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Nyheder2018september12

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New evidence supports the hypothesis that beer may have been motivation to cultivate cereals

Stanford University archaeologists are turning the history of beer on its head.

2h

 

A mathematical model captures the political impact of fake news

The mathematical theory of communication—one of science’s finest achievements—provides an objective way to simulate how deliberately inaccurate reports influence voting behavior.

2h

 

Nu kan du se Danmark på skrå

1,3 millioner skråfotos i høj opløsning over Danmark er nu klar til at blive udstillet som frie data

7h

 

 

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The world needs death and decomposition

Thanks to a new study by Michigan State University, scientists now have a better way to investigate decomposing plants' and animals' contributions to the ecosystem.

8min

 

Aging may be as old as life itself

Aging has had a bad rap since it has long been considered a consequence of biology's concentrated effort on enhancing survival through reproductivity. A new USC Dornsife computer model study may reshape modern understanding of the tradeoff of reproductivity and aging, antagonistic pleiotropy, as researchers find inherent aging, within a gene, may actually optimize functions of other genes.

8min

 

Biophysics: Pile-ups in protein transport

Motor proteins in cells can move along protein filaments in ways that interfere with each other's progress. A new model developed by physicists from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich shows how this can lead to gridlock, even when there is still plenty of empty space.

8min

 

Experts devise social security innovations to meet more Americans' needs

Social Security can be enhanced to provide Americans greater protections against financial risk, according to proposals found in a new supplemental issue of the journal Public Policy & Aging Report from The Gerontological Society of America. The innovations suggested would improve Social Security's adequacy in response to three important trends in the U.S.: increased longevity; more workers with l

8min

 

Childhood trauma linked to impaired social cognition later in life for patients with major psychiatric disorders

A new report published in European Psychiatry identified a significant association between childhood adversity and impaired social cognitive functioning among adults diagnosed with major psychiatric disorders. Through a comprehensive review of all research conducted to date, the investigators established that a traumatic early social environment frequently leads to social cognitive problems and gr

8min

 

3D virtual simulation gets to the 'heart' of irregular heartbeats

In a proof of concept study, scientists at Johns Hopkins report they have successfully performed 3D personalized virtual simulations of the heart to accurately identify where cardiac specialists should electrically destroy cardiac tissue to stop potentially fatal irregular and rapid heartbeats in patients with scarring in the heart. The retrospective analysis of 21 patients and prospective study o

8min

 

Ants surrender their venomous secrets

Venoms produced by snails, snakes, scorpions and spiders contain numerous bioactive compounds that could lead to therapeutic drugs or insect-specific pesticides. Yet little is known about venoms produced by insects, in part because each bug contains such a tiny amount. Researchers recently responded to this challenge by conducting one of the first intensive studies of ant venom. They have now publ

8min

 

First-of-kind study reveals public & physician attitudes toward recording clinical visits

With over three-quarters of Americans now owning a smartphone, healthcare researchers have speculated that the number of patients recording visits with their doctor was increasing. A new study by researchers from The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice is the first to measure the prevalence of recording of clinical visits in the United States. The study also assesses the at

8min

 

New plant species discovered in museum is probably extinct

A single non-photosynthetic plant specimen preserved in a Japanese natural history museum has been identified as a new species. However, it is highly possible that this species is already extinct. These findings were published on Sept. 13 in Phytotaxa.

8min

 

Biodiversity loss: Political actions are required, not additional scientific knowledge

Over 15 years, almost 13,000 scientific papers have been published in the leading conservation science journals. Yet biodiversity remains threatened at a global scale. Two CNRS researchers have focused on this worrisome paradox by taking a deeper look at this large volume of literature. One of the major problems is that decisions are usually more favorable to human activities than to nature protec

8min

 

Can California Achieve a "Carbon Neutral" Economy?

Governor Jerry Brown signed an executive order calling for carbon neutrality by 2045 — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

16min

 

Plan cuts mortality for people with HIV who inject drugs

A new intervention for people living with HIV who inject drugs led to an increase in people taking their medications and a decrease in mortality, according to new research. The integrated intervention combines counseling, substance use treatment, and referrals for antiretroviral therapy at any CD4 cell count. The trial was conducted with people who inject drugs in Ukraine, Indonesia, and Vietnam.

17min

 

Business genius can be taught, study says

How did Steve Jobs do it? What about Whole Foods Market and Starbucks? These kinds of "breakout" success stories show what is possible when business leaders imagine into the future rather than re-enacting the past—a strategy that a new study says is crucial for business success in a rapidly changing world.

17min

 

Can a low-carb diet really help shed weight and reverse diabetes?

