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Nyheder2018august30

Inch by inch, towards a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Researchers using CRISPR genome editing in a large animal model have boosted expression of the dystrophin gene to levels that could be therapeutic in humans, they say.

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How the poppy evolved its pain-relieving properties

The unveiling of the poppy genome reveals how a collection of genes fused to endow the plant with its pain-relieving compounds; the plant underwent a notable genome duplication event about 7.8 million years ago, the study's authors say.

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Hungry insects threaten food security in a warming climate

As the climate continues to warm, farmers worldwide may experience substantially increased crop losses due to swelling populations of voracious insect pests, particularly in temperate regions where most of the world's grain is grown, researchers suggest.

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Using the past to predict the future of global terrestrial ecosystem change

An analysis of nearly 600 previously published paleoecological records suggests that Earth's terrestrial ecosystems are under risk of major transformation under all but the most aggressive climate mitigation scenarios.

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CRISPR halts Duchenne muscular dystrophy progression in dogs

Scientists for the first time have used CRISPR gene editing to halt the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in a large mammal, according to a study by UT Southwestern that provides a strong indication that a lifesaving treatment may be in the pipeline.

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Global warming: More insects, eating more crops

Rising global temperatures are expected to significantly increase crop losses from insects, especially in temperate regions, a new study finds. Losses for three top staple grains (wheat, rice, maize) are projected to rise by 10-25 percent per degree of warming. A 2-degree rise in global average temperature would result in crop losses of approximately 213 million tons.

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Prehistoric changes in vegetation help predict future of Earth's ecosystems

As the last ice age ended and the planet warmed, Earth's vegetation changed dramatically, according to a new report in Science. Scientists analyzed how vegetation changed after the ice age and also projected how much current ecosystems might change in the 21st century and beyond as global warming progresses. The current warming may drive an equally dramatic change in vegetation within the next 100

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Climate change projected to boost insect activity and crop loss, researchers say

In a paper published Aug. 31, 2018 in the journal Science, a team led by scientists at the University of Washington reports that insect activity in today's temperate, crop-growing regions will rise along with temperatures. Researchers project that this activity, in turn, will boost worldwide losses of rice, corn and wheat by 10-25 percent for each degree Celsius that global mean surface temperatur

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Most land-based ecosystems worldwide risk 'major transformation' due to climate change

Without dramatic reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions, most of the planet's land-based ecosystems — from its forests and grasslands to the deserts and tundra — are at high risk of 'major transformation' due to climate change, according to a new study from an international research team.

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DNA accessibility, gene expression jointly profiled in thousands of cells

A new assay can concurrently trace, in thousands of different cells, the marks that shape what each cell's genome will do — the epigenome — and the copies of the instructions themselves — the transcriptome. The epigenome and transcriptome are part of the molecular biology that converts the genetic blueprint of DNA into tools and materials for living cells.

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Injection wells can induce earthquakes miles away from the well

A study of earthquakes induced by injecting fluids deep underground has revealed surprising patterns, suggesting that current recommendations for hydraulic fracturing, wastewater disposal, and geothermal wells may need to be revised.

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Simple test detects disease-carrying mosquitoes, presence of biopesticide

A new tool uses a smartphone camera, a small 3D-printed box and a simple chemical test to show whether a dead mosquito belongs to the Aedes aegypti species, which carries Zika and other devastating viruses that afflict an estimated 100 million people worldwide each year.

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How damaging immune cells develop during tuberculosis

Insights into how harmful white blood cells form during tuberculosis infection point to novel targets for pharmacological interventions, according to a study published in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Valentina Guerrini and Maria Laura Gennaro of Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, and colleagues.

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Study illustrates challenges of lowering tetanus mortality

The overall mortality in patients suffering non-neonatal tetanus is high. Efforts to reduce mortality in one sub-Saharan African intensive care unit (ICU) by implementing a standard tetanus protocol did little to change mortality rates, although they shifted causes of deaths, researchers have now reported in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.

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Newly developed cellphone-read assay Identifies mosquitoes and Wolbachia

Wolbachia bacteria are widely studied for possible properties to block transmission of viruses like chikungunya, dengue and zika. In a new study with PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, researchers have created a new diagnostic tool using cellphone cameras to test mosquitos for their species type and Wolbachia.

