny. That review process exposed a material error, now corrected. The sequence of events illustrates the virtues of "peer review" (peers here meaning similar range of general competencies) and especially how owning errors and transparently repairing them is the best way forward.
More importantly, the experience exposed an editiorial policy hole. We're not going to let this insight go to waste.
By way of background, our central editiorial policy has been extremely simple: before we publish a new rebuttal or other "just the facts" treatment, we practice an internal review process which is sometimes very arduous and energetic— similar in general features to reviews of academic publications but with the added challenge of everybody being crystal clear on who's saying what.
Our review convention has worked well for us, for the purpose of creating climate myth rebuttals and other writing serving as a straight conduit for conveying "there's the best we know," sourced in peer reviewed academic literature.
But we need a bit more policy. Why? Here's the gist:
- Skeptical Science's main purpose is illumination of "here's the best we know" as reflected in academic research findings, by making densely technical reports digestible for a general readership.
- Given the broad scope of Skeptical Science's view of climate science and climate change, we may also serve a useful role by offering articles including synthesis, putting facts together to help people see and understand larger concepts, emerging progress or lack of it. This follows a general trajectory of improvement in the formal scientific community toward interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary projects.
- Given the passion needed to contribute energy to our work, it is inhumane to expect Skeptical Science authors to behave as though we have no thoughts or opinions or contributions of our own to offer.
- Perhaps most importantly, mixing commentary or opinion with straight delivery of scientific information to our readers— without distinguishing that we're in this mode— will inevitably cost us credibility, whether by error or by losing our usual neutral tone.
How to address these factors, in editorial policy? We need invent nothing new but only emulate what's known to work well elsewhere, farther down the scientific communications food chain where primary producers are found.
We'll henceforth be clearly indicating when a blog post is the equivalent of an academic journal's inclusion of commentary or synthesis articles.
No Desk for You
The rise and fall of the Bean Bag Empire continues. Amid
's mounting AI war woes — spoiler: it's losing — CNBC now reports that the company has officially commanded its loyal Googlers to start sharing desks.
"Most Googlers will now share a desk with one other Googler," reads the internal memo, according to CNBC. "Through the matching process, they will agree on a basic desk setup and establish norms with their desk partner and teams to ensure a positive experience in the new shared environment."
The decision, per CNBC, is being chalked up to "real estate efficiency" in a hybrid-work world. In a fluid office environment, no one needs all that space — especially not a company that lost a cool $100 billion after its AI screwed up very publicly.
According to CNBC, the model — internally dubbed "Cloud Office Evolution" or "CLOE" and reportedly described in a separate internal document as a company effort to "[combine] the best of pre-pandemic collaboration with the flexibility" of hybrid work — will be implemented at Google Cloud's five biggest campuses.
Some buildings, that same document reportedly noted, will ultimately be "vacated." Oof.
If it's any consolation, CNBC reports that the Googlers were told that deskmates can alternate office days. And this time around, they weren't warned by any managers that there would be "blood on the streets" if productivity doesn't increase. So, you know, small wins.
Still, the change is yet another blow to Googlers everywhere who, until recently, have long enjoyed the cushy perks of the ping-pong-happy, pre-pandemic Silicon Valley work culture — a culture that, in the wake of several high-profile industry layoffs and widespread cost-cutting measures, increasingly feels like a soon-to-be-relic of the tech industry's past.
"Not every cost-cutting measure needs to be word mangled into sounding good for employees," one employee fumed on an internal messaging platform, according to CNBC. "A simple 'We are cutting office space to reduce costs' would make leadership sound more believable."
For the Kids
For its part, Google says the change has everything to do with their Googlers' happiness, actually.
"Our data show Cloud Googlers value guaranteed in-person collaboration when they are in the office," a Google spokesperson told CNBC, "as well as the option to work from home a few days each week."
"With this feedback," they added, "we've developed our new rotational model, combining the best of pre-pandemic collaboration with the flexibility and focus we've all come to appreciate from remote work, while also allowing us to use our spaces more efficiently."
In any case, at least the Googlers are still better off than their peers at Tesla.
READ MORE: Google asks some employees to share desks amid office downsizing [CNBC]
More on Google: Google Denies Using AI to Pick Which Employees to Fire
The post Google Instructs Workers to Share Desks to Cut Costs appeared first on Futurism.