UK politician Tom Watson has hailed a low-carb diet for his massive weight loss and "reversal" of type 2 diabetes, and now he wants to help tackle the country's obesity crisis

17min

 

Charted: How hurricanes are becoming more extreme

Environment Climate change is driving significant shifts in extreme weather. Hurricanes have always been destructive—but as temperatures rise, how much worse are they getting?

19min

 

New plant species discovered in museum is probably extinct

A single non-photosynthetic plant specimen preserved in a Japanese natural history museum has been identified as a new species. However, it is highly possible that this species is already extinct. These findings will be published on September 13 in Phytotaxa.

29min

 

Political actions are required to address biodiversity loss, not additional scientific knowledge

Over 15 years, almost 13,000 scientific papers have been published in leading conservation science journals. Yet biodiversity remains threatened at a global scale. Two CNRS researchers have focused on this worrisome paradox by taking a deeper look at this large volume of literature. One of the major problems is that decisions are usually more favorable to human activities than to nature protection

29min

 

New reports will enable UK to make the most of its natural assets

Four new reports on Natural Capital published today will enable governments and businesses to take an evidence-based approach to valuing the UK's natural assets. The concept lies at the heart of the UK Government's recently published 25 Year Environment Plan and is set to play an increasingly influential role in public policy and business decision-making.

29min

 

A wearable device for regrowing hair

Although some people embrace the saying 'bald is beautiful,' for others, alopecia, or excessive hair loss, can cause stress and anxiety. Some studies have shown that stimulating the skin with lasers can help regrow hair, but the equipment is often large, consumes lots of energy and is difficult to use in daily life. Now, researchers have developed a flexible, wearable photostimulator that speeds u

29min

 

Older adults fitted with cochlear implants exhibit poor brain function

Older adults fitted with a cochlear implant to compensate for severe hearing loss have significantly poorer cognitive function than their normal-hearing counterparts. Hearing loss is a risk factor for cognitive decline, so this new finding suggests cochlear implants cannot fully compensate for this deterioration in brain function. Rehabilitation treatment should be tailored to the cognitive profil

29min

 

Future impacts of El Niño, La Niña likely to intensify

When an El Niño or its opposite, La Niña, forms in the future, it's likely to cause more intense impacts over many land regions — amplifying changes to temperature, precipitation and wildfire risk.

29min

 

Sensors that are literally 'music to one's ears'

Researchers have found a new use for a 3,000-year-old African musical instrument: detecting toxic substances and counterfeit medications. The sensor, based on the mbira (pronounced "em-bir'-uh") is inexpensive and easy to operate, allowing its use in developing regions, the researchers say. They report their results in ACS Omega.

35min

 

Let's teach students why math matters in the real world

"When will I ever use this?" It's a question math and science teachers hear all the time from their high school students.

41min

 

In drought and heavy rains, ecosystems function like information communication networks

How is a telecommunications network like an ecosystem? Tree canopies and the running streams below, or coral reefs and the ocean waters that flow around them, are interconnected components of a larger whole: an ecosystem. These ecosystem parts are in communication with one another, scientists have learned, via signals transmitted among earth, air and water.

44min

 

Sensors that are literally 'music to one's ears' (video)

Researchers have found a new use for a 3,000-year-old African musical instrument: detecting toxic substances and counterfeit medications. The sensor, based on the mbira (pronounced 'em-bir'-uh') is inexpensive and easy to operate, allowing its use in developing regions, the researchers say.They report their results in ACS Omega.

44min

 

New Yorkers who use drugs report changing behaviors to avoid overdose

People who use drugs in New York City have adjusted their behaviors to avoid overdose, finds a study by the Center for Drug Use and HIV/HCV Research at NYU.

44min

 

Mathematicians propose first continuous self-organised criticality model

An international group of researchers (the first author is Nikita Kalinin, Higher School of Economics – Saint-Petersburg, the last author is Ernesto Lupercio, CINVESTAV, Mexico) has presented the first continuous model describing self-organised criticality. The proposed solution is simpler and more universal than the classical sandpile model: it integrates areas as remote from one another as econo

44min

 

Detecting hydrogen using the extraordinary hall effect in cobalt-palladium thin films

Scientists looking to hydrogen as a next-generation clean energy source are developing hydrogen-sensing technologies, the most common of which uses palladium-based thin films because palladium readily absorbs hydrogen gas. However, it also readily absorbs other gases, decreasing the overall efficiency of these sensors. Researchers conducted a systematic study of hydrogen detection using the Extrao

44min

 

How can we do the most good for the world? | Will MacAskill

Of all the problems facing humanity, which should we focus on solving first? In a compelling talk about how to make the world better, moral philosopher Will MacAskill provides a framework for answering this question based on the philosophy of "effective altruism" — and shares ideas for taking on three pressing global issues.

