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Vejdirektoratet: Selvkørende biler vil øge trængslen med 15 procent
Kapaciteten på vejene vil stige væsentligt, når vores biler kan køre selv. Men voksende trafik vil især i hovedstadsområdet mere end æde gevinsten op.

Bird lovers help scientists discover secrets of beak evolution
Data shows new information about the evolution of bird beaks, report scientists. In their study, 3D scans were logged online by members of the public across the world.

Volunteering eases veterans' transition to civilian life
The first peer-reviewed and published national study of civic service among U.S. vets who served in Iraq and/or Afghanistan found volunteering improved their health and social life.

Matter: The Purpose of Sleep? To Forget, Scientists Say
Two studies suggest that the brain edits itself during sleep, paring back the tangle of neurons that grows in waking hours.

Study points to a universal immune mechanism as a regulator of sleep
Sleep may be regulated in part by several brain-based immune proteins collectively called inflammasome NLRP3, suggests new research conducted in mice.

[Perspective] Synaptic scaling in sleep
Sleep appears to be a universal phenomenon in the animal kingdom (1) and lack of sleep leads to severe cognitive disruption (2). Yet, the biological function of sleep is unknown. On pages 507 and 511 of this issue, de Vivo et al. (3) and Diering et al. (4), respectively, provide a peek into the nightlife of synapses, the neural connections in the nervous system. The studies reveal substantial alte

[This Week in Science] Synapse remodeling during sleep

Scientists Find First Observed Evidence That Our Universe May Be a Hologram
Physicists finds evidence from just after the Big Bang that supports the controversial holographic universe theory.

New way of visualizing fatty acids inside cells
A new method to image intracellular fatty acids at a single cell level has been developed by a team of researchers. They treated cells with fatty acids containing a single bromine atom and used scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy to observe the molecules inside the cells. The technique offers superior resolution. The new method may improve understanding of the role of fatty acids in cell functi

Scientists illuminate role of staph toxins in bacterial sepsis
Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria are a significant concern for hospitalized infants, children and anyone with implanted medical devices. The bacteria can infect the bloodstream causing sepsis. Severe bacterial sepsis is characterized by an extreme immune response, inflammation, reduced blood flow, clotting, and organ failure. A new study is helping scientists to understand this issue.

Peroxide ingestion, promoted by alternative medicine, can be deadly
High-concentration peroxide, sometimes promoted in alternative medicine circles for cleanses or as a so-called 'natural cure,' can lead to numerous life-threatening ailments and death itself, according to a new report.

Chemists unveil versatile new method for making chiral drug molecules
A new technique has been invented for constructing chiral drug molecules, report scientists. Chiral molecules are those whose structural complexity allows them to have mirror-image, "left-handed" and "right-handed" forms. For drug molecules, usually only one of those forms works — the other may even have unwanted side-effects — and thus pharmaceutical chemists have a great need for methods to bu

Pregnant Women Turn to Marijuana, Perhaps Harming Infants
More expectant mothers are using marijuana, believing it safe. But research suggests it may hurt brain development and reduce birth weight.

Here's Why Synthetic Marijuana Isn't Safe
Synthetic marijuana compounds, sometimes called K2 or Spice, are actually chemically different from marijuana, and are more dangerous, according to a new review.

Protein chaperone takes its job seriously
For proteins, this would be the equivalent of the red-carpet treatment: each protein belonging to the complex machinery of ribosomes—components of the cell that produce proteins—has its own chaperone to guide it to the right place at the right time and protect it from harm.

Chemists unveil versatile new method for making chiral drug molecules
Chemists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have invented a new technique for constructing chiral drug molecules.

New scoring system predicts Ebola severity
While Ebola virus disease (EVD) is notorious for being one of the world's most deadly infections, it actually has a wide range of outcomes, where asymptomatic presentation may be as common as fatality. Now, researchers have developed a new scale which can help predict which patients are most at risk of dying from EVD.

Scaled-up malaria control efforts breed insecticide resistance in mosquitoes
A genetic analysis of mosquito populations in Africa shows that recent successes in controlling malaria through treated bednets has led to widespread insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, according to a new study.

Zika virus blindfolds immune alarm cells
Dendritic cells are 'sentinel' cells that alert the rest of the immune system when they detect viral infection. When Zika virus infects them, it shuts down interferon signaling, one route for mustering the antiviral troops. However, another antiviral pathway called RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling is left intact and could be a target for immunity-boosting therapies.

RoboDragonfly: Tiny Backpack Turns Insect into a Cyborg
Engineers have fitted dragonflies with tiny backpack controllers that connect directly to the neurons controlling the insects' flight.

Trump's Hair Growth Medicine: What Is Finasteride?
President Trump uses a hair-loss drug called finasteride, which works by inhibiting the action of a testosterone byproduct at the hair follicle.

The best treatment for laryngeal cancer? This approach helps decide
After a decade of using a novel approach to select patients for laryngeal cancer treatment, researchers are reporting 'exceptional' survival rates nearing 80 percent, even for the most advanced patients.

Political affiliation can predict how people will react to false information about threats
How liberal or conservative a person is predicts how likely they are to believe information about potential hazards, a new study has found.

Common pain relievers may increase heart attack risk during respiratory infections
Widely used pain relievers may increase the risk of a heart attack when used during a cold or flu-like illness, according to a new study. The findings suggest physicians and patients should use caution when prescribing or taking the medications, known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, to ease symptoms of acute respiratory infections.

How breaks in DNA are repaired
The results are significant for gene therapy procedures and for our understanding of cell transformation. A team of researchers has discovered that the processes for repairing DNA damage are far more complex than previously assumed. The ends of breaks in the double helix are not just joined, they are first changed in a meticulously choreographed process so that the original genetic information can

Sleep deprivation handicaps the brain's ability to form new memories, mouse study shows
Studying mice, scientists have fortified evidence that a key purpose of sleep is to recalibrate the brain cells responsible for learning and memory so the animals can 'solidify' lessons learned and use them when they awaken — in the case of nocturnal mice, the next evening.

Sleep research high-resolution images show how the brain resets during sleep
Striking electron microscope pictures from inside the brains of mice suggest what happens in our own brain every day: Our synapses — the junctions between nerve cells — grow strong and large during the stimulation of daytime, then shrink by nearly 20 percent while we sleep, creating room for more growth and learning the next day.

Sleeping Shrinks the Brain … and That's a Good Thing
Sleep provides a time for the brain to prune synapses to ensure only the most important information is retained.

Precision-medicine approach could revive prostate cancer test
A new study has identified genetic predictors of normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in healthy men, which could be used to improve the accuracy of PSA-based prostate cancer screening tests.

Neurobiologist illuminates the underexplored potential of cannabis to address opioid addiction
Cannabinoids, extracts of cannabis legally sold as medical marijuana, could reduce cravings and ease withdrawal symptoms in heroin users, a number of animal studies and a small human pilot study have revealed.