We've heard about quantum computers for years, but no one has made one better at crunching numbers than a binary machine.
's Quantum Engineering team may be on the right track, though. For the first time, the team built a larger quantum computer that didn't become less accurate. In a few years, we might consider this a significant turning point in the quest to make quantum computers useful.
The promise of a practical quantum computer is alluring — a bit of quantum information (a qubit) can encode more data than just 0 or 1 like a traditional binary computer. That means a quantum computer can, in theory, be much more powerful. However, qubits are sensitive to interference, even from light and temperature variations. This leads to higher error rates that make the output of quantum computers untrustworthy. And the more qubits you add, the higher the error rate.
However, Google's quantum engineering team says there may be light at the end of the tunnel. In the latest experiment, engineers have used quantum error correction to reduce the error rate while also making the quantum array larger. Google's engineers group individual qubits in arrays of 49 to form a single logical qubit. In the past, Google worked with groups of 17 qubits, but the new 49-qubit design demonstrated a lower error rate.
According to Google, this is the first time anyone has scaled a logical qubit without increasing the error rate. This could be an important milestone on the way to a practical quantum computer. Google cites potential use cases like modeling new molecules for medical uses, refining battery technology, and designing power-generating fusion reactors.
Creating a larger logical qubit with a lower error rate is a big step in that direction, but the hardware and software that goes into quantum computing must first improve. Google is looking toward upgrades in control electronics and cryogenics to move us in the right direction, and the materials that go into the company's Sycamore 2 quantum chips will be refined. That could get us to a place where quantum computing has real-world uses, and Google says it's already planning for that day. The company is working with government agencies and the larger security community to ensure that internet traffic and Google's cloud services remain secure in a world of robust, scalable quantum computers.
A massive storm shocks Southern California with cold temperatures, strong winds and abundant moisture, causing extremely rare blizzard conditions and potentially unprecedented snowfalls
A massive storm shocks Southern California with cold temperatures, strong winds and abundant moisture, causing extremely rare blizzard conditions and potentially unprecedented snowfalls
Again, an idea I read in a fictional book: The mental illnesses we all know today are basically not changed from Freud's time, for approximately a century. The BIG 3 group of psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, paranoia, and manic-depressive psychosis existed back in those early days of the psychoanalysis movement and persisted to this very day. Yes, there were some new contenders added to the list in the past 100 years, like ADHD, Borderline Syndrome, or PTSP, but I am not talking about "small stuff". And I am also not talking about things like the alienation of millennials and Gen Z or their addiction to mobile phones and technology either.
What I am talking about is the new "major player" that has been added to the "big three" list. This player is already among us and is much more sinister or dangerous than its "big three" siblings. Schizophrenia, for instance, distorts reality, allowing the person to cope with it and find some hope and comfort. Paranoia does the same, as the person feels they are being followed by the entire world, which can be comforting in a way. This new "player" is the complete opposite; it leaves the person out in the cold providing no methods of living that could give them any solace.
Classifying this new mental illness and its importance will be the next big breakthrough in Psychology as a science. And it is coming sooner than you think.
Again, I want to be fair to the book and the author and not spoil the plot or reveal anything crucial, so, that was everything I could reveal. The book is a fine-grained psychological horror, 'Piaget's Last Fear', but it's not for everybody, that's for sure. Anyway, it's an interesting idea to wrap your head around, isn't it?
Imagine technology that allows a person to read and recall 50 books in a day.
P.S. This video covers some cutting-edge biocircuit research using machine learning and speculates a little on the future of biocircuits – so I think it should appeal to people interested in our scientific future! But if this is the wrong place to post this kind of link, let me know and if possible please point me to somewhere you think would be more appropriate for people to engage with it 🙂
Hey everyone! First time posting here – I'm running a (very early days!) channel with myself and a few friends focussing on educational content creation in the biotech sector. The aim is to take cutting edge research and present it in a more accessible way than specialist papers; thereby helping to spread the message and spread the interest in the work done. The eventual goal is to try and build up a community where specialists and the general enthusiastic public alike can talk about some of the really awesome stuff that biotech can offer – and we'd like to kick this all off with biological circuits and synthetic biology!