45min

 

Future El Niño events could spark high wildfire risk

As temperatures rise, wildfires may get worse in areas that already experience them and become more prevalent in areas where they’re not yet a big risk, a new study warns. At roughly 415,000 acres, Northern California’s Mendocino Complex Fire is now the state’s largest recorded wildfire, surpassing the record held by Santa Barbara and Ventura counties’ Thomas Fire, which occurred less than a year

46min

 

Game theory can prevent disease outbreaks

When multiple passengers on a flight from Dubai to New York recently were taken ill with flu-like symptoms, the plane was understandably quarantined. It's not too hard to imagine how international travel could quickly help spread a new disease around the world. But surprisingly, grounding planes in such a situation might not always be the best strategy, and not just because of the economic impact.

47min

 

Mastercard unveils digital trade platform for small business

Mastercard is rolling out a digital trade platform designed to make it easier for small- and medium-sized companies to do business around the world.

53min

 

Detecting hydrogen using the Extraordinary Hall Effect in cobalt-palladium thin films

Researchers looking to hydrogen as a next-generation clean energy source are developing hydrogen-sensing technologies capable of detecting leaks in hydrogen-powered vehicles and fueling stations before the gas turns into an explosion. The most common type of hydrogen sensors is composed of palladium-based thin films because palladium (Pd), a silvery-white metal resembling platinum, readily absorbs

53min

 

Undersea eruption detected at Japan's Iwo Jima

Japan's Meteorological Agency says aerial photos have detected signs of undersea volcanic eruptions at Iwo Jima, the site of one of the bloodiest battles in World War II.

53min

 

The Booming Economy Isn't Really Helping Trump With Voters

Donald Trump’s presidency has broken just about every conventional rule of American politics, but this one’s a doozy: Almost every other first-term president who’s had an economy this strong has also had an approval rating above 50 percent. Trump’s? It’s at about 38 percent, according to an average of three polls released this week by CNN, Quinnipiac University, and NPR/Marist. Despite a healthy

58min

 

How Trump Can Strike Back at the Deep State

Who exactly is in charge in the Trump White House? That the question is being raised at all is reportedly very vexing to President Trump, and understandably so. If it really is true that an internal “resistance” within his administration is undermining his authority, as many have convincingly claimed, he has every right to be concerned, as do all of us. The executive branch is as powerful as it i

58min

 

The Moral Catastrophe at Michigan State

As a sports doctor for Michigan State University and USA Gymnastics, Larry Nassar assaulted more than 150 young women. Much of this abuse, which spanned more than two decades, occurred in an examination room on MSU’s campus, in a building full of MSU staff. Long before the allegations against Nassar went public, multiple victims described their abuse—how Nassar touched their genitalia during phys

58min

 

The spark that created life

Evolution by Darwinian natural selection is immensely powerful—both in nature and within laboratories. Using 'laboratory evolution', we can take an enzyme which combines random mutations and functional selection, and improve its function by more than 1000 times. You can see evidence of science taking advantage of evolution across the field, from synthesised medications used to prevent the reoccurr

59min

 

Scientists and water treatment plants are working together on green water treatment

Using plants and animals to purify waste water while extracting raw materials: that is the principle of Aquafarm. In early September, after a year and a half of research, a trial setup was launched which should lead to the first biological water purification within four years.

59min

 

Extreme Flooding from Florence Likely, Due to Convergence of Threats

Compound flooding can exacerbate the impacts from storm surge and rain — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

1h

 

Cocaine addiction traced to increase in number of orexin neurons

A study in cocaine-addicted rats reports long-lasting increases in the number of neurons that produce orexin — a chemical messenger important for sleep and appetite — that may be at the root of the addiction. The study, performed by researchers at Rutgers University, New Jersey, was published in Biological Psychiatry. Restoring the number of orexin neurons to normal, or blocking orexin signaling

1h

 

Toward an 'ultra-personalized' therapy for melanoma

With new immunotherapy treatments for melanoma, recovery rates have risen dramatically, in some cases to around 50 percent. But they could be much higher: A new study led by researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science showed, in lab dishes and animal studies, that a highly personalized approach could help the immune cells improve their abilities to recognize the cancer and kill it. The result

1h

 

Researchers uncover previously unstudied cancer enzyme

In a new study published in the scientific journal of repute Nature Communications researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered how an enzyme that plays a key role in cancer development functions. The researchers hope the new knowledge will lead to the design of more precise drugs.