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Unraveling the Genetic Mysteries of the Opium Poppy

Unraveling the Genetic Mysteries of the Opium Poppy For the first time, scientists have sequenced the poppy genome — and found some curious genetics at work. Poppies.jpg Image credits: Susanne Nilsson via Flickr Rights information: CC BY-SA 2.0 Creature Thursday, August 30, 2018 – 14:00 Katharine Gammon, Contributor (Inside Science) — In any list of plants that have had a significant impact on

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Doctors hail breakthrough in muscular dystrophy treatment

Researchers use experimental gene-editing procedure to correct dystrophin gene mutations in dogs Doctors in the US have raised hopes of a treatment for muscular dystrophy, the most common fatal genetic condition in children, after mending mutations that cause the disease in dogs. The landmark study is the first to claim success at treating the muscle wasting disorder in large mammals, though scie

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No Ecosystem on Earth Is Safe From Climate Change

If climate change continues unabated, nearly every ecosystem on the planet would alter dramatically, to the point of becoming an entirely new biome, according to a new paper written by 42 scientists from around the world. They warn that the changes of the next 200 years could equal—and may likely exceed—those seen over the 10,000 years that ended the last Ice Age. If humanity does not stop emitti

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The Very Hot, Very Hungry Caterpillar

Since the dawn of agriculture, humans have been unwillingly nourishing insects by growing plants that they then devour. Their mandibles consume somewhere between 10 and 20 percent of crops produced around the world. And these losses are likely to grow as the world slowly warms. By looking at how insects will respond to rising temperatures, a team of researchers led by Curtis Deutsch and Joshua Te

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News at a glance

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Venoms to the rescue

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CRISPR-Cas guides the future of genetic engineering

The diversity, modularity, and efficacy of CRISPR-Cas systems are driving a biotechnological revolution. RNA-guided Cas enzymes have been adopted as tools to manipulate the genomes of cultured cells, animals, and plants, accelerating the pace of fundamental research and enabling clinical and agricultural breakthroughs. We describe the basic mechanisms that set the CRISPR-Cas toolkit apart from ot

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Emerging applications for DNA writers and molecular recorders

Natural life is encoded by evolvable, DNA-based memory. Recent advances in dynamic genome-engineering technologies, which we collectively refer to as in vivo DNA writing, have opened new avenues for investigating and engineering biology. This Review surveys these technological advances, outlines their prospects and emerging applications, and discusses the features and current limitations of these

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Single-particle cryo-EM–How did it get here and where will it go

Cryo–electron microscopy, or simply cryo-EM, refers mainly to three very different yet closely related techniques: electron crystallography, single-particle cryo-EM, and electron cryotomography. In the past few years, single-particle cryo-EM in particular has triggered a revolution in structural biology and has become a newly dominant discipline. This Review examines the fascinating story of its

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Visualizing and discovering cellular structures with super-resolution microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy has overcome a long-held resolution barrier—the diffraction limit—in light microscopy and enabled visualization of previously invisible molecular details in biological systems. Since their conception, super-resolution imaging methods have continually evolved and can now be used to image cellular structures in three dimensions, multiple colors, and living systems with n

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Casting NETs

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Genomic and epidemiological monitoring of yellow fever virus transmission potential

The yellow fever virus (YFV) epidemic in Brazil is the largest in decades. The recent discovery of YFV in Brazilian Aedes species mosquitos highlights a need to monitor the risk of reestablishment of urban YFV transmission in the Americas. We use a suite of epidemiological, spatial, and genomic approaches to characterize YFV transmission. We show that the age and sex distribution of human cases i

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The spatial footprint of injection wells in a global compilation of induced earthquake sequences

Fluid injection can cause extensive earthquake activity, sometimes at unexpectedly large distances. Appropriately mitigating associated seismic hazards requires a better understanding of the zone of influence of injection. We analyze spatial seismicity decay in a global dataset of 18 induced cases with clear association between isolated wells and earthquakes. We distinguish two populations. The f

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High-performance perovskite/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 monolithic tandem solar cells

The combination of hybrid perovskite and Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) has the potential for realizing high-efficiency thin-film tandem solar cells because of the complementary tunable bandgaps and excellent photovoltaic properties of these materials. In tandem solar device architectures, the interconnecting layer plays a critical role in determining the overall cell performance, requiring both an effecti

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Directional control of a processive molecular hopper

Intrigued by the potential of nanoscale machines, scientists have long attempted to control molecular motion. We monitored the individual 0.7-nanometer steps of a single molecular hopper as it moved in an electric field along a track in a nanopore controlled by a chemical ratchet. The hopper demonstrated characteristics desired in a moving molecule: defined start and end points, processivity, no

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Observation of alkaline earth complexes M(CO)8 (M = Ca, Sr, or Ba) that mimic transition metals