Whether you're a student, researcher, or simply curious about biotechnology, we'd love to get your feedback, so let us know what you all think 🙂
I'm not talking deep fakes but rather full length movies. Is Hollywood ready for it?
|submitted by /u/jesus-the-pepeg
I know we all are frustrated that more is not being done to combat climate change, however saying that *no one* is doing anything to work on climate change is actively discrediting those people who are and claiming that we are all doomed and the world will end is not a motivating statement to actually work on fixing climate change.
I actively work on climate change, I have taken a reduced salary that I could have working on getting oil onto the market to instead help fix the climate change problem and there are hundreds of thousands of others (or millions if you include people working overtime manufacturing solar panels and wind turbines, and EVs and such, and even billions we expand it globally to those funding solar projects through taxes and other investments in climate initiatives).
As someone working overtime and earning less than I could be to help solve climate change its infuriating to just hear how kids in school and people elsewhere are being told that *no one* is doing anything to solve it.
If you want to actually help, then bring attention to those who are standing in the way but give credit to those who are working on the problem. Bring attention to the wealthy NIMBYs who are blocking renewable projects like offshore wind, or mass transit projects (through the use of B.S. environmental lawsuits), or those blocking higher density housing which has a far lower carbon footprint than sprawling suburbs, or those blocking research projects or brainwashing others claiming that climate change isn't real, etc… Be angry at those people, but don't say that *no one* is working on it.
In spite of those people standing in the way we have beaten all of our renewable energy goals and dramatically reducing costs of deployment (it's now cheaper than coal and natural gas), we are dramatically reducing the cost for carbon capture technologies (still have a ways to go with this and need a carbon tax to fund it, but progress is progress and takes a lot of hard work and money), we are even making significant breakthroughs in technologies like nuclear fusion energy (see commonwealth fusion and others) which would easily make mass scale desalination and water transport feasible, GMOs are enabling crops to be resilient for climate change to prevent famines, we're working global monitoring satellite systems to rapidly detect oil spills (and enforce environmental fines) as well as other carbon emissions, people are working hard on developing carbon neutral building materials, we're adopting EVs faster than most projected, battery technology is booming with massive investments in building supply, and there's a ton of other stuff happening to, we just passed a 3 huge bills that each work on climate change in their own ways funding over $600 billion to combat it and reduce costs to implement solutions everywhere.
TL:DR – There are tons of people working hard on combating climate change and investing massive sums of money into the problem and they deserve credit. Point out the bad actors, but don't say that *no one* is working on the problem, its discrediting to those who are and unmotivating to the future generation. We aren't doomed, we just need to keep working hard, humans have survived worse with less countless times in the past.
|submitted by /u/spacedotc0m
|submitted by /u/LiveScience_
Involuntary, fixational eye movements play a bigger role in vision than researchers previously thought, according to a new study.
Our eyes are never at rest. Instead, they remain in motion, even between our voluntary gaze shifts, through fixational eye movements—small, continuous movements that we are not aware of making.
Scientists have long sought to understand how we humans can perceive the world as stable as our eyes are constantly moving.
Past research has suggested that, in the intervals between voluntary gaze shifts, the human visual system builds a picture of a stable world by relying solely on sensory inputs from fixational eye movements.
According to the new study, however, there may be another contributing factor.
The researchers report that the visual system not only receives sensory inputs from fixational eye movements but also possesses knowledge of the motor behavior involved in those movements.
"The human brain has a very precise knowledge of how the eyes move, even if humans are not aware of moving them, and they use this knowledge to infer spatial relations and perceive the world not as blurry but as stable," says Michele Rucci, a professor in the brain and cognitive sciences department and Center for Visual Science at the University of Rochester.
The results of the research reveal that spatial representations—that is, the locations of objects in relation to other objects—are based on a combination of sensory and motor activity from both voluntary and involuntary eye movements, which is contrary to the prevailing understanding, Rucci explains.
"It was already clear that the visual system uses sensory and motor knowledge from large voluntary movements, either gaze shifts we perform to look at different parts of a scene, or tracking movements for following moving objects," he says.
"But scientists didn't think smaller, involuntary movements like fixational eye movements could be used to convey information through motor signals."
Instead, the research shows the visual system continually monitors motor activity, even when people believe they are maintaining a steady gaze. The research also shows that vision has computational strategies similar to other senses, such as touch and smell, where motor behavior profoundly affects incoming sensory signals.
