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Michael Flynn’s Lawyers Appear to Have Badly Miscalculated

Lawyers for retired general Michael Flynn had every reason to celebrate. They managed to get their client—who had lobbied against U.S. interests while serving as a top Donald Trump campaign surrogate, and tried to undermine the Obama administration’s Russia policy while still a private citizen, and, as a sitting national security adviser, worked to conceal it all from the Justice Department—a rec

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Fossils suggest flowers originated 50 million years earlier than thought

The discovery in China of fossil specimens of a flower called Nanjinganthus from the Early Jurassic shakes up widely accepted theories of plant evolution.

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NASA's 1st flight to moon, Apollo 8, marks 50th anniversary

Fifty years ago on Christmas Eve, a tumultuous year of assassinations, riots and war drew to a close in heroic and hopeful fashion with the three Apollo 8 astronauts reading from the Book of Genesis on live TV as they orbited the moon.

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A new way to use CRISPR

CRISPR allows scientists to precisely target and edit DNA within living cells, which could help them correct anomalies that cause inherited diseases. A UD Team has now developed a method to use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to set off a cascade of activities in cells, a phenomenon known as conditional gene regulation.

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How breast cancer avoids immune system detection

Researchers analyzed data from more than 1,000 breast cancer patients and found that breast cancer behaves differently than other cancers that are currently treated with immunotherapy. They identified seven clusters of breast cancer patients based on the immune evasion mechanisms that breast cancer uses to avoid detection.

3min

Extraordinary 'faithful father' revealed by study of smooth guardian frog of Borneo

New research shows the male smooth guardian frog is a kind of amphibian 'Mr. Mom.'

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Addicted to Vaped Nicotine, Teenagers Have No Clear Path to Quitting

Parents, schools and public health experts struggle to find effective ways to help young people quit e-cigarettes. “There is no sound science yet.”

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How to Help Teenagers Quit Vaping

Though options are limited for now, they exist. For starters, parents should recognize that they are confronting an addiction to nicotine, which is hard to break.

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Neutron micelle measurements lend insights into improved drug delivery

Micelles are unique biological structures in that they are an assembly of molecules with properties that both attract and repel water. They form around other molecules to help them travel and "push" through wet environments, making micelles a key enabler of cellular function throughout the human body. Not surprisingly, their ability to transport molecules has made micelles a highly appealing topic

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InSight engineers have made a Martian rock garden

NASA's InSight lander is due to set its first science instrument on Mars in the coming days. But engineers here on Earth already saw it happen—last week.

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Pence misses launch but treated to new SpaceX crew capsule

Vice President Mike Pence missed seeing a SpaceX rocket soar Tuesday. But he still got to view the company's new crew capsule, designed to carry astronauts to the International Space Station as soon as next year.

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Southwest forest trees will grow much slower in the 21st century

Southwest forests may decline in productivity on average as much as 75 percent over the 21st century as climate warms, according to a University of Arizona-led research report published in Nature Communications on Dec. 17.

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Anthony Levandowski Returns With a Self-Driving Truck Scheme

The former Googler and Uberista has launched Pronto AI, and he sent his robot on a cross-country trip to prove its skills.

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How "baby bonds" could help close the wealth gap | Darrick Hamilton

Hard work, resilience and grit lead to success, right? This narrative pervades the way we think, says economist Darrick Hamilton — but the truth is that our chances at economic security have less to do with what we do and more to do with the wealth position we're born into. Enter "baby bonds": trust accounts of up to $60,000 for every newborn, calibrated to the wealth of their family. Learn how t

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Eating raw cookie dough is fine if you follow these steps

Health Like all things in life, its all about calculated risk. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has repeatedly issued warnings about the dangers of consuming raw dough. But are there really risks of eating raw cookie dough?

51min

No, You Don’t Really Look Like That

When a prominent YouTuber named Lewis Hilsenteger (aka “ Unbox Therapy ”) was testing out this fall’s new iPhone model, the XS, he noticed something: His skin was extra smooth in the device’s front-facing selfie cam, especially compared with older iPhone models. Hilsenteger compared it to a kind of digital makeup. “I do not look like that,” he said in a video demonstrating the phenomenon. “That’s

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Chemistry: The vanished mirror image

Enantiomeric molecules resemble each other like right and left hands. Both variants normally arise in chemical reactions. But frequently only one of the two forms is effectual in biology and medicine. Hitherto, completely converting this mixture into the desired enantiomer was deemed impossible. Deploying a photochemical method, a team has now achieved this feat.

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A versatile vaccine that can protect mice from emerging tick-borne viruses

Researchers have developed a vaccine that is effective in mice against Powassan virus, an emerging tick-borne virus that can cause life-threatening encephalitis in humans. They also show that the vaccine produces antibodies that can protect the mice against other, related tick-transmitted flaviviruses.

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Experts identify 'tipping point' in tree disease outbreaks

Experts have found a way to model disease progression and predict the 'tipping point' of a disease, providing early warning indicators that an epidemic is imminent and action needs to be taken.

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New megalibrary approach proves useful for the rapid discovery of new materials

Identifying the best material for a given application — catalysts, light-harvesting structures, biodiagnostic labels, pharmaceuticals and electronic devices — is traditionally a slow and daunting task. Now, a new study supports the efficacy of a potentially revolutionary new discovery tool to rapidly test millions (even billions) of nanoparticles to determine the best for a specific use. The too

1h

System monitors radiation damage to materials in real-time

A new system allows detailed real-time observations of how materials are affected by a high-radiation environment. The system could accelerate the development of better materials for nuclear plants.

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Takeaway containers — the environmental cost of packing our favorite fast-foods

Scientists say more should be done to tackle the growing environmental impact of takeaway food containers. A new study estimates there are 2025 million takeaway containers per year being used in the European Union (EU) alone. It also says finding a way to recycle disposable takeaway containers could help reduce equivalent greenhouse gas emissions generated annually by 55,000 cars.

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Sound could replace lasers in surgery

Scientists announce the ability to simultaneously manipulate individual small levitated objects Using high-frequency sound waves may provide a safer alternative to laser microsurgery Video of the research looks like a cartoon, but it's all real For a while now, scientists have presented demonstrations of sound's ability to levitate and move suspended particles. It's pretty cool stuff, and you can

1h

Neural Networks Can Manipulate Mammograms and Fool Radiologists

Neural Networks Can Manipulate Mammograms and Fool Radiologists A cyber attacker could potentially insert a feature that looks like cancer into a scan, or remove it, researchers warn. Mammogram.jpg Image credits: Chompoo Suriyo/ Shutterstock Technology Tuesday, December 18, 2018 – 15:15 Claire Cleveland, Contributor (Inside Science) — Researchers have developed a method for augmenting mammograms

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Your internet year in review: See how you spent time online in 2018

Technology How much music did you listen to and video did you stream? Here's how to find out See your stats for 2018 on some of the biggest online services.

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The Scientista Foundation (“Scientista”) and Perricone MD Announce Extension of Born Seekers Fellowship Application Call

Scientista and Perricone MD announces the extension of the Born Seekers Fellowship application period. The application deadline has been extended to December 28th, 2018.

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Artificial intelligence meets materials science

A research team is harnessing the power of machine learning, data science and the domain knowledge of experts to autonomously discover new materials.

1h

Today's children reach bone maturity earlier, study reveals

Children born in the most recent century have bones that reach full maturity earlier — by nearly 10 months in girls and nearly seven months in boys — according to a new study.

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Graphene's magic is in the defects

A team of researchers has solved a longstanding puzzle of how to build ultra-sensitive, ultra-small electrochemical sensors with homogenous and predictable properties by discovering how to engineer graphene structure on an atomic level.

1h

Greener days ahead for carbon fuels?

A discovery shows that recycling carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals and fuels can be economical and efficient — all through a single copper catalyst.

1h

Optimizing restoration can deliver an eightfold increase in cost-effectiveness

A new study presents a novel approach to identify optimal priority areas for restoration, considering multiple criteria such as biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation and reduction of costs. In a context of multiple local, national and global targets for ecosystem restoration, the study presents a flexible tool capable of increasing restoration cost-effectiveness by up to eight times

1h

Machine-learning research unlocking molecular cages' energy-saving potential

Nanosized cages may play a big role in reducing energy consumption in science and industry, and machine-learning research aims to accelerate the deployment of these remarkable molecules.

1h

Buruli ulcer: Promising new drug candidate against a forgotten disease

Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) resulting in debilitating skin lesions, disabilities and stigmatisation. The current antibiotic treatment is long and has severe adverse side effects. Researchers have discovered a highly effective compound against Buruli ulcer which has the potential to become a powerful alternative to the existing treatment options.

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Nearly one in five Tibetan refugee schoolchildren has tuberculosis infection, study finds

In a tuberculosis screening and treatment initiative covering the entire population of Tibetan refugee schoolchildren in northern India, a team of researchers says it has found not only a startlingly high prevalence of TB disease and infection, but also a potentially workable strategy to eliminate the disease in a large, high-risk group.

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Assessing the promise of gallium oxide as an ultrawide bandgap semiconductor

In microelectronic devices, the bandgap is a major factor determining the electrical conductivity of the underlying materials, and a more recent class of semiconductors with ultrawide bandgaps are capable of operating at much higher temperatures and powers than conventional small-bandgap silicon-based chips. Researchers now provide a detailed perspective on the properties, capabilities, current li

1h

Dive-bombing for love: Male hummingbirds dazzle females with a highly synchronized display

Male Broad-tailed Hummingbirds perform dramatic aerial courtship dives to impress females. In a new study, scientists have shown that diving males closely time key events to produce a burst of signals for the viewer. They synchronize maximal horizontal speed, loud noises generated with their tail feathers, and a display of their iridescent throat-patch (gorget), performed in a mere 300 millisecond

1h

A new model of ice friction helps scientists understand how glaciers flow

Despite the looming ecological consequences, glacier motion remains poorly understood. The bedrock, the ice-bed interface and the water-filled cavities all affect friction and influence how the ice will flow, but studying these poses challenges — remote radar sensing can track glacial movement, but it can't measure detailed properties of the ice and rock.

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Steep Funding Cuts for Australian Science Announced

The budget slashes research funding by $328.5 million AUD for the next four years.

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Gene identified with a key role in plant adaptation to fluctuating soil salinity levels

Researchers have identified modifications in a sodium transporter gene with key consequences for plants needing to adapt to fluctuating soil salinity. The research can help to improve the sustainability of crops in rising salinity levels associated with climate change and human pressure.

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With a focus on high-risk patients, researcher eyes eliminating TB for good

A focus on high-risk tuberculosis patients may be the answer to stalled progress in stamping out the illness in the United States.

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New software could save 745 species in Brazil’s Atlantic Forest without hurting agribusiness

Brazil's Atlantic Forest is one of the world's most biodiverse regions, but relentless deforestation threatens hundreds of species of plants and animals. Recently, a team of researchers created a computer program designed to optimize how forest land can best be used. The approach could be used by governments and organizations in other parts of the world to maximize biodiversity gains while minimi

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The Most 2018 Photos Ever

Not necessarily the top photos of the year, nor the most heart-wrenching or emotional images, but a collection of photographs that are just so 2018. From Gritty the Philadelphia Flyers mascot to Fortnite tournaments, from the airplane taken for a tragic joyride at SeaTac Airport to a caravan of thousands journeying through Mexico to the United States, from Mandarin Duck to Knickers the steer, and

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Foreign Influence Operation

In their efforts to influence the 2016 election, Russian operatives targeted every major social platform, but one demographic group, black Americans, got special treatment, according to two reports made public by the Senate Intelligence Committee yesterday. The reports—one published by New Knowledge , a new disinformation advocacy group, and the other by the Computational Propaganda Project at th

1h

Megapixels: Two stars in a fight to the death

Space See this interstellar blood bath in all its glory detail. Two stars are locked in a fight to the death a mere 650 light-years from Earth. A new camera system on the Very Large Telescope zoomed in on the action.

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Southwest forest trees will grow much slower in the 21st century

Southwest forests may decline in productivity on average as much as 75 percent over the 21st century as climate warms. The finding is based on a treasure trove of about 20,000 unanalyzed tree cores discovered in a Utah laboratory about a decade ago. The University of Arizona-led research team published their findings in the Dec. 17 issue of Nature Communications.