1h

 

Heart attack: Substitute muscle thanks to stem cells

Scientists of University of Würzburg have for the first time succeeded in generating beating cardiac muscle cells from special stem cells. They may provide a new approach for the treatment of heart attacks.

1h

 

A reliable cryptocurrency needs good governance, say researchers

Participants in cryptocurrency networks like Bitcoin need to be better at preempting beneficial software changes. This will ensure the security and privacy of addresses and transactions, and help retain the value of cryptocurrencies, says Benjamin Trump (ORISE Fellow, United States Army Corps of Engineers). He is the lead author of a study in Springer's journal Environment Systems and Decisions, w

1h

 

Images of suffering can bring about change – but are they ethical?

In a series of provocative photographs, poor children in India were made to pose in front of fancy tables covered with fake food. A prize-winning Italian photographer, Alessio Mamo, took these pictures in 2011, as part of a project called "Dreaming Food." After the World Press Photo Foundation shared the photos on Instagram, they sparked a bitter controversy. Many considered them unethical and off

1h

 

How meteorologists predict the next big hurricane

Hurricane Florence is heading toward the U.S. coast, right at the height of hurricane season.

1h

 

New generation of working parents demand a better deal on shared parental leave

Despite widespread belief that men should be as involved as women in all aspects of childcare, they are both still largely playing traditional gender roles when looking after children, according to a new report from Business In The Community (BITC).

1h

 

Keeping honeybees doesn't save bees – or the environment

It's no secret that bee populations are in decline across the UK and Europe. There has also been a fantastic increase in public awareness over the past few years, leading many to set up hives in their gardens and on their roofs. But this might not be as helpful as you may think.

1h

 

Video: Sådan kan hackere stjæle en Tesla på sekunder

En svag kryptering og en adgangsbrik uden knapper gør det overraskende let for hackere at stjæle en Tesla.

1h

 

EU-Parlamentet siger ja til omstridt copyright-direktiv: »Et bittert tilbageslag for det frie internet«

Artikel 11 og artikel 13 i en kontroversielt nyt ophavsrets-direktiv er blevet godkendt i Europaparlamentet.

1h

 

1h

 

New study questions effectiveness of invasive procedures for chronic pain

An extensive review of 25 randomized clinical trials found 'little evidence' that invasive surgery was more effective than sham or placebo procedures in reducing chronic pain. The study was published in the journal Pain Medicine.

1h

 

A prehistoric thirst for craft beer

A new study in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports suggests beer brewing practices existed in the Eastern Mediterranean over five millennia before the earliest known evidence. In an archaeological collaboration project between Stanford University in the United States, and University of Haifa, Israel, archeologists analyzed three stone mortars from a 13,000-year old Natufian burial cave

1h

 

New high-capacity sodium-ion could replace lithium in rechargeable batteries

University of Birmingham scientists are paving the way to swap the lithium in lithium-ion batteries with sodium, according to research published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

1h

 

Hurricane Florence's Slow Speed Is Ominous

There’s something particularly worrying about the forecast for Hurricane Florence—and it’s not only that the storm will likely make landfall later this week as a life-threatening major hurricane. Over the next two days, the winds that guide the movement of storms across Earth’s surface—winds that meteorologists call “steering currents”—will push Florence over a patch of extremely warm ocean and s

1h

 

Science fiction was around in medieval times – here's what it looked like

Science fiction may seem resolutely modern, but the genre could actually be considered hundreds of years old. There are the alien green "children of Woolpit", who appeared in 12th-century Suffolk and were reported to have spoken a language no one could understand. There's also the story of Eilmer the 11th-century monk, who constructed a pair of wings and flew from the top of Malmesbury Abbey. And

1h

 

Are ride-hailing platforms keeping their drivers honest?

The rise of digital ride-hailing company Uber and its clashes with traditional taxi services is often cited as one of the classic stories of digital disruption, but is the platform also helping keep passengers from getting ripped off?

1h

 

High-throughput computer model predicts diffusion data for the transport of light elements within solids

The diffusion of light elements into metals has been efficiently modeled by A*STAR researchers using a machine learning approach.

1h

 

How naming poison frogs helps fight their illegal trade

Dart frogs from the rainforests of Central and South America make their powerful poison by eating toxic bugs. Their bold colours warn predators: "Do not eat me or you will regret it."

1h

 

Google searches reveal where people are most concerned about climate change

What do you do if you have a question? You probably Google it.