The results have important implications in future studies of visual perception and will help in better understanding visual impairments that involve abnormal eye movements.
"Our study unveils that involuntary eye movements, which are widely discarded as motor noise, make major contributions to spatial representations of the world," says Zhetuo Zhao, a PhD student in Rucci's lab and the study's first author. "As we show, studying spatial representations without considering motor activity—as is often done in current neuroscience—is severely limiting."
The study appears in Nature Communications.
Source: University of Rochester
The post Tiny eye motions help us see a steady world appeared first on Futurity.
Genen PAX5 saboterar insulinfrisättningen hos personer med typ 2-diabetes. Nu vill forskare försöka rätta till den med hjälp av gensaxen Crispr/Cas9.
Inlägget Forskare vill klippa till felande gen vid typ2-diabetes dök först upp på forskning.se.
Scientific Reports, Published online: 24 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41598-023-30162-5Comparison of clinicopathological characteristics and survival between symptomatic and asymptomatic
New research establishes a link between irritable bowel syndrome and mental health challenges, such as anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation.
The research highlights the need for health professionals to evaluate and treat associated psychiatric comorbidities in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients to improve their overall health and quality of life.
IBS is a chronic disorder of the stomach and intestines affecting up to 15% of the population. It causes cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea.
For the new study, researchers looked at more than 1.2 million IBS patient hospitalizations from 4,000 US hospitals over a three-year period and found that more than 38% had anxiety and more than 27% had depression. Both figures were double the rate of anxiety and depression found in those without IBS.
The prevalence of psychiatric problems including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, suicidal attempt/ideation, and eating disorders was significantly higher in the IBS patient population when compared to the general adult population.
"One possible explanation is the so-called brain-gut axis," says lead researcher Zahid Ijaz Tarar, assistant professor of clinical medicine at the University of Missouri. "We've long suspected that dysfunction of the brain-gut axis is bidirectional, such that IBS symptoms influence anxiety and depression, and on the other hand, psychiatric factors cause IBS symptoms. Medical professionals need to treat both ends of the axis."
Untreated psychiatric disorders among IBS patients also puts additional strain on health care systems through increased frequency of hospital admissions and longer stays. Chronic diseases like IBS are also known to be associated with stress, work impairment, and associated economic burdens on patients and their families.
"I frequently tell my patients who have IBS, that if they have any type of psychologic stress, it will get expressed in some form or the other," says senior author Yezaz Ghouri, assistant professor of clinical medicine and gastroenterology.
"The mesentery membrane that holds the intestines together has one of the largest collections of nerve cells in the body. When those nerves start firing impulses, that can lead to the state of nervousness in and around the GI tract, resulting in IBS symptoms. The resulting decline in patient quality of life can lead to poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking. Early evaluation and treatment of both IBS and associated psychiatric conditions is essential."
The study appears in the Irish Journal of Medical Science. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest related to the study.
Source: University of Missouri
The post People with IBS face higher rates of anxiety, depression appeared first on Futurity.
Researchers suggest the universe may never actually end, but instead lead to future
, much like the one believed to have brought the whole mess into being in the first place.
As detailed in a yet-to-be-peer-reviewed paper, first spotted by LiveScience's Paul Sutter, two theoretical physicists at the University of Portsmouth suggest that dark energy, the mysterious stuff suspected to be behind the accelerating expansion of the universe, may simply switch on and off, a process that could eventually lead to the next Big Bang.
There's a lot surrounding our theory of how the universe began that is still not fully understood, including a "singularity" following the Big Bang, which suggests a point of "infinite density where the math breaks down," as Sutter explains, as well as a period of "inflation," a rapid expansion of the universe during its earliest stages.
The authors of the new paper suggest that dark energy may have always been a part of this push-and-pull dynamic, and that the Big Bang was simply one in an infinite line of other Bangs, a theory known as the "Big Bounce" — which effectively means a singularity never had to happen in the first place.
In other words, dark energy could lead to a "Big Crunch," causing the universe to contract and eventually "Bang" again, rinse and repeat.
Making Up Numbers
But the dark energy model comes with some drawbacks. As the researchers admit in their paper, they had to insert an artificial value to explain the current rate of the universe's expansion, as predicted by quantum mechanics.