The alkaline earth metals calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) typically engage in chemical bonding as classical main-group elements through their n s and n p valence orbitals, where n is the principal quantum number. Here we report the isolation and spectroscopic characterization of eight-coordinate carbonyl complexes M(CO) 8 (where M = Ca, Sr, or Ba) in a low-temperature neon matrix. A

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Increase in crop losses to insect pests in a warming climate

Insect pests substantially reduce yields of three staple grains—rice, maize, and wheat—but models assessing the agricultural impacts of global warming rarely consider crop losses to insects. We use established relationships between temperature and the population growth and metabolic rates of insects to estimate how and where climate warming will augment losses of rice, maize, and wheat to insects

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Past and future global transformation of terrestrial ecosystems under climate change

Impacts of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystems are imperfectly constrained by ecosystem models and direct observations. Pervasive ecosystem transformations occurred in response to warming and associated climatic changes during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition, which was comparable in magnitude to warming projected for the next century under high-emission scenarios. We revie

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Three-dimensional genome structures of single diploid human cells

Three-dimensional genome structures play a key role in gene regulation and cell functions. Characterization of genome structures necessitates single-cell measurements. This has been achieved for haploid cells but has remained a challenge for diploid cells. We developed a single-cell chromatin conformation capture method, termed Dip-C, that combines a transposon-based whole-genome amplification me

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New Products

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Comment on "Unexpected reversal of C3 versus C4 grass response to elevated CO2 during a 20-year field experiment"

Reich et al . (Reports, 20 April 2018, p. 317) reported that elevated carbon dioxide (eCO 2 ) switched its effect from promoting C 3 grasses to favoring C 4 grasses in a long-term experiment. We argue that the authors did not appropriately elucidate the interannual climate variation as a potential mechanism for the reversal of C 4 -C 3 biomass in response to eCO 2 .

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Cancer mutations and targeted drugs can disrupt dynamic signal encoding by the Ras-Erk pathway

The Ras-Erk (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway encodes information in its dynamics; the duration and frequency of Erk activity can specify distinct cell fates. To enable dynamic encoding, temporal information must be accurately transmitted from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. We used optogenetic profiling to show that both oncogenic B-Raf mutations and B-Raf inhibitors can cause

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Comment on "Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water"

Riback et al . (Reports, 13 October 2017, p. 238) used small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments to infer a degree of compaction for unfolded proteins in water versus chemical denaturant that is highly consistent with the results from Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. There is thus no "contradiction" between the two methods, nor evidence to support their claim that comm

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Response to Comment on "Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water"

Best et al . claim that we provide no convincing basis to assert that a discrepancy remains between FRET and SAXS results on the dimensions of disordered proteins under physiological conditions. We maintain that a clear discrepancy is apparent in our and other recent publications, including results shown in the Best et al . comment. A plausible origin is fluorophore interactions in FRET experimen

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Comment on "Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water"

Editors at Science requested our input on the above discussion (comment by Best et al . and response by Riback et al .) because both sets of authors use our data from Fuertes et al . (2017) to support their arguments. The topic of discussion pertains to the discrepant inferences drawn from SAXS versus FRET measurements regarding the dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) in aqueou

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Rearrangement bursts generate canonical gene fusions in bone and soft tissue tumors

Sarcomas are cancers of the bone and soft tissue often defined by gene fusions. Ewing sarcoma involves fusions between EWSR1 , a gene encoding an RNA binding protein, and E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors. We explored how and when EWSR1-ETS fusions arise by studying the whole genomes of Ewing sarcomas. In 52 of 124 (42%) of tumors, the fusion gene arises by a sudden burst of

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Developmental barcoding of whole mouse via homing CRISPR

In vivo barcoding using nuclease-induced mutations is a powerful approach for recording biological information, including developmental lineages; however, its application in mammalian systems has been limited. We present in vivo barcoding in the mouse with multiple homing guide RNAs that each generate hundreds of mutant alleles and combine to produce an exponential diversity of barcodes. Activati

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Injection wells can induce earthquakes miles away from the well

A study of earthquakes induced by injecting fluids deep underground has revealed surprising patterns, suggesting that current recommendations for hydraulic fracturing, wastewater disposal, and geothermal wells may need to be revised.

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Researchers are turning to deadly venoms in their quests for life-saving therapies

Venomous reptiles, bugs and marine life have notorious reputations as dangerous, sometimes life-threatening creatures. But in a paper in the current issue of Science, first author Mandë Holford, an associate professor of chemistry and biochemistry at The Graduate Center of The City University of New York (GC/CUNY) and Hunter College, details how technology and a growing understanding of the evolut

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DNA accessibility, gene expression jointly profiled in thousands of cells

Scientists have now developed an assay that concurrently profiles both the epigenome and transcriptome of each of thousands of single cells.