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Shape-shifting origami could lead to better radio antennas

Researchers have devised a method for using an origami-based structure to create radio frequency filters that have adjustable dimensions. The method would enable devices to change which signals they block throughout a large range of frequencies, researchers say. The new approach to creating these tunable filters could have a variety of uses, including antenna systems capable of adapting to ambien

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Mekong River dams may threaten food security

The negative consequences to food security and the environment of hundreds of dams proposed to control flooding of the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia far outweigh the positive changes, researchers say. A new study, which appears in Nature Scientific Reports , is the first to tackle the potential environmental changes that the overall basin could experience from harnessing the region’s hydro

1h

Machine-learning research unlocking molecular cages' energy-saving potential

Nanosized cages may play a big role in reducing energy consumption in science and industry, and machine-learning research at Oregon State University aims to accelerate the deployment of these remarkable molecules.

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Red wolf DNA found in mysterious Texas canines

Princeton biologists Bridgett vonHoldt and Elizabeth Heppenheimer discovered that a mysterious group of canines spotted on Galveston Island, Texas, share DNA with both coyotes and a captive breeding group of red wolves from North Carolina. The animals also have unique genetic material that may represent genes that had been lost in the small population of wolves that began the captive breeding prog

2h

Machine-learning research at OSU unlocking molecular cages' energy-saving potential

Nanosized cages may play a big role in reducing energy consumption in science and industry, and machine-learning research aims to accelerate the deployment of these remarkable molecules.

2h

Optimizing restoration can deliver an eightfold increase in cost-effectiveness

A new study published in Nature Ecology and Evolution presents a novel approach to identify optimal priority areas for restoration, considering multiple criteria such as biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation and reduction of costs. In a context of multiple local, national and global targets for ecosystem restoration, the study presents a flexible tool capable of increasing restorati

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Monster Waves Are Battering the West Coast. Here's Why.

Deadly waters are churning up and down the West Coast of the U.S. today, caused by a storm system originating close to Alaska.

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Launch of next generation GPS satellite postponed for 1 day

The launch of a new GPS satellite was postponed for one day Tuesday because of an unspecified problem with the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket that will put the satellite in orbit.

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Long-Hidden "Pyramid" Found in Indonesia Was Likely an Ancient Temple

The structure has potentially been used as a place of worship for thousands of years — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Graphene's magic is in the defects

A team of researchers at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering and NYU Center for Neural Science has solved a longstanding puzzle of how to build ultra-sensitive, ultra-small electrochemical sensors with homogenous and predictable properties by discovering how to engineer graphene structure on an atomic level.

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Greener days ahead for carbon fuels

A discovery by researchers at the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis shows that recycling carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals and fuels can be economical and efficient — all through a single copper catalyst.

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Graphene's magic is in the defects

A team of researchers at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering and NYU Center for Neural Science has solved a longstanding puzzle of how to build ultra-sensitive, ultra-small electrochemical sensors with homogenous and predictable properties by discovering how to engineer graphene structure on an atomic level. The researchers detail their study in a paper published today in the jour

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Mindfulness training may help support weight loss

Mindfulness training may improve the effectiveness of intensive weight management programs, according to a small study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Removing sweets from checkouts linked to dramatic fall in unhealthy snack purchases

Policies aimed at removing sweets and crisps from checkouts could lead to a dramatic reduction to the amount of unhealthy food purchased to eat 'on the go' and a significant reduction in that purchased to take home, suggests new research led by the University of Cambridge.

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Scientists develop method to visualize a genetic mutation

A team of scientists has developed a method that yields, for the first time, visualization of a gene amplifications and deletions known as copy number variants in single cells. Significantly allows early detection of rare genetic events providing high resolution analysis of the tempo of evolution.

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Convincing Chinese smokers to kick the habit — by text

Among smokers receiving a 12-week-long mobile phone-based intervention encouraging them to quit, up to 6.5 percent of participants stopped smoking by the end of the study, according to a research article published this week in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Jinsong Tang of the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in China, and colleagues.

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Internet-based interventions can help reduce problem drinking

Internet-based interventions may be effective in curbing various patterns of adult problem drinking in both community and health care settings, according to a study published Dec. 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Heleen Riper of VU University in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and colleagues.

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Checkout aisle food policies may change diets, study finds

Policies that limit what types of food can be shelved in the checkout aisles of grocery stores may successfully curb junk food intake in shoppers, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Jean Adams from the University of Cambridge, UK, and colleagues.

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Artificial intelligence meets materials science

A Texas A&M engineering research team is harnessing the power of machine learning, data science and the domain knowledge of experts to autonomously discover new materials.

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Martha McSally Snags the Ultimate Consolation Prize

Not since Abraham Lincoln has a Republican scored a better consolation prize for losing a Senate race. Last month, Arizona voters rejected Martha McSally in favor of Democrat Kyrsten Sinema after the two waged a hard-fought battle for the Senate seat vacated by the retiring Senator Jeff Flake. Come January, McSally will take a seat in the Senate anyway, serving right alongside the woman who defea

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NASA-NOAA satellite tracking Tropical Cyclone Kenanga

Tropical Cyclone Kenanga was at hurricane-force when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite grabbed a visible image of the storm in the Southern Indian Ocean on Dec. 18.

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Trees grow more efficient leaves to compensate for hurricane damage

Some tree species heal from the ravages of hurricane damage by growing replacement leaves optimized for greater efficiency, according to a Clemson University field study presented at the British Ecological Society's annual conference.

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Criminal history strong indicator for future violent crime

A life sentence in many states rarely means offenders will spend a lifetime behind bars. In fact, offenders sentenced for murder served just 15 years on average before initial release from state prison, according to a recent Bureau of Justice Statistics report using national-level data.

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Unfair treatment by police linked to physiological impacts among black men

Advocates of proactive policing model argue that stopping and searching law abiding citizens is a minor inconvenience. However, researchers from Florida State University have found it might actually be getting under the skin of black men—literally.

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Bennu and Ryugu look like spinning tops and scientists want to know why

The first high-resolution images of Bennu confirm that the asteroid looks very similar to the asteroid Ryugu.

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Can You Really Get Sick from Smelling Dirty Socks?

A man in China had a habit of walking home from work every day, taking off his socks and… taking a great big whiff of them, according to news reports.

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Today's children reach bone maturity earlier, study reveals

Children born in the most recent century have bones that reach full maturity earlier — by nearly 10 months in girls and nearly seven months in boys — according to a new study from the University of Missouri School of Medicine.

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Artificial intelligence meets materials science

A Texas A&M engineering research team is harnessing the power of machine learning, data science and the domain knowledge of experts to autonomously discover new materials.

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Amplifying the Voices of Women in Medicine

The field has plenty of talented women, but to reach leadership roles they must have visible and recognizable roles within medicine and in the public — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Biologists identify promising drug for ALS treatment

Scientists have found a new application for an existing drug, with potential to slow progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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Understanding dynamic stall at high speeds

Although many fixed-wing aircraft can withstand similar rapid pitch-up maneuvers, a vehicle subject to this dynamic stall process is not reliably controllable. Motivated by the lack of detailed understanding, researchers took a deep dive into the physics of dynamic stall so that it can be used beneficially and reliably by aircraft.

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Scientists develop method to visualize a genetic mutation

A team of scientists has developed a method that yields, for the first time, visualization of a gene amplifications and deletions known as copy number variants in single cells.

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Dive-bombing for love: Male hummingbirds dazzle females with a highly synchronized display

When it comes to flirting, animals know how to put on a show. In the bird world, males often go to great lengths to attract female attention, like peacocks shaking their tail feathers and manakins performing complex dance moves. These behaviors often stimulate multiple senses, making them hard for biologists to quantify.

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New megalibrary approach proves useful for the rapid discovery of new materials

Different eras of civilization are defined by the discovery of new materials, as new materials drive new capabilities. And yet, identifying the best material for a given application—catalysts, light-harvesting structures, biodiagnostic labels, pharmaceuticals and electronic devices—is traditionally a slow and daunting task. The options are nearly infinite, particularly at the nanoscale (a nanomete

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GlueX completes first phase

An experiment that aims to gain new insight into the force that binds all matter together has recently completed its first phase of data collection at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

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Understanding dynamic stall at high speeds

When a bird in flight lands, it performs a rapid pitch-up maneuver during the perching process to keep from overshooting the branch or telephone wire. In aerodynamics, that action produces a complex phenomenon known as dynamic stall. Although many fixed-wing aircraft can withstand similar rapid pitch-up maneuvers, a vehicle subject to this dynamic stall process is not reliably controllable. Motiva

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Automakers denounce 'unrealistic' EU emissions targets

German and other European automakers warned Tuesday that EU plans to slash carbon dioxide emissions from new cars and vans by 2030 are "totally unrealistic" without a network to recharge electric cars and more effort to retrain workers.

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Elon Musk's SpaceX set to raise $500 mn: report

Elon Musk's rocket company SpaceX plans to raise $500 million to help launch its satellite internet service, The Wall Street Journal reported Tuesday.

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Disaster-linked losses in 2018 hit $155 billion: Swiss Re

Losses from natural and man-made disasters are estimated to total $155 billion (136 billion euros) this year, down sharply from a hurricane-plagued 2017, the reinsurance giant Swiss Re said Tuesday.

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App could let more at-risk people self-test for HIV

A new app called HIVSmart! lets people test themselves for HIV, connects them to care quickly, and could be adapted for many at-risk populations, according to a new study. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended HIV self-testing strategies since 2016, as they empower people to find out their HIV status at their convenience. Home-based testing kits have yet to be approved for sale in C

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Trump’s School-Safety Commission’s Strange Focus on Discipline

On Tuesday, President Donald Trump’s school-safety commission, which was established following the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, released its much-anticipated recommendations “to advance safety” in schools, including one that would scrap a federal policy urging schools not to punish minority students at a higher rate than white students. The commission’s recommendation to roll back the Ob

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Blind creature that buries head in sand named after Donald Trump

Amphibian’s behaviour compared to US president’s approach to global warming A newly discovered blind and burrowing amphibian is to be officially named Dermophis donaldtrumpi , in recognition of the US president’s climate change denial. The name was chosen by the boss of Enviro Build , a sustainable building materials company, who paid $25,000 (£19,800) at an auction for the right. The small legle

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Serious loneliness spans the adult lifespan but there is a silver lining

Moderate to severe loneliness can persist across adult lifespans, but UC San Diego School of Medicine researchers found it is particularly acute in three age periods: late-20s, mid-50s and late-80s. Wisdom proved a protective factor.

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Gut microbiome regulates the intestinal immune system

A new study in mice unveils the role of vitamin A in immune system regulation, a finding that could assist in developing treatments for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well as vitamin A deficiency.

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Deciphering infanticide

It may seem like one of the cruelest aspects of the natural world, but a new study is pinpointing the suite of factors, including the shape of the pup and a specific set of olfactory signals, or pheromones, that trigger infanticide in mice.

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The Self-Delusion of Paul Ryan

In so many ways, Paul Ryan and Donald Trump have little in common. Ryan is affable and well mannered; Trump, not so much. Ryan holds strong, consistent ideological beliefs; Trump, not so much. Paul Ryan is in splendid physical shape … But there is one thing they do share: a sense of personal achievement strangely disconnected from their real-world records. Over the past 24 hours, the @SpeakerRyan

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Say Her Name Explores the Insidious Circumstances of Sandra Bland’s Death

“I want white folks to understand that some of us are doing the best we can. And we can’t help but get pissed off when we see situations where it’s clear that black life didn’t matter.” The opening scene of the HBO documentary Say Her Name: The Life and Death of Sandra Bland features video of Bland herself eerily foreshadowing the sentiments surrounding her own tragic loss of life. The film follo

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Urban isolation and daytime neighborhood social composition from Twitter data [Social Sciences]

In a recent paper in PNAS, Wang et al. (1) investigate the key question of urban isolation in light of daily mobility. Urban isolation may actually be mitigated by individuals spending much of their everyday lives in neighborhoods where social composition and urban opportunities widely diverge from their home neighborhoods….