However, that doesn't mean the research is completely useless.
"Nonetheless, our qualitative analysis serves as a basis for the construction of more realistic models with realistic quantitative behavior," the paper reads.
In short, we still don't know the ultimate fate of our universe, but we might be getting closer to an answer.
READ MORE: Dark energy could lead to a second (and third, and fourth) Big Bang, new research suggests [LiveScience]
More on the Big Bang: Scientists Say Stuff Might Have Been Happening Before the Big Bang
The post More Big Bangs Could Be Coming Up, Scientists Say appeared first on Futurism.
There appears to finally be a cure for
— and yes, there is a purchase required.
In an interview with The Atlantic, University of Texas at San Antonio professor and hiccup expert Ali Seifi sings the praises of his patented device, the HiccAway.
While humanity has long been plagued by these phantom spasms, medical science still struggles to explain their cause. We do know, however, what happens to the body when hiccups occur — and it's treating those symptoms that Seifi is after.
The gist goes like this: our diaphragms spasm, which causes both a rapid inhalation of air and a sudden closing of the glottis, which is the medical term for the space between vocal cords — that "hic" sound that accompanies hiccups comes from the glottis, The Atlantic notes — and then the lengthy vagus nerve, which runs from the brain to the chest and diaphragm, makes the spasms repeat.
Seifi's device, which is admittedly a fancy straw that he says provides the exact right amount of pressure to stop hiccups, was created after the neurointensivist (say that five times fast and it may just cure your hiccups) studied existing remedies to see which ones worked best.
"All of the current home remedies have science behind them," the good doctor told The Atlantic. "All of them are valid!"
The $14 HiccAway straw, which has a small hole at the bottom and a larger one at the top, builds on those home remedies by using a physics trick known as Bernoulli's Principle, The Atlantic notes, but in reverse.
"Imagine you have a water hose and you open the faucet," Seifi told the magazine. "If you put half your thumb in front of the hose, the flow stays the same, but by changing the diameter the speed of the fluid changes; it ejects more."
As the patent application for the HiccAway notes, the exact science at play with the magic straw requires a lot of physics and diaphragm pressure language best left to the experts.
"The creator of HiccAway has already figured out all of the details, you just have to use this groundbreaking hiccup treatment to understand that it doesn't matter how it works," the patent application reads, "just that it works."
The product has already picked up some high-profile boosters. Last year, Seifi appeared on "Shark Tank" and convinced Mark Cuban to pony up an investment of $250,000.
Until someone sends us a HiccAway straw to test for ourselves, we'll have to take their word for it — but as with anyone else who's ever suffered a maddening bout of hiccups, we'll try anything.
More on body hacks: Scientists Growing Skin That Can Be Slipped on Like a Glove
The post Scientist Says He's Invented a Cure for Hiccups appeared first on Futurism.
Nature, Published online: 24 February 2023; doi:10.1038/d41586-023-00577-1A machine with a grasp of cause and effect could learn more like a human, through imagination and regret.
Nature Communications, Published online: 24 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36844-yAuthor Correction: Massively parallel interrogation of protein fragment secretability using SECRiFY reveals features influencing secretory system transit
- Under Governor Ron DeSantis, Florida has passed sweeping laws that limit what schools can teach about topics such as gender, sexuality, and race .
The past few years have seen an intensifying of the ways politics can intervene in education, including the censorship of books. Lawmakers in Texas have made repeated pushes to restrict the books that kids can access in schools. Leaders in other states across the country have done the same, including in Tennessee, where one local school board infamously banned Maus, a graphic novel that brutally—but honestly—depicts the Holocaust. Under Governor Ron DeSantis, Florida has passed sweeping laws that limit what schools can teach about topics such as gender, sexuality, and race. In January, the state even opposed a whole course, AP African American Studies. (The class's curriculum has since been revised; Florida has not yet said whether it will actually impose the ban.)