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Prehistoric changes in vegetation help predict future of Earth's ecosystems

As the last ice age came to an end and the planet warmed, the Earth's vegetation changed dramatically, reports a University of Arizona-led international research team.

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Scientists decode opium poppy genome

Scientists have determined the DNA code of the opium poppy genome, uncovering key steps in how the plant evolved to produce the pharmaceutical compounds used to make vital medicines.

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How Did Opium Poppies Get Their Painkilling Properties?

Humans have been turning to the poppy plant to get high or relieve pain for thousands of years.

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Crispr Halted Muscular Dystrophy in Dogs. Are Humans Next?

Gene editing halted the progression of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy in dogs

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The New Science of Seeing Around Corners

While vacationing on the coast of Spain in 2012, the computer vision scientist Antonio Torralba noticed stray shadows on the wall of his hotel room that didn’t seem to have been cast by anything. Torralba eventually realized that the discolored patches of wall weren’t shadows at all, but rather a faint, upside-down image of the patio outside his window. The window was acting as a pinhole camera —

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Predicting how splicing errors impact disease risk

Researchers are teasing out the rules that guide how cells process RNA messages from our genes that provide a template for protein synthesis. This will enable better predictions about the impact of specific genetic mutations that affect this process and can cause a host of serious illnesses.

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Global warming: More insects, eating more crops

Crop losses for critical food grains will increase substantially as the climate warms, as rising temperatures increase the metabolic rate and population growth of insect pests, according to new research.

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CRISPR Gene Editing Shows Promise for Treating a Fatal Muscle Disease

Results from a dog trial may help push new Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy toward human trials — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Cancer Warnings on Coffee Could 'Mislead' Consumers, FDA Says

The Food and Drug Administration criticized the idea of a cancer warning label on coffee, which may be required under California law.

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Your digital assistant may have tons of new features it didn't tell you about

Technology Here's how to find them. Finding out when your digital assistant has updated can be tricky.

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How the poppy got its pain-relieving powers

Analyzing the poppy’s genome reveals the evolutionary history of morphine.

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CRISPR gene editing relieves muscular dystrophy symptoms in dogs

Scientists have used CRISPR’s molecular scissors in beagle puppies to repair a genetic mutation that causes muscular dystrophy.

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How does helping people affect your brain? Study shows neurobiological effects of giving social support

Providing 'targeted' social support to other people in need activates regions of the brain involved in parental care — which may help researchers understand the positive health effects of social ties, reports a new study.

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Guiding flight: The fruit fly's celestial compass

Fruit flies use the sun to avoid flying in circles, according to new research.

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Catalyst advance could lead to economical fuel cells

Researchers have developed a new way to make low-cost, single-atom catalysts for fuel cells — an advance that could make important clean energy technology more economically viable.

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When Having a Progressive Record Isn’t Enough

Updated at 2:16 p.m. ET Mike Capuano has been a progressive force for decades. The Massachusetts congressman backed “Medicare for All” well before it was fashionable , and he led the effort to make Somerville a so-called “sanctuary city” more than 30 years ago. His speech berating bank CEOs for their role in the last recession was immortalized in a 2010 documentary. And Trump? He’s supported an i

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Improved Nucleic Acid Quality Control with Parallel Capillary Electrophoresis

In this eBook from AATI, learn how capillary electrophoresis can improve nucleic acid quantification accuracy, isolate genomic DNA and total RNA for QC analysis prior to NGS, and precisely determine the sizes of the nucleic acid fragments in your sample.

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Heritability explains fast-learning chicks

Both genetic and environmental factors explain cognitive traits, shows a new study carried out on red junglefowl. Researchers have shown that the ability of fowl to cope with difficult learning tasks is heritable, while their optimism can be explained by environmental factors.

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Novel role of protein in important pathways that lead to cancer malignancy

Researchers have revealed for the first time that a specific protein, the fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), plays a critical role in the development and metastasis of highly aggressive prostate and breast cancer cells. They point out that a better understanding of the molecular pathways of specific cancers is a step in the direction of finding more effective therapeutic targets.

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Guidance for preventing C. difficile in neonatal intensive care

Newborns require special diagnosis and treatment considerations for an infectious diarrhea known as Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection, according to a new evidence-based white paper published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. The publication is in conjunction with the release of a companion review b

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New survey reveals 57 percent of Americans have been surprised by a medical bill

Fifty-seven percent of American adults have been surprised by a medical bill that they thought would have been covered by insurance, according to a new AmeriSpeak® survey from NORC at the University of Chicago. Respondents indicated that 20 percent of their surprise bills were a result of a doctor not being part of the network.