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Reply to Vallee: Different questions for different data [Social Sciences]

Vallée (1) argues that “daily changes in neighborhood social composition” should be taken into account when analyzing social isolation. We agree that changes in neighborhoods’ compositions are important and have been largely omitted from research on neighborhood effects and activity spaces. We take this opportunity to clarify an issue and…

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Increasing exercise’s effect on mental health: Exercise intensity does matter [Biological Sciences]

Suwabe et al. (1) composed a well-written and interesting study examining the relationship between mild exercise and hippocampal memory function. It is interesting that the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the effects of exercise are systematically investigated. A prominent finding was that a short bout (10 min) of mild exercise increased…

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Reply to Gronwald et al.: Exercise intensity does indeed matter; maximal oxygen uptake is the gold-standard indicator [Biological Sciences]

There is no doubt that Gronwald et al.’s (1) message that exercise intensity does matter is true; however, we must respectfully disagree with their claim that the exercise intensity in our study (2) was not actually “very light.” Unlike most interventions in the field, with laboratory (pedaling) exercise testing, the…

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Quantitative conformational profiling of kinase inhibitors reveals origins of selectivity for Aurora kinase activation states [Biochemistry]

Protein kinases undergo large-scale structural changes that tightly regulate function and control recognition by small-molecule inhibitors. Methods for quantifying the conformational effects of inhibitors and linking them to an understanding of selectivity patterns have long been elusive. We have developed an ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence methodology that tracks structural movements of…

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ALS mutations of FUS suppress protein translation and disrupt the regulation of nonsense-mediated decay [Biochemistry]

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by preferential motor neuron death. Approximately 15% of ALS cases are familial, and mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene contribute to a subset of familial ALS cases. FUS is a multifunctional protein participating in many RNA metabolism pathways….

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Cooperative assembly of a four-molecule signaling complex formed upon T cell antigen receptor activation [Biochemistry]

The T cell antigen receptor encounters foreign antigen during the immune response. Receptor engagement leads to activation of specific protein tyrosine kinases, which then phosphorylate multiple enzymes and adapter proteins. One such enzyme, phospholipase-Cγ1, is responsible for cleavage of a plasma membrane lipid substrate, a phosphoinositide, into two second messengers,…

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Probing the mechanism of inhibition of amyloid-{beta}(1-42)-induced neurotoxicity by the chaperonin GroEL [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The human chaperonin Hsp60 is thought to play a role in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease by mitigating against intracellular β-amyloid stress. Here, we show that the bacterial homolog GroEL (51% sequence identity) reduces the neurotoxic effects of amyloid-β(1–42) (Aβ42) on human neural stem cell-derived neuronal cultures. To understand the…

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Coiled-coil 1-mediated fastening of the neck and motor domains for kinesin-3 autoinhibition [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

In kinesin-3, the coiled-coil 1 (CC1) can sequester the preceding neck coil (NC) for autoinhibition, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we determined the structures of the uninhibited motor domain (MD)-NC dimer and inhibited MD-NC-CC1 monomer of kinesin-3 KIF13B. In the MD-NC-CC1 monomer, CC1 is broken into two…

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Simple yet functional phosphate-loop proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Abundant and essential motifs, such as phosphate-binding loops (P-loops), are presumed to be the seeds of modern enzymes. The Walker-A P-loop is absolutely essential in modern NTPase enzymes, in mediating binding, and transfer of the terminal phosphate groups of NTPs. However, NTPase function depends on many additional active-site residues placed…

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Microbiome interactions shape host fitness [Ecology]

Gut bacteria can affect key aspects of host fitness, such as development, fecundity, and lifespan, while the host, in turn, shapes the gut microbiome. However, it is unclear to what extent individual species versus community interactions within the microbiome are linked to host fitness. Here, we combinatorially dissect the natural…

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Sae2 antagonizes Rad9 accumulation at DNA double-strand breaks to attenuate checkpoint signaling and facilitate end resection [Genetics]

The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2NBS1 complex plays important roles in the DNA damage response by activating the Tel1ATM kinase and catalyzing 5′–3′ resection at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). To initiate resection, Mre11 endonuclease nicks the 5′ strands at DSB ends in a reaction stimulated by Sae2CtIP. Accordingly, Mre11-nuclease deficient (mre11-nd) and sae2Δ mutants…

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Mother-child transmission of epigenetic information by tunable polymorphic imprinting [Genetics]

Genomic imprinting mediated by DNA methylation restricts gene expression to a single allele determined by parental origin and is not generally considered to be under genetic or environmental influence. Here, we focused on a differentially methylated region (DMR) of approximately 1.9 kb that includes a 101-bp noncoding RNA gene (nc886/VTRNA2-1),…

3h

DPYSL3 modulates mitosis, migration, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in claudin-low breast cancer [Medical Sciences]

A Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) proteogenomic analysis prioritized dihydropyrimidinase-like-3 (DPYSL3) as a multilevel (RNA/protein/phosphoprotein) expression outlier specific to the claudin-low (CLOW) subset of triple-negative breast cancers. A PubMed informatics tool indicated a paucity of data in the context of breast cancer, which further prioritized DPYSL3 for study. DP

3h

Estimating the proportion of bystander selection for antibiotic resistance among potentially pathogenic bacterial flora [Medical Sciences]

Bystander selection—the selective pressure for resistance exerted by antibiotics on microbes that are not the target pathogen of treatment—is critical to understanding the total impact of broad-spectrum antibiotic use on pathogenic bacterial species that are often carried asymptomatically. However, to our knowledge, this effect has never been quantified. We quantify…

3h

Fiber-associated spirochetes are major agents of hemicellulose degradation in the hindgut of wood-feeding higher termites [Microbiology]

Symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose in wood-feeding higher termites (family Termitidae) is a two-step process that involves endogenous host cellulases secreted in the midgut and a dense bacterial community in the hindgut compartment. The genomes of the bacterial gut microbiota encode diverse cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes, but the contributions of host…

3h

Mycoplasma promotes malignant transformation in vivo, and its DnaK, a bacterial chaperon protein, has broad oncogenic properties [Microbiology]

We isolated a strain of human mycoplasma that promotes lymphomagenesis in SCID mice, pointing to a p53-dependent mechanism similar to lymphomagenesis in uninfected p53−/− SCID mice. Additionally, mycoplasma infection in vitro reduces p53 activity. Immunoprecipitation of p53 in mycoplasma-infected cells identified several mycoplasma proteins, including DnaK, a member of the…

3h

Phosphorylation cascade regulates the formation and maturation of rotaviral replication factories [Microbiology]

The rotavirus (RV) genome is replicated and packaged into virus progeny in cytoplasmic inclusions called viroplasms, which require interactions between RV nonstructural proteins NSP2 and NSP5. How viroplasms form remains unknown. We previously found two forms of NSP2 in RV-infected cells: a cytoplasmically dispersed dNSP2, which interacts with hypophosphorylated NSP5;…

3h

MRI demonstrates glutamine antagonist-mediated reversal of cerebral malaria pathology in mice [Microbiology]

The deadliest complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection is cerebral malaria (CM), with a case fatality rate of 15 to 25% in African children despite effective antimalarial chemotherapy. No adjunctive treatments are yet available for this devastating disease. We previously reported that the glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) rescued mice from experimental…

3h

Structural and effective brain connectivity underlying biological motion detection [Neuroscience]

The perception of actions underwrites a wide range of socio-cognitive functions. Previous neuroimaging and lesion studies identified several components of the brain network for visual biological motion (BM) processing, but interactions among these components and their relationship to behavior remain little understood. Here, using a recently developed integrative analysis of…

3h

Ablation of {alpha}2{delta}-1 inhibits cell-surface trafficking of endogenous N-type calcium channels in the pain pathway in vivo [Neuroscience]

The auxiliary α2δ calcium channel subunits play key roles in voltage-gated calcium channel function. Independent of this, α2δ-1 has also been suggested to be important for synaptogenesis. Using an epitope-tagged knockin mouse strategy, we examined the effect of α2δ-1 on CaV2.2 localization in the pain pathway in vivo, where CaV2.2…

3h

Synergistic neuroprotection by coffee components eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide and caffeine in models of Parkinson's disease and DLB [Neuroscience]

Hyperphosphorylated α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is a characteristic neuropathological feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The catalytic subunit of the specific phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that dephosphorylates α-synuclein, is hypomethylated in these brains, thereby impeding the assembly of the active trimeric…

3h

Inflammation in the hippocampus affects IGF1 receptor signaling and contributes to neurological sequelae in rheumatoid arthritis [Neuroscience]

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease with a neurological component including depression, cognitive deficits, and pain, which substantially affect patients’ quality of daily life. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling is one of the factors in RA pathogenesis as well as a known regulator of adult neurogenesis….

3h

Two distinct profiles of fMRI and neurophysiological activity elicited by acetylcholine in visual cortex [Neuroscience]

Cholinergic neuromodulation is involved in all aspects of sensory processing and is crucial for processes such as attention, learning and memory, etc. However, despite the known roles of acetylcholine (ACh), we still do not how to disentangle ACh contributions from sensory or task-evoked changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)….

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GABA release selectively regulates synapse development at distinct inputs on direction-selective retinal ganglion cells [Neuroscience]

Synaptic inhibition controls a neuron’s output via functionally distinct inputs at two subcellular compartments, the cell body and the dendrites. It is unclear whether the assembly of these distinct inhibitory inputs can be regulated independently by neurotransmission. In the mammalian retina, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from starburst amacrine cells (SACs)…

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Tissue-specific contributions of Tmem79 to atopic dermatitis and mast cell-mediated histaminergic itch [Physiology]

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common skin disease in children. It is characterized by relapsing inflammation, skin-barrier defects, and intractable itch. However, the pathophysiology of itch in AD remains enigmatic. Here, we examine the contribution of Tmem79, an orphan transmembrane protein linked to AD in both mice and humans….

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Low-oxygen response is triggered by an ATP-dependent shift in oleoyl-CoA in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

Plant response to environmental stimuli involves integration of multiple signals. Upon low-oxygen stress, plants initiate a set of adaptive responses to circumvent an energy crisis. Here, we reveal how these stress responses are induced by combining (i) energy-dependent changes in the composition of the acyl-CoA pool and (ii) the cellular…

3h

A unique ferredoxin acts as a player in the low-iron response of photosynthetic organisms [Plant Biology]

Iron chronically limits aquatic photosynthesis, especially in marine environments, and the correct perception and maintenance of iron homeostasis in photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria, is therefore of global significance. Multiple adaptive mechanisms, responsive promoters, and posttranscriptional regulators have been identified, which allow cyanobacteria to respond to changing iron c

3h

Ferredoxin-linked flavoenzyme defines a family of pyridine nucleotide-independent thioredoxin reductases [Biochemistry]

Ferredoxin-dependent thioredoxin reductase was identified 35 y ago in the fermentative bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum [Hammel KE, Cornwell KL, Buchanan BB (1983) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:3681–3685]. The enzyme, a flavoprotein, was strictly dependent on ferredoxin as reductant and was inactive with either NADPH or NADH. This early work has…

3h

Structural mechanism for HIV-1 TAR loop recognition by Tat and the super elongation complex [Biochemistry]

Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a key regulatory step in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) transcription and thus in the reversal of HIV latency. By binding to the nascent transactivating response region (TAR) RNA, HIV-1 Tat recruits the human super elongation complex (SEC) to the promoter and…

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Spontaneous migration of cellular aggregates from giant keratocytes to running spheroids [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Despite extensive knowledge on the mechanisms that drive single-cell migration, those governing the migration of cell clusters, as occurring during embryonic development and cancer metastasis, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the collective migration of cell on adhesive gels with variable rigidity, using 3D cellular aggregates as a model system….