The central issue in many of the recent restrictions is how to teach our country's history. Although memorizing dates and names can lead students to believe that the subject comprises a series of simple facts about clear-cut events, the truth about the past is much more tangled. Textbooks have long been skewed or have contained errors: In his book Lies My Teacher Told Me, James Loewen analyzes the flaws in a dozen major U.S. history textbooks and provides a sharper retelling of the moments those textbooks distorted. DeSantis also clings to his own version of our past. Take his book, Dreams From Our Founding Fathers, which minimizes the role of slavery in America's founding and idealizes the men who first governed the country. As David Waldstreicher writes, DeSantis seems to advocate for "never bringing up slavery or race except to praise those who ended it."
Florida professors are already beginning to worry about how restrictions on what they can teach might threaten their syllabi, whether they cover the Harlem Renaissance or William Faulkner; at least one professor has canceled two of his courses entirely. What students are—and aren't—taught influences the world in ways that ripple far beyond any one seminar discussion. As the historian Carter G. Woodson put it in his book The Mis-education of the Negro, "There would be no lynching if it did not start in the schoolroom."
Every Friday in the Books Briefing, we thread together Atlantic stories on books that share similar ideas. Know other book lovers who might like this guide? Forward them this email.
When you buy a book using a link in this newsletter, we receive a commission. Thank you for supporting The Atlantic.
What We're Reading
Roger Ressmeyer / Corbis / VCG / Getty
Book bans are targeting the history of oppression
"What these bans are doing is censoring young people's ability to learn about historical and ongoing injustices."
Marion Doss / Flickr
History class and the fictions about race in America
"In history class students typically 'have to memorize what we might call "twigs." We're not teaching the forest—we're not even teaching the trees,' said [James] Loewen, best known for his 1995 book Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. 'We are teaching twig history.'"
📚 Lies My Teacher Told Me, by James Loewen
Octavio Jones / Getty; The Atlantic
The forgotten Ron DeSantis book
"His entire reading of American history is enveloped in both unquestioning fealty to the Founders and an insistence that the role of slavery, and race more broadly, in that history does not seriously change anything about how we should understand the birth and development of our country."
📚 Dreams From Our Founding Fathers, by Ron DeSantis
Tyler Comrie / The Atlantic
'Most important, we must not upset DeSantis'
"DeSantis isn't trying to expunge ideology from education, only ideologies he dislikes, ones that see racism as woven through American institutions or that emphasize diversity, equity, and inclusion instead of merit and color-blindness."
📚 Go Down, Moses, by William Faulkner
Getty; The Atlantic
The book that exposed anti-Black racism in the classroom
"What does it mean to base the education of Black students on an interpretation of human experience and a set of philosophies and ethics that justified the plunder of Africa and the enslavement of Black people?"
📚 The Mis-education of the Negro, by Carter G. Woodson
About us: This week's newsletter is written by Kate Cray. The book she's reading next is The Rabbit Hutch, by Tess Gunty.
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Scientists studying the Permian-Triassic mass extinction find ecosystems can suddenly tip over
The steady destruction of wildlife can suddenly tip over into total ecosystem collapse, scientists studying the greatest mass extinction in Earth's history have found.
Many scientists think the huge current losses of biodiversity are the start of a new mass extinction. But the new research shows total ecosystem collapse is "inevitable", if the losses are not reversed, the scientists said.Continue reading…
Gigantic Gas Giant
Astronomers at the Carnegie Institution for Science have discovered a highly unusual "forbidden" gas giant exoplanet — a cosmic monster so comically gigantic, at a quarter the size of its host star, that it defies our current classification system.
The baffling discovery could even challenge what we know about how planets are formed.
"Based on our nominal current understanding of planet formation, TOI-5205b should not exist; it is a 'forbidden' planet," said Shubham Kanodia, team lead, and Carnegie astronomer, in a statement.
As detailed in a new paper published in The Astronomical Journal, the planet in question orbits a tiny red dwarf star called TOI-5205, one of the most common types of stars in our galaxy.
While these hot and long-lasting stars are known to host planets, they're typically unlikely to host gas giants of any considerable size.
But the researchers' discovery, the star's gas giant dubbed TOI 5205b, is simply far bigger than it ought to be, at roughly a quarter the size of its host star.
The researchers were taken aback by the planet, first identified by NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS).
"The host star, TOI-5205, is just about four times the size of Jupiter, yet it has somehow managed to form a Jupiter-sized planet, which is quite surprising!" said Kanodia in a statement.
