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Nyheder2018november26

Apple raises old iPhone trade-in values to try and entice upgrades to new models

Apple seems to have an upgrade problem and a new fix to try and entice upgrades.

13h

Trods hyppige fedmegenvarianter taber overvægtige børn sig ved livsstilsændring

Børn, der har en genetisk øget risiko for overvægt og fedme på grund af almindelige…

13h

Skydes ud i skidt bane: Omstridt rumkunst kan først ses til foråret

Hverken danskere eller kunstneren selv kan se rumballonen Orbital Reflector fra sit hjem før til foråret – men med lidt held holder den til den tid, vurderer astronom.

14h

Argentine polo turns to genetics to produce champions

Are champions born, or raised? That's the question scientists in Argentina are trying to answer as they look to pinpoint the genes that make local horses the best in the world for playing polo.

14h

Lion Air jet should have been grounded before fatal flight, Indonesia says

A Lion Air jet that crashed last month should have been grounded over a recurrent technical problem and never permitted to make the fatal flight, Indonesian authorities said Wednesday in a report that took aim at the carrier's poor safety culture.

14h

Rogue Scientist Says Another Crispr Pregnancy Is Underway

Chinese researcher He Jiankui, who earlier claimed to have gene-edited twin baby girls, now says there's another pregnancy with a Crispr'd embryo.

14h

Climate change poses significant threat to nutritional benefits of oysters

The nutritional qualities of shellfish could be significantly reduced by future ocean acidification and warming, a new study suggests.

14h

Australian billionaire to spend US$72 mn on journalism institute

A billionaire Australian philanthropist vowed Wednesday to spend at least AU$100 million (US$72 million) of her fortune to create a journalism institute committed to "the pursuit of truth".

14h

Biggest coral reseeding project launches on Great Barrier Reef

Scientists have launched the largest-ever attempt to regenerate coral on the endangered Great Barrier Reef by harvesting millions of the creatures' eggs and sperm during their annual spawning.

14h

Mass Australian stranding leaves 28 whales dead

Twenty-eight whales were found dead in the remote southeast of Australia Wednesday, following a mass stranding that has baffled experts.

14h

Online 'funeral kits' help grieving Indians

From providing cow urine, incense and bamboo stretchers to booking a Hindu priest at the last minute, startups are seeking to cash in on India's elaborate traditional funeral ceremonies.

14h

UN report says fragile climate puts food security at risk

Feeding a hungry planet is growing increasingly difficult as climate change and depletion of land and other resources undermine food systems, the U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization said Wednesday as it renewed appeals for better policies and technologies to reach "zero hunger."

14h

US biologist: Gene-editing work a failure of self-regulation

A leader of an international conference on gene editing said Wednesday that the work of a Chinese scientist who claims to have helped make the world's first gene-edited babies showed a failure of self-regulation among scientists.

14h

New Zealand halts Huawei from 5G upgrade over security fears

New Zealand's international spy agency on Wednesday halted mobile company Spark from using Huawei equipment in its planned 5G upgrade, saying it posed a "significant network security risk."

14h

In Lebanon, climate change devours ancient cedar trees

High up in Lebanon's mountains, the lifeless grey trunks of dead cedar trees stand stark in the deep green forest, witnesses of the climate change that has ravaged them.

14h

Climate change poses significant threat to nutritional benefits of oysters

The nutritional qualities of shellfish could be significantly reduced by future ocean acidification and warming, a new study suggests.

14h

Genetic mutation drives tumor regression in Tasmanian Devils

Washington State University scientists have discovered genes and other genetic variations that appear to be involved in cancerous tumors shrinking in Tasmanian devils.

14h

Soil tilling, mulching key to China's potato crop

When you think of China, do you think of potatoes? Maybe not, but in the Loess Plateau region of northwestern China, potato is the main food crop.

15h

AI could help cities detect expensive water leaks

Costly water losses in municipal water systems could be significantly reduced using sensors and new artificial intelligence (AI) technology.

15h

Facing Backlash, Chinese Scientist Defends Gene-Editing Research On Babies

He Jiankui, who shocked the world by asserting he had genetically edited twin girls, faced growing criticism from other researchers as he spoke at a scientific conference in Hong Kong. (Image credit: Kin Cheung/AP)

15h

How Brain Injuries Deprive People of a Sense of Free Will

submitted by /u/burtzev [link] [comments]

16h

Automated technique for anime colorization using deep learning

Researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology, IMAGICA GROUP Inc. and OLM Digital, Inc. report the world's first technique for automatic colorization focused on Japanese anime production. The new technique is expected to promote efficiency and automation in anime production.

16h

New interactive death map breathes life into medieval London

Brutal range of revenge killings and fatal scuffles recorded by coroners in early 1300s It kicked off at a urinal in Cheapside, and ended in a bloody and brutal murder. Poor aim has been responsible for many unexpected deaths, but perhaps none more so than that of Philip of Ashendon. One of a brutal range of fatal scuffles, revenge killings and infanticides recorded by London coroners in the earl

16h

Chinese Doctor Who Claims He Created Gene-Edited Babies Gets Grilled by 'Horrified' Colleagues

Jiankui He, the Chinese scientist who edited the genes of twin babies, spoke publicly about his research for the first time today (Nov. 28) in Hong Kong, at the Second International Summit on Human Genome Editing.

16h

Country diary: dinosaur poo on the banks of the Severn

Aust Cliff, South Gloucestershire: We are after fossils from the upper strata, inaccessible until chunks are torn off by winter’s teeth Aust Cliff is half a hill, sliced open like a birthday cake by the River Severn’s slow knife, exposing two ornamental layers of pink and blue-green mudstone. Right here, about 200m years ago, a red desert was overwhelmed by a balmy ocean. Today, a cold northern s

17h

Hver fjerde dropper vigtig kræft-screening: Hjemmetest kan være løsningen

Det kan være ubehageligt og bøvlet at blive screenet for livmoderhalskræft. Men hvis det kan klares hjemmefra, vil flere kvinder gerne være med.

17h

SingularityNET Partners with the Chinese Neurotechnology Firm Entertech

submitted by /u/Mountain_Safety [link] [comments]

17h

AI could help cities detect expensive water leaks

Costly water losses in municipal water systems could be significantly reduced using sensors and new artificial intelligence (AI) technology.

17h

Researchers regrow hair on wounded skin

By stirring crosstalk among skin cells that form the roots of hair, researchers report they have regrown hair strands on damaged skin. The findings better explain why hair does not normally grow on wounded skin, and may help in the search for better drugs to restore hair growth, say the study's authors.

17h

Soil tilling, mulching key to China's potato crop

In the Loess Plateau region of northwestern China, potato is the main food crop. However, the area has a dry climate with uneven precipitation. Researchers are finding the best combination of tillage and mulching practices to increase yield.

17h

At-home HPV tests could be powerful tool for hard-to-reach US women

A new study from The Ohio State University found that mailing at-home HPV tests to hard-to-reach women may be a viable approach, one that could be especially helpful in regions such as Appalachia, where access to women's health care can be limited.

17h

Genetic mutation drives tumor regression in Tasmanian Devils

Washington State University scientists have discovered genes and other genetic variations that appear to be involved in cancerous tumors shrinking in Tasmanian devils. Their research could have important implications for treating cancer in humans and other mammals.

17h

Artificial joint restores wrist-like movements to forearm amputees

A new artificial joint restores important wrist-like movements to forearm amputees, something which could dramatically improve their quality of life. A group of researchers led by Max Ortiz Catalan, Associate Professor at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have published their research in the journal IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering.

17h

A big step toward the practical application of 3D holography with high- performance computers

Japanese computer scientists have succeeded in developing a special purpose computer that can project high-quality 3D holography as a video. With the newly developed 'phase type' HORN-8, the calculation method for adjusting the phase of light was implemented, and the researchers were successful at projecting holography information as a 3D video with high-quality images. This research was published

17h

Microscope measures muscle weakness

Biotechnologists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a system to accurately measure muscle weakness caused by structural changes in muscle tissue. The new method allows muscle function to be assessed using imaging without the need for sophisticated biomechanical recordings, and could in future even make taking tissue samples for diagnosing myopathy superfluous

17h

FN-rapport: Vi gør alt for lidt for at redde klimaet

Rapport om langsom klimaindsats bliver et centralt element i forhandlinger i Polen i begyndelsen af december.

17h

Forfatter til Europa: Drop lidt af jeres Privacy-krav for at bevare økonomisk suverænitet

Teknologi-kritiker frygter, at Europa slet ikke kommer med i AI-kapløbet og har derfor fået et mere pragmatisk syn på data-indsamling, privacy og AI.

18h

200 dødsfald kan skyldes asbest spredt til miljøet

Eksperter advarer om, at asbestholdigt affald og byggematerialer trods forbud og regler stadig spreder de livsfarlige fibre.

18h

From burping cows and food miles to greenhouse gasses

Why gases produced by livestock, along with the carbon footprint of many of the foods we eat, are a major factor in global warming.

19h

Brazil reneges on hosting UN climate talks under Bolsonaro presidency

Reversal comes two months after country agreed to host COP25 conference in 2019 – and one month after far-right climate sceptic won election Brazil has abandoned plans to host crucial UN climate talks in 2019 amid growing signs of the anti-internationalism of the new government being formed by president-elect Jair Bolsonaro. The foreign ministry announced the reversal in a message to Patrícia Esp

21h

New at Amazon: Its Own Chips for Cloud Computing

Amazon follows Google in designing a chip to make cloud computing more efficient; the chip is based on designs typically seen in smartphones.

21h

Interior Department Watchdog Clears Zinke of Wrongdoing in National Monument Inquiry

The investigation looked at whether he had redrawn the boundaries of a national monument in Utah to avoid the nearby land holdings of a state lawmaker and supporter of President Donald Trump.

21h

The most impressive engineering feats of 2018

Technology They're the Best of What's New. It’s an elegant way to avoid urban flooding: Lay down paving tiles that soak up rain and divert it from sewers to greenery. But that innovation, the Climate Tile, is…

22h

Abnormal vision in childhood can affect brain function, new study finds

submitted by /u/SophiaDevetzi [link] [comments]

22h

The two Swedish mums who want people to give up flying for a year

Two climate-conscious Swedish mums have launched a campaign urging people not to fly in 2019.

22h

The Atlantic Daily: Going Quiet

What We’re Following Mississippi Runoff: The U.S. midterm elections still aren’t over. In Mississippi, where the voting-age population is 37 percent black, the Republican incumbent Cindy Hyde-Smith faces the Democratic challenger Mike Espy on Tuesday night. Espy’s candidacy may be buoyed by national attention. And Hyde-Smith’s final stretch of campaigning has been peppered with charges of racism

22h

10 percent of bowel cancer patients can wait more than a year to start treatment

It can take up to a year for some bowel cancer patients in the UK to start treatment, according to international research coordinated by Cancer Research UK and published in BMJ Open today.

22h

British Journal of Cancer press notice

This news release includes media summaries from the British Journal of Cancer.

22h

Endurance but not resistance training has anti-aging effects

Researchers have discovered evidence that endurance exercise, such as running, swimming, cross-country skiing and cycling, will help you age better than resistance exercise, which involves strength training with weights. Endurance exercise but not resistance exercise can prevent telomeres shortening, or can even lengthen them, according to the first prospective randomized controlled study of the e

22h

Exposure to e-cigarette adverts linked to teenagers using e-cigarettes and smoking

The more often adolescents say they have seen adverts for e-cigarettes, the more often they use both e-cigarettes and smoke tobacco cigarettes, according to a study published in ERJ Open Research.

22h

GM's Job Cuts Are Another Sign of a Future With Fewer Cars

Preparing for a new sort of future, General Motors is cutting 14,000 jobs, closing three plants, and killing a bunch of car models.

22h

Some honeybees have four parents or no mother – and we don’t know why

The first genetic study of part-male, part-female honeybees shows these bees can have multiple fathers, but it's unclear how this happens

22h

Seagrass loss off the coast of Kenya is fuelling climate change

Seagrass meadows grow along shallow ocean shores and lock-up carbon, but satellite imagery reveals that human activity is killing off this vital habitat

22h

The best new software of 2018

Technology They're the Best of What's New. On our list of the top software innovations of 2018, there’s tech that’ll do fun things, like deliver a pizza to your spot in a public park, and programming that takes…

23h

No clear evidence that diverting patients from emergency departments curbs overcrowding

There's no clear evidence that diverting patients, who are not seriously ill, away from emergency departments, in a bid to curb overcrowding, is either safe or effective, reveals research published online in Emergency Medicine Journal.