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Emergence of Escherichia coli critically buckled motile helices under stress [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Bacteria under external stress can reveal unexpected emergent phenotypes. We show that the intensely studied bacterium Escherichia coli can transform into long, highly motile helical filaments poized at a torsional buckling criticality when exposed to minimum inhibitory concentrations of several antibiotics. While the highly motile helices are physically either right-…

3h

Structure and activity of lipid bilayer within a membrane-protein transporter [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Membrane proteins function in native cell membranes, but extraction into isolated particles is needed for many biochemical and structural analyses. Commonly used detergent-extraction methods destroy naturally associated lipid bilayers. Here, we devised a detergent-free method for preparing cell-membrane nanoparticles to study the multidrug exporter AcrB, by cryo-EM at 3.2-Å resolution….

3h

Excitation-multiplexed multicolor superresolution imaging with fm-STORM and fm-DNA-PAINT [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Recent advancements in single-molecule-based superresolution microscopy have made it possible to visualize biological structures with unprecedented spatial resolution. Determining the spatial coorganization of these structures within cells under physiological and pathological conditions is an important biological goal. This goal has been stymied by the current limitations of carrying out superreso

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Fenestrations control resting-state block of a voltage-gated sodium channel [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Potency of drug action is usually determined by binding to a specific receptor site on target proteins. In contrast to this conventional paradigm, we show here that potency of local anesthetics (LAs) and antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) that block sodium channels is controlled by fenestrations that allow drug access to the…

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Isolation and characterization of adrenocortical progenitors involved in the adaptation to stress [Cell Biology]

The adrenal gland is a master regulator of the human body during response to stress. This organ shows constant replacement of senescent cells by newly differentiated cells. A high degree of plasticity is critical to sustain homeostasis under different physiological demands. This is achieved in part through proliferation and differentiation…

3h

Folate deficiency drives mitotic missegregation of the human FRAXA locus [Cell Biology]

The instability of chromosome fragile sites is implicated as a causative factor in several human diseases, including cancer [for common fragile sites (CFSs)] and neurological disorders [for rare fragile sites (RFSs)]. Previous studies have indicated that problems arising during DNA replication are the underlying source of this instability. Although the…

3h

Microtubule-directed transport of purine metabolons drives their cytosolic transit to mitochondria [Cell Biology]

To meet their purine demand, cells activate the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway and transiently cluster the pathway enzymes into metabolons called purinosomes. Recently, we have shown that purinosomes were spatially colocalized with mitochondria and microtubules, yet it remained unclear as to what drives these associations and whether a relationship…

3h

Extensive cellular heterogeneity of X inactivation revealed by single-cell allele-specific expression in human fibroblasts [Cell Biology]

X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) provides a dosage compensation mechanism where, in each female cell, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly silenced. However, some genes on the inactive X chromosome and outside the pseudoautosomal regions escape from XCI and are expressed from both alleles (escapees). We investigated XCI at single-cell…

3h

VIPER is a genetically encoded peptide tag for fluorescence and electron microscopy [Chemistry]

Many discoveries in cell biology rely on making specific proteins visible within their native cellular environment. There are various genetically encoded tags, such as fluorescent proteins, developed for fluorescence microscopy (FM). However, there are almost no genetically encoded tags that enable cellular proteins to be observed by both FM and…

3h

A neural data structure for novelty detection [Computer Sciences]

Novelty detection is a fundamental biological problem that organisms must solve to determine whether a given stimulus departs from those previously experienced. In computer science, this problem is solved efficiently using a data structure called a Bloom filter. We found that the fruit fly olfactory circuit evolved a variant of…

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Mutation in LBX1/Lbx1 precludes transcription factor cooperativity and causes congenital hypoventilation in humans and mice [Developmental Biology]

The respiratory rhythm is generated by the preBötzinger complex in the medulla oblongata, and is modulated by neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), which are essential for accelerating respiration in response to high CO2. Here we identify a LBX1 frameshift (LBX1FS) mutation in patients with congenital central hypoventilation. The mutation…

3h

Oxygenated Mesoproterozoic lake revealed through magnetic mineralogy [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Terrestrial environments have been suggested as an oxic haven for eukaryotic life and diversification during portions of the Proterozoic Eon when the ocean was dominantly anoxic. However, iron speciation and Fe/Al data from the ca. 1.1-billion-year-old Nonesuch Formation, deposited in a large lake and bearing a diverse assemblage of early…

3h

Altimeter-era emergence of the patterns of forced sea-level rise in climate models and implications for the future [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The satellite altimeter record has provided an unprecedented database for understanding sea-level rise and has recently reached a major milestone at 25 years in length. A challenge now exists in understanding its broader significance and its consequences for sea-level rise in the coming decades and beyond. A key question is…

3h

Fipronil pesticide as a suspect in historical mass mortalities of honey bees [Ecology]

Mass mortalities of honey bees occurred in France in the 1990s coincident with the introduction of two agricultural insecticides, imidacloprid and fipronil. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid, was widely blamed, but the differential potency of imidacloprid and fipronil has been unclear because of uncertainty over their capacity to bioaccumulate during sustained exposure…

3h

Multiresponsive polymeric microstructures with encoded predetermined and self-regulated deformability [Engineering]

Dynamic functions of biological organisms often rely on arrays of actively deformable microstructures undergoing a nearly unlimited repertoire of predetermined and self-regulated reconfigurations and motions, most of which are difficult or not yet possible to achieve in synthetic systems. Here, we introduce stimuli-responsive microstructures based on liquid-crystalline elastomers (LCEs) that…

3h

Biparental Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA in Humans [Genetics]

Although there has been considerable debate about whether paternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transmission may coexist with maternal transmission of mtDNA, it is generally believed that mitochondria and mtDNA are exclusively maternally inherited in humans. Here, we identified three unrelated multigeneration families with a high level of mtDNA heteroplasmy (ranging from…

3h

Genetic determinants and an epistasis of LILRA3 and HLA-B*52 in Takayasu arteritis [Genetics]

Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is a systemic vasculitis with severe complications that affects the aorta and its large branches. HLA-B*52 is an established susceptibility locus to TAK. To date, there are still only a limited number of reports concerning non-HLA susceptibility loci to TAK. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS)…

3h

Intrinsic TNFR2 signaling in T regulatory cells provides protection in CNS autoimmunity [Immunology and Inflammation]

TNF is a multifunctional cytokine involved in autoimmune disease pathogenesis that exerts its effects through two distinct TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. While TNF- and TNFR1-deficient (but not TNFR2-deficient) mice show very similar phenotypes, the significance of TNFR2 signaling in health and disease remains incompletely understood. Recent studies implicated the…

3h

Basophils trigger emphysema development in a murine model of COPD through IL-4-mediated generation of MMP-12-producing macrophages [Immunology and Inflammation]

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has generally been considered a non-Th2-type lung disorder, characterized by progressive airflow limitation with inflammation and emphysema, but its cellular and molecular mechanism remains ill defined, compared with that of asthma characterized by reversible airway…

3h

Noninvasive diagnostic imaging using machine-learning analysis of nanoresolution images of cell surfaces: Detection of bladder cancer [Medical Sciences]

We report an approach in diagnostic imaging based on nanoscale-resolution scanning of surfaces of cells collected from body fluids using a recent modality of atomic force microscopy (AFM), subresonance tapping, and machine-leaning analysis. The surface parameters, which are typically used in engineering to describe surfaces, are used to classify cells….

3h

Hybrid prevalence estimation: Method to improve intervention coverage estimations [Medical Sciences]

Delivering excellent health services requires accurate health information systems (HIS) data. Poor-quality data can lead to poor judgments and outcomes. Unlike probability surveys, which are representative of the population and carry accuracy estimates, HIS do not, but in many countries the HIS is the primary source of data used for…

3h

Knockout of both miR-15/16 loci induces acute myeloid leukemia [Medical Sciences]

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively reported to be associated with hematological malignancies. The loss of miR-15a/16–1 at chromosome 13q14 is a hallmark of most of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Deletion of murine miR-15a/16–1 and miR-15b/16–2 has been demonstrated to promote B cell malignancies. Here, we evaluate the biological role…

3h

FSIP1 regulates autophagy in breast cancer [Medical Sciences]

Fibrous sheath interacting protein 1 (FSIP1) is a cancer antigen expressed in the majority of breast cancer tissues and is associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of FSIP1 in the progression and drug sensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has not been explored. Here, we show that FSIP1 deficiency…

3h

Calditol-linked membrane lipids are required for acid tolerance in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius [Microbiology]

Archaea have many unique physiological features of which the lipid composition of their cellular membranes is the most striking. Archaeal ether-linked isoprenoidal membranes can occur as bilayers or monolayers, possess diverse polar head groups, and a multiplicity of ring structures in the isoprenoidal cores. These lipid structures are proposed to…

3h

Poplar phyllosphere harbors disparate isoprene-degrading bacteria [Microbiology]

The climate-active gas isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is released to the atmosphere in huge quantities, almost equaling that of methane, yet we know little about the biological cycling of isoprene in the environment. Although bacteria capable of growth on isoprene as the sole source of carbon and energy have previously been isolated…

3h

Seneca Valley virus attachment and uncoating mediated by its receptor anthrax toxin receptor 1 [Microbiology]

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for neuroendocrine cancers. SVV mediates cell entry by attachment to the receptor anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1). Here we determine atomic structures of mature SVV particles alone and in complex with ANTXR1 in both neutral and acidic conditions, as…

3h

Removal of clock gene Bmal1 from the retina affects retinal development and accelerates cone photoreceptor degeneration during aging [Neuroscience]

The mammalian retina contains an autonomous circadian clock system that controls many physiological functions within this tissue. Previous studies on young mice have reported that removal of the key circadian clock gene Bmal1 from the retina affects the circadian regulation of visual function, but does not affect photoreceptor viability. Because…

3h

Genetic recovery of ErbB4 in adulthood partially restores brain functions in null mice [Neuroscience]

Neurotrophic factor NRG1 and its receptor ErbB4 play a role in GABAergic circuit assembly during development. ErbB4 null mice possess fewer interneurons, have decreased GABA release, and show impaired behavior in various paradigms. In addition, NRG1 and ErbB4 have also been implicated in regulating GABAergic transmission and plasticity in matured…

3h

Itinerant ferromagnetism of the Pd-terminated polar surface of PdCoO2 [Physics]

The ability to modulate the collective properties of correlated electron systems at their interfaces and surfaces underpins the burgeoning field of “designer” quantum materials. Here, we show how an electronic reconstruction driven by surface polarity mediates a Stoner-like magnetic instability to itinerant ferromagnetism at the Pd-terminated surface of the nonmagnetic…

3h

Constitutive boost of a K+ channel via inherent bilayer tension and a unique tension-dependent modality [Physiology]

Molecular mechanisms underlying channel-membrane interplay have been extensively studied. Cholesterol, as a major component of the cell membrane, participates either in specific binding to channels or via modification of membrane physical features. Here, we examined the action of various sterols (cholesterol, epicholesterol, etc.) on a prototypical potassium channel (KcsA). Single-channel…

3h

Leucine-rich repeat extensin proteins regulate plant salt tolerance in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

The perception and relay of cell-wall signals are critical for plants to regulate growth and stress responses, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that the cell-wall leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRX) 3/4/5 are critical for plant salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. The LRXs physically associate with the RAPID ALKALINIZATION…

3h

Inherent auditory skills rather than formal music training shape the neural encoding of speech [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Musical training is associated with a myriad of neuroplastic changes in the brain, including more robust and efficient neural processing of clean and degraded speech signals at brainstem and cortical levels. These assumptions stem largely from cross-sectional studies between musicians and nonmusicians which cannot address whether training itself is sufficient…

3h

Predicting plant conservation priorities on a global scale [Sustainability Science]

The conservation status of most plant species is currently unknown, despite the fundamental role of plants in ecosystem health. To facilitate the costly process of conservation assessment, we developed a predictive protocol using a machine-learning approach to predict conservation status of over 150,000 land plant species. Our study uses open-source…

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Correction to Supporting Information for Fan et al., External light activates hair follicle stem cells through eyes via an ipRGC-SCN-sympathetic neural pathway [SI Correction]

NEUROSCIENCE Correction to Supporting Information for “External light activates hair follicle stem cells through eyes via an ipRGC–SCN–sympathetic neural pathway,” by Sabrina Mai-Yi Fan, Yi-Ting Chang, Chih-Lung Chen, Wei-Hung Wang, Ming-Kai Pan, Wen-Pin Chen, Wen-Yen Huang, Zijian Xu, Hai-En Huang, Ting Chen, Maksim V. Plikus, Shih-Kuo Chen, and Sung-Jan Lin,…