1h

 

Physicists shed light on the properties of plasmons in nanostructured graphene

A group of scientists from Russia and Austria has demonstrated that the interaction between plasmon oscillations in nanostructured graphene causes a significant shift in the far IR light absorption spectrum. Plasmons, collective excitations of electrons in solids, were demonstrated to change their properties under the influence of the electric field in low-dimensional materials, such as graphene,

1h

 

Fem mio. kr. til efteruddannelse af Hovedstadens speciallæger er en begyndelse

Region Hovedstadens investering på fem mio. kr. i speciallægers efteruddannelse er langt fra nok, mener formanden for Lægeforeningen Hovedstaden. Men det er en begyndelse.

1h

 

Børne- og ungdomspsykiatere må stoppe behandling, før patienterne er raske

Næsten hver tredje speciallæge i børne- og ungdomspsykiatrien er så pressede, at de mindst en gang om ugen, afslutter en ambulant behandling, uden at patienten er færdigbehandlet.

1h

 

Researchers use nanoparticles to make photodetectors better able to handle the ultraviolet radiation

Particle physicists are on the hunt for light. Not just any light, but a characteristic signal produced by the interaction of certain particles—like ghostly neutrinos, which are neutral fundamental particles with very low mass—with a detector that contains an atomic sea of liquefied noble gases.

1h

 

What would it mean to decolonise palaeontology? Here are some ideas

The call by students to "decolonise science" still rings in many South African academics' ears. But discussions about what t might entail, or even if it's necessary, are fraught.

1h

 

What the world needs now to fight climate change: More swamps

"Drain the swamp" has long meant getting rid of something distasteful. Actually, the world needs more swamps – and bogs, fens, marshes and other types of wetlands.

1h

 

Researchers show bacteriophages can affect melioidosis disease acquisition

An international research team from the University of Leicester, Lomonosov Moscow State University(MSU), and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology(MIPT) from Russia has developed a mathematical model for monitoring and controlling the spread of melioidosis in Southeast Asia.

1h

 

New high-capacity sodium-ion could replace lithium in rechargeable batteries

University of Birmingham scientists are paving the way to swap the lithium in lithium-ion batteries with sodium, according to research published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

1h

 

Researchers show bacteriophages can affect melioidosis disease acquisition

International team develops mathematical model for monitoring and controlling the spread of melioidosis in Southeast Asia.

1h

 

The spark that created life

Evolution by natural selection is immensely powerful — both in nature and within laboratories. Researchers have identified 'Structural Capacitance Elements' within proteins, which retain the potential to evolve into micro-structures following the introduction of a mutation. These mutated proteins are associated with many different types of human diseases, such as cancer. Understanding if and how

1h

 

A reliable cryptocurrency needs good governance, say researchers

Participants in cryptocurrency networks like Bitcoin need to be better at preempting beneficial software changes. This will ensure the security and privacy of addresses and transactions, and help retain the value of cryptocurrencies, says Benjamin Trump (ORISE Fellow, United States Army Corps of Engineers). He is the lead author of a study in Springer's journal Environment Systems and Decisions, w

1h

 

Serotonin-Noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors may cause dependence and withdrawal when stopped

The difficulties that people have in discontinuing antidepressant medications has been in the news recently. An analysis published in the current issue of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic on the effects of discontinuing commonly used antidepressant drugs like venlafaxine and duloxetine indicates that these drugs may cause dependence and withdrawal syndromes when they are stopped.

1h

 

Experts reveal 'football vision' as important as ball skills

Learning to read the game is as important to young footballers as kicking a ball. A new study, which highlighted Frank Lampard and Steven Gerrard as stars who incorporated the technique into their gameplay, calls on coaches to spend more time training young players to scan the field and less on ball skills.

1h

 

Bacteriophages can affect melioidosis disease acquisition

Researchers show bacteriophages can affect dangerous disease acquisition.

1h

 

Healthcare cuts 'strongly linked' to the resurgence of measles

Studies show that primary reason for the measles outbreak, affecting several European countries, is the decline in vaccination coverage, for which mainly the 'spread of anti-scientific theories' can be blamed. However, a new study in the European Journal of Public Health shows that cuts in public health expenditure also play an important role, with measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccination coverag

1h

 

New ultrasonic wave phenomenon leads to improved safety for society

A research group led by Assistant Professor Yosuke Ishii at Toyohashi University of Technology has unraveled the phenomenon of a new 'third ultrasonic wave' being generated when two ultrasonic waves intersect within a plate. This wave exhibits varying intensity in response to material damage and can therefore be used for nondestructively testing thin plate structures. This new technology surpasses

1h

 

New tool developed at UBC screens online health ads for deception

Experts at the University of British Columbia have devised a simple screening tool to evaluate if the products popping up on your newsfeed are likely to be scams.