[In Depth] Researchers close in on ancient dinosaur proteins
It's not quite Jurassic Park: No one has revived long-extinct dinosaurs. But two new studies suggest that it is possible to isolate protein fragments from dinosaurs much further back in time than ever thought possible. One study, led by Mary Schweitzer, a paleontologist from North Carolina State University in Raleigh who has chased dinosaur proteins for decades, confirms her highly controversial c

[Feature] On message
Moderna Therapeutics has raised nearly $2 billion on the promise that messenger RNA, the molecule that relays genetic instructions from DNA to a cell's proteinmaking machinery, could be re-engineered into a versatile set of drugs and vaccines. These strands of instructions could teach our cells to make whatever was needed to treat or prevent disease—virus-slaying antibodies, waste-gobbling enzymes

[Perspective] Laser-driven nanoparticle motion in liquids
Laser-driven electron microscopy is an incredibly powerful technique for filming the fastest processes in matter as they occur. A short laser pulse triggers the dynamics of interest, and a delayed electron flash then illuminates the scene for a moment. In this way, no camera shutter is required, and time-frozen snapshots of the action are obtained at a time resolution that is much faster than any

[Special Issue Perspective] Predicting armed conflict: Time to adjust our expectations?
This Essay provides an introduction to the general challenges of predicting political violence, particularly compared with predicting other types of events (such as earthquakes). What is possible? What is less realistic? We aim to debunk myths about predicting violence, as well as to illustrate the substantial progress in this field.

[Special Issue Perspective] Data-driven predictions in the science of science
The desire to predict discoveries—to have some idea, in advance, of what will be discovered, by whom, when, and where—pervades nearly all aspects of modern science, from individual scientists to publishers, from funding agencies to hiring committees. In this Essay, we survey the emerging and interdisciplinary field of the "science of science" and what it teaches us about the predictability of scie

[Special Issue Perspective] Prediction and explanation in social systems
Historically, social scientists have sought out explanations of human and social phenomena that provide interpretable causal mechanisms, while often ignoring their predictive accuracy. We argue that the increasingly computational nature of social science is beginning to reverse this traditional bias against prediction; however, it has also highlighted three important issues that require resolution

[Special Issue Perspective] Predicting human behavior: The next frontiers
Machine learning has provided researchers with new tools for understanding human behavior. In this article, we briefly describe some successes in predicting behaviors and describe the challenges over the next few years.

Nicotine creates a chronic drug memory in the brain
A researcher reports a surprise that came after three months into her study on nicotine abstinence, when lab rats suddenly became fearless and sought out well-lighted areas that prey animals normally avoid. At the same time, signaling in the brain's reward system changed, as shown by a study.

Neuroscience Explains Why We Get Hacked So Easily
A study of how the brain reacts to security alerts led Google to test a new way to warn people that their computers may have been infected with malware.

Researchers engineer new thyroid cells
Researchers have discovered a new efficient way to generate thyroid cells, known as thyrocytes, using genetically modified embryonic stem cells. The findings are the first step to developing a similar protocol using human stem cells that will allow the modeling of thyroid disease to better understand its causes and the development of therapies.

Scientific team describes a new molecular mechanism to fight bacterial infections
A new antibacterial mechanism has been identified that protects macrophages – defense cells in the immune system – from the infection of the bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a pathogen associated with several gastrointestinal diseases. This discovery, carried out with mice, could open new exploration channels for pharmacological treatments of some bacterial infections.

Trump Immigration Ban May Threaten International Work on Disease
The ensuing damage to scientific collaboration puts the U.S. at risk, researchers say —

Deadly new wheat disease threatens Europe's crops
Researchers caution that stem rust may have returned to world's largest wheat-producing region

Scientists Protest Trump Order with Boycotts of Journals, Conferences
More than 4,500 academics have pledged to skip U.S.-based meetings —

E-Cigarette Smoking May Be Bad for Your Heart
A new study finds that certain markers for heart disease risk are higher in e-cigarette users than in nonusers.

Human stem cells hunt down and kill brain cancer
In a rapid-fire series of breakthroughs in just under a year, researchers have made another advance in the development of an effective treatment for glioblastoma, a common and aggressive brain cancer. The work, published in the journal Science Translational Medicine , describes how human stem cells, made from human skin cells, can hunt down and kill human brain cancer, a critical and monumental s

Study helps explain why uranium persists in groundwater at former mining sites
A recent study helps describe how uranium cycles through the environment at former uranium mining sites and why it can be difficult to remove.

Lung cancer screening rates remain very low among current and former smokers
Lung cancer screening rates remained very low and unchanged among eligible populations in 2015, despite recommendations that high risk current and former smokers be screened, report researchers.

Scaling Properties of Human Brain Functional Networks
We investigate scaling properties of human brain functional networks in the resting-state. Analyzing network degree distributions, we statistically test whether their tails scale as power-law or not. Initial studies, based on least-squares fitting, were shown to be inadequate for precise estimation of power-law distributions. Subsequently, methods based on maximum-likelihood estimators have been p

Heterogeneous gain distributions in neural networks I:The stationary case
We study heterogeneous distribution of gains in neural fields using techniques of quantum mechanics by exploiting a relationship of our model and the time-independent Schr"{o}dinger equation. We show that specific relationships between the connectivity kernel and the gain of the population can explain the behavior of the neural field in simulations. In particular, we show this relationships for t

Learning Criticality in an Embodied Boltzmann Machine
Many biological and cognitive systems do not operate deep into one or other regime of activity. Instead, they exploit critical surfaces poised at transitions in their parameter space. The pervasiveness of criticality in natural systems suggests that there may be general principles inducing this behaviour. However, there is a lack of conceptual models explaining how embodied agents propel themselve

Information-theoretic interpretation of tuning curves for multiple motion directions
We have developed an efficient information-maximization method for computing the optimal shapes of tuning curves of sensory neurons by optimizing the parameters of the underlying feedforward network model. When applied to the problem of population coding of visual motion with multiple directions, our method yields several types of tuning curves with both symmetric and asymmetric shapes that resemb

Cable equation for general geometry
The cable equation describes the voltage in a straight cylindrical cable, this model has been employed to model electrical potential in dendrites and axons. However, sometimes this equation might give incorrect predictions for some realistic geometries, in particular when the radius of the cable changes significantly. Cables with a non constant radius are important for some phenomena, for example

High levels of hospital-acquired infection on children's intensive care wards, study shows
A study has demonstrated 'unacceptably high' rates of hospital-acquired infections among children in the UK and Europe.

Shedding light on the brakes of Akt activity
Changes leading to the hyperactivation of the protein kinase Akt are observed in almost 50% of all human tumors. Understanding Akt's regulatory mechanisms is therefore essential for developing and improving cancer therapies. Researchers propose a completely new model of Akt regulation, limiting its activity to discrete locations within the cell – cellular membranes.

Baltic hunter-gatherers began farming without influence of migration, ancient DNA suggests
Ancient DNA analyses show that — unlike elsewhere in Europe — farmers from the Near East did not overtake hunter-gatherer populations in the Baltic. This research suggests the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family originated in the Steppe grasslands of the East.

Time for Snap to Prove It's Bigger Than Snapchat
It's very important to Snap Inc. that you understand it's not a social networking app or a messaging service. It's something else. It's a camera company

Over 80% of online ad effect is on offline sales
Online display ads can increase both online and offline retail sales, providing valuable insight for future marketing decisions, say investigators.

Unhealthy gut microbes a cause of hypertension, researchers find
The microorganisms residing in the intestines (microbiota) play a role in the development of high blood pressure in rats, researchers have discovered.

Quantum matter: Shaken, but not stirred
A team of researchers has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces.

Treatment has no sufficient effect in one of five psoriasis patients
A substantial part of people, one in five, undergoing systemic treatment for psoriasis (i.e. pills taken orally, injections or infusions) still have considerable problems with their disease, according to a recent study.