3h

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Machine-learning approach identifies plants at risk of extinction Artistic rendition of global conservation risk hotspots for land plant species. Image courtesy of Abbie Zimmer (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH). Plant biodiversity supports food chain diversity, helps counter natural disasters, and contributes to ecosystem productivity. The International Union for Conservation of…

3h

Profile of Susan Brantley [Profiles]

As a bus rattled down the Pan American Highway across the sun-washed desert of northern Peru in 1980, a young American woman gazed out the window at buttes and bluffs, searching for a flagpole that would point the way to the result of a rare phenomenon on Earth’s surface: a…

3h

Translation dysregulation in neurodegenerative disorders [Biochemistry]

Aberrant translational repression has emerged as a common feature across multiple neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms underlying translational repression have not been fully elucidated but, in some cases, involve activation of the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway by disease-associated, aggregation-prone proteins. For example, studies in mouse models of prion and tauopathy…

3h

Malleable folding of coiled-coils regulates kinesin-3 dimerization [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Microtubules (MTs) form polarized intracellular fibers inside eukaryotic cells that organize the cytoplasm, form tracks for long-range vesicle transport, and generate forces to align and segregate chromosomes during cell division. The discovery of conventional kinesin (termed kinesin-1) over three decades ago revealed a vast superfamily dedicated to transporting a variety…

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Getting a handle on CaV2.2 (N-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels [Neuroscience]

In PNAS, Nieto-Rostro et al. (1) report a mouse model expressing CaV2.2 (N-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) with an extracellularly accessible hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag engineered into their pore-forming CaV2.2 α1 subunits (i.e., CaV2.2_HAKI/KI mice). This model allowed the identification of endogenous CaV2.2 channels in the plasma membrane of peripheral…

3h

Molecular link between itch and atopic dermatitis [Physiology]

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a relapsing inflammatory skin disease often associated with intractable chronic itch. The sensation of itch depends on the activity of pruriceptive sensory neurons whose nerve fibers innervate the dermis and epidermis. These fibers can respond to factors secreted by keratinocytes (e.g., thymic stromal lymphopoietin) and immune…

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Emergent sustainability in open property regimes [Sustainability Science]

Current theoretical models of the commons assert that common-pool resources can only be managed sustainably with clearly defined boundaries around both communities and the resources that they use. In these theoretical models, open access inevitably leads to a tragedy of the commons. However, in many open-access systems, use of common-pool…

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Emergence of dominant multidrug-resistant bacterial clades: Lessons from history and whole-genome sequencing [Biological Sciences]

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has emerged as a global challenge over the past 90 years, compromising our ability to effectively treat infections. There has been a dramatic increase in antibiotic resistance-associated determinants in bacterial populations, driven by the mobility and infectious nature of such determinants. Bacterial genome flexibility and antibiotic-driven…

3h

Why the evolution of vaccine resistance is less of a concern than the evolution of drug resistance [Biological Sciences]

Vaccines and antimicrobial drugs both impose strong selection for resistance. Yet only drug resistance is a major challenge for 21st century medicine. Why is drug resistance ubiquitous and not vaccine resistance? Part of the answer is that vaccine resistance is far less likely to evolve than drug resistance. But what…

3h

Technologies to address antimicrobial resistance [Biological Sciences]

Bacterial infections have been traditionally controlled by antibiotics and vaccines, and these approaches have greatly improved health and longevity. However, multiple stakeholders are declaring that the lack of new interventions is putting our ability to prevent and treat bacterial infections at risk. Vaccine and antibiotic approaches still have the potential…

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Impact of existing vaccines in reducing antibiotic resistance: Primary and secondary effects [Biological Sciences]

Vaccines impact antibiotic-resistant infections in two ways: through a direct reduction in the organisms and strains carrying resistant genes that are specifically targeted by the vaccine and also via a secondary effect through a reduction in febrile illnesses that often lead to the use of antibiotics. We review here the…

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Microbiome as a tool and a target in the effort to address antimicrobial resistance [Biological Sciences]

Reciprocal, intimate relationships between the human microbiome and the host immune system are shaped by past microbial encounters and prepare the host for future ones. Antibiotics and other antimicrobials leave their mark on both the microbiome and host immunity. Antimicrobials alter the structure of the microbiota, expand the host-specific pool…

3h

Toward economic evaluation of the value of vaccines and other health technologies in addressing AMR [Social Sciences]

We discuss the need to make economic evaluations of vaccines antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-sensitive and ways to do so. Such AMR-sensitive evaluations can play a role in value-for-money comparisons of different vaccines within a national immunization program, or in comparisons of vaccine-centric and non-vaccine-centric technologies within an anti-AMR program. In general…

3h

Inner Workings: Astronomers track dwarf galaxies to better understand the Milky Way’s make-up and evolution [Astronomy]

At the turn of this century, astronomers were confident they understood the Milky Way’s relationship with its galactic neighbors. Our home galaxy is the second-largest member of the Local Group, an assembly of more than 50 galaxies that spans roughly 10 million light-years. Many of the group’s smaller galaxies are…

3h

Antimicrobial resistance and the role of vaccines [Biological Sciences]

Stanley Falkow (Fig. 1) dedicated his life’s work to the study of bacteria and infectious disease. He was a leader in the discovery of the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and among the first to recognize and raise the alarm about the problem of multidrug resistance. The articles of this Special…

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Science and Culture: Imagining a climate-change future, without the dystopia [Sustainability Science]

Most popular narratives about climate change are negative, playing off people’s anxieties. In the movie The Day After Tomorrow, a climate disaster precipitates the fall of civilization. Margaret Atwood's novel MaddAddam is set in a society shattered by an ecological catastrophe. In Aaron Sorkin's HBO TV series The Newsroom, an…

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How best to talk to your science-denying relatives this Christmas

Trying to change someone's mind is no easy task, but researchers have studied the various pitfalls when it comes to correcting scientific myths

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Snake-oil sellers must no longer be able to hide behind charity status

UK regulators are cracking down on charities that promote bogus treatments. But will it be enough, asks Tom Chivers

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Of course the most likely time to have a heart attack is on a holiday

Health Home is where the heart attack is. We romanticize the holiday season so much that it’s easy to forget how stressful the whole thing can be.

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Hurricane Maria gave ecologists rare chance to study how tropical dry forests recover

To counteract the damage hurricanes have caused to their canopies, trees appear to adjust key characteristics of their newly grown leaves, according to a year-long field study.

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Arctic Lakes Are Vanishing by the Hundreds

Warming temperatures may be causing tundra ponds to evaporate or drain into thawing permafrost — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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With a focus on high-risk patients, SLU researcher eyes eliminating TB for good

A focus on high-risk tuberculosis patients may be the answer to stalled progress in stamping out the illness in the United States.

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NASA-NOAA satellite tracking Tropical Cyclone Kenanga

Tropical Cyclone Kenanga was at hurricane-force when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite grabbed a visible image of the storm in the Southern Indian Ocean on Dec. 18.

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Fjerklædte flyveøgler omskriver dinosaurenes historie

De første dyr med fjerdragt kan være opstået lang tid før dinosaurerne, viser nye fund.

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FSU researcher: Unfair treatment by police linked to physiological impacts among black men

In a new study published in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior, FSU researchers found a strong link between unfair treatment by police and telomere length, a biological indicator of psychological stress.

4h

Understanding dynamic stall at high speeds

Although many fixed-wing aircraft can withstand similar rapid pitch-up maneuvers, a vehicle subject to this dynamic stall process is not reliably controllable. Motivated by the lack of detailed understanding, University of Illinois researchers took a deep dive into the physics of dynamic stall so that it can be used beneficially and reliably by aircraft.

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Biologists identify promising drug for ALS treatment

A new drug could significantly slow the progression of ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, according to new research by University of Alberta biologists. Current treatments slow progression of the degenerative disease by only a few months, and these findings could revolutionize the treatment of patients suffering from ALS, extending and improving quality of life.

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Sofosbuvir rids organism of chikungunya and yellow fever viruses

Sofosbuvir is already used to treat hepatitis C and has passed all human use approval tests, so it can be fairly easily deployed if the chikungunya epidemic forecast for the next two years materializes.

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Nasa's New Horizons probe on course for historic flyby

Ex-Pluto spacecraft New Horizons maintains the trajectory taking it to its next dramatic encounter.

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Four rockets could go to space in the next 24 hours. Here's how to watch them all.

Space Stream Blue Origin, SpaceX, United Launch Alliance, and Arianespace's launches. Many industries are winding down in anticipation of the holidays, but the space industry is ending not with a whimper, but with a bang: four different missions should…

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Rick's Gold Weigh-In Breaks the Scale | Gold Rush

Rick's crew earns a season best 131 ounces for the week, worth over $150,000. Stream Full Episodes of Gold Rush: https://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/gold-rush/ Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Join us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/GoldRush/ https://www.facebook.com/Discovery Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Gold_Rush https://twitter.com/Discovery We're on I

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Gut microbiome regulates the intestinal immune system, researchers find

A new study in mice unveils the role of vitamin A in immune system regulation, a finding that could assist in developing treatments for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well as vitamin A deficiency.

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Gene identified with a key role in plant adaptation to fluctuating soil salinity levels

UAB researchers have identified modifications in a sodium transporter gene with key consequences for plants needing to adapt to fluctuating soil salinity. The research, published in PNAS, can help to improve the sustainability of crops in rising salinity levels associated with climate change and human pressure.

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New insight on inflammatory regulation could inform future pain drug development

A novel way in which the inflammatory response to pain is regulated has been described in the open-access journal eLife.

4h

Thinking outside the box and outside the tumor to detect lung cancer

A team of researchers at Case Western Reserve University is using 'deep-learning' diagnostic computers to examine the shape of blood vessels feeding a nodule found on a lung CAT scan and in regions surrounding the tumor. They're finding previously unrecorded changes in those blood vessels–or otherwise healthy surrounding tissue–which accurately predict a cancer growth nearby, in this case, lung

4h

The decentralized web will be as big a game changer as the internet was in the '90s

The internet has witnessed many big developments since it was created. The next big one will be decentralization. Right now, the internet is centralized, which cause many issues, not the least of which is big companies having power over vast amounts of data. Over the past few years there has been a major increase in the number of decentralized projects working on making the decentralized web a re

4h

Surgeon General Warns Youth Vaping Is Now An 'Epidemic'

U.S. Surgeon General Jerome Adams issued a forceful advisory about vaping by U.S. teenagers, saying electronic cigarette use among young people has reached levels that require urgent action. (Image credit: Eric Baradat/AFP/Getty Images)

4h

Broading the biodiversity catalogue of spider populations in the Iberian Peninsula

The biodiversity catalogue of the Iberian Peninsula spiders is now adding the discovery of a dozen new species — from seven different families — that are mainly found in edaphic environments (soil), according to a new article.

4h

Technique allows integration of single-crystal hybrid perovskites into electronics

Researchers have developed a technique that, for the first time, allows single-crystal hybrid perovskite materials to be integrated into electronics. Because these perovskites can be synthesized at low temperatures, the advance opens the door to new research into flexible electronics and potentially reduced manufacturing costs for electronic devices.

4h

Widespread, occasional use of antibiotics in US linked with resistance

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the U.S. appears more closely linked with their occasional use by many people than by their repeated use among smaller numbers of people, according to a large new study.

4h

Peering into Little Foot's 3.67-million-year-old brain

MicroCT scans of the Australopithecus fossil known as Little Foot shows that the brain of this ancient human relative was small and shows features that are similar to our own brain and others that are closer to our ancestor shared with living chimpanzees.