1h

 

Bismuth shows novel conducting properties

On the cover of volume 14 of Nature Physics, a team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, have discovered a new class of materials: higher-order topological insulators. Theoretical physicists first predicted the existence of these insulators with conducting properties on the edges of crystals rather than on their surface and t

1h

 

F.D.A. Cracks Down on Juul and E-Cigarette RetailersJuul FDA eBay Chinese

The agency gave top makers of popular vaping devices 60 days to come up with a plan to keep their flavored products away from teenagers or face removal from the market.

1h

 

Russia denies suspecting US astronauts of drilling hole on space station

Russia on Wednesday reacted angrily to a report that it suspects US astronauts of deliberately drilling a hole on the International Space Station, one of the few remaining areas of cooperation between the countries.

1h

 

Reasons behind Ryanair strikes

Ryanair has suffered unprecedented disruption over the past year, with thousands of flights cancelled due to strikes in several countries, including one in Germany on Wednesday, as the airline is mired in a damaging dispute with its pilots and cabin crew.

1h

 

Novel materials: Probing individual edge states with unprecedented precision

A new technique makes it possible to obtain an individual fingerprint of the current-carrying edge states occurring in novel materials such as topological insulators or 2D materials.

1h

 

Everything Is Worse, Except Your Phone

There is an Apple keynote today. The live broadcast will begin at 10 a.m. from the Steve Jobs Theater, inside the circular glass spaceship in Cupertino, California. Casually, shirts untucked , the most profitable company in the country will show off the most profitable products in the world. The keynote will be like the many before. That future occurs on a blank background, clean black nothingnes

1h

 

Whacking the mole: how Australia scrambles to regulate Chinese technology

Did you ever go to your local show as a child? Remember that infuriating game where to win you had to hit every mole which popped its head out of a hole? I imagine Australia's government feels like it's playing whack-a-mole in regulating Chinese information and communications technology right now.

1h

 

Study lays foundations for future medicine design

A study by the Computational Biochemistry Research Group of the Universitat Jaume I (UJI) of Castellón, Spain, shows that enzyme activity depends on electrostatic properties, as opposed to mechanical ones. The scientists believe this result opens up new possibilities for the use of the enzymes in fields such as biomedicine for designing new medicines, or in biotechnology for producing environmenta

1h

 

California aims to become carbon-free by 2045—Is that feasible?

California Governor Jerry Brown has signed a new law mandating that the electricity the state consumes not cause carbon emissions by 2045.

1h

 

Bismuth shows novel conducting properties

A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. Theoretical physicists first predicted the existence of these insulators, which have conducting properties on the edges of crystals rather than on their surfaces, and conduct electricity without dissipatio

1h

 

Differing opinions among practicing Muslims in Middle East on role religion should play in government

Once a lively debate, scholars more recently have largely discarded the view that Islam and democracy are incompatible, and a new study that includes a University of Kansas researcher reveals there are important differences among practicing Muslims in the Middle East regarding the role religion should play.

1h

 

Physicists revealed spontaneous T-symmetry breaking and exceptional points in cavity QED

Spontaneous symmetry breaking has revolutionized the understanding in numerous fields of modern physics. Recently, a research group at Peking University, collaborated with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) and Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg (Germany) has demonstrated the spontaneous T-symmetry breaking in cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. A singularity in the spectrum, the

2h

 

New technology transforming vaccine development through faster viral detection

Could we finally have a faster, more objective analytical tool to rapidly measure viral infectivity for vaccine development and production? Scientists and bioengineers at Thermo Fisher Scientific and LumaCyte believe we do. This peer reviewed work will be published on Sept. 12 in the prestigious journal, Vaccine, by Elsevier, detailing how LumaCyte's RadianceTM instrument, based on Laser Force Cyt

2h

 

Mini video cameras offer peek at hard-to-observe bird behavior

Fledging behavior — when and why baby birds leave the nest — is something scientists know very little about. Rarely is someone watching a nest at just the right moment to see fledging happen. To get around this, the researchers behind a new study deployed miniature video cameras to monitor over 200 grassland bird nests in Alberta, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, and they found that fledg

2h

 

Business genius can be taught, study says

How did Steve Jobs do it? What about Whole Foods Market and Starbucks? These kinds of 'breakout' success stories show what is possible when business leaders imagine into the future rather than re-enacting the past — a strategy that a new study says is crucial for business success in a rapidly changing world.

2h

 

Rural and urban communities need different policies to boost economic mobility

The farther away from a city a person is raised, the more likely they are to climb the economic ladder, according to economists, who also found that community characteristics associated with upward mobility actually have different effects in rural and urban locations.