Three magnetic states for each hole: Researchers investigate the potential of metal grids for electronic components
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing, say scientists who have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ('antidot') three magnetic states can be configured.

Why aren't we gene editing people to be my size?
Kiruna Stamell, a dwarf, explains her problem with gene editing.

Battling corrosion to keep solar panels humming
Researchers are studying corrosion to help industry develop longer-lasting photovoltaic panels and increase reliability.

Polling is still best predictor of election outcomes, study suggests
Donald Trump's surprising election as president of the United States was viewed by some people as evidence that electoral polling no longer works, but researchers report they have developed models using global polling data that can correctly predict up to 90 percent of election outcomes around the world.

1000 times more efficient nano-LED opens door to faster microchips
The electronic data connections within microchips are increasingly becoming a bottleneck in the exponential growth of data traffic. Optical connections are the obvious successors but optical data transmission requires an adequate nanoscale light source, and this has been lacking. Scientists have created a light source that has the right characteristics: a nano-LED that is 1000 times more efficient

Research pushes concept of entropy out of kilter
Entropy isn't well understood in systems that aren't at equilibrium, but a new experiment shows a non-equilibrium phenomenon that actually depends upon entropy.

Trilobites: No End in Sight for a Hawaii Volcano's Ocean Lava Show
Streams like the one from the Kilauea volcano usually last a day or two, but this one has flowed since New Year's Eve. And visitors have to keep their distance.

Most People Consider Themselves to Be Morally Superior. A "self-enhancement" effect that can have negative consequences for all of us.

By Degrees: Republicans Try a New Tack on Climate Change
Trump cabinet nominees offer a more nuanced view of climate change: The Earth is warming, but the impact of human activities remains uncertain.

The ABCs of Science: Always Be Communicating
A case for rebranding. Scientists have some perception problems. The first is how the public perceives scientists, by turns as smart, but not very trustworthy or as politically motivated [although this survey reported a more favorable outlook]. The second is how scientists perceive the public, as knowledge-poor citizens who, if presented with enough scientific evidence, will align their […]

Here's How Camping Helps You Fall Asleep
For people who have trouble falling asleep, a weekend camping trip could help, a new study finds.

Dutch Zoo Tests 'Tinder for Orangutans' Mating Program
It's not as simple as asking an orangutan to swipe right or left.

Mathematically optimizing traffic lights in road intersections
Traffic modeling has been of interest to mathematicians since the 1950s. Research in the area has only grown as road traffic control presents an ever-increasing problem.

Smile! New Bucktoothed Ghost Shark Species Discovered
A previously unknown ghost shark with rabbit-like teeth and a bulky head is making waves in record books; it's the 50th ghost shark species known to science, a new study reported.

Publisher Opens Its GDC Space to Developers Stranded by Trump's Travel Ban
In response to President Trump's travel ban, videogame publisher Devolver Digital is opening up their display space at GDC to affected developers

A Better Way to Eliminate the Terrorist Threat? Ban All Travel from European Countries
A ban on fast food would save multitudes more than the travel ban ever could.

Change in astronaut's gut bacteria attributed to spaceflight
Northwestern University researchers studying the gut bacteria of Scott and Mark Kelly, NASA astronauts and identical twin brothers, as part of a unique human study have found that changes to certain gut "bugs" occur in space.

Wetlands play vital role in carbon storage, study finds
Human activity and development are correlated with reduced carbon storage in wetland soils, a new study published in Nature Communications shows.

The Arctic's Anti-Snowball Snowball Effect
Arctic heat waves melt sea ice, which promotes more warming and even more ice loss. In other words, it's a snowball effect—or in this case, an anti-snowball effect. Julia Rosen reports. —

Rock Out in a Perfectly Restored Range Rover for Just $170K
Time to reconnect with the past—and probably your mechanic

Want to Talk Politics and Not Start a Fight? Try Call-In Radio
Don't want to discuss President Trump's Supreme Court nominee with your neighbor? Call 844-745-TALK instead

The EPA Has Started to Remove Obama-Era Information
Federal climate plans created under the former president, tribal assistance programs and references to international cooperation have been stricken from the EPA's Web site —

Drought-easing California snow heaviest in 22 years
Clambering through a snowy meadow with drifts up to the tree branches, California's water managers measured the state's vital Sierra Nevada snowpack Thursday at a drought-busting and welcome 173 percent of average.

This Robot Will Carry Your Stuff and Follow You Around
Vespa maker Piaggio's new robot servant is yet another sign of the transportation industry reinventing itself.

Research pushes concept of entropy out of kilter
Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone.

World's tiniest hammer helps researchers see what happens when force is applied to brain cells
We're all pretty familiar with what happens when we sustain a knock on the head: First, the all-too-audible crack, accompanied perhaps by a moment of surprise. Then, the swelling and, if we're lucky, just a minor bump or scrape.

Ceres' ice volcanoes might have oozed into oblivion
Space Given time, solid objects can actually flow Scientists think they know why Ceres only has one cryovolcano: the other cryovolcanoes were destroyed.

Lost songs of Holocaust found in University of Akron archives
In the final months of World War II, as Allied Forces began to liberate the prisoners of Nazi concentration camps, they captured on film the horrors they saw around them. Soon, the whole world saw—images of skeletal survivors bearing silent witness to what they and millions more had been forced to endure.

Toward all-solid lithium batteries
A new study unravels the properties of a promising new material for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries, which could be safer and longer-lasting than traditional batteries.

Toxic liver effects of fifteen drugs predicted using computational approach
A team of researchers has used a computational modeling approach to analyze and compare the toxic effects of fifteen different drugs on the liver, according to a new study.

Watch Kilauea's Lava Gush Into the Sea Like a Waterfall
Lava flows continues to pour into the Pacific in Hawaii, creating stunning red-hot fountains

New skin-graft system a better fix for chronic wounds
More than six million cases of chronic wounds cost $20 billion each year in the United States. Diabetic ulcers, pressure sores, surgical site wounds and traumatic injuries to high-risk patients account for most wounds that won't heal. However, data indicates that a recently developed skin-graft harvesting system aids in chronic wound recovery and reduces care costs by accelerating the healing proc

Scientists record breach in magnetic field
Scientists in India have recorded the events that unfolded after the Earth's magnetic shield was breached.

Scientists identify key defect in brain tumor cells
Researchers have identified a novel genetic defect that prevents brain tumor cells from repairing damaged DNA.

3,000-Year-Old Tomb of Royal Scribe Uncovered in Egypt
Richly decorated with images of gods, baboons and mortals alike, the burial chamber of a royal scribe dates back to the Ramesside period, around 1200 B.C.