4h

Meet the Real Ravenmaster

Christopher Skaife talks about his new book The Ravenmaster: My Life with the Ravens at the Tower of London, in front of a live audience at Caveat, “the speakeasy bar for intelligent… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

4h

The Grimch: Marathon

The holiday festivities were coming to an end, As the final event came round the bend. They’d all wake bright and early, just a little past dawn, Then log onto the site for the marathon. It was the Grimch’s last chance to fill them with grief, As he scrambled the code and made other mischief. Then he waited and wondered if without all their powers, They’d be able to finish in just 24 hours! The m

4h

Clemson researchers: Trees grow more efficient leaves to compensate for hurricane damage

When Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico last year, ecologists at Clemson's Belle W. Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science took the opportunity to study how hurricanes affect tropical dry forests in the Caribbean. Doctoral student Tristan Allerton presented findings from the year-long field study Tuesday at the British Ecological Society's annual conference.

4h

The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: How Far Have We Come?

We now know the cause of flu—but the universal vaccine and the antiviral drugs we need to stop it still elude us — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

4h

Seal pups across the UK are 'at risk from toxic chemicals'

Seal pups across the UK are "at risk" from man-made toxic chemicals present in their mothers' milk.

4h

System monitors radiation damage to materials in real-time

A new system allows detailed real-time observations of how materials are affected by a high-radiation environment. The system, developed at MIT and Sandia National Laboratories, could accelerate the development of better materials for nuclear plants.

5h

New megalibrary approach proves useful for the rapid discovery of new materials

Identifying the best material for a given application — catalysts, light-harvesting structures, biodiagnostic labels, pharmaceuticals and electronic devices — is traditionally a slow and daunting task. Now, a new Northwestern University study supports the efficacy of a potentially revolutionary new discovery tool developed at Northwestern University to rapidly test millions (even billions) of na

5h

Tiny implantable device short-circuits hunger pangs, aids weight loss

New battery-free, easily implantable weight-loss devices developed by engineers could offer a promising new weapon for battling the bulge.

5h

Apparel gifts for the active, outdoorsy type

Gift Guides Clothing for enjoying nature, or just looking good while walking around. Gifts for the active, outdoorsy type including clothing for enjoying nature or just walking around.

5h

Voids and clever shape make incredibly stiff structures

Researchers have developed and manufactured a family of structures that maximize the stiffness of porous lightweight materials. It’s practically impossible to develop stiffer designs for their given weight. 3D printing and other additive production techniques make it possible to manufacture materials with internal structures of previously unimaginable complexity. This is interesting for lightweig

5h

The Coming Commodification of Life at Home

“Imagine this,” says an advertising consultant named Barry Lowenthal. “I’m a smart toaster, and I’m collecting data on how many times the toaster is used.” I’ve just asked Lowenthal what he, as an advertiser, would be able to do with data transmitted from an internet-connected appliance, and I happened to mention a toaster. He thought through the possibility of an appliance that can detect what i

5h

Mary Poppins Returns: Cunning Homage or Shameless Rip-off?

If there were two big upcoming movies I spent most of 2018 semi-dreading, they were A Star Is Born and Mary Poppins Returns . The former had already been dramatized four (!) times—at least if you include a Bollywood adaptation titled Aashiqui 2 —and I wasn’t a particular fan of either the Judy Garland or the Barbra Streisand version. But to my surprise, Bradley Cooper’s remake was superb on almos

5h

Why this 2015 NASA study is beloved by climate change skeptics

A 2015 NASA study caused major controversy by claiming that Antarctica was gaining more ice than it was losing. The study said that ice gains in East Antarctica were effectively canceling out ice losses in the western region of the continent. Since 2015, multiple studies have shown that Antarctica is losing more ice than it's gaining, though the 2015 study remains a favorite of climate change dou

5h

Space telescope detects water in a number of asteroids

Using the infrared satellite AKARI, a research team has detected the existence of water in the form of hydrated minerals in a number of asteroids for the first time. This discovery will contribute to our understanding of the distribution of water in our solar system, the evolution of asteroids, and the origin of water on Earth.

5h

Mystery of coronae around supermassive black holes deepens

Researchers have used observations from the ALMA radio observatory to measure, for the first time, the strength of magnetic fields near two supermassive black holes at the centers of an important type of active galaxies. Surprisingly, the strengths of the magnetic fields do not appear sufficient to power the 'coronae,' clouds of superheated plasma that are observed around the black holes at the ce

5h

Explaining differences in rates of evolution

Scientists look to fossils and evolutionary trees to help determine the rate of evolution — albeit with conflicting results. A new model has helped to resolve these contradictions.

5h

Fossil from the Big Bang discovered with W. M. Keck Observatory

A relic cloud of gas, orphaned after the Big Bang, has been discovered in the distant universe by astronomers using the world's most powerful optical telescope, the W. M. Keck Observatory on Maunakea, Hawaii.

5h

Two-step control mechanism identified in mouse stem cells

Scientists identified two distinct control mechanisms in the developmental transition of undifferentiated stem cells into healthy brain cells. This fundamental research using mice may inform regenerative medicine treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and spinal cord injuries, in the future.

5h

Discovery of novel mechanisms that cause migraines

Researchers have demonstrated a new mechanism related to the onset of migraine. In fact, they found how a mutation, causes dysfunction in a protein which inhibits neuronal electrical activity, induces migraines. These results open a new path for the development of anti-migraine medicines.

5h

Ancient Japanese pottery includes an estimated 500 maize weevils

Researchers have discovered an ancient Japanese pottery vessel from the late Jomon period (4500-3300 BP) with an estimated 500 maize weevils incorporated into its design. The vessel was discovered in February 2016 from ruins in Hokkaido, Japan. This extremely rare discovery provides clues on the cultivation and distribution of chestnuts, food in the Jomon era, and the spirituality of ancient Japan

5h

Salmon may lose the ability to smell danger as carbon emissions rise

New research shows that the powerful sense of smell Pacific salmon rely on for migration, finding food and avoiding predators might be in trouble as carbon emissions continue to be absorbed by the ocean.

5h

På tide: Minister overvejer at indføre nøjagtigt dansk klokkeslæt

Mens nærmest resten af kloden anvender præcise atomure til fastlæggelse af tiden, hænger Danmark fast i en lov, hvor Solens middelposition på Bornholm definerer det eksakte klokkeslæt. Ole Birk Olesen pønser på ændring.

5h

Opioids Don't Really Do That Much for Chronic Pain, Meta-Analysis Finds

Not only do prescription opioid drugs come with a risk of addiction and overdose, but they also appear to provide little benefit for patients with chronic pain

5h

Study suggests shifts in Afghan attitudes towards increased education and delayed marriage

In Afghanistan's most underdeveloped regions, attitudes towards education and child marriage appear to have changed significantly since the overthrow of the Taliban government in 2002, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

5h

Experts identify 'tipping point' in tree disease outbreaks

Experts have found a way to model disease progression and predict the 'tipping point' of a disease, providing early warning indicators that an epidemic is imminent and action needs to be taken.

5h

Criminal history strong indicator for future violent crime

New research shows offenders convicted of a violent crime or other serious felonies will likely commit the same crime again. For example, a prior homicide conviction increased the likelihood by 1,467 percent. Researchers say the findings illustrate the need to consider an offender's entire criminal history during sentencing or when considering parole.

5h

Dive-bombing for love: Male hummingbirds dazzle females with a highly synchronized display

Male Broad-tailed Hummingbirds perform dramatic aerial courtship dives to impress females. In a new study, scientists have shown that diving males closely time key events to produce a burst of signals for the viewer. They synchronize maximal horizontal speed, loud noises generated with their tail feathers, and a display of their iridescent throat-patch (gorget), performed in a mere 300 millisecond

5h

Prostate cancer scoring method may underestimate mortality risk in black men

Black men diagnosed with prostate cancer classified as low risk may actually have a more-aggressive form of the disease that is more likely to be fatal than in nonblack men placed in the same prognostic category, a new study suggests.

5h

Study examines effects of taking ondansetron during first trimester of pregnancy

A new study conducted by investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital has analyzed data from more than 88,000 pregnancies in which pregnant women had taken ondansetron during the first trimester to examine risk of cardiac malformations or oral clefts.

5h

A new model of ice friction helps scientists understand how glaciers flow

Despite the looming ecological consequences, glacier motion remains poorly understood. The bedrock, the ice-bed interface and the water-filled cavities all affect friction and influence how the ice will flow, but studying these poses challenges — remote radar sensing can track glacial movement, but it can't measure detailed properties of the ice and rock. In the Journal of Chemical Physics, Bo Pe

5h

Two ways cancer resists treatment are actually connected, with one activating the other

Researcher shows the two most common means of resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors are actually connected processes and can be targeted by other therapies.

5h

How a single faulty gene can lead to lupus

IBS-AIM (Academy of Immunology and Microbiology) research team at Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) in South Korea has discovered the role of a key gene involved in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or lupus for short. The scientists reported that defects in Ets1 gene in both mice and humans are linked to some of the characteristic SLE immunity abnormali

5h

What prevents remyelination? New stem cell research reveals a critical culprit

New research on remyelination, the spontaneous regeneration of the brain's fatty insulator that keeps neurons communicating, could lead to a novel approach to developing treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) and other inflammatory diseases.

5h

Research finds opioids may help chronic pain, a little

In a study published today by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), McMaster University researchers reviewed 96 clinical trials with more than 26,000 participants and found opioids provide only small improvements in pain, physical functioning and sleep quality compared to a placebo.

5h

Childbirth delivery methods and risk of incontinence, overactive bladder

Pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse (when one or more of the pelvic organs drop from their normal position) are associated with childbirth and affect millions of women in the United States. This study examined the risk of pelvic floor disorders based on the method of childbirth delivery among 1,500 women a decade or two after giving birth.

5h

Opioids vs. placebo, nonopioid alternatives for chronic noncancer pain

An estimated 50 million adults in the United States were living with chronic noncancer pain in 2016 and many of them were prescribed opioid medications, even though a clinical benefit is uncertain. This study combined the results of 96 randomized clinical trials with about 26,000 participants to compare opioids with placebo and nonopioid alternative pain medications for the treatment of chronic no

5h

A versatile vaccine that can protect mice from emerging tick-borne viruses

A group of researchers led by Michael Diamond of Washington University in St. Louis have developed a vaccine that is effective in mice against Powassan virus, an emerging tick-borne virus that can cause life-threatening encephalitis in humans. They also show that the vaccine produces antibodies that can protect the mice against other, related tick-transmitted flaviviruses. Their findings appear De

5h

Scientists gain insights into traffic cop function of gene expression protein

Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine have discovered a crucial quality-control mechanism inside cells that, when it fails, might contribute to major diseases including cancers.

5h

Dream of augmented humans endures, despite sceptics

Brain implants, longer lives, genetically modified humans: for the prophets of transhumanism—the scientifically assisted evolution of humans beyond our current limitations—it is just a matter of time.

5h

Trump orders US military to create 'Space Command'

US President Donald Trump on Tuesday ordered the creation of "Space Command," a new organizational structure within the Pentagon that will have overall control of military space operations.

5h

The world this year

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5h

Scary statistic: 90.5 percent of plastic is not recycled

The world's burgeoning plastic waste crisis has won the attention of Britain's Royal Statistical Society, which chose 90.5 percent—the proportion of plastic waste that has never been recycled—as its international statistic of the year.

5h

Upwind wind plants can reduce flow to downwind neighbors

New National Science Foundation and Department of Energy-funded research highlights a previously unexplored consequence of the global proliferation of wind energy facilities: a wake effect from upwind facilities that can reduce the energy production of their downwind neighbors.

5h

The importance of 'edge populations' to biodiversity

More than two-thirds of Canada's biodiversity is made up of species that occur within the country's borders only at the very northern edge of their range. Biologists have long debated how much effort should be dedicated to conserving these "edge populations." One argument in their favour is that they may be especially well suited to lead northward range shifts for their species as the climate warm

5h

Extraordinary 'faithful father' revealed by study of smooth guardian frog of Borneo

Stay-at-home dads might find their spirit animal in the smooth guardian frog of Borneo. A new pair of research papers authored by an investigator at the University of Kansas shows the male of the smooth guardian frog species (Limnonectes palavanensis) is a kind of amphibian "Mr. Mom"—an exemplar of male parental care in the animal kingdom.

5h

Research points to chemical and sensory cues that trigger infant-directed aggressive behavior in male mice

It may seem like one of the cruelest aspects of the natural world, but research has shown that infanticide is actually an instinctive behavior in many animals—and Catherine Dulac has begun deciphering the chemical and other sensory cues that drive the behavior.