23h

Ambulances in Syria deliberately and repeatedly targeted as part of war tactics

Syrian government and Russian armed forces have deliberately and repeatedly targeted ambulances in Syria as part of the Assad regime's strategy to destabilise and intimidate through the 'weaponisation of healthcare,' reveals research published in the online journal BMJ Global Health.

23h

Wriggly, giggle, puffball: What makes some words funny?

Upchuck, bubby, boff, wriggly, yaps, giggle, cooch, guffaw, puffball, and jiggly: the top 10 funniest words in the English language, according to a new study. The researchers determined that there are two main kinds of predictors of funniness in words: those related to the form of the word and those related to its meaning.

23h

Detective mission to characterize and trace the history of a new African meteorite

Researchers are on a mission to describe, classify and trace the history of a meteorite that landed in and around the small town of Benenitra in southwestern Madagascar shortly before the lunar eclipse on July 27, 2018.

23h

How changing labs revealed a chemical reaction key to cataract formation

Researchers working to understand the biochemistry of cataracts have made a surprising finding: A protein that was long believed to be inert actually has an important chemical function that protects the lens of the eye from cataract formation.

23h

An understudied form of child abuse and 'intimate terrorism': Parental alienation

According to Colorado State University social psychologist Jennifer Harman, about 22 million American parents have been the victims of behaviors that lead to something called parental alienation. Having researched the phenomenon for several years, Harman is urging psychological, legal and child custodial disciplines to recognize parental alienation as a form of both child abuse and intimate partne

23h

Advanced imaging technology measures magnetite levels in the living brain

Investigators have used magnetoencephalography — a technology that measures brain activity by detecting the weak magnetic fields produced by the brain's normal electrical currents — to measure levels of the iron-based mineral called magnetite in the human brain.

23h

Sugars and microbiome in mother's milk influence neonatal rotavirus infection

Researchers reveal that complex interactions between sugars and the microbiome in human milk influence neonatal rotavirus infection and identifies maternal components that could improve the performance of live, attenuated rotavirus vaccines.

23h

New methods help identify what drives sensitive or socially unacceptable behaviors

Conservation scientists and statisticians have teamed up to solve a key problem for the study of sensitive behaviors like poaching, harassment, bribery, and drug use.

23h

Keep it complex: Study shows that previous research oversimplified Schizophrenia symptoms

Negative symptoms in schizophrenia can be so disabling that they interfere with a person's ability to attend school, begin a fulfilling career, and even live independently. Scientists suggest a new way to classify the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which may influence research and treatment in years to come.

23h

Botulinum toxin shows promise in trials to reduce post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in cardiac surgery patients

Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication, affecting one quarter to one half of all patients following cardiac surgery. It can result in heart failure, stroke, and longer hospital stays, resulting in an increased cost of care. A new study reports promising results from two clinical trials using botulinum toxin (BTX) injections to suppress POAF.

23h

New clinical practice guidelines for venous thromboembolism

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a term referring to blood clots in the veins, is a highly prevalent and far-reaching public health problem that can cause disability and death. Despite effective new options for prevention and treatment, VTE remains a threat underappreciated by the general public, causing up to 100,000 deaths annually in the United States alone.

23h

Beware of evening stress

Stressful events in the evening release less of the body's stress hormones than those that happen in the morning, suggesting possible vulnerability to stress in the evening.

23h

Genetic factor that can help or hurt risk for heart disease

Individuals with a particular genetic factor may be more resistant to plaque build-up and have a reduced risk for coronary artery disease.

23h

Improve hand hygiene and patient decolonization to help stem high-risk S. aureus transmission in the operating room

Adherence to proven protocols for disinfecting surgeons' hands, patients' skin, and operating room surfaces could help to halt the spread of dangerous Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pathogens in the operating room and beyond, according to new research.

23h

Insight into the brain's hidden depths: Scientists develop minimally invasive probe

This could be a major step towards a better understanding of the functions of deeply hidden brain compartments, such as the formation of memories, as well as related dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's disease. Researchers have succeeded in using a hair-thin fiber endoscope to gain insights into hardly-accessible brain structures.

23h

New device for manipulating and moving tiny objects with light

Researchers have found a way to use the full beam of a laser light, to control and manipulate minute objects such as single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices.

23h

MEGAPIXELS: Doctors can now see everything inside you at once

Science Full body, nearly real-time imaging is here. After years of development, a powerful and speedy full-body scanner is ready for action.

23h

Photonic radiation sensors survive huge doses undamaged

Researchers have published landmark test results that suggest a promising class of sensors can be used in high-radiation environments and to advance important medical, industrial and research applications.

23h

Computers successfully trained to identify animals in photos

Researchers trained a deep neural network to classify wildlife species using 3.37 million camera-trap images of 27 species of animals obtained from five states across the United States. The model then was tested on nearly 375,000 animal images at a rate of about 2,000 images per minute on a laptop computer, achieving 97.6 percent accuracy — likely the highest accuracy to date in using machine lea

23h

Putting hybrid-electric aircraft performance to the test

Although hybrid-electric cars are becoming commonplace, similar technology applied to airplanes comes with significantly different challenges. Aerospace engineers are addressing some of them toward the development of a more sustainable alternative to fossil fuels to power airplanes.

23h

Threatened tropical coral reefs form complex, ancient associations with bacteria

In a comprehensive study of healthy corals, scientists report that coral bacteria are a surprisingly diverse bunch — and that different sections of the coral body can host unique communities of bacteria.

23h

AI system may accelerate search for cancer discoveries

Searching through the mountains of published cancer research could be made easier for scientists, thanks to a new AI system.

23h

Music supports the auditory skills of hearing-impaired children

Researchers have found evidence that children with hearing impairment and cochlear implants can benefit from hobbies involving music and especially singing.

23h

DNA with a twist: Discovery could further antibiotic drug development

Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments.

23h

Waterhemp's metabolic resistance to topramezone

Corn naturally tolerates certain herbicides, detoxifying the chemicals before they can cause harm. It's what allows farmers to spray fields with the class of herbicides known as HPPD-inhibitors, which kill weeds such as waterhemp and Palmer amaranth and leave corn unscathed. But in more and more fields, the method is failing; waterhemp isn't dying.

23h

How a small molecule promotes removal of excess cholesterol

Scientists have determined the structure of the activated form of an enzyme that helps to return excess cholesterol to the liver.

23h

Reliance on 'YouTube medicine' may be dangerous for those concerned about prostate cancer

The most popular YouTube videos on prostate cancer often offer misleading or biased medical information that poses potential health risks to patients, an analysis of the social media platform shows. The study of the 150 most-viewed YouTube videos on the disease found that 77 percent had factual errors or biased content in either the video or its comments section.

23h

The Atlantic Politics & Policy Daily: You Can Runoff, but You Can’t Hyde

Written by Elaine Godfrey ( @elainejgodfrey ), Madeleine Carlisle ( @maddiecarlisle2 ), and Olivia Paschal ( @oliviacpaschal ). Today in 5 Lines National Security Adviser John Bolton told reporters that he had not listened to the recordings taken during the killing of the Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi: “Unless you speak Arabic, what are you going to get from it?” Meanwhile, Senate Majority Lea

23h

Chinese scientists raise ethical questions with first gene-edited babies

Scientists say gene editing of human embryos isn’t yet safe, and creating babies was unethical.

1d

The most amazing health innovations of 2018

Health They're the Best of What's New. These 10 medical advances represent how science, technology, and creative thinking can help us live longer, better lives.

1d

Why SpaceX’s Falcon 9 is launching 64 tiny satellites into orbit

SpaceX is providing the rocket for the mission, while a Seattle-based company organized the payload. The mission will deploy satellites from various providers, including startups and government agencies. Most of these providers hope to be the first to build a new kind of network to support the Internet of Things. None SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket is set to launch 64 satellites into orbit on Wednesday

1d

Ants Turn Carnivorous When Salt is Scarce

Ants Turn Carnivorous When Salt is Scarce Omnivores' diets may depend on the amount of salt in their environments. bee-eating-ants_cropped.jpg Image credits: Hamed Saber via Wikimedia Commons Creature Tuesday, November 27, 2018 – 16:30 Nala Rogers, Staff Writer (Inside Science) — For some meat-eating animals, the thirst for blood may actually be a craving for salt, according to a study of ants'

1d

The best recreation gear of 2018

Technology They're the Best of What's New. This year’s best products in recreation—including a one-pound tent, a truly innovative sports bra, and a fire pit that keeps smoke out of your eyes—make our active lives…

1d

Scientist Who Crispr’d Babies Bucked His Own Ethics Policy

He Jiankiu, a Chinese researcher who claims to have edited the DNA of twin babies, now born, also published ethics guidelines directly contradicting his work.

1d

*SpongeBob* Creator Stephen Hillenburg Left a Legacy in Memes

While Hillenburg's titular creation has shown up in theme parks and parades, SpongeBob's legacy is most keenly felt online.

1d

Heavy rains lash Sydney, prompting chaos

Flights were cancelled, railway lines closed and motorists stranded on flooded roads as a month's worth of rain fell on Sydney early Wednesday, leaving emergency services battling to respond.

1d

Letters: ‘The ACLU’s Stance Is Entirely Appropriate’

The ACLU Declines to Defend Civil Rights In a recent statement, the civil-liberties organization opposed new Title IX guidelines put forward by Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos. By taking a stand against stronger due-process protections in campus tribunals, Conor Friedersdorf argued last week, the organization undermined its own principles. Friedersdorf argues that Title IX cases should be held

1d

CRISPR co-inventor responds to claim of first gene-edited babies

On Sunday, a Chinese scientist claimed the world's first genetically edited babies had been born in China. The scientist claims to have used gene-editing technology on the babies' embryos. Dr. Doudna said scientists should confine "the use of gene editing in human embryos to cases where a clear unmet medical need exists." None On Sunday, a scientist stirred major controversy by claiming that the

1d

NASA hears MarCO CubeSats loud and clear from Mars

NASA's MarCO mission was built to see whether two experimental, briefcase-sized spacecraft could survive the trip to deep space, and the two CubeSats proved more than able. After cruising along behind NASA's InSight for seven months, they successfully relayed data back down to Earth from the lander during its descent to the Martian surface on Monday, Nov. 26.

1d

Putting hybrid-electric aircraft performance to the test

Although hybrid-electric cars are becoming commonplace, similar technology applied to airplanes comes with significantly different challenges. University of Illinois aerospace engineers are addressing some of them toward the development of a more sustainable alternative to fossil fuels to power airplanes.

1d

3 genes cause rare condition that leads to miscarriage

Scientists have identified three genes responsible for recurrent molar pregnancies, a rare complication that occurs when a non-viable pregnancy with no embryo implants in the uterus. The findings could have important implications, since until now very little has been known about the genetic causes of all forms of fetal loss. In Quebec, molar pregnancy occurs in about one in every 600 pregnancies,

1d

Rice University Professor Helped Generate CRISPR'd Babies

The college has opened an investigation into Michael Deem's involvement.

1d

Mountain Lion Tracked in Southern California Likely Died in Woolsey Fire, Park Says

P-74, the newest mountain lion electronically tracked by park rangers in the Santa Monica Mountains, was last seen in one of the first areas to be scorched in the blaze.

1d

Global Health: Battle Against Ebola in Congo Pits Medical Hope Against Local Chaos

A vaccine and new treatments are on hand, but the outbreak is in an area rife with unpredictable gunfire, bandits and suspicion of outsiders.

1d

Apple's stock sours, Microsoft's soars. Say what?!

Wall Street investors are enamored with a newly emergent tech company.

1d

Researchers successfully train computers to identify animals in photos

A computer model developed at the University of Wyoming by UW researchers and others has demonstrated remarkable accuracy and efficiency in identifying images of wild animals from camera-trap photographs in North America.

1d

How changing labs revealed a chemical reaction key to cataract formation

Researchers working to understand the biochemistry of cataract formation have made a surprising finding: A protein that was long believed to be inert actually has an important chemical function that protects the lens of the eye from cataract formation.

1d

Climate change’s highest cost: Overheated employees too miserable to work

The US economy could lose $221 billion annually by 2090 as people stop working as much or as hard.

1d

Zapping the Olfactory Bulb Produces Phantom Smells

Researchers envision a cochlear implant–like device for the nose to give people with impaired olfaction a sense of smell.

1d

Discovery opens new opportunities to slow or reverse multiple sclerosis

Nerve cells stripped of their insulation can no longer carry vital information, leading to the numbness, weakness and vision problems often associated with multiple sclerosis. A new study shows an overlooked source may be able to replace that lost insulation and provide a new way to treat diseases like MS.

1d

The tragedy of the commons — minus the tragedy

Sometimes, there is no 'tragedy' in the tragedy of the commons, according to a new analysis that challenges a widely accepted theory. In an analysis of eight case studies from around the world – from foragers in Australia to mangrove fishers in Ecuador — researchers found that people can successfully share and sustainably use resources, under certain conditions.