2h

 

Fejl på fejl i regionernes historie

Bent Hansen angiver, at regionerne har løst sundhedsopgaverne effektivt siden 2007. Det er desværre de forkerte opgaver.

2h

 

How infectious bacteria hibernate through treatment

Disease-causing bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics which are then no longer effective in treating infection, yet they also have another tactic to avoid being killed off by antibiotic treatment. Some cells of the population quietly hide in a dormant state and wait for the danger to subside. Then they return to full function. For example, some urinary tract infections flare up again even

2h

 

New accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar discovered

Using NuSTAR spacecraft and NICER instrument, an international team of astronomers has found a new accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar. The newly discovered object, designated IGR J17591−2342, is the newest addition to a still short list of known accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars. The finding is reported in a paper published August 30 on the arXiv pre-print server.

2h

 

Transforming gender relations the key to flourishing in older age, researchers say

Experts from the University of Warwick have contributed to new thinking on tackling inequalities associated with older age in lower and middle income countries.

2h

 

UK could be carbon neutral by 2050 says ambitious new report

Greenhouse gas removal (GGR) could make the UK carbon neutral by 2050, but immediate action is required says a new joint report by the Royal Academy of Engineering and Royal Society.

2h

 

Positiv udvikling bremset: 35.000 danskere kommer stadig til skade i trafikken

Siden 2002 er færre og færre kommet til skade i trafikken, men nu er udviklingen stagneret: Tallet har ligget stabilt på 35.000 personskader årligt siden 2014.

2h

 

Here are the 7 new classifications of religious styles in America. Where do you fit?

The Pew Research Center has classified Americans into seven distinct religious types. Read More

2h

 

Discovery of new neurons in the inner ear can lead to new therapies for hearing disorders

Researchers have identified four types of neurons in the peripheral auditory system, three of which are new to science. The analysis of these cells can lead to new therapies for various kinds of hearing disorders, such as tinnitus and age-related hearing loss.

2h

 

Deep-sea mud outlines the Sonoran Desert’s monsoon history

Newly discovered clues about the Sonoran Desert’s monsoon activity during the last ice age may help predict its future. On the bottom of the deep sea, just a few miles from the white sandy beaches lining the Gulf of California in northern Mexico, researchers have discovered the geological equivalent of an unopened book containing untapped records about Earth’s history. Analyzing traces of leaf wa

2h

 

Mini video cameras offer peek at hard-to-observe bird behavior

Fledging behavior—when and why baby birds leave the nest—is something scientists know very little about. Rarely is someone watching a nest at just the right moment to see fledging happen. To get around this, the researchers behind a new study from The Auk: Ornithological Advances deployed miniature video cameras to monitor over 200 grassland bird nests in Alberta, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisc

2h

 

Melinda Gates' New Research Reveals Alarming Diversity Numbers

Tech companies may espouse diversity, but less than 0.1 percent of their grants focus on women of color. The Reboot Recognition Tech Coalition aims to change that.

2h

 

Yes, You Can Boil Water at Room Temperature. Here's How

Everything you ever wanted to know about boiling water, vapor pressure, and cooking at altitude.

2h

 

In a Sea of Dark Comedies, 'Barry' Pulled Off an Incredible Balancing Act

A morose and deadly serious stripe of comedy, HBO's series asks: Can a person actually remake himself?

2h

 

Mitochondria come together to kill cancer cells

Uncovered details of a molecular pathway in cancer cells could lead to improved treatment.

2h

 

New tool to detect fatty liver disease before liver damage

A new test may soon be available to predict advanced fibrosis in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).NAFLD is the leading cause of chronic liver disease, affecting approximately one in four people, including children, worldwide.

2h

 

Research Brief: Immediately limiting nicotine in all cigarettes could reduce smoking

A new study conducted by the University of Minnesota and eight additional institutions recently published in the JAMA addresses whether a gradual reduction or a targeted immediate reduction in nicotine in cigarettes is the best approach.

2h

 

1 percent of children aged 9-10 self-identify as gay, transgender

As the majority of studies indicate that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) self-identification generally occurs during the mid-adolescent years, the study provides unprecedented insight into early identity development.

2h

 

Study finds air purifiers may benefit fetal growth

A new study led by SFU health sciences researchers Prabjit Barn and Ryan Allen reveals fetal growth may improve if pregnant women use portable air purifiers inside their homes.

2h

 

A trick of the light

Argonne researchers are using nanoparticles to make photodetectors better able to handle the ultraviolet radiation produced in high-energy physics experiments.