5h

Recruiting ants to fight weeds on the farm

Harvester ants that eat weed seeds on the soil's surface can help farmers manage weeds on their farms, according to an international team of researchers, who found that tilling less to preserve the ants could save farmers fuel and labor costs, as well as preserve water and improve soil quality.

5h

Your personality could put you at risk of cybercrime

New research digs into the behaviors—both obvious and subtle—that may put you at risk of falling victim to cybercrime involving Trojans, viruses, and malware. “People who show signs of low self-control are the ones we found more susceptible to malware attacks,” says Tomas Holt, professor of criminal justice at Michigan State University and lead author of the research. “An individual’s characteris

5h

For older adults, change in weight linked to death risk

Middle-aged and elderly adults who gain or lose a moderate to large amount of weight—defined as a 10 percent change in weight—may have an increased risk of death, particularly from cardiovascular disease, a new study shows. Between them, weight loss was associated with higher risk than weight gain. Furthermore, excessive weight loss increases risk among participants who were overweight or obese t

5h

Fossils suggest flowers originated 50 million years earlier than thought

Scientists have described a fossil plant species that suggests flowers bloomed in the Early Jurassic, more than 174 million years ago, according to new research in the open-access journal eLife.

5h

Peering into Little Foot's 3.67 million-year-old brain

First ever endocast reconstruction of the nearly complete brain of the hominin known as Little Foot reveals a small brain combining ape-like and human-like features.

5h

The vanished mirror image

Enantiomeric molecules resemble each other like right and left hands. Both variants normally arise in chemical reactions. But frequently only one of the two forms is effectual in biology and medicine. Hitherto, completely converting this mixture into the desired enantiomer was deemed impossible. Deploying a photochemical method, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now achieved

5h

Low-income, rural kids at higher risk for second- or third-hand smoke exposure

Infants and toddlers in low-income, rural areas may be at higher risk for second- and third-hand smoke than previously reported, according to new Penn State-led research.

5h

The importance of 'edge populations' to biodiversity

More than two-thirds of Canada's biodiversity is made up of species that occur within the country's borders only at the very northern edge of their range. Biologists have long debated how much effort should be dedicated to conserving these 'edge populations.' One argument in their favor is that they may be especially well suited to lead northward range shifts for their species as the climate warms

5h

Widespread, occasional use of antibiotics in US linked with resistance

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the U.S. appears more closely linked with their occasional use by many people than by their repeated use among smaller numbers of people, according to a large new study from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

5h

Extraordinary 'faithful father' revealed by study of smooth guardian frog of Borneo

New research by an investigator at the University of Kansas shows the male smooth guardian frog is a kind of amphibian 'Mr. Mom.'

5h

ECDC: Influenza vaccination coverage rates insufficient across EU member states

None of the European Union (EU) Member States could demonstrate that they reach the EU target of 75 percent influenza vaccination coverage for vulnerable groups, according to a new report from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

5h

Assessing the promise of gallium oxide as an ultrawide bandgap semiconductor

In microelectronic devices, the bandgap is a major factor determining the electrical conductivity of the underlying materials, and a more recent class of semiconductors with ultrawide bandgaps are capable of operating at much higher temperatures and powers than conventional small-bandgap silicon-based chips. In the Journal of Applied Physics, researchers provide a detailed perspective on the prope

5h

A new model of ice friction helps scientists understand how glaciers flow

Since the early 20th century, nearly all of Earth's glaciers have been retreating or melting. Glaciers cover 10 percent of the planet's land area and contain 75 percent of our fresh water. Moreover, the water from melting glaciers accounts for nearly two-thirds of the observed rise in global sea levels. Despite the looming ecological consequences, glacier motion remains poorly understood because o

5h

Why are people religious? A cognitive perspective

The quick and easy answer to why people are religious is that God – in whichever form you believe he/she/they take(s) – is real and people believe because they communicate with it and perceive evidence of its involvement in the world. Only 16% of people worldwide are not religious, but this still equates to approximately 1.2 billion individuals who find it difficult to reconcile the ideas of relig

5h

Scientists gain insights into traffic cop function of gene expression protein

Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine have discovered a crucial quality-control mechanism inside cells that, when it fails, might contribute to major diseases including cancers.

5h

Flexible thermoelectric generator module: a silver bullet to fix waste energy issues

A team of researchers led by Osaka University developed an inexpensive large-scale flexible thermoelectric generator (FlexTEG) module with high mechanical reliability for highly efficient power generation. Through a change in direction of the top electrodes at the two sides of the module and the use of high density packaging of semiconductor chips, the FlexTEG module has more flexibility in any un

5h

Mystery of coronae around supermassive black holes deepens

Researchers from RIKEN and JAXA have used observations from the ALMA radio observatory located in northern Chile and managed by an international consortium including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) to measure, for the first time, the strength of magnetic fields near two supermassive black holes at the centers of an important type of active galaxies. Surprisingly, the strength

5h

Evidence for prison sentence discrimination against Muslims 'weak'

Offenders sentenced to prison who have Muslim names do not appear to be receiving unfairly long sentences, according to a new study of more than 8,000 UK Crown Court sentencing decisions.

5h

Researchers 'dig in' to how seed fraud impacts Kenyan farmers

For farmers, a productive harvest can mean money in the bank. Poor yield due to drought, pests and other environmental factors, on the other hand, can threaten livelihoods.

5h

"Farout!" Newfound Object Is the Farthest Solar System Body Ever Spotted

The pink-colored object is nearly four times more distant from the sun than Pluto, and hints at the possibility of an as-yet-undiscovered giant planet farther out — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

5h

The Fate of Huawei Foreshadows the Fate of China

As Ken Hu, the “rotating” chairman at Huawei Technologies, made the case during a briefing in southern China that his company’s telecom equipment was trustworthy and above board, he did something mundane for many global executives, yet remarkable for the embattled Chinese giant: He took questions from foreign journalists. Hu’s press conference on Tuesday was an all-too-rare attempt by Huawei’s to

5h

California teens who volunteer and engage in civic life are healthier, aim higher in education, study finds

High school teens in California who volunteer, take part in community aid groups, and join school or other clubs are healthier and more likely to aspire to attending college, according to a study by the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.

5h

Pathogen predicament: How bacteria propel themselves out of a tight spot

Scientists have deciphered how some types of "swimming" bacteria have evolved to be able to escape when trapped in small spaces.

5h

Flexible thermoelectric generator module: A silver bullet to fix waste energy issues

Researchers developed an inexpensive large-scale flexible thermoelectric generator (FlexTEG) module with high mechanical reliability for highly efficient power generation. Through a change in direction of the top electrodes at the two sides of the module and the use of high density packaging of semiconductor chips, the FlexTEG module has more flexibility in any uniaxial direction.

5h

Sjælland vil høste besparelser og højne kvalitet ved at samle bryst- og plastikkirurgi

Forretningsudvalget i Region Sjælland anbefaler at flytte bryst- og plastikkirurgien fra Ringsted til Sjællands Universitetshospital i Roskilde i et forsøg på at spare penge og højne kvaliteten. Men det kan udhule de små sygehuse, advarer sundhedsøkonom.

5h

CRISPR Beyond Gene-Edited Babies

Photo credit: Shutterstock In late November, it was hard to miss the shocking claim that a Chinese researcher used CRISPR, a relatively new gene-editing technique, on twin baby girls while in the embryonic state. According to the Associated Press , the researcher, He Jiankui, said his goal “was not to cure or prevent an inherited disease, but to try to bestow a trait that few people naturally hav

5h

How to break the cycle of toxic masculinity | Eldra Jackson

In a powerful talk, educator Eldra Jackson III shares how he unlearned dangerous lessons about masculinity through Inside Circle, an organization that leads group therapy for incarcerated men. Now he's helping others heal by creating a new image of what it means to be a whole, healthy man. "The challenge is to eradicate this cycle of emotional illiteracy and groupthink," he says.

5h

Takeaway containers—the environmental cost of packing our favorite fast-foods

Scientists say more should be done to tackle the growing environmental impact of takeaway food containers.

6h

Solution to determine emotions of people in group photographs

The saying goes that a picture is worth a thousand words. But what if you can't tell what the picture shows? From awkward family photos to class photographs, sometimes it's tricky to tell what the people in the pictures are thinking.

6h

Nucleation of liquids visualised

Researchers from the UvA's Institute of Physics (IoP) and Leiden University have found a new way to visualise and measure the nucleation process responsible for the formation of liquid droplets in vapour. Their findings, published this week in Physical Review Letters, improve our understanding of the nanoscale processes underlying the nucleation of liquids, and help to develop more accurate models

6h

Is it unethical to give your cat catnip?

As the Christmas season gets underway thoughts turn to buying gifts for the entire family. For some, companion animals are on the gift list, particularly cats and dogs who share our homes and hearts.

6h

The Saturn Nebula reveals its complexity

A planetary nebula is the corpse that remains when a star dies. When planetary nebulae were observed for the first time with a telescope, they presented a roughly circular shape, resembling that of the gas giant planets. Hence their name, which remains in use even though they are very different from planets. The article published recently by Astronomy & Astrophysics is the first detailed study of

6h

FSU researchers identify ways breast cancer avoids immune system detection

Researchers analyzed data from more than 1,000 breast cancer patients and found that breast cancer behaves differently than other cancers that are currently treated with immunotherapy. They identified seven clusters of breast cancer patients based on the immune evasion mechanisms that breast cancer uses to avoid detection.

6h

Upwind wind plants can reduce flow to downwind neighbors

New National Science Foundation and Department of Energy-funded research highlights a previously unexplored consequence of the global proliferation of wind energy facilities: a wake effect from upwind facilities that can reduce the energy production of their downwind neighbors.

6h

Deciphering infanticide

It may seem like one of the cruelest aspects of the natural world, but a new study is pinpointing the suite of factors, including the shape of the pup and a specific set of olfactory signals, or pheromones, that trigger infanticide in mice.

6h

Nearly one in five Tibetan refugee schoolchildren has tuberculosis infection, Johns Hopkins study finds

In a tuberculosis screening and treatment initiative covering the entire population of Tibetan refugee schoolchildren in northern India, a team directed by researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine and the University of Wisconsin says it has found not only a startlingly high prevalence of TB disease and infection, but also a potentially workable strategy to eliminate the disease in a large, high-risk

6h

Recruiting ants to fight weeds on the farm

Harvester ants that eat weed seeds on the soil's surface can help farmers manage weeds on their farms, according to an international team of researchers, who found that tilling less to preserve the ants could save farmers fuel and labor costs, as well as preserve water and improve soil quality.

6h

Childhood blindness therapy shows 'very promising' results

A new therapy aimed at improving the sight of people with one of the most common forms of childhood blindness, has shown 'very promising' initial results, according to a study involving UCL researchers.

6h

The CNIO and Hospital 12 de Octubre find a potential new combination therapy against a rare disease

Myelofibrosis is a very rare serious disease that affects bone marrow stem cells. The average survival of these patients, with treatment, is about five yearsThe new study, published in the journal 'Haematologica', suggests that a combined therapy with three drugs could substantially improve treatmentA clinical trial has already been launched with patients at eight hospitals

6h

Technique allows integration of single-crystal hybrid perovskites into electronics

An international team of researchers has developed a technique that, for the first time, allows single-crystal hybrid perovskite materials to be integrated into electronics. Because these perovskites can be synthesized at low temperatures, the advance opens the door to new research into flexible electronics and potentially reduced manufacturing costs for electronic devices.