1d

An understudied form of child abuse and intimate terrorism: Parental Alienation

According to Colorado State University social psychologist Jennifer Harman, about 22 million American parents have been the victims of behaviors that lead to something called parental alienation. Having researched the phenomenon for several years, Harman is urging psychological, legal and child custodial disciplines to recognize parental alienation as a form of both child abuse and intimate partne

1d

Neutron production at ORNL's SNS reaches design power level

The Spallation Neutron Source at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has broken a new record by ending its first neutron production cycle in fiscal year 2019 at its design power level of 1.4 megawatts.

1d

New methods help identify what drives sensitive or socially unacceptable behaviors

Conservation scientists and statisticians at Colorado State University have teamed up to solve a key problem for the study of sensitive behaviors like poaching, harassment, bribery, and drug use.

1d

Photonic radiation sensors survive huge doses undamaged

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have published landmark test results that suggest a promising class of sensors can be used in high-radiation environments and to advance important medical, industrial and research applications.

1d

Industry-Funded Pesticide Data Problematic, Study Shows

Scrutinizing a company's study on a widely used pesticide, chlorpyrifos, academic researchers find shortcomings in analyses and public disclosures of results.

1d

Three recent studies may hold the key to preserving free expression

As a result of this increased tribalization of views, it's becoming increasingly more difficult to engage in polite conversation with people possessing opposing viewpoints. 71% of Americans believe that political correctness had silenced important discussions necessary to our society. We need to start teaching people how to approach subjects from less of an emotional or baseless educational bias

1d

Researchers successfully train computers to identify animals in photos

Researchers trained a deep neural network to classify wildlife species using 3.37 million camera-trap images of 27 species of animals obtained from five states across the United States. The model then was tested on nearly 375,000 animal images at a rate of about 2,000 images per minute on a laptop computer, achieving 97.6 percent accuracy — likely the highest accuracy to date in using machine lea

1d

How changing labs revealed a chemical reaction key to cataract formation

Researchers working to understand the biochemistry of cataracts have made a surprising finding: A protein that was long believed to be inert actually has an important chemical function that protects the lens of the eye from cataract formation.

1d

Photonic radiation sensors survive huge doses undamaged

NIST researchers have published landmark test results that suggest a promising class of sensors can be used in high-radiation environments and to advance important medical, industrial and research applications.

1d

How K2 and Other Synthetic Cannabinoids Got Their Start in the Lab

Originally intended for basic neuroscience research, the drugs were ultimately hijacked for illicit recreational use.

1d

Early detection of epilepsy in children possible with deep learning computer science technique

Early detection of the most common form of epilepsy in children is possible through 'deep learning,' a new machine learning tool that teaches computers to learn by example, according to a new study that includes researchers from Georgia State University.

1d

Even occasional sleep loss makes people angrier

Losing just a couple hours of sleep at night makes you angrier, especially in frustrating situations, according to new research. While the results may seem intuitive, the study is one of the first to provide evidence that sleep loss causes anger. Other studies have shown a link between sleep and anger, but questions remained about whether sleep loss was to blame or if anger was responsible for di

1d

The International Space Station is crawling with bacteria and some may be harmful

Space Don't worry, no one has gotten sick yet. Researchers are finding that all kinds of bacteria are thriving on the artificially-habitable International Space Station. A new study from researchers at the California…

1d

I worked in the prison system for 5 years. Here’s what it does to a person.

Most people who go to prison are not incorrigible criminals – just normal people who made mistakes. The prison system can become breeding ground for antisocial behaviors. Bishop Jahwar worked with prisoners to help them retain the core of who they were and "take masks off".

1d

Lipid that aids normal skin turnover may help psoriasis

Topical application of the lipid phosphatidylglycerol, or PG, on a mouse model of psoriasis reduced inflammation as well as characteristic, raised skin lesions, they report in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

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The best entertainment innovations of 2018

Entertainment They're the Best of What's New. This year’s winners include a pro-grade HDTV, speakers that double as modern art, and an ill-fated movie subscription service that shifted the way people go to the…

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I worked in the prison system for 5 years. Here’s what it does to a person.

Most people who go to prison are not incorrigible criminals – just normal people who made mistakes. The prison system can become breeding ground for antisocial behaviors. Bishop Jahwar worked with prisoners to help them retain the core of who they were and "take masks off".

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Three recent studies may hold the key to preserving free expression

As a result of this increased tribalization of views, it's becoming increasingly more difficult to engage in polite conversation with people possessing opposing viewpoints. 71% of Americans believe that political correctness had silenced important discussions necessary to our society. We need to start teaching people how to approach subjects from less of an emotional or baseless educational bias

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Test measures 71 elements to ID liquids by ‘fingerprint’

A new method for simultaneous measurement of 71 inorganic elements in liquids makes testing faster, more efficient, and more comprehensive than was possible in the past, according to new research. Researchers studied samples of liquid from a variety of sources worldwide, including tap water from a New York City suburb, snow from Italy and Croatia, rain from Brazil and Pakistan, lake water from Sw

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NASA Hears MarCO CubeSats Loud and Clear from Mars

NASA's MarCO mission was built to see whether two experimental, briefcase-sized spacecraft could survive the trip to deep space, and the two CubeSats proved more than able. After cruising along behind NASA's InSight for seven months, they successfully relayed data back down to Earth from the lander during its descent to the Martian surface on Monday, Nov. 26.

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Microplastics pollution in Falklands as high as UK

The first study to investigate microplastics around Ascension Island and the Falkland Islands — two of the most remote locations in the South Atlantic Ocean — has found levels of contamination comparable with the waters around the UK.

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Liv på Mars? Drømmen, der ikke vil dø

Sonden Mars InSight landede i går på Mars og er ved at indsamle nye oplysninger.

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Juul’s New Product: Less Nicotine, More Intense Vapor

In an effort to expand overseas sales, the company is designing a way to reduce nicotine levels but enhance the rate of absorption in the body.

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Dancing naked with robots: dreams of Jarman prize winner Daria Martin

Video art has never been more celebrated – and after taking the £10,000 prize for the best artist using moving images, the intriguing filmmaker is in the vanguard For Daria Martin , making art is a dream come true – literally. Her films involve restaging the dreams, nightmares or altered states of consciousness of friends and relatives. For one forthcoming project, Tonight the World, she’s recrea

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Keep it complex: Study shows that previous research oversimplified Schizophrenia symptoms

Negative symptoms in schizophrenia can be so disabling that they interfere with a person's ability to attend school, begin a fulfilling career, and even live independently. In a recent study published by JAMA Psychiatry, UNLV psychology professor Daniel Allen and colleagues suggest a new way to classify the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which may influence research and treatment in years to

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New methods help identify what drives sensitive or socially unacceptable behaviors

Conservation scientists and statisticians at Colorado State University have teamed up to solve a key problem for the study of sensitive behaviors like poaching, harassment, bribery, and drug use.

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Hurricanes are doing more damage and it’s our own fault

Environment It has surprisingly little to do with climate change. As our oceans warm, hurricane rainfall and intensity are going to rise. But more water and wind aren’t the reason that today’s storms destroy more in their paths.

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Chinese Scientists Are Outraged by Reports of Gene-Edited Babies

China has spent billions turning itself into a scientific powerhouse, but it still struggles with the perception that its scientists do not take ethics seriously . In 2015, when Chinese scientists raced ahead to use CRISPR to edit genes in human embryos , an international outcry ensued. But the study’s defenders argued th at because it was done in embryos that were not viable and were never meant

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Brain interface lets people with paralysis control tablet computer

A brain-computer interface (BCI) allows people with paralysis to directly operate an off-the-shelf tablet device just by thinking about making cursor movements and clicks, according to results of a small clinical trial. Tablets and other mobile computing devices are part of everyday life, but using them can be difficult for people with paralysis. In a study in PLOS ONE , three clinical trial part

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Cyber Monday 2018: 40 Extended Deals You Can Still Buy

These are our favorite Cyber Monday deals that were extended, but they may go quick, including Roku, Echo Dot, and more.

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It's Not Just America: Climate Policies Are Stumbling Worldwide

Humanity is losing ground in its battle against climate change. On Tuesday, a new UN report warned that the world is farther than it was last year from meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement on climate change. More than half of the planet’s richest countries—including Canada, Australia, South Korea, the United States, and the nations of the European Union—are not cutting their carbon pollution

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Sugars and microbiome in mother's milk influence neonatal rotavirus infection

An international team of researchers reveals that complex interactions between sugars and the microbiome in human milk influence neonatal rotavirus infection and identifies maternal components that could improve the performance of live, attenuated rotavirus vaccines.

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Threatened tropical coral reefs form complex, ancient associations with bacteria

In a comprehensive study of healthy corals published Nov. 22 in the journal Nature Communications, a team of scientists from the University of Washington Bothell, Pennsylvania State University and Oregon State University report that coral bacteria are a surprisingly diverse bunch — and that different sections of the coral body can host unique communities of bacteria.

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Noncompliance thwarts comprehensive background check policy for private-party sales

Of the three states that recently expanded comprehensive background check policies to include all gun transfers, including those among private parties, only Delaware showed an overall increase in firearm background checks.

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Psychological intervention proves 'life-changing' for women experiencing domestic abuse

Training domestic violence and abuse (DVA) advocates to deliver psychological support to women experiencing DVA could significantly improve the health of those affected. In a randomised controlled trial led by researchers from the University of Bristol, women who received the intervention showed reduced symptoms of psychological distress, depression and post-traumatic stress compared to those who

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Home videos of children can be scored to diagnose autism, Stanford study says

Short home videos can be used to diagnose autism in children, according to a new study from the Stanford University School of Medicine.

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Is failure to develop due to fundamentally different economic pathways or simply too much population growth? [Social Sciences]

With development and stability teetering in many African and western Asian countries, new insights into barriers to development are always welcome. However, this field is full of false leads. One example is the recent claim of Cumming and von Cramon-Taubadel (1) that countries are attracted to one of two equilibrium…

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Reply to O’Sullivan: Wicked problems demand sophisticated understandings of complexity and feedbacks, not focus on a single variable [Social Sciences]

O’Sullivan (1) both misunderstands and misrepresents our analysis (2). We tested, and found support for, the hypothesis that national economies tend toward one of two attractors because of complex feedbacks among ecosystem services, economic growth, and population growth. We then explored the possible consequences of alternative feedback loops for global…

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Overestimation of N2O mitigation potential by water management in rice paddy fields [Biological Sciences]

In PNAS, Kritee et al. (1) report extremely high nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from rice paddy fields with intermittent irrigation and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and conclude that N2O can be reduced by up to 90%—with nitrogen management not playing a central role. However, we believe that this conclusion…

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Reply to Yan and Akiyama: Nitrous oxide emissions from rice and their mitigation potential depend on the nature of intermittent flooding [Biological Sciences]

Our fundamental message (1) is that under intense forms of intermittent flooding—a technique used to reduce methane emissions from rice farms (2)—emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-term climate forcer (Fig. 1), can be very high. Fig. 1. General understanding of climate impacts of rice farms under continuous flooding or…

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No evidence for a heritable altruism polymorphism in Tibetan ground tits [Biological Sciences]

A recent study in PNAS on Tibetan ground tits (1) concludes that inclusive fitness maintains heritable altruism polymorphism if rb = c, which may render equal inclusive fitness in helpful and unhelpful genotypes. We outline flaws in the estimations of rb = c and additive genetic variance, and we propound…

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Reply to Engelhardt et al.: Inclusive fitness does maintain a heritable altruism polymorphism in Tibetan ground tits [Biological Sciences]

Testing Hamilton’s rule (1) requires following a rigorous methodology, as stressed by us (2) and by Engelhardt et al. (3). Here, we would like to explain again how we did so. First, Engelhardt et al. (3) question the calculation of b and c. Our responses to their points are as…

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Histone tails decrease N7-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine depurination and yield DNA-protein cross-links in nucleosome core particles and cells [Chemistry]

Monofunctional alkylating agents preferentially react at the N7 position of 2′-deoxyguanosine in duplex DNA. Methylated DNA, such as that produced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and temozolomide, exists for days in organisms. The predominant consequence of N7-methyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (MdG) is widely believed to be abasic site (AP) formation via hydrolysis, a process…

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Simplicial closure and higher-order link prediction [Computer Sciences]

Networks provide a powerful formalism for modeling complex systems by using a model of pairwise interactions. But much of the structure within these systems involves interactions that take place among more than two nodes at once—for example, communication within a group rather than person to person, collaboration among a team…

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Remote optimization of an ultracold atoms experiment by experts and citizen scientists [Physics]