[Research Article] Coupling organelle inheritance with mitosis to balance growth and differentiation
Balancing growth and differentiation is essential to tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. How imbalances arise in disease states is poorly understood. To address this issue, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in mouse basal epidermal progenitors versus their differentiating progeny and those altered in cancers. We used an in vivo RNA interference screen to unveil candidates that a

[Editorial] Informing policy with science
We recently witnessed the peaceful—if controversial—transition of the United States presidency. As with any major change in federal government, the scientific community has concerns about new directions and priorities that may affect the way science is conducted, funded, and used in the United States and elsewhere. Of particular note with this new administration are concerns that President Trump m

[In Brief] News at a glance
In science news around the world, the critically endangered saiga antelope faces a new threat from a livestock virus in Mongolia, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation gives a global health trends institute at the University of Washington a big financial boost, Russia's health ministry decides the country cannot afford to spend $1.2 billion to ramp up the response to its burgeoning HIV/AIDS epidemic

[In Depth] Immigration order threatens overseas talent
Last week, President Donald Trump issued an executive order barring the entry of any citizen from seven mostly Muslim nations for 90 days while procedures for more-rigorous vetting of visa applicants are put in place. The order sparked chaos at airports in the United States and abroad, as dozens of academics and others with valid U.S. entry documents were not allowed to board U.S.-bound flights or

[In Depth] Mexican scientists feel the Trump effect
Two weeks into the presidency of Donald Trump, waves of angst are sweeping through the Mexican science community. The peso has plummeted against the dollar, affecting the value of grants: Mexican scientists purchase most of the research materials and equipment they use from the United States. Trump's insistence on building a border wall and making Mexico pay for it has made scientists nervous abou

[In Depth] U.S. observers seek a more perfect union
The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is aiming to merge some functions of its three largest optical observatories within a new body called the National Center for Optical and Infrared Astronomy. The new center would provide services to the Gemini Observatory (with twin 8.1-meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile), the National Optical Astronomy Observatory with a handful of telescopes in Chile

[In Depth] GPS satellites yield space weather data
It's not often that a scientific discipline gains a 23-satellite constellation overnight. But this week, space weather scientists reaped such a windfall as the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico released 16 years of radiation measurements recorded by GPS satellites. Scientists who study space weather have long sought data from sensors that monitor the status of these satellites, which op

[In Depth] Mars rover steps up hunt for molecular signs of life
Well into its fifth year on Mars, NASA's Curiosity rover has one vital tool that it has yet to deploy: a set of nine stainless steel thimbles, filled with solvent, that are the mission's best shot for detecting signs of ancient martian life. The team behind the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument has already made remarkable discoveries, including recent signs that organic molecules may be more comm

[Perspective] Restoring tropical forests from the bottom up
Recent initiatives at regional, national, and global scales have called for unprecedented levels of forest restoration to counteract decades of rapid deforestation (1, 2). Thus far, 30 countries have committed to restore 91 million hectares (ha) of deforested landscapes, an area the size of Venezuela, by 2020; at the 2014 United Nations Climate Summit, a global target of 350 million ha was set for

[Perspective] Organelle inheritance—what players have skin in the game?
The concept of a checkpoint that monitors chromosome attachment to microtubules, and the discovery of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint proteins constituted a major milestone in understanding eukaryotic cell division (1). Chromosomes, however, are not the only constituents that have to be partitioned. Membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, endosomes, an

[Perspective] Chromosome stitch-up?
Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are ring-shaped protein machines that have ubiquitous, ancient, and important roles in chromosome management (1, 2). In Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and probably most bacteria, functional SMC complexes ensure proper chromosome segregation (3–8). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SMC action have remained elusive. On page 524 o

[Retrospective] Vera Cooper Rubin (1928—2016)
Vera Rubin, who died on 25 December 2016, was a force of nature. More importantly, she was a student of nature. It was her careful study of the motion of stars that convinced astronomers that there was more to galaxies than met the eye. Astronomers say she discovered compelling evidence for "dark matter." Vera would have said that she was just an observer reporting the data and that it was possibl

[Book Review] Ebola: A postmortem
In The Politics of Fear, experts and aid workers use personal experience and the organization's archives to examine the course of the West African Ebola epidemic and the factors that drove and sustained it. The book focuses on four critical aspects of the epidemic: the public reaction to the outbreak, the organizations and individuals who responded to it, how care was delivered, and the containmen

[Book Review] Our best shot
Meredith Wadman's meticulously researched and carefully crafted book, The Vaccine Race, is an enlightening telling of the development of vaccines in the mid-20th century. Drawing from firsthand interviews, personal correspondence, journal articles, and governmental archival documents, Wadman relates the work of the brilliant scientists who toiled for years to develop vaccines against diseases incl

[Special Issue News] The pulse of the people
Could online data enhance polling as a forecasting tool, or even replace it? Polling, whether done by phone or door-to-door, is labor intensive and expensive. And response rates have fallen to single digits, leaving pollsters to rely on a thin and biased sample. By contrast, analyzing tweets, for instance, allows researchers to track the political opinions of millions of people directly, second by

[Special Issue Perspective] Bringing probability judgments into policy debates via forecasting tournaments
Political debates often suffer from vague-verbiage predictions that make it difficult to assess accuracy and improve policy. A tournament sponsored by the U.S. intelligence community revealed ways in which forecasters can better use probability estimates to make predictions—even for seemingly "unique" events—and showed that tournaments are a useful tool for generating knowledge. Drawing on the lit

[Special Issue Perspective] Beyond prediction: Using big data for policy problems
Machine-learning prediction methods have been extremely productive in applications ranging from medicine to allocating fire and health inspectors in cities. However, there are a number of gaps between making a prediction and making a decision, and underlying assumptions need to be understood in order to optimize data-driven decision-making.

[This Week in Science] Sensitive skin for feeling the heat

[This Week in Science] Ultrafast studies using liquid cells

[This Week in Science] Protected from atherosclerosis by TFEB

[This Week in Science] Using global data for election predictions

[This Week in Science] Expressed preferences among methyl groups

[This Week in Science] The yeast mitoribosome

[This Week in Science] Tethering DNA for packing purposes

[This Week in Science] Getting a sense of atomically thin materials

[This Week in Science] Peroxisome inheritance and differentiation

[This Week in Science] Activating DNA repair

[This Week in Science] From lofty goals to on-the-ground success

[This Week in Science] Engineering HIV immunity

[This Week in Science] Stem cells on a mission

Interglacial Neanderthal habitats

Regulator loop enabling cancer cell growth

Targeting nitric oxide to treat aneurysm

ERVs affect brain gene expression

Want lower crime? Legalize immigrants

A Neptunian mirror for solar oscillations

Catching a glimpse of an exotic lattice

[Report] Imaging rotational dynamics of nanoparticles in liquid by 4D electron microscopy
In real time and space, four-dimensional electron microscopy (4D EM) has enabled observation of transient structures and morphologies of inorganic and organic materials. We have extended 4D EM to include liquid cells without the time resolution being limited by the response of the detector. Our approach permits the imaging of the motion and morphological dynamics of a single, same particle on nano

[Report] Formation of α-chiral centers by asymmetric β-C(sp3)–H arylation, alkenylation, and alkynylation
The enzymatic β-C–H hydroxylation of the feedstock chemical isobutyric acid has enabled the asymmetric synthesis of a wide variety of polyketides. The analogous transition metal–catalyzed enantioselective β-C–H functionalization of isobutyric acid–derived substrates should provide a versatile method for constructing useful building blocks with enantioenriched α-chiral centers from this abundant C-

[Report] Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of an atomically thin material using a single-spin qubit
Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer a promising platform for exploring condensed matter phenomena and developing technological applications. However, the reduction of material dimensions to the atomic scale poses a challenge for traditional measurement and interfacing techniques that typically couple to macroscopic observables. We demonstrate a method for probing the properties of 2D materials vi