It's not the first gas giant to have been discovered orbiting a red dwarf star of this size. But TOI-5025b is simply far bigger than anything found previously, defying our existing models.
In fact, it blocks a whopping seven percent of its star when passing in front of it, which also happens to make it the perfect candidate to be observed by NASA's James Webb Space Telescope.
"TOI-5205b's existence stretches what we know about the disks in which these planets are born," Kanodia said. "In the beginning, if there isn't enough rocky material in the disk to form the initial core, then one cannot form a gas giant planet."
"And at the end, if the disk evaporates away before the massive core is formed, then one cannot form a gas giant planet," he added.
READ MORE: "Forbidden" planet orbiting small star challenges gas giant formation theories [Carnegie]
More on planets: NASA Scientist Calls for Exploration of Uranus
The post Scientists Find Gigantic Planet a Quarter the Size of Its Star appeared first on Futurism.
Studying the mutations in kidney cancer after surgery could help to better predict the risk of the disease coming back, according to the latest results of a decade-long international study.
The research is the largest to link the genetic changes that occur in kidney cancer to patient outcomes.
More than 400,000 people are diagnosed with kidney cancer each year globally, including 8,100 in Canada and 81,800 in the United States.
"Our research shows that it may be possible to improve the way we determine risk in each patient by looking at the genetic mutations present in their cancer," says Yasser Riazalhosseini, assistant professor of human genetics and head of cancer genomics at the Victor Phillip Dahdaleh Institute of Genomic Medicine at McGill University.
"Mutation analysis using DNA sequencing is already being used to help patients with other types of cancer and could be readily applied to patients with kidney cancer," he adds.
For the study in Clinical Cancer Research, the researchers looked at changes in the DNA of more than 900 of kidney cancer samples, and identified four groups of patients based on the presence of mutations in 12 specific genes within the DNA. The team also looked at whether the cancer had recurred in each of these patients.
The researchers found some 91% of patients in one mutation group remained disease-free five years after surgery, meaning patients in this group may potentially avoid unnecessary treatment.
Meanwhile, the percentage of patients in a different mutation group who remained disease-free at five years was much lower, at 51%. This identified them as requiring more aggressive treatment.
Currently, doctors assess the risk of kidney cancer returning by looking at features like the size of the tumor and how aggressive it appears under a microscope. With up to 30% of localized
returning after surgery, more accurate methods of assessing this risk are needed, so patients who do not need further treatment can be spared it, say the researchers.
"Accurately determining the risk of cancer
is very important. It helps us identify how often patients need to be seen by their doctors and decide who to treat with immunotherapy," says Naveen Vasudev, associate professor in medical oncology at the University of Leeds Institute of Medical Research.
"This treatment has recently been shown to reduce the chances of the cancer coming back but can cause side-effects. The danger currently is that some patients may be over-treated, so being able to better identify patients at low risk of recurrence is important."
The results of this research mean that tumor DNA sequencing may provide a more effective way to predict a patient's risk of kidney cancer recurrence. This could, in the future, lead to more personalized treatment for kidney cancer.
"Development of new treatments for kidney cancer has lagged behind other
and we largely continue to adopt a 'one size fits all' approach," Vasudev says.
"Genomics—the study of genes and how they interact with each other—is a key area of development in patient care. Here we show how genomics might be applied to patients with kidney cancer, potentially creating more personalized treatment options for thousands of patients each year," he says.
Additional coauthors are from the University of Leeds and McGill.
Source: McGill University
The post Kidney cancer mutations could predict recurrence risk appeared first on Futurity.
Efter en skada i korsbandet kan kontrollen över rörelserna försämras, visar en avhandling. Det kan öka risken för upprepade knäskador.
Inlägget Sämre kontroll över rörelser kan leda till nya knäskador dök först upp på forskning.se.
Scientific Reports, Published online: 24 February 2023; doi:10.1038/s41598-023-30146-5Two-year outcomes of treat-and-extend regimen with intravitreal brolucizumab for treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration with type 1 macular neovascularization
A new study finds that the Affordable Care Act helps agricultural workers get better medical care—and avoid the ER.
More than 2.5 million agricultural workers help maintain the United States' abundant food supply. They play a vital role in the economy, but their job is hard and often dangerous.