We introduce a remote interface to control and optimize the experimental production of Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) and find improved solutions using two distinct implementations. First, a team of theoreticians used a remote version of their dressed chopped random basis optimization algorithm (RedCRAB), and second, a gamified interface allowed 600 citizen…

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Training in cognitive strategies reduces eating and improves food choice [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Obesity rates continue to rise alarmingly, with dire health implications. One contributing factor is that individuals frequently forgo healthy foods in favor of inexpensive, high-calorie, unhealthy foods. One important mechanism underlying these choices is food craving: Craving increases with exposure to unhealthy foods (and food cues, such as advertisements) and…

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Bronze Age population dynamics and the rise of dairy pastoralism on the eastern Eurasian steppe [Anthropology]

Recent paleogenomic studies have shown that migrations of Western steppe herders (WSH) beginning in the Eneolithic (ca. 3300–2700 BCE) profoundly transformed the genes and cultures of Europe and central Asia. Compared with Europe, however, the eastern extent of this WSH expansion is not well defined. Here we present genomic and…

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Polygenic adaptation and convergent evolution on growth and cardiac genetic pathways in African and Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers [Anthropology]

Different human populations facing similar environmental challenges have sometimes evolved convergent biological adaptations, for example, hypoxia resistance at high altitudes and depigmented skin in northern latitudes on separate continents. The “pygmy” phenotype (small adult body size), characteristic of hunter-gatherer populations inhabiting both African and Asian tropical rainforests, is often

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Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation signature associated with human undernutrition [Biochemistry]

Chronically undernourished children become stunted during their first 2 years and thereafter bear burdens of ill health for the rest of their lives. Contributors to stunting include poor nutrition and exposure to pathogens, and parental history may also play a role. However, the epigenetic impact of a poor environment on…

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Dynamic interactions of type I cohesin modules fine-tune the structure of the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Efficient degradation of plant cell walls by selected anaerobic bacteria is performed by large extracellular multienzyme complexes termed cellulosomes. The spatial arrangement within the cellulosome is organized by a protein called scaffoldin, which recruits the cellulolytic subunits through interactions between cohesin modules on the scaffoldin and dockerin modules on the…

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Folding pathway of an Ig domain is conserved on and off the ribosome [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Proteins that fold cotranslationally may do so in a restricted configurational space, due to the volume occupied by the ribosome. How does this environment, coupled with the close proximity of the ribosome, affect the folding pathway of a protein? Previous studies have shown that the cotranslational folding process for many…

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Monomerization of far-red fluorescent proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Anthozoa-class red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are frequently used as biological markers, with far-red (λem ∼ 600–700 nm) emitting variants sought for whole-animal imaging because biological tissues are more permeable to light in this range. A barrier to the use of naturally occurring RFP variants as molecular markers is that all…

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Long-range regulation of p53 DNA binding by its intrinsically disordered N-terminal transactivation domain [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Atomic resolution characterization of the full-length p53 tetramer has been hampered by its size and the presence of extensive intrinsically disordered regions at both the N and C termini. As a consequence, the structural characteristics and dynamics of the disordered regions are poorly understood within the context of the intact…

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Chromatin modifiers Mdm2 and RNF2 prevent RNA:DNA hybrids that impair DNA replication [Cell Biology]

The p53–Mdm2 system is key to tumor suppression. We have recently reported that p53 as well as Mdm2 are capable of supporting DNA replication fork progression. On the other hand, we found that Mdm2 is a modifier of chromatin, modulating polycomb repressor complex (PRC)-driven histone modifications. Here we show that,…

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Global impacts of chromosomal imbalance on gene expression in Arabidopsis and other taxa [Genetics]

Changes in dosage of part of the genome (aneuploidy) have long been known to produce much more severe phenotypic consequences than changes in the number of whole genomes (ploidy). To examine the basis of these differences, global gene expression in mature leaf tissue for all five trisomies and in diploids,…

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Themis-associated phosphatase activity controls signaling in T cell development [Immunology and Inflammation]

Thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection (Themis) has been shown to be important for T cell selection by setting the threshold for positive versus negative selection. Themis interacts with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Src-homology domain containing phosphatase-1 (Shp1), a negative regulator of the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling cascade. However,…

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Relationship between intact HIV-1 proviruses in circulating CD4+ T cells and rebound viruses emerging during treatment interruption [Immunology and Inflammation]

Combination antiretroviral therapy controls but does not cure HIV-1 infection because a small fraction of cells harbor latent viruses that can produce rebound viremia when therapy is interrupted. The circulating latent virus reservoir has been documented by a variety of methods, most prominently by viral outgrowth assays (VOAs) in which…

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Genetic variant at coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke locus 1p32.2 regulates endothelial responses to hemodynamics [Medical Sciences]

Biomechanical cues dynamically control major cellular processes, but whether genetic variants actively participate in mechanosensing mechanisms remains unexplored. Vascular homeostasis is tightly regulated by hemodynamics. Exposure to disturbed blood flow at arterial sites of branching and bifurcation causes constitutive activation of vascular endothelium contributing to atherosclerosis, the major

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Permanent neuroglial remodeling of the retina following infiltration of CSF1R inhibition-resistant peripheral monocytes [Medical Sciences]

Previous studies have demonstrated that ocular injury can lead to prompt infiltration of bone-marrow–derived peripheral monocytes into the retina. However, the ability of these cells to integrate into the tissue and become microglia has not been investigated. Here we show that such peripheral monocytes that infiltrate into the retina after…

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Role of humoral immunity against hepatitis B virus core antigen in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure [Medical Sciences]

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic clinical syndrome leading to death or liver transplantation in 80% of cases. Due to the extremely rapid clinical course, the difficulties in obtaining liver specimens, and the lack of an animal model, the pathogenesis of ALF remains largely unknown….

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Epstein-Barr virus enhances genome maintenance of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [Microbiology]

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a B cell lymphoma that is always associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and in many cases also with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); however, the requirement for EBV coinfection is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that adding exogenous EBV to KSHV+ single-positive PEL leads to increased…

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Klotho controls the brain-immune system interface in the choroid plexus [Neuroscience]

Located within the brain’s ventricles, the choroid plexus produces cerebrospinal fluid and forms an important barrier between the central nervous system and the blood. For unknown reasons, the choroid plexus produces high levels of the protein klotho. Here, we show that these levels naturally decline with aging. Depleting klotho selectively…

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Regulatory discrimination of mRNAs by FMRP controls mouse adult neural stem cell differentiation [Neuroscience]

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA binding protein whose deficiency impacts many brain functions, including differentiation of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs). However, the mechanism by which FMRP influences these processes remains unclear. Here, we performed ribosome profiling…

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Site occupancy calibration of taxane pharmacology in live cells and tissues [Pharmacology]

Drug receptor site occupancy is a central pharmacology parameter that quantitatively relates the biochemistry of drug binding to the biology of drug action. Taxanes and epothilones bind to overlapping sites in microtubules (MTs) and stabilize them. They are used to treat cancer and are under investigation for neurodegeneration. In cells,…

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Cell size control driven by the circadian clock and environment in cyanobacteria [Systems Biology]

How cells maintain their size has been extensively studied under constant conditions. In the wild, however, cells rarely experience constant environments. Here, we examine how the 24-h circadian clock and environmental cycles modulate cell size control and division timings in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus using single-cell time-lapse microscopy. Under constant…

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Obesity-associated exosomal miRNAs modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice [Applied Biological Sciences]

Obesity is frequently associated with metabolic disease. Here, we show that obesity changes the miRNA profile of plasma exosomes in mice, including increases in miR-122, miR-192, miR-27a-3p, and miR-27b-3p. Importantly, treatment of lean mice with exosomes isolated from obese mice induces glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Moreover, administration of control…

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Emergence of phytoplankton patchiness at small scales in mild turbulence [Applied Physical Sciences]

Phytoplankton often encounter turbulence in their habitat. As most toxic phytoplankton species are motile, resolving the interplay of motility and turbulence has fundamental repercussions on our understanding of their own ecology and of the entire ecosystems they inhabit. The spatial distribution of motile phytoplankton cells exhibits patchiness at distances of…

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Intracellular transport is accelerated in early apoptotic cells [Applied Physical Sciences]

Intracellular transport of cellular proteins and organelles is critical for establishing and maintaining intracellular organization and cell physiology. Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death with dramatic changes in cell morphology and organization, during which signaling molecules are transported between different organelles within the cells. However, how the intracellular…

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Genome-wide RNA structurome reprogramming by acute heat shock globally regulates mRNA abundance [Biochemistry]

The heat shock response is crucial for organism survival in natural environments. RNA structure is known to influence numerous processes related to gene expression, but there have been few studies on the global RNA structurome as it prevails in vivo. Moreover, how heat shock rapidly affects RNA structure genome-wide in…

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Quantitation of class IA PI3Ks in mice reveals p110-free-p85s and isoform-selective subunit associations and recruitment to receptors [Biochemistry]

Class IA PI3Ks have many roles in health and disease. The rules that govern intersubunit and receptor associations, however, remain unclear. We engineered mouse lines in which individual endogenous class IA PI3K subunits were C-terminally tagged with 17aa that could be biotinylated in vivo. Using these tools we quantified PI3K…

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Metabolic programming a lean phenotype by deregulation of RNA polymerase III [Biochemistry]

As a master negative regulator of RNA polymerase (Pol) III, Maf1 modulates transcription in response to nutrients and stress to balance the production of highly abundant tRNAs, 5S rRNA, and other small noncoding RNAs with cell growth and maintenance. This regulation of Pol III transcription is important for energetic economy…

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Epithelial Cell Chirality Revealed by Three-Dimensional Spontaneous Rotation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Our understanding of the left–right (LR) asymmetry of embryonic development, in particular the contribution of intrinsic handedness of the cell or cell chirality, is limited due to the confounding systematic and environmental factors during morphogenesis and a ack of physiologically relevant in vitro 3D platforms. Here we report an efficient…

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pH-dependent thermodynamic intermediates of pHLIP membrane insertion determined by solid-state NMR spectroscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The applications of the pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) in cancer diagnosis and cross-membrane cargo delivery have drawn increasing attention in the past decade. With its origin as the transmembrane (TM) helix C of bacteriorhodopsin, pHLIP is also an important model for understanding how pH can affect the folding and…

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Biomechanics of a moth scale at ultrasonic frequencies [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The wings of moths and butterflies are densely covered in scales that exhibit intricate shapes and sculptured nanostructures. While certain butterfly scales create nanoscale photonic effects, moth scales show different nanostructures suggesting different functionality. Here we investigate moth-scale vibrodynamics to understand their role in creating acoustic camouflage against bat echolocation,…

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A small single-domain protein folds through the same pathway on and off the ribosome [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

In vivo, proteins fold and function in a complex environment subject to many stresses that can modulate a protein’s energy landscape. One aspect of the environment pertinent to protein folding is the ribosome, since proteins have the opportunity to fold while still bound to the ribosome during translation. We use…

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Phospholipid flippases enable precursor B cells to flee engulfment by macrophages [Cell Biology]

ATP11A and ATP11C, members of the P4-ATPases, are flippases that translocate phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) from the outer to inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Using the W3 T lymphoma cell line, we found that Ca2+ ionophore-induced phospholipid scrambling caused prolonged PtdSer exposure in cells lacking both the ATP11A and ATP11C genes….