[Report] Ultrastructural evidence for synaptic scaling across the wake/sleep cycle
It is assumed that synaptic strengthening and weakening balance throughout learning to avoid runaway potentiation and memory interference. However, energetic and informational considerations suggest that potentiation should occur primarily during wake, when animals learn, and depression should occur during sleep. We measured 6920 synapses in mouse motor and sensory cortices using three-dimensional

[Report] Homer1a drives homeostatic scaling-down of excitatory synapses during sleep
Sleep is an essential process that supports learning and memory by acting on synapses through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Using biochemistry, proteomics, and imaging in mice, we find that during sleep, synapses undergo widespread alterations in composition and signaling, including weakening of synapses through removal and dephosphorylation of synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors. The

[Report] Improving election prediction internationally
This study reports the results of a multiyear program to predict direct executive elections in a variety of countries from globally pooled data. We developed prediction models by means of an election data set covering 86 countries and more than 500 elections, and a separate data set with extensive polling data from 146 election rounds. We also participated in two live forecasting experiments. Our

[Report] DNA-PKcs structure suggests an allosteric mechanism modulating DNA double-strand break repair
DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a central component of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), repairing DNA double-strand breaks that would otherwise lead to apoptosis or cancer. We have solved its structure in complex with the C-terminal peptide of Ku80 at 4.3 angstrom resolution using x-ray crystallography. We show that the 4128–amino acid structure comprises three large

[Report] Bacillus subtilis SMC complexes juxtapose chromosome arms as they travel from origin to terminus
Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes play critical roles in chromosome dynamics in virtually all organisms, but how they function remains poorly understood. In the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, SMC-condensin complexes are topologically loaded at centromeric sites adjacent to the replication origin. Here we provide evidence that these ring-shaped assemblies tether the left and right

[Report] The structure of the yeast mitochondrial ribosome
Mitochondria have specialized ribosomes (mitoribosomes) dedicated to the expression of the genetic information encoded by their genomes. Here, using electron cryomicroscopy, we have determined the structure of the 75-component yeast mitoribosome to an overall resolution of 3.3 angstroms. The mitoribosomal small subunit has been built de novo and includes 15S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 34 proteins, i

New test for waterways finds crazy list of pollutants
A new way to test for a wide range of micropollutants in waterways has already turned up a nightmarish cocktail of contaminants. "Water quality monitoring is conventionally done by narrowly investigating one or a few contaminants at a time. We aimed to develop an analytical method that would be as broad as possible," says Damian Helbling, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering

Dwarf planet Ceres may have vanishing ice volcanoes
A recently discovered solitary ice volcano on the dwarf planet Ceres may have some hidden older siblings, say scientists who have tested a likely way such mountains of icy rock — called cryovolcanoes — might disappear over millions of years.

How parenting styles influence our attitudes to marriage
Research from Japan has revealed how different parenting styles can affect marriage rates and desired number of children.

Study suggests polling is still best predictor of election outcomes
Donald Trump's surprising election as president of the United States was viewed by some people as evidence that electoral polling no longer works, but researchers report they have developed models using global polling data that can correctly predict up to 90 percent of election outcomes around the world.

Female beauty does more than snag a mate
Female beauty in nature may have less to do with attracting the opposite sex than previously thought. A new mathematical model suggests that romantic attention, by itself, is not enough to give attractive females an evolutionary edge over their plainer counterparts—even when those good looks help them find superior mates. The findings, published in the journal Evolution , show that for females, t

WATCH: In Hawaii, A 'Firehose' Of Lava Pours Into The Ocean
Researchers have captured dramatic footage of a tube of red-hot lava plummeting down a cliff into the ocean, sending fragments of lava and clouds of gray smoke into the sky.

Bat drone soars with morphing skeleton and thin skin
A new flying robot mimics the way bats fly with a morphing skeleton and extremely thin skin. Bats have long captured the imaginations of scientists and engineers with their unrivaled agility, but their complex wing motions pose significant technological challenges for those seeking to recreate their flight in a robot. The key flight mechanisms of bats now have been recreated with unprecedented fi

Evaluating a minimally disruptive treatment protocol for frontal sinus fractures
A new article describes the experience with a minimally disruptive treatment protocol for frontal sinus fractures.

Scientists find key cues to regulate bone-building cells
The prospect of regenerating bone lost to cancer or trauma is a step closer to the clinic as scientists have identified two proteins found in bone marrow as key regulators of the master cells responsible for making new bone.

Predator threat boosts friendships among guppies
Danger from predators causes animals to form stronger friendships, according to new research. Scientists observed Trinidadian guppies and found the fish developed stronger and more stable social bonds when they thought predators were in the area.

Overnights at dad's home benefit divorced mothers, fathers and their babies
When children are infants and toddlers, some parents and some prominent psychologists worry that frequent overnights at the father's home might disturb the relationship with mother. But new research shows that children of divorce, no matter what their age, benefit from having parenting time with each parent that includes sleepovers at each house.

Researchers chart global genetic interaction networks in human cancer cells
Genetic networks have been identified in human cells, say researchers, noting that the study has also found potential targets for cancer therapy.

Experiment involving ultracold rubidium lifts off with research rocket
Physicists want to use ultracold gases in space to measure the Earth's gravitational field, to subject Einstein's Equivalence Principle to an accurate test, and also to detect gravitational waves. The first flight in a sounding rocket made it now possible to test the necessary technologies and experimental steps required for measurements of this nature. In doing so, the group generated a Bose-Eins

Scientists utilize innovative neuroimaging approach to unravel complex brain networks
A research team has used an innovative neuroimaging tool to interrogate the complex brain networks and functions.

Astronauters hjerner ændrer form under rumrejser
Hjernescanninger viser, at dele af hjernen udvider og trækker sig sammen.

New Zika vaccine candidate protects mice and monkeys with a single dose
A new Zika vaccine candidate has the potential to protect against the virus with a single dose, according to a research team. Preclinical tests showed promising immune responses in both mice and monkeys.

Marijuana Compound Shows Some Potential for Treating Opioid Addiction
A marijuana ingredient may help heroin users resist the urge to use the drug and alleviate withdrawal symptoms, but more research should be done in this area, researchers say.

Cosmic test backs 'quantum spookiness'
Physicists harness starlight to support the case for entanglement

The drugs don't work, say back pain researchers
Commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, used to treat back pain provide little benefit, but cause side effects, according to new research. The findings of the systematic review reveal only one in six patients treated with the pills, also known as NSAIDs, achieve any significant reduction in pain.

Neuroscience Explains Why We're So Hackable
A study of how the brain reacts to security alerts led Google to test a new way to warn people they may have been infected with malware.

Vi kan da altid stole på eksperimenter og målinger – eller kan vi?
Et adelsmærke for teorier og modeller er, at de stemmer overens med observationer og eksperimenter. Men nogle gange er det faktisk virkeligheden – eller rettere den opfattelse vi har af den – der er galt afmarcheret, og teorierne og modellerne, der er mere korrekte end observationerne.

Facebook Wants to Take Over TV
Because that way, it can do what all lucrative media companies do: deliver you more ads.

Want to fix your sleep schedule? Go camping this weekend.
Health Research suggests that even a winter week under the stars can help reset sleep One of the greatest modern health crises is sleep deprivation. Going camping under the winter sun could help fix the problem—at least temporarily.