6h

Buruli ulcer: Promising new drug candidate against a forgotten disease

Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) resulting in debilitating skin lesions, disabilities and stigmatisation. The current antibiotic treatment is long and has severe adverse side effects. Researchers from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) together with colleagues from Singapore have discovered a highly effective compound against Buruli ulcer which has the pot

6h

Amphetamine use, abuse and dependence claim lines increased over 3,000 percent in 10 years

The period from 2007 to 2017 marks the time from just before and since the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (Mental Health Parity Act). That law required most group health plans that cover physical and behavioral health to provide the same level of coverage for behavioral services as for medical and surgical services. FAIR Health data show that

6h

The Woman Who Gets Called When a Piece of Mars Falls From the Sky

Meenakshi Wadhwa is the first to say she is lucky to be alive. On August 2, 2017, Wadhwa and colleagues were prospecting for volcanic rocks in the cooled lava fields of Iceland. After collecting some samples of basaltic rock, which they hoped to use as a proxy for Martian rocks, the team hopped in their vehicles to drive back to their lodgings. Wadhwa sat in the back seat of one of the SUVs, snap

6h

Rewilding war zones can help heal the wounds of conflict

Where the Iron Curtain once divided Europe with barbed wire, a network of wilderness with bears, wolves and lynx now thrives. Commemorating 100 years since the end of World War I, people wear poppies to evoke the vast fields of red flowers which grew over the carnage of Europe's battlefields. Once human conflict has ended, the return of nature to barren landscapes becomes a potent symbol of peace.

6h

New environmental indicator for evaluating the positive climate impacts of products

VTT and LUT University alongside with Finnish companies have developed a method and guidelines for evaluating and communicating on the carbon handprint of products. The carbon handprint describes the positive climate impacts of a product.

6h

How to avoid overspending: uncover the psychology behind why people buy

Between 40% and 80% of purchases are impulse buys. Marketers often get blamed for this, but while marketing tactics may be cynical, manipulative, and even deceptive, shoppers are generally wise to their ways.

6h

Magnetoresistance ratio enhancement in Heusler-based alloy

Magnetic field sensors can enhance applications that require efficient electric energy management. Improving magnetic field sensors below the picoTesla range could enable a technique to measure brain activity at room temperature with millisecond resolution—called magnetic encephalography—without superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) technology, which requires cryogenic temperatures t

6h

Ozone levels are decreasing, but exposure of forests remains high

ICP Forests is a European-wide network of forest sites to study the effects of air pollutants on forests. Scientists have been measuring ozone concentrations since 2000 on 233 research sites in 18 countries and have observed a small but statistically significant decrease of mean summer concentrations. Southern Switzerland, however, remains one of the regions with the highest ozone levels in Europe

6h

Assessing the promise of gallium oxide as an ultrawide bandgap semiconductor

In microelectronic devices, the bandgap is a major factor determining the electrical conductivity of the underlying materials. Substances with large bandgaps are generally insulators that do not conduct electricity well, and those with smaller bandgaps are semiconductors. A more recent class of semiconductors with ultrawide bandgaps (UWB) are capable of operating at much higher temperatures and po

6h

Cargo ships are emitting boatloads of carbon, and nobody wants to take the blame

Maritime shipping transports 90 percent of the goods traded around the world by volume. Moving large amounts of goods such as oil, computers, blue jeans and wheat across oceans drives the global economy, making it cheaper and easier to buy almost anything.

6h

Advanced digital networks look a lot like the human nervous system

Parents have experienced how newborns grab their finger and hold tight. This almost instantaneous response is one of the sweetest involuntary movements that babies exhibit. The newborn's nerves sense a touch, process the information and react without having to send a signal to the brain. Though in people this ability fades very early in life, the system that enables it offers a useful example for

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Smart charging keeps power grid from overloading

Smart charging electric cars with a dynamic price mechanism may play an important part to help keep the power grid from overloading. For her PDEng at Twente University, Marieke van Amstel from ElaadNL and Enexis Netbeheer designed a model to render power demand and supply more flexible. This will eliminate the biggest risk of overloading the power grid. Grid operators must be able to intervene if

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Oroville Dam earthquakes in February 2017 related to spillway discharge

A closer look at small earthquakes that took place at the Oroville Dam in California's Sierra Nevada foothills in February 2017—near the time when the dam's spillway failed—suggest that the seismic activity was related to reservoir discharge that opened and closed fractures in the rock below the spillway.

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Efter afsløringer om predatory publishing: Universitet lægger afstand til æres-professor

Efter Ingeniørens fokus på predatory publishers og en adjungeret professors tilknytning til en tvivlsom videnskabelig forlægger, lægger Syddansk Universitet afstand til professoren. Det til trods for, at han bl.a. har publiceret artikler sammen med universitets rektor.

6h

Sofosbuvir rids organism of chikungunya and yellow fever viruses

Sofosbuvir is already used to treat hepatitis C and has passed all human use approval tests, so it can be fairly easily deployed if the chikungunya epidemic forecast for the next two years materializes.

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Brain health not affected by major heart surgery

Patients who undergo heart surgery do not experience major memory changes–either better or worse–when compared with those who have a much less invasive, catheter-based procedure, according to a study published online today in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

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KU Leuven researchers use sound waves to prevent small chemical reactors from clogging up

Companies are keen to use miniature chemical reactors to make pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, but are discouraged by their tendency to clog up. Researchers at KU Leuven, Belgium, have now devised an elegant way of using sound waves to keep the chemicals flowing.

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Fossils suggest flowers originated 50 million years earlier than thought

Scientists have described a fossil plant species that suggests flowers bloomed in the Early Jurassic, more than 174 million years ago, according to new research in the open-access journal eLife.

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Broading the biodiversity catalogue of spider populations in the Iberian Peninsula

The biodiversity catalogue of the Iberian Peninsula spiders is now adding the discovery of a dozen new species -from seven different families- that are mainly found in edaphic environments (soil), according to an article led by Professor Miquel Àngel Arnedo, from the Faculty of Biology and the Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio) of the University of Barcelona.

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Weight change in middle-aged and elderly Singaporean Chinese linked to increased mortality risk

The Singapore Chinese Health Study has shown that both moderate-to-large weight gain and weight loss in mid-life and old age were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, and particularly for cardiovascular disease mortality.

6h

Research finds rings of Saturn are dying

New research shows Saturn's rings are dying at a worst-case-scenario rate.

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Unique insights into an exotic matter state

The properties of the matter, which surrounds us in our everyday life, are typically the result of complex interactions between electrons. However, how matter behaves under extreme conditions is still largely unexplained. A research group at Kiel University and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf has developed a method to accurately describe the dynamic properties of this warm dense matter fo

6h

Peering into Little Foot's 3.67 million-year-old brain

MicroCT scans of the Australopithecus fossil known as Little Foot shows that the brain of this ancient human relative was small and shows features that are similar to our own brain and others that are closer to our ancestor shared with living chimpanzees.

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Reduce energy costs and social isolation to support older adults in extreme weather

The cost of heating and cooling the home, and increasing social isolation are significant factors in health risk of older adults during extreme weather, according to a new study by the University of Warwick.

6h

MRI effective for monitoring liver fat in obese patients

MRI provides a safe, noninvasive way to monitor liver fat levels in people who undergo weight loss treatments for obesity, according to a new study.

6h

The ACLU Takes Aim at Criminal-Defamation Laws

Earlier this year, Robert Frese, a 63-year-old living in a mobile-home park in New Hampshire, posted a pseudonymous Facebook comment declaring that a local police chief was too cowardly to do anything about an allegedly corrupt subordinate. The cops treated that post as a crime. Did that violate the Facebook commenter’s constitutional rights? Defamation is often thought of as a matter for civil c

6h

The Texans Challenging Obamacare Have No Standing

Are you ever tempted to believe that right-wing judges are just passive umpires who call balls and strikes? That they only “enforce the Constitution” or “read the statute”? Judge Reed O’Connor of Texas should cure you of that misimpression. On Friday, when he declared the entire Affordable Care Act invalid, he said he was only doing what the Constitution requires. But in deciding the case, he vio

6h

The Anglo-Saxons were worse than the Vikings

The Vikings invaded England in the 9th and 10th centuries. They plundered, raped and burned towns to the ground. Or at least, this is the story we know from school and popular culture.

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Huawei calls on US, others to show proof of security risk

The chairman of Huawei challenged the United States and other governments to provide evidence for claims the Chinese tech giant is a security risk as the company launched a public relations effort Tuesday to defuse fears that threaten its role in next-generation communications.

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Elon Musk to unveil underground tunnel, transport cars

Tech entrepreneur Elon Musk is set to unveil an underground transportation tunnel on Tuesday that could move people faster than subways.

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The Most-Read WIRED Reviews of 2018: iPad, PS4, Amazon Fire Tablets

This year, we reviewed and rated dozens of products, but these ten are the ones our readers were most curious about.

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SYNENTEC Nearly Doubles Throughput with its New Automated Cell Imager

SYNENTEC GmbH, the German manufacturer of automated cell imagers, has launched its latest generation of CELLAVISTA® imagers: CELLAVISTA® 4.

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New Horizons gears up for its close encounter with Ultima Thule

On January 1, the New Horizons spacecraft will fly by Ultima Thule, the first small Kuiper Belt object ever to get a close visitor.

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Genetic cause of ALS and frontotemporal dementia blocked by RNA-binding compound

Since the ice bucket challenge went viral in 2014, raising awareness and funding for ALS research, scientists have learned much about a disease that disconnects muscles from nerves, leading to muscle atrophy and eventual death. Their ultimate goal is to create medications capable of stopping ALS in its tracks.

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First snapshot of exciton-polariton condensation process

An ANU advance provides never-before-achieved 'snapshot' of Bose-Einstein condensation.

6h

We finally have the rulebook for the Paris Agreement, but global climate action is still inadequate

Three years after the Paris Agreement was struck, we now finally know the rules – or most of them, at least – for its implementation.

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Christmas is hectic, but slowing things down might be about to become the new status symbol

Increasing numbers of people are searching for ways to slow down their fast paced consumer lives by turning to slower forms of consumption, such as using limited holiday time to walk ancient pilgrimage routes, research by Royal Holloway, University of London, has found.

6h

New Horizons spacecraft takes the inside course to Ultima Thule

With no apparent hazards in its way, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft has been given a "go" to stay on its optimal path to Ultima Thule as it speeds closer to a Jan. 1 flyby of the Kuiper Belt object a billion miles beyond Pluto – the farthest planetary flyby in history.

6h

Pathogen predicament: How bacteria propel themselves out of a tight spot

Scientists have deciphered how some types of 'swimming' bacteria have evolved to be able to escape when trapped in small spaces.The discovery could pave the way to finding new methods to stop the spread of certain bacteria, including species that cause food poisoning and stomach ulcers.

6h

Explaining differences in rates of evolution

Scientists look to fossils and evolutionary trees to help determine the rate of evolution — albeit with conflicting results. A new model by ETH researchers has helped to resolve these contradictions.

6h

Mystery of coronae around supermassive black holes deepens

Researchers have used observations from the ALMA radio observatory to measure, for the first time, the strength of magnetic fields near two supermassive black holes at the centers of an important type of active galaxies. Surprisingly, the strengths of the magnetic fields do not appear sufficient to power the 'coronae,' clouds of superheated plasma that are observed around the black holes at the ce

6h

Focus on this: Japanese team increases X-ray laser focusing ability

Osaka University-based researchers fabricated multilayer mirrors that improved the focusing of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beams. The wavefront of an XFEL beam focused by the fabricated multilayer mirrors was measured and then the shape of the mirrors was corrected to improve the beam focus to less than ten nanometers. The developed focusing mirrors will expand the applications of XFELs in fi

6h

Takeaway containers — the environmental cost of packing our favorite fast-foods

Scientists say more should be done to tackle the growing environmental impact of takeaway food containers.A new study estimates there are 2025 million takeaway containers per year being used in the European Union (EU) alone. It also says finding a way to recycle disposable takeaway containers could help reduce equivalent greenhouse gas emissions generated annually by 55,000 cars.

6h

Flexible thermoelectric generator module: A silver bullet to fix waste energy issues

Researchers developed an inexpensive large-scale flexible thermoelectric generator (FlexTEG) module with high mechanical reliability for highly efficient power generation. Through a change in direction of the top electrodes at the two sides of the module and the use of high density packaging of semiconductor chips, the FlexTEG module has more flexibility in any uniaxial direction.

6h

Oroville Dam earthquakes in February 2017 related to spillway discharge

A closer look at small earthquakes that took place at the Oroville Dam in California's Sierra Nevada foothills in February 2017 — near the time when the dam's spillway failed — suggest that the seismic activity was related to reservoir discharge that opened and closed fractures in the rock below the spillway.

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