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Mechanism of selective benzene hydroxylation catalyzed by iron-containing zeolites [Chemistry]

A direct, catalytic conversion of benzene to phenol would have wide-reaching economic impacts. Fe zeolites exhibit a remarkable combination of high activity and selectivity in this conversion, leading to their past implementation at the pilot plant level. There were, however, issues related to catalyst deactivation for this process. Mechanistic insight…

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Drosophila intestinal stem and progenitor cells are major sources and regulators of homeostatic niche signals [Developmental Biology]

Epithelial homeostasis requires the precise balance of epithelial stem/progenitor proliferation and differentiation. While many signaling pathways that regulate epithelial stem cells have been identified, it is probable that other regulators remain unidentified. Here, we use gene-expression profiling by targeted DamID to identify the stem/progenitor-specific transcription and signaling factors in

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Quantitative constraints on autoxidation and dimer formation from direct probing of monoterpene-derived peroxy radical chemistry [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Organic peroxy radicals (RO2) are key intermediates in the atmospheric degradation of organic matter and fuel combustion, but to date, few direct studies of specific RO2 in complex reaction systems exist, leading to large gaps in our understanding of their fate. We show, using direct, speciated measurements of a suite…

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Multiple prebiotic metals mediate translation [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Today, Mg2+ is an essential cofactor with diverse structural and functional roles in life’s oldest macromolecular machine, the translation system. We tested whether ancient Earth conditions (low O2, high Fe2+, and high Mn2+) can revert the ribosome to a functional ancestral state. First, SHAPE (selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer…

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Grassland fire ecology has roots in the late Miocene [Ecology]

That fire facilitated the late Miocene C4 grassland expansion is widely suspected but poorly documented. Fire potentially tied global climate to this profound biosphere transition by serving as a regional-to-local driver of vegetation change. In modern environments, seasonal extremes in moisture amplify the occurrence of fire, disturbing forest ecosystems to…

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Conserved behavioral circuits govern high-speed decision-making in wild fish shoals [Ecology]

To evade their predators, animals must quickly detect potential threats, gauge risk, and mount a response. Putative neural circuits responsible for these tasks have been isolated in laboratory studies. However, it is unclear whether and how these circuits combine to generate the flexible, dynamic sequences of evasion behavior exhibited by…

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A long-term survey unveils strong seasonal patterns in the airborne microbiome coupled to general and regional atmospheric circulations [Environmental Sciences]

Airborne microbes (bacteria, archaea, protists, and fungi) were surveyed over a 7-y period via high-throughput massive sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes in rain and snow samples collected fortnightly at a high-elevation mountain Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network site (LTER-Aigüestortes, Central Pyrenees, Spain). This survey constitutes the most comprehensive…

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Episodic organic carbon fluxes from surface ocean to abyssal depths during long-term monitoring in NE Pacific [Environmental Sciences]

Growing evidence suggests substantial quantities of particulate organic carbon (POC) produced in surface waters reach abyssal depths within days during episodic flux events. A 29-year record of in situ observations was used to examine episodic peaks in POC fluxes and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) at Station M (NE Pacific,…

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Alpine ice evidence of a three-fold increase in atmospheric iodine deposition since 1950 in Europe due to increasing oceanic emissions [Environmental Sciences]

Iodine is an important nutrient and a significant sink of tropospheric ozone, a climate-forcing gas and air pollutant. Ozone interacts with seawater iodide, leading to volatile inorganic iodine release that likely represents the largest source of atmospheric iodine. Increasing ozone concentrations since the preindustrial period imply that iodine chemistry and…

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Genetic and plastic variation in opsin gene expression, light sensitivity, and female response to visual signals in the guppy [Evolution]

According to the sensory drive model, variation in visual properties can lead to diverse female preferences, which in turn results in a range of male nuptial colors by way of sexual selection. However, the cause of variation in visual properties and the mechanism by which variation drives female response to…

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Ant-plant interactions evolved through increasing interdependence [Evolution]

Ant–plant interactions are diverse and abundant and include classic models in the study of mutualism and other biotic interactions. By estimating a time-scaled phylogeny of more than 1,700 ant species and a time-scaled phylogeny of more than 10,000 plant genera, we infer when and how interactions between ants and plants…

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Aberrant IP3 receptor activities revealed by comprehensive analysis of pathological mutations causing spinocerebellar ataxia 29 [Medical Sciences]

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 29 (SCA29) is autosomal dominant congenital ataxia characterized by early-onset motor delay, hypotonia, and gait ataxia. Recently, heterozygous missense mutations in an intracellular Ca2+ channel, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor type 1 (IP3R1), were identified as a cause of SCA29. However, the functional impacts of these mutations remain…

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Structure-based design of a quadrivalent fusion glycoprotein vaccine for human parainfluenza virus types 1-4 [Microbiology]

Parainfluenza virus types 1–4 (PIV1–4) are highly infectious human pathogens, of which PIV3 is most commonly responsible for severe respiratory illness in newborns, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. To obtain a vaccine effective against all four PIV types, we engineered mutations in each of the four PIV fusion (F) glycoproteins to…

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Nonmutational mechanism of inheritance in the Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus [Microbiology]

Epigenetic phenomena have not yet been reported in archaea, which are presumed to use a classical genetic process of heritability. Here, analysis of independent lineages of Sulfolobus solfataricus evolved for enhanced fitness implicated a non-Mendelian basis for trait inheritance. The evolved strains, called super acid-resistant Crenarchaeota (SARC), acquired traits of…

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Rapid evolution of decreased host susceptibility drives a stable relationship between ultrasmall parasite TM7x and its bacterial host [Microbiology]

Around one-quarter of bacterial diversity comprises a single radiation with reduced genomes, known collectively as the Candidate Phyla Radiation. Recently, we coisolated TM7x, an ultrasmall strain of the Candidate Phyla Radiation phylum Saccharibacteria, with its bacterial host Actinomyces odontolyticus strain XH001 from human oral cavity and stably maintained as a…

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Subspecialization within default mode nodes characterized in 10,000 UK Biobank participants [Neuroscience]

The human default mode network (DMN) is implicated in several unique mental capacities. In this study, we tested whether brain-wide interregional communication in the DMN can be derived from population variability in intrinsic activity fluctuations, gray-matter morphology, and fiber tract anatomy. In a sample of 10,000 UK Biobank participants, pattern-learning…

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TRPA1 ankyrin repeat six interacts with a small molecule inhibitor chemotype [Pharmacology]

TRPA1, a member of the transient receptor potential channel (TRP) family, is genetically linked to pain in humans, and small molecule inhibitors are efficacious in preclinical animal models of inflammatory pain. These findings have driven significant interest in development of selective TRPA1 inhibitors as potential analgesics. The majority of TRPA1…

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Parametric amplification of optical phonons [Physics]

We use coherent midinfrared optical pulses to resonantly excite large-amplitude oscillations of the Si–C stretching mode in silicon carbide. When probing the sample with a second pulse, we observe parametric optical gain at all wavelengths throughout the reststrahlen band. This effect reflects the amplification of light by phonon-mediated four-wave mixing…

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PPAR{gamma}-K107 SUMOylation regulates insulin sensitivity but not adiposity in mice [Physiology]

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and is the target for the insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes. In cell-based in vitro studies, the transcriptional activity of PPARγ is inhibited by covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-related modifier…

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Golgi-localized LOT regulates trans-Golgi network biogenesis and pollen tube growth [Plant Biology]

The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is an essential tubular-vesicular organelle derived from the Golgi and functions as an independent sorting and trafficking hub within the cell. However, the molecular regulation of TGN biogenesis remains enigmatic. Here we identified an Arabidopsis mutant loss of TGN (lot) that is defective in TGN formation…

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Testing the Empathizing-Systemizing theory of sex differences and the Extreme Male Brain theory of autism in half a million people [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

The Empathizing–Systemizing (E-S) theory of typical sex differences suggests that individuals may be classified based on empathy and systemizing. An extension of the E-S theory, the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) theory suggests that autistic people on average have a shift towards a more masculinized brain along the E-S dimensions. Both…

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Double dissociation of single-interval and rhythmic temporal prediction in cerebellar degeneration and Parkinson’s disease [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Predicting the timing of upcoming events is critical for successful interaction in a dynamic world, and is recognized as a key computation for attentional orienting. Temporal predictions can be formed when recent events define a rhythmic structure, as well as in aperiodic streams or even in isolation, when a specified…

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Microstructural properties of the vertical occipital fasciculus explain the variability in human stereoacuity [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Stereopsis is a fundamental visual function that has been studied extensively. However, it is not clear why depth discrimination (stereoacuity) varies more significantly among people than other modalities. Previous studies have reported the involvement of both dorsal and ventral visual areas in stereopsis, implying that not only neural computations in…

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Indirect reciprocity with private, noisy, and incomplete information [Social Sciences]

Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation based on shared moral systems and individual reputations. It assumes that members of a community routinely observe and assess each other and that they use this information to decide who is good or bad, and who deserves cooperation. When information is transmitted publicly,…

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Population-level rhythms in human skin with implications for circadian medicine [Systems Biology]

Skin is the largest organ in the body and serves important barrier, regulatory, and sensory functions. The epidermal layer shows rhythmic physiological responses to daily environmental variation (e.g., DNA repair). We investigated the role of the circadian clock in the transcriptional regulation of epidermis using a hybrid experimental design, in…

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Correction for Tilman et al., Localized prosocial preferences, public goods, and common-pool resources [Correction]

COLLOQUIUM Correction for “Localized prosocial preferences, public goods, and common-pool resources,” by Andrew R. Tilman, Avinash K. Dixit, and Simon A. Levin, which was first published October 8, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1802872115. The authors note that the following statement should be added to the Acknowledgments: “Funding was provided by the National Science…

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Correction for Zhao et al., Intestinal virome changes precede autoimmunity in type I diabetes-susceptible children [Correction]

MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Intestinal virome changes precede autoimmunity in type I diabetes-susceptible children,” by Guoyan Zhao, Tommi Vatanen, Lindsay Droit, Arnold Park, Aleksandar D. Kostic, Tiffany W. Poon, Hera Vlamakis, Heli Siljander, Taina Härkönen, Anu-Maaria Hämäläinen, Aleksandr Peet, Vallo Tillmann, Jorma Ilonen, David Wang, Mikael Knip, Ramnik J. Xavier,…

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Correction for Sago et al., High-throughput in vivo screen of functional mRNA delivery identifies nanoparticles for endothelial cell gene editing [Correction]

PHARMACOLOGY, ENGINEERING Correction for “High-throughput in vivo screen of functional mRNA delivery identifies nanoparticles for endothelial cell gene editing,” by Cory D. Sago, Melissa P. Lokugamage, Kalina Paunovska, Daryll A. Vanover, Christopher M. Monaco, Nirav N. Shah, Marielena Gamboa Castro, Shannon E. Anderson, Tobi G. Rudoltz, Gwyneth N. Lando, Pooja…

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Correction to Supporting Information for Rohrback et al., Submegabase copy number variations arise during cerebral cortical neurogenesis as revealed by single-cell whole-genome sequencing [SI Correction]

NEUROSCIENCE Correction to Supporting Information for “Submegabase copy number variations arise during cerebral cortical neurogenesis as revealed by single-cell whole-genome sequencing,” by Suzanne Rohrback, Craig April, Fiona Kaper, Richard R. Rivera, Christine S. Liu, Benjamin Siddoway, and Jerold Chun, which was first published September 27, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1812702115 (Proc Natl Acad…

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Moths use sound-absorbing scales to evade bats Cabbage tree emperor moth (B. alcinoe). Some species of moths escape echolocation by bats by using acute hearing that triggers evasive flights or by producing ultrasound clicks that telegraph the presence of defensive toxins, startle bats, or scramble bats’ biosonar. Zhiyuan Shen et…

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QnAs with Steven A. Kliewer [QnAs]

Steven A. Kliewer has spent his career studying the workings of regulatory proteins called nuclear hormone receptors, and their effects on metabolism. Kliewer’s clinically relevant discoveries include the mechanism of action of thiazolidinedione diabetes drugs. A professor of molecular biology and pharmacology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center…

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Late Bronze Age cultural origins of dairy pastoralism in Mongolia [Anthropology]

Dairy products provide a substantial part of the food energy intake for many populations around the world. Fresh milk is an important source of many proteins (whey β-lactoglobulin and caseins), fats, vitamin D, calcium, and electrolytes—but it has only a single carbohydrate, lactose (1). We can all digest lactose as…

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“Fragile” equilibrium between translation and transcription [Neuroscience]

Loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) in fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual deficiency and is associated with additional neurodevelopmental issues, including increased risks of autism and epilepsy and characteristic physical changes (1). FMRP is an mRNA binding protein (RBP) implicated in many…

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Autism in the broader context of cognitive sex differences [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties with reciprocal social interactions, understanding and using (e.g., making eye contact) social cues, repetitive behaviors, and narrow interests (1). About 1% of individuals will meet current diagnostic criteria for ASD (2), with about a 4:1 ratio of males to females (3). Diagnostic…

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Phosphatidylserine hide-and-seek [Cell Biology]

Every day, billions of new cells are produced in our bodies, and an equivalent number must die. Normally this occurs by apoptosis (1), during which the chromatin compacts against the nuclear envelope, followed rapidly by nuclear fragmentation and budding into multiple membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. This “dance of death” results from…

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Skin as a window to body-clock time [Systems Biology]

The nascent field of circadian medicine posits that timing of medical interventions, including the administration of drugs and surgical procedures, can be important for maximum therapeutic efficacy and minimum side effects. However, with today’s chaotic work schedules and light pollution, the phase of the body clock—the circadian time—varies between individuals…

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Inner Workings: Mapping the microbiome location helps elucidate its role [Microbiology]

For a microbe, location is everything. Factors such as temperature, as well as access to water and nutrients, determine what kinds of microbes can thrive in a particular place. By sequencing microbial DNA, researchers have discovered vast and previously unrecognized microscopic worlds, identifying the bugs that live in locales ranging…

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Regulation of Sensory-dependent Circuit Refinement by TWEAK/Fn14 Cytokine Signaling

Advanced Cell Diagnostics invites you to join them for an educational webinar on sensory-dependent circuit refinement in the brain.