More Than 70 Arrests In North Dakota As Pipeline Detractors Weigh Legal Action
Proponents of the Dakota Access Pipeline say final federal permission for the project is assured. The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe says the Army must complete an environmental review already underway.

Why Young Kids Should Spend Equal Time with Divorced Parents
When parents separate or divorce, they often wonder what's best for their young children: should they spend more time with their mother in order to maintain a strong relationship? Or, should time be split equally?

Newfound Asteroid to Buzz Earth Today: See It Live with Slooh
A small asteroid will pass between Earth and the moon today (Feb. 2), only a couple days after astronomers first discovered it. It's one of many small asteroids that have recently sped past the planet, and one of three flying by today, according to NASA.

Rogue Tweeters: A Fight For Narrative Control in the Alternative-Fact World
Regardless of truth, the best storyteller wins: how else could a quarter of Americans, many struggling financially, 'relate' to a billionaire real estate mogul?

Animal Rights Group Says Video Shows Abuse of Sheep
In a segment of the meat business widely considered more humane to its animals, there are accusations of mistreatment at a California plant.

E.U. Looks to China for Climate Leadership
Faced with a possible U.S. retreat on climate efforts, European officials fear a leadership vacuum will embolden those seeking to slow the fight against global warming —

Why the sound of noisy eating fills some people with rage
People with misophonia find sounds like rustling paper or clacking keyboards deeply distressing. Now scans have revealed differences in how their brains work

Spain: 4 engineers investigated over 'Phineas Fisher' hack
Four people are being formally investigated in Spain on suspicion of breaking into a police union website last year, Catalonia's regional police said Thursday.

New research shows Ceres may have vanishing ice volcanoes
A recently discovered solitary ice volcano on the dwarf planet Ceres may have some hidden older siblings, say scientists who have tested a likely way such mountains of icy rock – called cryovolcanoes – might disappear over millions of years.

Baltic hunter-gatherers began farming without influence of migration, ancient DNA suggests
New research indicates that Baltic hunter-gatherers were not swamped by migrations of early agriculturalists from the Middle East, as was the case for the rest of central and western Europe. Instead, these people probably acquired knowledge of farming and ceramics by sharing cultures and ideas—rather than genes—with outside communities.

Researchers engineer new thyroid cells
Researchers have discovered a new efficient way to generate thyroid cells, known as thyrocytes, using genetically modified embryonic stem cells.

Most Americans Think the Benefits of the MMR Vaccine Outweigh Risks
Some groups still have concerns, however, according to a new study from the Pew Research Center —

Time to make sure Europe's troubled satnav system really flies
Europe's costly Galileo satnav network has been branded a vanity project. In an isolationist world, it now seems a wise insurance policy, says Paul Marks

Future of Paris Accord Uncertain as Tillerson Becomes Secretary of State
The lifelong oilman now leads the State Department, which oversees international climate change negotiations, programs to alleviate energy poverty and environmental treaties —

Does a little impulsivity underlie how you think?
A new study shows that some people have a mild but consistent set of tendencies to take the quicker and simpler path when thinking about logical challenges, the people around them, the societies they live in, and even spirituality. In all, researchers studied a total of 8,293 subjects with batteries of quizzes and questionnaires. The data revealed small but significant associations between: prefe

NASA scientist studies whether solar storms cause animal beachings
A long-standing mystery among marine biologists is why otherwise healthy whales, dolphins, and porpoises—collectively known as cetaceans—end up getting stranded along coastal areas worldwide. Could severe solar storms, which affect Earth's magnetic fields, be confusing their internal compasses and causing them to lose their way?

To Live Your Best Life, Do Mathematics
Math conferences don't usually feature standing ovations, but Francis Su received one last month in Atlanta. Su, a mathematician at Harvey Mudd College in California and the outgoing president of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), delivered an emotional farewell address at the Joint Mathematics Meetings of the MAA and the American Mathematical Society in which he challenged the mathem

Are Wormholes a Dead End for Faster-Than-Light Travel?
Portals connecting far-distant regions of the universe may not be just the stuff of science fiction, but they probably couldn't be used for interstellar travel —

Car ban fails to curb air pollution in Mexico city
Banning cars on Saturdays in a heavily polluted city hasn't made the air any cleaner according to new research.

Lasting autistic traits in women with anorexia
Women with anorexia display clear autistic traits, even once the eating disorder is under control and they have achieved a normal weight, according to research. The similarities between anorexia and autism in women are also seen in a part of the brain which process social skills.

Parents of children with serious heart defects may be at risk of PTSD
Many parents — particularly mothers — of children born with serious heart defects have symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety or depression. Since compromised parental mental health can lead to long-term health and behavioral problems in children, a new study calls for additional research on the severity and persistence of parental mental health problems and to develop screening and training

Want to Raise a Smart, Young Scientist? Try This
Amazon introduces a monthly STEM toy subscription box aimed at kids – because we're all born curious.

Physicists Call for a Soccer-Field-Sized Quantum Computer
The proposed system could lead to breakthroughs in currently unsolvable problems —

Powerful Zika vaccine protects mice and monkeys from the virus
Unlike other candidates, a new potential Zika vaccine is so effective that one shot gives enough protection – a key advance, given the virus is here to stay

Research examines for the first time the benefits and costs of novel water reuse systems
The "decentralized" water system at the Center for Sustainable Landscapes (CSL) at Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, which treats all non-potable water on site, contributes to the net-zero building's recognition as one of the greenest buildings in the world. However, research into the efficacy of these systems versus traditional treatment is practically non-existent in the literature. Tha

When SNAP benefits go up, these ER visits go down
In 2014, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), a federal program to address food insecurity in the United States, provided $70 billion in nutrition support to 46.5 million families and children living in 22.7 million American households. Now, a new study shows that SNAP benefits may also help reduce visits to the emergency room, saving money for families, health care facilities, a

Easier to let go: Can depression help people deal with life?
Patients with depression find it easier to abandon unattainable goals, a psychological study has concluded.

Tail of stray black hole hiding in the Milky Way
By analyzing the gas motion of an extraordinarily fast-moving cosmic cloud in a corner of the Milky Way, astronomers found hints of a wandering black hole hidden in the cloud. This result marks the beginning of the search for quiet black holes; millions of such objects are expected to be floating in the Milky Way although only dozens have been found to date.

Discovered: Possible new species of hammerhead shark
Scientists have discovered what they believe to be a new species of hammerhead shark, prompting concerns about the species' vulnerability and whether conservation practices in place today are widespread enough to protect them.

Judge asked to lift hold on Yellowstone dam and protect fish
U.S. officials are pressing a federal judge to lift his 2015 order blocking a proposed irrigation dam and fish passage on the Yellowstone River, warning that a rapidly-disappearing, ancient fish species faces a grim future with further delays to construction.

My son was a Columbine shooter. This is my story | Sue Klebold
Sue Klebold is the mother of Dylan Klebold, one of the two shooters who committed the Columbine High School massacre, murdering 12 students and a teacher. She's spent years excavating every detail of her family life, trying to understand what she could have done to prevent her son's violence. In this difficult, jarring talk, Klebold explores the intersection between mental health and violence, adv

The Download, Feb 2, 2017: A Futuristic Glass Lab, Facebook's TV Dream, and a Giant Quantum Computer
The most fascinating and important news in technology and innovation delivered straight to your inbox, every day.