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One Conspiracy Theory at a Time: Flat-Earthers Don't Reject Climate Science

In a viral exchange, the Flat Earth Society confirmed it's not on board with rejecting anthropogenic climate change.

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4 designtricks du kan blive snydt af på internettet

Overalt i apps og på internettet udnytter virksomheder tricks til få dig til at gøre ting, som du måske egentlig ikke ønsker at gøre.

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Yale Prof Gets Endowed Chair Four Years After Harassment Finding

Fellow faculty members aren't happy about it.

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A Sociologist Finds Vegans Are Too Open to ‘Free Riders’

In the past couple of decades, vegetarian diets have achieved enormous visibility in the United States. Consumers now include more plant-based foods in their diet, as sales of these foods continue to rise . But the extent to which vegetarianism and veganism have led Americans to actually give up eating meat remains unclear. The U.S. Department of Agriculture has estimated that 2018 will be the Un

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Happy Labor Day! These 12 images capture US labor history

The Labor Archives of Washington include thousands of images, documents, and records—from pre-WWII cannery workers posing in solidarity to the current campaign for the $15 minimum wage. Here’s a selection for Labor Day. As the holiday approaches, Conor Casey, labor archivist at the University of Washington, chose a dozen images that represent the variety and impact of the archives. The images are

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Inflation og gravitation plager fysikken

En dansk forsker har svært ved at overbevise sine kolleger om, at han har fundet evidens for den voldsomme udvidelse af universet, som går under navnet inflation. Nye præcisionsmålinger af gravitationskonstanten stemmer ikke overens med hinanden.

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Math, physics, and video predict mood of big crowds

Researchers are connecting the dots between electrons whizzing around each other and humans crammed together at a political rally, even if they don’t seem to have much in common at first. They’ve developed a highly accurate mathematical approach to predict the behavior of crowds of living creatures, using Nobel Prize-winning methods originally developed to study large collections of quantum mecha

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UA Cancer Biology graduate student travels ROCKy™ road toward a cure

The Limesand Lab at the University of Arizona is devoted to improving quality of life for head-and-neck cancer survivors, who often suffer from irreversible dry mouth.

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Genetically encoded sensor tracks changes in oxygen levels with very high sensitivity

Based on a protein from E. coli, scientists have developed a fluorescent protein sensor able to provide real-time information on dynamic changes in oxygen levels with very high sensitivity. As the oxygen level is a major determinant of cellular function, the idea behind this sensor may revolutionize our ability to detect cellular changes of critical importance, such as in tumors and following stro

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Using telemedicine to increase life expectancy

Telemedical interventional management reduces hospitalizations and prolongs the life of patients with heart failure. Researchers have shown that these findings apply equally to patients in rural and in metropolitan settings.

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The Little Stranger Is a Different Kind of Haunted-House Movie

What better setting for a ghost story than a dilapidated mansion? Peeling paint, groaning pipes, creaky stairs, and abandoned rooms—you barely need a phantom to complete the picture. Recent onscreen hauntings have included Guillermo del Toro’s excellent Crimson Peak in 2015, set in a manse where red mud dripped from the walls, or Ari Aster’s Hereditary , with its creepy dollhouses and even creepi

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Missing men, missing infertility: New research flags up problem

Men are missing from fertility debates and crucial support services because they are often not included in studies and, when they are, it is usually only married, heterosexual men who are asked for data. New research, 'Missing men, missing infertility: The enactment of sex/gender in surveys in low and middle-income countries' has been completed by a team at Lancaster University in the UK.

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Water discovered in the Great Red Spot indicates Jupiter might have plenty more

A collaborative team found evidence of three cloud layers in the Great Red Spot, with the deepest cloud layer at 5-7 bars. A bar is a metric unit of pressure that approximates the average atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level. At about 5-7 bars is where the scientists believed the temperature would reach the freezing point for water. The deepest of the three cloud layers identified by the tea

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Google Has Made The First Multilingual Virtual Assistant

Google's virtual assistant can now listen for, and respond in, two languages. It could make the service more popular in multilingual households.

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Missing men, missing infertility: New research flags up problem

Men are missing from fertility debates and crucial support services because they are often not included in studies and, when they are, it is usually only married, heterosexual men who are asked for data.

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Apple expected to unveil new iPhones at September 12 event

Apple on Thursday sent out invitations to a September 12 event at which it is expected to unveil new additions to its money-making iPhone line-up.

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