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The greatest security innovations of 2018

Military They're the Best of What's New. Safety happens by the inch, through a relentless effort to stop the simple vulnerabilities that can lead to major threats—on our doorsteps, overseas, and in our…

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Engineer-clinician team uses 'active wrinkles' to keep synthetic grafts clean

During a coronary bypass procedure, surgeons redirect blood flow using an autologous bypass graft, most often derived from the patient's own veins. However, in certain situations where the patient does not have a suitable vein, surgeons must rely on synthetic vascular grafts which, while life-saving, are more prone to clot formation that eventually obstructs the graft.

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Researchers restore breathing, partial forelimb function in rats with spinal cord injuries

Millions of people worldwide are living with chronic spinal cord injuries, with 250,000 to 500,000 new cases each year — most from vehicle crashes or falls. The most severe spinal cord injuries completely paralyze their victims and more than half impair a person's ability to breathe. Now, a breakthrough study has demonstrated, in animal models of chronic injury, that long-term, devastating effect

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Solving a 75-year-old mystery might provide a new source of farm fertilizer

The solution to a 75-year-old materials mystery might one day allow farmers in developing nations to produce their own fertilizer on demand, using sunlight and nitrogen from the air.

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Oxygen could have been available to life as early as 3.5 billion years ago

Microbes could have performed oxygen-producing photosynthesis at least one billion years earlier in the history of the Earth than previously thought.

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Mapping of cells in the early human placenta may shed light on problem pregnancies

Scientists have made the first comprehensive inventory of cells present in the human placenta of the first trimester, a stage when many pregnancy complications are thought to arise. The findings could give new fuel for research on conditions such as preeclampsia and pre-term birth.

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Largest study of CRISPR-Cas9 mutations creates prediction tool for gene editing

The largest study of CRISPR action to date has developed a method to predict the exact mutations CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing can introduce to a cell. Researchers edited 40,000 different pieces of DNA and analyzed a thousand million resulting DNA sequences to develop the machine learning predictive tool. The new resource will help make CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing more reliable, cheaper and more efficient

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Discovery of the first common genetic risk factors for ADHD

A global team of researchers has found the first common genetic risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex condition affecting around one in 20 children.

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Google workers want plug pulled on plan for China search

Google workers on Tuesday posted an open letter calling on the internet giant to abort plans for "a censored search" service in China or risk setting a dangerous precedent.

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Powdered polio vaccine brings hope to Nigeria and Pakistan

New method of freeze-drying IPV maintains its potency in hot conditions A polio vaccine that can be stored as a dried powder at room temperature could offer a new way to help eradicate the disease, according to researchers. While existing vaccines have led to polio being eliminated in many countries around the world, including the UK, the highly contagious virus still circulates in the population

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Graduate School Can Have Terrible Effects on People's Mental Health

“I was always gung ho about going to graduate school for some reason,” reflects Everet Rummel, a data analyst at the City University of New York. “That was naive.” Rummel was indeed gung ho, embarking on a doctoral program in economics immediately after completing both his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in just four years. He was only 22 years old. And Rummel was indeed naive, at least in his ow

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Advanced imaging technology measures magnetite levels in the living brain

Investigators at the Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital have used magnetoencephalography — a technology that measures brain activity by detecting the weak magnetic fields produced by the brain's normal electrical currents — to measure levels of the iron-based mineral called magnetite in the human brain.

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Pitt engineer-clinician team uses 'active wrinkles' to keep synthetic grafts clean

To improve the success rate of synthetic grafts, a research team led by the University of Pittsburgh are investigating whether the 'active wrinkles' on the interior surface of arteries may help improve synthetic graft design and create a better alternative to autologous grafts for bypass surgery.

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These charts show how Asia is dominating industrial-robot adoption

Europe and America have far fewer robot workers than we might expect them to have.

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Inside the Plans for Chinese Mega-Collider That Will Dwarf the LHC

Physicist Wang Yifang, the mastermind behind the project, gives Nature an update on the ambitious project — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Smart Meters Speed Showers

Smart meters on shower heads encouraged hotel guests to conserve—even though they personally saved no money. Christopher Intagliata reports. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Largest study of CRISPR-Cas9 mutations creates prediction tool for gene editing

The largest study of CRISPR action to date has developed a method to predict the exact mutations CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing can introduce to a cell. Researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute edited 40,000 different pieces of DNA and analysed a thousand million resulting DNA sequences to reveal the effects of the gene editing and develop a machine learning predictive tool of the outcomes. This wil

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Early-life stress hinders development of neurons in mice, causing attention disorders

Women are roughly twice as likely as men to develop depression, anxiety and other stress-related problems, including difficulty with attention, and new research from Brown University neuroscientists sheds light on the biological reasons why.

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Mercantilism: The theory that explains Trump’s trade war

The use of tariffs by the Trump administration has confused more than a few leading economists. The policy and the motivations behind them do reflect an economic theory with a long tradition: mercantilism. Understanding mercantilism can help us understand why there is a call for more tariffs, and what might happen to the economy as a result of them. Nobody can say that President Trump's implement

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An Unexpected Solution to the Migrant Crisis

On Sunday, U.S. Border Patrol agents used tear gas to disperse Central American migrants rushing for the fence separating San Diego and Tijuana. The Border Patrol maintains that agents found themselves under attack and that their response was measured and necessary. This is not the first such incident to have taken place in the vicinity. Almost exactly five years ago, a large assembly of border c

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The Chaos of the Universe, Contained in a Watch

The filmmaker Marie-Cécile Embleton had just moved to London when she stumbled upon an octogenarian’s repair shop tucked away in a corner of the city. “I was taking a photograph of [the shop owner] on an old medium-format camera when a man turned up and started talking about watches, time, and the universe,” Embleton told The Atlantic . “He was intriguing and had such a beautiful face and presenc

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Sony's PlayStation Classic brings us closer to video game nostalgia saturation

Gadgets Start Final Fantasy VII again at your own risk. I call King when we play Tekken 3.

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State pension age increase causing huge uncertainty for older workers, especially females

The alignment of state pension ages for women and men—while in some senses a milestone for gender equality—has created very real difficulties for those whose who will now not receive their State Pension when they had originally expected to.

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First calf born following IVF embryo breakthrough

Scientists have successfully applied a new way to screen the genetics of cattle embryos, based on technology originally developed for human IVF.

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New method for studying gene expression could improve understanding of brain disease

By analyzing gene expression patterns, researchers have identified previously unknown distinctions between mouse and human neurons. They have also developed a new way to track cellular changes associated with brain disorders.

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First calf born following IVF embryo breakthrough

The approach, called Karyomapping, was originally designed to detect and screen for single gene and chromosome disorders simultaneously in human IVF embryos.

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Solving a 75-year-old mystery might provide a new source of farm fertilizer

The solution to a 75-year-old materials mystery might one day allow farmers in developing nations to produce their own fertilizer on demand, using sunlight and nitrogen from the air.

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Study reveals how a small molecule promotes removal of excess cholesterol

Scientists have determined the structure of the activated form of an enzyme that helps to return excess cholesterol to the liver, a study in eLife reports.

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A life cycle solution to fossil fuel impacts

Pennsylvania's energy history is rich with the quantities of fossil fuels that it has produced, but is also rife with the environmental legacies of coal mining and, more recently, hydrofracturing. Water that finds its way into abandoned coal mines dotted throughout the Commonwealth resurfaces as acid mine drainage (AMD), while freshwater used to fracture or "frack" oil and natural gas deposits ree

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The tactics behind 'taking to the streets'

Public protests are a vital, common tool for expressing grievances and creating communities. The political and social aspects of protests have been extensively studied, but little attention has been paid to the physical spaces in which they take place.

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Single-cell asymmetries control how groups of cells form 3-D shapes together

Scientists have developed a mathematical model showing that two types of cellular asymmetry, or 'polarity', govern the shaping of cells into sheets and tubes, according to an article in eLife.

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Largest study of CRISPR-Cas9 mutations creates prediction tool for gene editing

The largest study of CRISPR action to date has developed a method to predict the exact mutations CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing can introduce to a cell. Researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute edited 40,000 different pieces of DNA and analysed a thousand million resulting DNA sequences to develop the machine learning predictive tool. Reported today in Nature Biotechnology the new resource will help

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Henrik Dibbern sparer ikke på beskyldningerne

Men for mig handler det ikke om fagpolitik – det handler om, hvordan vi får skabt et velfungerende sundhedsvæsen med høj kvalitet i alle sektorer og i alle dele af landet. For patienternes skyld.

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Global lawmakers grill Facebook exec; Zuckerberg's a no-show

A cohort of international lawmakers is trying to turn up the pressure on Facebook, grilling one of its executives and making a show of founder Mark Zuckerberg's refusal to explain to them why his company failed to protect users' data privacy.

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Oxygen could have been available to life as early as 3.5 billion years ago

Microbes could have performed oxygen-producing photosynthesis at least one billion years earlier in the history of the Earth than previously thought.

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Study explains waterhemp's metabolic resistance to topramezone

Corn naturally tolerates certain herbicides, detoxifying the chemicals before they can cause harm. It's what allows farmers to spray fields with the class of herbicides known as HPPD-inhibitors, which kill weeds such as waterhemp and Palmer amaranth and leave corn unscathed. But in more and more fields, the method is failing; waterhemp isn't dying.

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Hidden history of Rome revealed under world's first cathedral

Supported throughout by the British School at Rome the team—drawn from Newcastle University, UK, the universities of Florence and Amsterdam and the Vatican Museums—have been able to bring the splendour of successive transformations of the ancient city to life.

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Winter water conditions affect female penguins more than males

After a bad winter in the ocean, female Magellanic penguins suffer more than males, according to a new study. Every autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, Magellanic penguins leave their coastal nesting sites in South America. For adults, their summer task—breeding, or at least trying to—is complete. Newly fledged chicks and adults gradually head out to sea to spend the winter feeding. They won’t ret

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Nasa's Mars lander sends back first pictures from red planet

InSight probe reveals desolate landscape as dust settles after its arrival on Martian surface This is the view across Elysium Planitia, the vast lava plain near the equator of Mars, where Nasa’s InSight lander touched down after a hair-raising descent on Monday. The probe snapped the image of the desolate landscape as the dust thrown up by its arrival was still settling around it. Over the coming

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Global warming outpaces efforts to slow it: UN

Humanity is falling further behind in the race against climate change, with the gap between greenhouse gas emissions and levels needed to achieve the Paris climate treaty temperature goals continuing to widen, the UN said Tuesday.

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The most ground-breaking home innovations of 2018

Technology They're the Best of What's New. A true innovation for the home should either work better than its predecessor or fulfill a need we didn’t realize we had.

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Facebook was warned of alleged Russian meddling back in 2014

Facebook acknowledged on Tuesday that its engineers had flagged suspicious Russian activity as early as 2014—long before it became public—but did not confirm evidence of a coordinated campaign.

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Wriggly, squiffy, lummox, and boobs: What makes some words funny?

Upchuck, bubby, boff, wriggly, yaps, giggle, cooch, guffaw, puffball, and jiggly: the top 10 funniest words in the English language, according to a new study by University of Alberta psychology experts. The researchers determined that there are two main kinds of predictors of funniness in words: those related to the form of the word and those related to its meaning.

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Improve hand hygiene and patient decolonization to help stem high-risk S. aureus transmission in the operating room

Adherence to proven protocols for disinfecting surgeons' hands, patients' skin, and operating room surfaces could help to halt the spread of dangerous Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pathogens in the operating room and beyond, according to new research published in the American Journal of Infection Control, the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.

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A Collector of Math and Physics Surprises

Tadashi Tokieda lives in a world in which ordinary objects do extraordinary things. Jars of rice refuse to roll down ramps. Strips of paper slip past solid obstacles . Balls swirling inside a bowl switch direction when more balls join them. Yet Tokieda’s world is none other than our own. His public mathematics lectures could easily be mistaken for magic shows, but there’s no sleight of hand, no h

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Why Are There So Few Autism Specialists?

Lack of interest, training and pay may limit the supply — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Mosquitoes may surf winds above Africa more than we realized

More than 40 meters up, balloon traps in Mali caught females of malaria-spreading mosquito species.

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Pharma giant sold mesh implant despite pain warnings

Exclusive: staff at Johnson & Johnson had concerns it could harden in body, emails show • Revealed: how faulty implants harm patients worldwide • Why we’re examining the implants industry A vaginal mesh implant made by one of the world’s biggest pharmaceutical firms was launched despite the company being warned it could shrink and harden inside the body, company documents reveal. Internal emails

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UA researchers help discover genetic factor that can help or hurt risk for heart disease

Individuals with a particular genetic factor may be more resistant to plaque build-up and have a reduced risk for coronary artery disease.