Defense mechanism employed by algae can effectively inhibit marine fouling
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have developed a method that reliably hinders hazardous seawater fouling and is effective, affordable, and easy on the environment. Fouling can occur, for example, as the result of the growth of bacteria, algae, or mollusks in harbor facilities, on boat hulls, and aquaculture netting. The resultant damage and consequential costs can be signific

Plan to reduce air pollution chokes in Mexico City
Decades ago Mexico City's air pollution was so poor, birds would fall out of the sky—dead. Locals said living there was like smoking two packs of cigarettes a day, according to one report. In response, Mexico City took several steps to try to improve air quality including restricting driving one or two days during the weekdays. The program has had negligible results.

Immune system suppression may be related to problem drinking
Cytokines are small proteins in the immune system that act as chemical messengers between cells. Prior research suggests that pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are dysfunctional during alcohol dependence and may contribute to the progression from healthy to problem drinking. This study compared social and non-dependent problem drinkers on the impact of alcohol-related changes in the body's immu

Simulations reveal the invisible chaos of superluminous supernovae
To better understand the physical conditions that create superluminious supernova, astrophysicists are running 2D simulations of these events using supercomputers at National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and newly developed CASTRO code.

Letting Go: How dying cells detach from their neighbours
Researchers have described how dying cells detach and are expelled from a tissue, and how tissue tension in the region surrounding a dying cell is remodelled.

Addicted individuals less responsive to reward-anticipation
It may be difficult for addicted individuals to learn when they can expect a reward. This learning problem could perhaps explain why they are more prone to addiction and find it difficult to kick the habit. Researchers reached this conclusion on the basis of an extensive meta-analysis of the brain imaging literature.

Antidepressants Induce Resilience and Reverse Susceptibility
When they work, antidepressant medications may take weeks or months to alleviate symptoms of depression. Progress in developing new and more effective antidepressant treatments has been limited, though a new study offers new insights into how antidepressants work.

Italy bows to howls over anti-wolf campaign
Italy on Thursday put on hold a controversial plan to cull five percent of its wolves, much to the relief of environmentalists and animal lovers who had mobilised across the country.

North Korea could test an intercontinental missile this year
Military It's the when, not the what, that's Kim Jong-unknown North Korea might test a intercontinental ballistic missile this year…

Watch Boxer Crabs Get Their Pom-Poms On | Video
These boxer crabs are always observed with a sea anemone on each of their two claws, and now scientists know how they get their pom-poms. They sometimes take an anemone from another boxer crab and then clone it so they have a pair.

Researchers outline new policies for earlier detection of autism in children
The earlier that autism is diagnosed and treated in children, the better outcomes they will experience for future relationships and careers. However, most children aren't detected and diagnosed with ASD until around age four, with children from economically disadvantaged or minority backgrounds detected and diagnosed up to two years later, on average. Researchers recommend that children be univers

With mini-vessels, mini-brains expand research potential
Mini-brains produce networks of capillaries, an important anatomical feature for lab studies of stroke and other circulation-related brain diseases, report invesitagors.

Evidence of 2 billion years of volcanic activity on Mars
Analysis of a Martian meteorite found in Africa in 2012 has uncovered evidence of at least 2 billion years of volcanic activity on Mars. This confirms that some of the longest-lived volcanoes in the solar system may be found on the Red Planet.

Tail of stray black hole hiding in the Milky Way
It is difficult to find black holes, because they are completely black. In some cases black holes cause effects which can be seen. For example if a black hole has a companion star, gas streaming into the black hole piles up around it and forms a disk. The disk heats up due to the enormous gravitational pull by the black hole and emits intense radiation. But if a black hole is floating alone in spa

Shore birds, crocodiles and rare mangroves to be protected by new Ramsar Site in Myanmar
The designation of Meinmahala Kyun as a Wetland of International Importance protects the last wildlife refuge in the Irrawaddy delta, which once supported the largest area of estuary mangroves in mainland Southeast Asia

More efficient nano-LED opens door to faster microchips
The electronic data connections within and between microchips are increasingly becoming a bottleneck in the exponential growth of data traffic worldwide. Optical connections are the obvious successors but optical data transmission requires an adequate nanoscale light source, and this has been lacking. Scientists at Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) now have created a light source that has

A scientific team describes a new molecular mechanism to fight bacterial infections
An international team led by the University if Barcelona has identified a new antibacterial mechanism that protects macrophages from infection by the bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a pathogen associated with several gastrointestinal diseases. This discovery, carried out with mice and published in the journal Cell Reports, is led by Professor Annabel Valledor, from the Faculty of

Systemic racism behind South Africa's failure to transform its economy
South Africa suffers from high levels of poverty, racism and inequality. This can be almost entirely attributed to centuries of conflict between white settlers and indigenous Africans. Apartheid reduced black Africans to the periphery of the economy. Many were condemned to landlessness and poverty.

Bizarre New 'Love' Turntable Rotates on Your Records
Yves Behar designed a record player for the Spotify generation

Study suggests choice between green energy or economic growth
Poverty, unemployment and zero economic growth are the likely outcome for countries which choose renewable energy sources over fossil fuels, according to a study.

How Accurate Are Punxsutawney Phil's Groundhog Day Forecasts?
As legend goes, if Punxsutawney Phil sees his shadow on Groundhog Day, you should expect six more weeks of winter; if he doesn't, plan for spring. Life's Little Mysteries investigates the accuracy of Phil's predictions.

Burgeoning Marijuana Market Prompts Concerns about Crop's Environmental Impact
Outdoor cannabis cultivation in northern California has damaged forestlands and their inhabitants. Will legalization of recreational marijuana make things worse or better? —

How breaks in DNA are repaired
A team of researchers from the biology department at TU Darmstadt has discovered that the processes for repairing DNA damage are far more complex than previously assumed. The ends of breaks in the double helix are not just joined, they are first changed in a meticulously choreographed process so that the original genetic information can be restored. The results have now been published in the resea

3-D terrain visualizations
Imagine a landscape you can hold in your hands and change at will – sculpting topography and directing water flow to solve land-management problems ranging from erosion to wildfire management to national park accessibility.

'Values gap' in workplace can lead millennials to look elsewhere
Much has been made in popular culture about millennials as they join the working world, including their tendency to "job hop." Although this behavior often is explained as a loyalty issue, new research from the University of Missouri reveals one reason young workers choose to leave a firm is because they find a disconnect between their beliefs and the culture they observe in the workplace.

Crowd mapping Geneva Canton's soundscape
EPFL is asking Android users who visit or live in Geneva Canton to record the sounds around them with a special app. The data will be used to create a sound map, which will provide researchers with information on the quality of life there.

Experiments suggest red spot on Pluto may have come about from impact that formed Charon
(—A combined team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has found evidence that suggests Pluto's distinctive red spot may have developed after a massive collision with a comet or other object. In their paper published in the journal Nature Astronomy, the researchers detail experiments they conducted that showed that the red spot on Pluto may have come about due to pools that d

Image: Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite captures Botswana wetlands
A river delta usually leads to the open sea, but the delta formed by the Okavango River is different. After rising in Angola and flowing through Namibia, the river meanders into Botswana, where it branches out to create an inland delta – one of the world's most important wetlands.

UK completes Antarctic Halley base relocation
The British Antarctic Survey shifts its futuristic Halley base to keep it away from a watery grave.