"Everything from the heavy machinery they use to the pesticides and other chemicals that they're exposed to make it easy to get hurt on the job," says Kwabena B. Donkor, an assistant professor of marketing at Stanford Graduate School of Business and a fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
This low-income, largely immigrant workforce has some of the worst health outcomes in the US. Traditionally, farm workers have had difficulty getting routine preventive care because they're often itinerant, working for a succession of employers who don't provide health benefits.
"By the time they get to a physician, whatever health problems they're dealing with are often far along," Donkor says.
Farm workers who don't seek treatment until their symptoms are too severe to ignore often check into emergency rooms, which are required under federal law to treat anyone, even if they are uninsured.
Fewer workers skip health care
The Affordable Care Act, (ACA) the sweeping package of health care reforms signed into law by President Barack Obama in 2010, was designed to bring health insurance and medical care to millions of people who previously could not access them.
"If you want a poster child for the sort of person that the ACA is intended to help, that would be a seasonal farm worker," Donkor says.
Donkor wanted to find out what effect the ACA has had on the health of this chronically underserved group. As he explains, one of the key unanswered empirical questions about the ACA was how its benefits would affect the behavior of previously uninsured people.
Would they visit ERs less because they were receiving preventive care, as the law's authors had hoped? Or would they go to the ER more often because they would assume that their insurance would cover the cost? Both scenarios were plausible, Donkor notes.
In the new paper, Donkor and colleagues conclude that Obamacare is helping farmworkers in a significant way—while also reducing economic stress on the health care system. The researchers found Obamacare has not only substantially raised the share of seasonal farm workers with medical insurance, it also has increased their use of preventive medical care and decreased their use of hospitals, including emergency care.
The study looked at 2,265 adult farm workers from 2010 to 2016. Donkor and coauthor Jeffrey M. Perloff, a professor in the agricultural and resource economics department at the University of California, Berkeley, calculated that a quarter had preexisting conditions that might have made it difficult for them to afford coverage before health care reform.
"One of the main selling points of the ACA was that before it was passed, insurance companies could charge you a different premium depending on your health status," Donkor says. "If you had a preexisting condition, you best believe that you were going to have to pay a really high premium." For low-income farm workers, that often put coverage—and preventive care—out of reach.
The study found that farm workers who were eligible for Medicaid, which some states expanded under Obamacare, were around 11% less likely to be uninsured than ineligible workers. Those eligible to buy insurance on Obamacare-sponsored exchanges were 5.5% less likely to lack insurance. The ACA's tax penalty for not having coverage reduced the probability of being uninsured by as much as 8.6%. (Congress eliminated the penalty in 2019.)
The ACA also reduced the likelihood of a farm worker forgoing medical care. Medicaid-eligible farm workers were nearly 19% less likely to go without care; those eligible for an insurance subsidy under the law were nearly 9% less likely. Hospital use, including emergency room visits, decreased by 4.4% for Medicaid-eligible farm workers and 1.5% for those eligible for subsidies.
These effects didn't significantly differ between people with and without preexisting conditions, which suggests that the ACA has benefited farm workers' health across the board.
Good for farm workers, good for all
Getting an accurate picture of the ACA's effect on farm workers was a complex endeavor, which may be why relatively little research had been done on the subject.
"There are a lot of moving parts to the ACA," Donkor says. "And depending upon which state you were in, the law might be applied differently." The law required states to expand Medicaid coverage to low-income households, yet a 2012 Supreme Court decision allowed some states to opt out of this mandate.
The researchers also had to factor in how the ACA applies to different people. The law requires citizens and legal residents to maintain health insurance but provides subsidies for people who make less than a certain income. "If you have a green card, for example, depending upon how long you've been in the US, you may not qualify for the premium subsidy," Donkor explains.
Donkor would like to see additional research that builds upon these findings. For example, he thinks it's important to take a closer look at farm workers with preexisting conditions to see how they fare over time. Additionally, he'd like to see whether having access to preventive care reduces the percentage of farm workers with chronic health issues—potentially a big win for both the workers and the system that takes care of them.
What's good for farm workers ultimately benefits all of society, Donkor says.
"This has a direct impact on how we manage hospitals," he says. "If you want to lower the burden on our ERs, this could help. If we provide people with what they need, what we're paying in taxes might actually be lower."
Source: Patrick J. Kiger for Stanford University
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