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ASH releases new clinical practice guidelines for venous thromboembolism

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a term referring to blood clots in the veins, is a highly prevalent and far-reaching public health problem that can cause disability and death. Despite effective new options for prevention and treatment, VTE remains a threat underappreciated by the general public, causing up to 100,000 deaths annually in the United States alone.

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Is your office messy? If so, you may be seen as uncaring, neurotic

An extremely messy personal space seems to lead people to believe the owner of that space is more neurotic and less agreeable, say researchers.

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Greve og DNA-forsker jager levende dinosaur i Congos jungle: "Vi finder noget, som ikke er fundet før"

Lensgreve og safaripark-ejer Christoffer Knuth er sammen med DNA-forsker Mikkel Winther rejst dybt ind i Congos jungle for at finde et mytisk dyr.

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Fossil Fuel Extraction on Public Lands Produces One Quarter of U.S. Emissions

The finding comes amid a Trump Administration push to increase federal fossil fuel leases and roll back methane regulations — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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First ancient DNA from mainland Finland reveals origins of Siberian ancestry in region

A new study shows that the genetic makeup of northern Europe traces back to migrations from Siberia that began at least 3,500 years ago and that, as recently as the Iron Age, ancestors of the Saami lived in a larger area of Finland than today.

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Parents: To prepare kids financially, give them practice with money

Providing children with hands-on experience with money is essential to preparing them for financial success, a new study suggests.

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Mapping of cells in the early human placenta may shed light on problem pregnancies

Scientists have made the first comprehensive inventory of cells present in the human placenta of the first trimester, a stage when many pregnancy complications are thought to arise. The findings could give new fuel for research on conditions such as preeclampsia and pre-term birth.

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Researchers discover clues to brain changes in depression

In new pre-clinical research, scientists at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM), led by Scott Thompson, PhD, Professor of Physiology, have identified changes in brain activity linked to the pleasure and reward system.

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Researchers restore breathing, partial forelimb function in rats with spinal cord injuries

a breakthrough study has demonstrated, in animal models of chronic injury, that long-term, devastating effects of spinal cord trauma on breathing and limb function may be reversible.

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7 ways to flirt that are backed by science

Flirting is an important part of life. It can be a fun, adventurous way to meet others and develop intimate relationships. Many people find flirting to be an anxiety-ridden experience, but science can help us discover principles to be more relaxed while flirting. Smiling and eye contact are proven winners, while pick-up lines are a flirty fallacy. None Flirting is a universal part of human life .

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Google Pixel Slate Review: A Bizarre View of Your Computing Future

Powered by both Chrome OS and Android, Google's answer to the iPad and Surface promises a computing future where anything is possible. And it sort of delivers.

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Everything You Should Know About Facebook’s UK Privacy Drama

Lawmakers from nine countries grilled Facebook on Tuesday using a cache of sealed documents that had been seized in London last week.

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How water fleas detect predators

Water fleas of the genus Daphnia detect via chemical substances if their predators, namely Chaoborus larvae, are hunting in their vicinity. If so, they generate defenses that make them more difficult to consume. The signalling molecules that enable detection have been identified by biologists and chemists. It is a cocktail of substances that occurs during digestive processes of Chaoborus larvae.

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How antibiotics help spread resistance

Bacteria can become insensitive to antibiotics by picking up resistance genes from the environment. Unfortunately for patients, the stress response induced by antibiotics activates competence, the ability of cells to take up and integrate foreign DNA, in microorganisms. Microbiologists now describe a new mechanism by which Streptococcus pneumoniae can become competent, and why biofilms may be impo

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Why small size matters: Tiny mitochondria stimulate brain cell connections

New research suggests that mitochondria help neurons grow and make proper connections in the developing brain. The work could open up new lines of inquiry into may be at play when these processes go awry in brain disease.

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Stigma impairs cognition in men living with HIV

A new study has drawn a direct link between the amount of stigma men with HIV report experiencing and their scores on cognitive tests, measuring abilities such as memory and attention.

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Single-cell asymmetries control how groups of cells form 3D shapes together

A new mathematical tool shows that altering one of two asymmetries in the properties of single cells controls how they organize into folded, biological shapes, and explains how these shapes are precisely reproduced and maintained.

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Phase 3 trial shows lanadelumab to be effective in reducing hereditary angioedema attacks

A phase 3 clinical trial finds that injections of the monoclonal antibody drug lanadelumab reduced attacks of hereditary angioedema — a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder.

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On the trail of rare genetic disease, scientists uncover key immune regulator

Scientists have found an important immune system-regulating protein that in principle could be targeted to treat cancers and chronic viral infections.

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Newfound mechanism may yield ways to counter mistaken immune attack on body

A newfound genetic regulatory mechanism may shape the immune system's ability to fight viral infections, and play a key role in autoimmune diseases.

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The Parker Solar Probe is the single greatest innovation of 2018

Space And in a great year for space exploration, that’s saying something. This spacecraft is going to the most deadly place in the solar system—our sun. And it’s not just getting kind of close.

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The greatest auto innovations of 2018

Cars They're the Best of What's New. When you consider an electric supercar that snaps back your head with acceleration, it’s easy to conclude 2018 was a heckuva year for road-going brilliance.

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Why Wisconsin High Schoolers Aren't Being Punished for Mimicking a Nazi Salute

Last May, several dozen young men gathered on the steps of the courthouse in Baraboo, Wisconsin, to take pictures before their high-school prom. It’s not clear what was going through each of their heads—though one could guess—when the majority of them extended their right arms, mimicking the Nazi salute as a parent snapped a picture. The students dropped their arms and proceeded to prom. But six

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World must triple efforts or face catastrophic climate change, says UN

Rapid emissions turnaround needed to keep global warming at less than 2C, report suggests Countries are failing to take the action needed to stave off the worst effects of climate change, a UN report has found , and the commitments made in the 2015 Paris agreement will not be met unless governments introduce additional measures as a matter of urgency. New taxes on fossil fuels, investment in clea

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How Personalization Leads to Homogeneity

Tech companies are perpetuating a bleak view of humans as programmable cogs — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Oxygen could have been available to life as early as 3.5 billion years ago

Microbes could have performed oxygen-producing photosynthesis at least one billion years earlier in the history of the Earth than previously thought.

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New method for studying gene expression could improve understanding of brain disease

By analyzing gene expression patterns, researchers have identified previously unknown distinctions between mouse and human neurons. They have also developed a new way to track cellular changes associated with brain disorders.

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Early-life stress hinders development of neurons in mice, causing attention disorders

Researchers at Brown University found that stress early in the life of female mice leads to fewer 'tuning' neurons in the part of the brain responsible for making sense of emotions and following rules.

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Veterans study points to suicide risk from multiple brain injuries

A Veterans Affairs study finds that post-9-11 veterans with a history of repeated traumatic brain injuries — versus none — are at much greater risk for considering suicide.

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Enzyme discovery points researchers toward starving lung cancer as a potential treatment

UT Southwestern researchers have found that an enzyme on the surface of some lung cancer cells helps feed the cancer, making it a tempting treatment target.

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Researchers create first model of how plastic waste moves in the environment

A Washington State University researcher for the first time has modeled how microplastic fibers move through the environment.

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Microplastics pollution in Falklands as high as UK

The first study to investigate microplastics around Ascension Island and the Falkland Islands—two of the most remote locations in the South Atlantic Ocean—has found levels of contamination comparable with the waters around the UK.

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A fresh look at winter footprints: Environmental DNA improves tracking of rare carnivores

An innovative new project has discovered that animal footprints contain enough DNA to allow for species identification. Scientists have traditionally relied on snow-tracks and camera traps to monitor populations of rare carnivores, like Canada lynx, fishers and wolverines. These traditional techniques can tell part of, but not the entire story of an animal population, and are sometimes difficult t

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Mosquitoes, other blood-sucking flies have been spreading malaria for up to 100 million years

The microorganisms that cause malaria, leishmaniasis and a variety of other illnesses today can be traced back at least to the time of dinosaurs, a study of amber-preserved blood-sucking insects and ticks show.

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First calf born following IVF embryo breakthrough

Scientists at the University of Kent have successfully applied a new way to screen the genetics of cattle embryos, based on technology originally developed for human IVF.

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Not just a pretty face: Botulinum toxin shows promise in trials to reduce post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in cardiac surgery patients

Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication, affecting one quarter to one half of all patients following cardiac surgery. It can result in heart failure, stroke, and longer hospital stays, resulting in an increased cost of care. HeartRhythm, the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society and the Cardiac Electrophysiology Society, reports promising results from two clinical

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How Restaurants Got So Loud

Let me describe what I hear as I sit in a coffee shop writing this article. It’s late morning on a Saturday, between the breakfast and lunch rushes. People talk in hushed voices at tables. The staff make pithy jokes amongst themselves, enjoying the downtime. Fingers clack on keyboards, and glasses clink against wood and stone countertops. Occasionally, the espresso machines grind and roar. The co

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Lack of sleep intensifies anger, impairs adaptation to frustrating circumstances

Losing just a couple hours of sleep at night makes you angrier, especially in frustrating situations, according to new research. While the results may seem intuitive, the study is one of the first to provide evidence that sleep loss causes anger. The research also provides new insight on our ability to adjust to irritating conditions when tired.

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A life cycle solution to fossil fuel impacts

Pennsylvania's energy history is rich with the quantities of fossil fuels that it has produced, but is also rife with the environmental legacies of coal mining and, more recently, hydrofracturing. Water that finds its way into abandoned coal mines dotted throughout the Commonwealth resurfaces as acid mine drainage (AMD), while freshwater used to fracture or "frack" oil and natural gas deposits ree

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A fresh look at winter footprints: Environmental DNA improves tracking of rare carnivores

A new project shows that animal footprints contain enough DNA for species identification. The study extracted DNA from snow samples collected within animal tracks and applied newly developed molecular genetic assays. The assays positively detected the DNA of each species, outperforming traditional lab techniques on previously undetectable genetic samples. This method could revolutionize winter sur

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Blood-sucking flies have been spreading malaria for 100 million years

The microorganisms that cause malaria, leishmaniasis and a variety of other illnesses today can be traced back at least to the time of dinosaurs, a study of amber-preserved blood-sucking insects and ticks show.

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Biologists discover an unusual hallmark of aging in neurons

Biologists have discovered that oxidative damage by free radicals produces an unusual pileup of short snippets of RNA in some neurons. This RNA buildup may predispose cells to neurodegenerative diseases.

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Why screen time can disrupt sleep

For most, the time spent staring at screens — on computers, phones, iPads — constitutes many hours and can often disrupt sleep. Now, researchers have pinpointed how certain cells in the eye process ambient light and reset our internal clocks, the daily cycles of physiological processes known as the circadian rhythm. When these cells are exposed to artificial light late into the night, our intern

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How plastic waste moves in the environment

A researcher for the first time has modeled how microplastic fibers move through the environment. The work could someday help communities better understand and reduce plastics pollution, which is a growing problem around the world.

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Scientists decode mechanism of remembering — and forgetting — in fruit flies

Researchers have shown for the first time the physiological mechanism by which a memory is formed and then subsequently forgotten. The research, which was done in fruit flies, looked at the synaptic changes that occur during learning and forgetting. The investigators found that a single dopamine neuron can drive both the learning and forgetting process.

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Newly discovered deep-sea microbes gobble greenhouse gases and perhaps oil spills, too

Scientists have discovered nearly two dozen new types of microbes, many of which use hydrocarbons such as methane and butane as energy sources — meaning they might be helping to limit the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and might one day be useful for cleaning up oil spills.

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Coffee drinkers adverse to bitter tastes… drink more coffee.

A new study shows that humans with a genetic variant making them adverse to caffeine drink more coffee. The same is not true with other bitter flavors, such as PROP and quinine. Tea and alcohol drinkers did not produce the same results. None That human behavior is guided by seemingly counter-intuitive actions is well-founded. The person that always talks about being trusting is often the least tr

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Discovery opens new opportunities to slow or reverse MS

Nerve cells stripped of their insulation can no longer carry vital information, leading to the numbness, weakness and vision problems often associated with multiple sclerosis. A new study shows an overlooked source may be able to replace that lost insulation and provide a new way to treat diseases like MS.

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Solving a 75-year-old mystery might provide a new source of farm fertilizer

The solution to a 75-year-old materials mystery might one day allow farmers in developing nations to produce their own fertilizer on demand, using sunlight and nitrogen from the air.