Low level of oxygen in Earth's middle ages delayed evolution for two billion years
A low level of atmospheric oxygen in Earth's middle ages held back evolution for 2 billion years, raising fresh questions about the origins of life on this planet. New research explains how oxygen was trapped at such low levels.

Scientists identify two brain networks influencing how we make decisions
Scientists have pinpointed two distinct mechanisms in the human brain that control the balance between speed and accuracy when making decisions.

Thin, flexible, light-absorbent material for energy and stealth applications
Transparent window coatings that keep buildings and cars cool on sunny days. Devices that could more than triple solar cell efficiencies. Thin, lightweight shields that block thermal detection. These are potential applications for a thin, flexible, light-absorbing material just developed by engineers.

Hjælp ministeren: Stands lastbilchaufførernes snyd med NOx-filtrering
Transportministeren ved ikke, hvordan han kan tjekke lastbiler for snyde-software, der hæmmer den NOx-filtrerende teknologi. Derfor beder vi Ingeniørens læsere komme med forslag til ministeren.

No ink required: paper can be printed with light
(—In an effort to curb the adverse environmental impacts of paper production, researchers in a new study have developed a light-printable paper—paper that can be printed with UV light, erased by heating to 120 °C (250 °F), and rewritten more than 80 times. The secret to printing with light lies in the color-changing chemistry of nanoparticles, a thin coating of which can be easily applied

Cytotoxins contribute to virulence of deadly epidemic bacterial infections
Beginning in the mid-1980s, an epidemic of severe invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), occurred in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere. Potent cytotoxins produced by this human pathogen contribute to the infection, commonly known as 'flesh-eating disease.' A new study reports that the bacteria's full virulence is depend

Marine ecosystems show resilience to climate disturbance
Climate change is one of the most powerful stressors threatening marine biomes. It is hoped that identifying areas of resilience will provide managers valuable decision-making guidance. A survey of 97 coastal ecosystem experts revealed impacts of climate disturbance but also instances of resilience in all ecosystem types evaluated and at multiple locations worldwide.

Where are the EU Twitter communities?
Governments and politicians have attempted to exploit social media for their own ends. However, a study now reveals that governmental Twitter accounts across the European Union have almost totally failed. These accounts do not widely engage members of the public and have not created the "communities" their advocates desired in the quest to elicit public adoption of e-government.

Think States Alone Can't Handle Sea Level Rise? Watch California
The California governor has tasked seven scientists to sift through new projections for sea level rise—and think about what it could mean for the golden state's coast

Drive a Car Like You'd Fly an F-35 With Augmented Reality
A new way of seeing things will change the way you move

How birds evolved such crazy beaks
At the request of researchers, citizen scientists measured bird beak shapes from more than 2,000 bird species that have been 3D-scanned from museum specimens. Using that data, the researchers showed that the diversity of bird beaks expanded early in their evolutionary history. 3D scan of shoebill beak. (Credit: U. Sheffield) (Credit: U. Sheffield) The most unusual beak shapes often involved perio

Galactic X-rays could point to dark matter proof
A small but distinctive signal in X-rays from the Milky Way could be key to proving the existence of dark matter.

Boxer crabs go to crazy lengths to keep a pair of pom-poms
Animals They keep their friends close and their anemones closer Nothing can get between a boxer crab and his sea anemones.

Kaptajn på norsk elfærge lider af rækkeviddeangst
Siden maj 2015 har elfærgen Ampere pløjet sig gennem bølgerne på Sognefjorden i Norge. Kaptajnen er begejstret for at slippe for diesel, støj og vibrationer, men kravet om opladning, hver gang færgen er i havn, kan godt give stress.

Studies Link Some Stomach Drugs to Possible Alzheimer's Disease and Kidney Problems
Doctors and patients are grappling with the unsettling finding that chronic use of popular heartburn medicines may be riskier than was thought —

Fish found to communicate with one another using urine
(—A trio of researchers with the University of Bern in Switzerland has found that at least one species of fish communicates with others of its kind using chemicals in its urine. In their paper published in the journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, the team outlines experiments they conducted with a cichlid fish and what they discovered.

Science and the U.S. Supreme Court: The Cases to Watch in 2017
Drug patents and environmental regulations feature in upcoming court cases as Trump nominates a justice —

Seven heart-healthy habits could save billions in Medicare costs
At least $41 billion annually in Medicare costs could be saved if beneficiaries adopted five to seven of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 healthy habits to reduce cardiovascular disease. Having more 'ideal' Life's Simple 7 factors was associated with a lower risk for hospitalizations and cardiovascular disease-related outpatient physician visits. Health costs were markedly higher f

Food insecurity: A threat to the developmental and psychosocial health of children
Household food insecurity (without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food, even for a temporary period), is associated with children's behavioral, academic and emotional problems beginning as early as infancy.

Cheaper way to make a WHO-designated essential medicine
A fungal form of meningitis leads to more than 600,000 deaths in Africa every year and is responsible for 20 percent of HIV/AIDS-related deaths globally, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An existing medicine could help curb these numbers, but its cost has been a barrier to access in some places. Now, scientists report a more affordable way to make the drug.

Using photography to help the people of Ghana make healthier diet choices
Researchers are hoping photographs taken by women in Ghana of what people eat and drink in their communities will encourage them to make healthier diet choices. Ghana, like many other African countries, is currently experiencing rapid change, a key one being increasing migration to cities.

Fussy ants found to improve chances of finding better new nesting sites
(—A team of researchers with the University of Bristol has found that differences in behavioral traits among ants help when it comes to finding a new nest—at least with rock ants. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the team describes their study of ant behavior in artificial nests, the differences in behavior they found and how they appeared to help them estab

Thoraxkirurg har bygget den gode, elektroniske patientjournal
20 år som thoraxkirurg plus 20 år med sundheds-it har lært Søren Lippert, at den perfekte elektroniske patientjournal nærmest er et fatamorgana. Derfor har han sammen med en it-professor bygget et værktøj, der kan gøre klinikernes oplevelse af systemerne bedre.

Danske æbler er slet ikke særlig danske
Heller ikke Ingrid Marie, der har engelske "forældre", ifølge forskning fra Københavns Universitet.

Review: Dyson Supersonic
The pricey vacuum people have made a pricey hair dryer

Massive Price Hike for Lifesaving Opioid Overdose Antidote
Suddenly in demand, naloxone injector goes from $690 to $4,500 —

Astronauts' brains change shape in space
Astronauts' brains compress and expand in space, MRIs before and after missions show. Researchers say the findings could have implications for treating other health conditions that affect brain function. The study, believed to be the first to examine structural changes during spaceflight shows that the volume of gray matter increased or decreased, and the extent of the alteration depended on the

Electronic cigarettes are not harmless, study shows
A new study has added to growing evidence that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are not harmless.

Battling corrosion to keep solar panels humming
People think of corrosion as rust on cars or oxidation that blackens silver, but it also harms critical electronics and connections in solar panels, lowering the amount of electricity produced.

Sea sponge tool could be key to unlocking new cancer drugs
A tool for identifying sea sponges is helping to strengthen marine conservation efforts while potentially uncovering new compounds for pharmaceutical drugs.

Scientists have simplified the simulation of high-precision optical instruments
Physicists from MIPT and University Jean Monnet (France) have developed a new simulation method for optical elements used in many modern instruments and devices. Their paper, presenting a description of the method which enables complex optical devices to be designed on gaming graphics cards, has been published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer.

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