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Scientists identify potential target for treating rare cancer

Researchers have pinpointed a protein that plays a key role in a type of rare cancer often leading to tumours around joints and tendons, according to new findings in eLife.

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A life cycle solution to fossil fuel impacts

research from the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, published recently in Environmental Science & Technology, found that co-treatment of research from the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, published recently in Environmental Science & Technology, found that co-treatment of acid mine drainage and produced fracking fluid may not only solve two environmenta

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Lack of sleep intensifies anger, impairs adaptation to frustrating circumstances

Losing just a couple hours of sleep at night makes you angrier, especially in frustrating situations, according to new Iowa State University research. While the results may seem intuitive, the study is one of the first to provide evidence that sleep loss causes anger. The research also provides new insight on our ability to adjust to irritating conditions when tired.

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On the trail of rare genetic disease, scientists uncover key immune regulator

Scientists at Scripps Research have found an important immune system-regulating protein that in principle could be targeted to treat cancers and chronic viral infections.

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Research pioneers

Five UC Santa Barbara professors join the ranks as Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) for 2018. Election as an AAAS Fellow is an honor bestowed upon AAAS members by their peers for 'their efforts toward advancing science applications that are deemed scientifically or socially distinguished.'

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How antibiotics help spread resistance

Bacteria can become insensitive to antibiotics by picking up resistance genes from the environment. Unfortunately for patients, the stress response induced by antibiotics activates competence, the ability of cells to take up and integrate foreign DNA, in microorganisms. Microbiologists from the University of Groningen (UG) and the University of Lausanne now describe a new mechanism by which Strept

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Why screen time can disrupt sleep

For most, the time spent staring at screens — on computers, phones, iPads — constitutes many hours and can often disrupt sleep. Now, Salk Institute researchers have pinpointed how certain cells in the eye process ambient light and reset our internal clocks, the daily cycles of physiological processes known as the circadian rhythm. When these cells are exposed to artificial light late into the ni

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Biologists discover an unusual hallmark of aging in neurons

MIT biologists have discovered that oxidative damage by free radicals produces an unusual pileup of short snippets of RNA in some neurons. This RNA buildup may predispose cells to neurodegenerative diseases.

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Telemedicine use increases but still uncommon

Laws passed in 32 states promote the use of telemedicine by mandating coverage and reimbursement. Telemedicine is the remote evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of patients using electronic communication. In this study, claims data from a large, private US health plan were analyzed to estimate the growth in telemedicine from 2005 to 2017.

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USPSTF recommendation statement on interventions to prevent child maltreatment

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) finds limited or inconsistent evidence on the benefits of primary care interventions to prevent child maltreatment (defined as abuse, neglect or both). Children with signs or symptoms suggesting maltreatment should be assessed or reported according to applicable state laws.

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Challenges for sex workers in holding the line in condom use in Western Australia

A study of sex workers finds unexpectedly low rates of reported condom use for all forms of penetrative sex — and particularly oral sex. The authors highlight the need for decriminalization of the sex industry, increased sexual health education in the wider community and increased peer support opportunities among sex workers.

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Phase 3 trial shows lanadelumab to be effective in reducing hereditary angioedema attacks

A phase 3 clinical trial led by a Massachusetts General Hospital physician, finds that injections of the monoclonal antibody drug lanadelumab reduced attacks of hereditary angioedema — a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder.

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Abnormal RNA linked to myeloma progression

Most studies on how multiple myeloma develops focus on DNA abnormalities, but new research has uncovered an association between abnormalities in RNA and the cancer’s progression. Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of blood cancer where cancer cells accumulate in the bone marrow, crowding out healthy blood cells. Researchers discovered that over-expression of ADAR1, a RNA-editing enzy

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Special Counsel Robert Mueller's Endgame May Be in Sight

Recent developments in the special counsel investigation indicate that things are about to heat up.

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A new study confirms that e-cigs damage your heart

E-cigarettes reduce the amount of nitric oxide being produced, increasing the likelihood of heart damage. Vaping might be "healthier" than smoking traditional cigarettes, but as more research continues to be published, e-cigs are certainly not being shown as "healthy." Juul's recent removal of flavored pods from retail outlets was pre-empting forthcoming FDA regulations. None The notion that e-ci

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The warm and loving tegu lizard becomes a genetic resource

Researchers have sequenced the genome of the tegu, Salvator merianae: a lizard that has taken an evolutionary step toward warm-bloodedness. It is also a highly desired pet, that can often be house-trained; unfortunately, as part of the exotic pet trade, it has been released in new environments and become a threat to local species. This extremely high-quality tegu genome sequence will be of use to

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Electrical stimulation in the nose induces sense of smell in human subjects

Physicians have, for the first time, induced a sense of smell in humans by using electrodes in the nose to stimulate nerves in the olfactory bulb, a structure in the brain where smell information from the nose is processed and sent to deeper regions of brain.

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Newly discovered wasp turns social spiders into zombies

It sounds like the plot of the world's tiniest horror movie: deep in the Ecuadorian Amazon, a newly discovered species of wasp transforms a 'social' spider into a zombie that abandons its colony to do the wasp's bidding. That's the gruesome, real-life discovery by researchers who detail the manipulative relationship between a new Zatypota species wasp and a social Anelosimus eximius spider in a ne

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Touch can produce detailed, lasting memories

Exploring objects through touch can generate detailed, durable memories for those objects, even when we don't intend to memorize the object's details, according to a new study.

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Tre firmaer forhåndsgodkendte plastiknet fra mandariner som medicinsk udstyr

Patienter lider og dør på grund af manglende kontrol med implantater, viser international kulegravning. Sagen med plastiknettet til frugter startede den dybdeborende kortlægning.

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Biology vs Computer Science – Field Battle!

Eyewire is the perfect marriage of Biology and Computer Science. The process begins in biology, where we take chunks of brain and image them. We then digitize the images and use AI to begin the reconstruction process. We then continue in the CompSci vein by gamifying the data and handing it over to human players via the Eyewire website. After the neurons are reconstructed in 3D it’s back over to

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Pulsed radiofrequency relieves acute back pain and sciatica

A minimally invasive procedure in which pulses of energy from a probe are applied directly to nerve roots near the spine is safe and effective in people with acute lower back pain that has not responded to conservative treatment, according to a new study.

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Vaccine breakthrough brings researchers closer to eliminating polio worldwide

Injectable vaccine, freeze-dried into a powder, kept at room temperature for four weeks and then rehydrated, offered full protection against the polio virus when tested in mice.

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State pension age increase causing huge uncertainty for older workers, especially females

The alignment of state pension ages for women and men — while in some senses a milestone for gender equality — has created very real difficulties for those whose who will now not receive their State Pension when they had originally expected to.

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Study reveals how a small molecule promotes removal of excess cholesterol

Scientists have determined the structure of the activated form of an enzyme that helps to return excess cholesterol to the liver, a study in eLife reports.

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Pre-pregnancy health coverage climbs after Medicaid expansion

The number of low-income women enrolled in Medicaid before becoming pregnant rose substantially in states that expanded Medicaid eligibility through the Affordable Care Act. Higher rates of health insurance before pregnancy may improve access to preconception care, which can help women to appropriately plan their pregnancy and optimize their health before conceiving.

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Single-cell asymmetries control how groups of cells form 3D shapes together

Scientists have developed a mathematical model showing that two types of cellular asymmetry, or 'polarity,' govern the shaping of cells into sheets and tubes, according to an article in eLife.

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Prehistoric cave art reveals ancient use of complex astronomy

As far back as 40,000 years ago, humans kept track of time using relatively sophisticated knowledge of the stars

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Stigma impairs cognition in men living with HIV

A new study has drawn a direct link between the amount of stigma men with HIV report experiencing and their scores on cognitive tests, measuring abilities such as memory and attention.

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Cancer under pressure: Visualizing the activity of the immune system on tumor development

As tumors develop, they evolve genetically. How does the immune system act when faced with tumor cells? How does it exert pressure on the genetic diversity of cancer cells? Scientists from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm used in vivo video techniques and cell-specific staining to visualize the action of immune cells in response to the proliferation of cancer cells. The findings have been published

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Why small size matters: Tiny mitochondria stimulate brain cell connections

This research, published online today in Nature Communications, suggests that these unusually small, squat mitochondria help neurons grow and make proper connections in the developing brain. The work could open up new lines of inquiry into may be at play when these processes go awry in brain disease.

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NASA's GPM shows small area of heavy rain in Tropical Storm Man-yi

Once a typhoon, Man-yi has weakened to a tropical storm as it continues to track through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean, far to the east of Taiwan. The GPM core satellite provided a look at the rain rates throughout the storm and found heaviest rain displaced to the northeast of the center.

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The road to enhancement, via human gene editing, is paved with good intentions

It appears that researchers in China have facilitated the birth of the first "designer baby" – actually babies, twin girls who are supposedly genetically resistant to HIV. The scientist who created the embryos, as well as some American scientists like Harvard's George Church, have praised the beneficent intent to producing a child who is resistant to disease. Who could argue with such good intenti

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Can removing carbon from the atmosphere save us from climate catastrophe?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) asserts that limiting global warming to 1.5˚C could avert the most catastrophic effects of climate change. In its recent report, it laid out four means of achieving this —and all of them rely on removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This is because even if we cut most of our carbon emissions down to zero, emissions from agriculture and ai

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When technology can read minds, how will we protect our privacy? | Nita Farahany

Tech that can decode your brain activity and reveal what you're thinking and feeling is on the horizon, says legal scholar and ethicist Nita Farahany. What will it mean for our already violated sense of privacy? In a cautionary talk, Farahany warns of a society where people are arrested for merely thinking about committing a crime (like in "Minority Report") and private interests sell our brain da

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The key to fixing the gender gap in math and science: Boost women's confidence

The gender gap in math and science isn't going away. Women remain less likely to enroll in math-heavy fields of study and pursue math-heavy careers. This pattern persists despite major studies finding no meaningful differences in mathematics performance among girls and boys.

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VitalTag to give vital information in mass casualty incidents

When mass casualty incidents occur—shootings, earthquakes, multiple car pile ups—first responders can easily be overwhelmed by the sheer number of victims. When every second counts, monitoring all the victims in a chaotic situation can be difficult. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a stick-on sensor that measures and tracks a patient's

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The best gadgets of 2018

Gadgets They're the Best of What's New. This year’s Best of What’s New gadgets category includes leaps forward in both virtual and augmented reality, which were welcome reprieves from the increasingly hectic…

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Brazil loses 'one million football pitches' worth of forest

Deforestation in Brazil has reached such epic proportions that an area equivalent to one million football pitches was lost in just one year, Greenpeace said.

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New process for full use of softwood bark ready for production

The pulp and paper industry and the wood product industry in Finland together produce three million tonnes of softwood bark as waste every year. Most of this is used in energy production, but useful raw materials can also be extracted from softwood bark to create bio-based products and materials. Rehap partner VTT has developed a method to extract a high yield of tannins from bark.

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Green and edible cling film and food packaging made from plants

University of Nottingham researchers have developed 100 percent biodegradable and edible food packaging made from plant carbohydrates and proteins to replace polluting plastic materials and improve storage, safety and shelf life.

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Byggepladser tømt for mennesker: Om 10 år vil datakraft og robotter bygge vores huse

It- folk overtager byggebranchen, mens entreprenører bliver overflødige. Norsk civilingeniør Håkon Reisvang har forsket i udviklingen.

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Study explains waterhemp's metabolic resistance to topramezone

Corn naturally tolerates certain herbicides, detoxifying the chemicals before they can cause harm. It's what allows farmers to spray fields with the class of herbicides known as HPPD-inhibitors, which kill weeds such as waterhemp and Palmer amaranth and leave corn unscathed. But in more and more fields, the method is failing; waterhemp isn't dying.

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New concept for tractor beam from Star Wars developed

Physicists from ITMO University developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. Such a beam is capable of moving particles or cells towards the radiation source. The study showed that hyperbolic metasurfaces are promising for experiments on creating the tractor beam, as well as for its practical applications. The results are published in ACS Pho

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Shedding a new light on optical trapping and tweezing

Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser light, to control and manipulate minute objects such as single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices.

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Detective mission to characterize and trace the history of a new African meteorite

Researchers from Wits and colleagues from the University of Antananarivo in Madagascar are on a 'detective mission' to describe, classify and trace the history of a meteorite that landed in and around the small town of Benenitra in southwestern Madagascar shortly before the lunar eclipse on July 27, 2018.

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Medical referrals: Closing the communication loop to improve care and avoid delays

A new study from Regenstrief Institute investigators addresses breakdowns in the referral from primary care to medical specialist process and presents a prototype template using evidence-based design to improve communication about referrals among clinicians.

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