2h

 

A plan to advance AI by exploring the minds of children

Cognitive science and neuroscience could inspire the next big innovations in artificial intelligence, says the head of an ambitious new MIT-led research project.

2h

 

"You Can Never Tell" / "Over the Mountain, Across the Sea" | Elise LeGrow

Singer-songwriter Elise LeGrow pays homage to early soul and rock innovators with intimate, stripped-down interpretations of their hits. Listen as she and her band perform two of these soulful renditions: Chuck Berry's "You Never Can Tell" and "Over the Mountain, Across the Sea," first popularized by Johnnie and Joe.

2h

 

Shedding light on 100-year-old cancer mystery

Using genetic and pharmacological means, scientists were surprised to find that blocking LDHA had only a limited impact on melanoma cells, since they were able to redirect energy production. Their results identify an alternative growth pathway driven by a molecule called ATF4, revealing new potential targets for drug development.

2h

 

ADHD may increase risk of Parkinson's disease and similar disorders

Researchers have found that ADHD patients had an increased risk of developing Parkinson's and Parkinson-like diseases than individuals with no ADHD history.

2h

 

High blood sugar during pregnancy ups risk of mother's type 2 diabetes, child's obesity

Mothers with elevated blood glucose during pregnancy — even if not high enough to meet the traditional definition of gestational diabetes — were significantly more likely to have developed type 2 diabetes a decade after pregnancy than their counterparts without high blood glucose.

2h

 

Sarcolipin tricks muscle cells into using more energy, burning fat

Ever wonder why you burn fat and heat up when you exercise or shiver? Now, researchers have shown that sarcolipin, a small peptide only found in muscles, increases muscle energy expenditure and fat oxidization.

2h

 

Carbon nanodots do an ultrafine job with in vitro lung tissue

Epidemiological studies have established a strong correlation between inhaling ultrafine particles from incomplete combustion and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Still, relatively little is known about the mechanisms behind how air particulates affect human health. New work seeks to provide the first model of how ultrafine carbon-based particles interact with the lung tissues. Researchers

2h

 

Could water utilities transform the way the electric sector did?

Water utilities nationwide are grappling with aging infrastructure, environmental degradation and climate change.

2h

 

Leidenfrost effect drops found to be self-propelled

A team of researchers at Physique et Mécanique des Milieux Hétérogènes in France has found that Leidenfrost effect drops move around on a hot pan because they are self-propelled. In their paper published in the journal Nature Physics, the group describes their study of the drops and what they found.

2h

 

Delayed childbearing is a growing source of multiple births, study shows

Assisted reproductive technologies are not the sole cause of multiple births — naturally occurring multiple births due to women choosing to have children later in life is responsible for a growing percentage of multiples.

2h

 

Praktiserende læger får mere fleksible muligheder for at indlægge patienter

Herlev og Gentofte Hospital åbner for, at praktiserende læger kan henvise patienter subakutte tider inden for syv specialer.

2h

 

Exploring the solar system? You may need to pack an umbrella

Gearing up for its first flight test, NASA's Adaptable Deployable Entry Placement Technology, or ADEPT, is no ordinary umbrella. ADEPT is a foldable device that opens to make a round, rigid heat shield, called an aeroshell. This game-changing technology could squeeze a heat shield into a rocket with a diameter larger than the rocket itself. The design may someday deliver much larger payloads to pl

2h

 

Grasshoppers an unexpectedly important player in salt marsh ecosystem

As efforts are being undertaken to protect salt marshes – and the threatened salt marsh sparrow – from the rising seas, scientists may be ignoring an unexpectedly important player in this environmental drama: grasshoppers.

2h

 

2h

 

Stunning details of spiral galaxy NGC 3981

FORS2, an instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope, has observed the spiral galaxy NGC 3981 in all its glory. The image was captured as part of the ESO Cosmic Gems Programme, which makes use of the rare occasions when observing conditions are not suitable for gathering scientific data.

2h

 

Bilingualism: How we turn on and off languages

A team of researchers has uncovered the distinct computations that occur when we switch between different languages, a finding that provides new insights into the nature of bilingualism.

2h

 

Why it's so hard to reach an international agreement on killer robots

For several years, civil society groups have been calling for a ban on what they call "killer robots". Scores of technologists have lent their voice to the cause. Some two dozen governments now support a ban and several others would like to see some kind of international regulation.

2h

 

Digital government isn't working in the developing world: Here's why

The digital transformation of society has brought many immediate benefits: it's created new jobs and services, boosted efficiency and promoted innovation. But when it comes to improving the way we govern, the story is not that simple.

2h

 

From the Archives: Some Brain Science for #VideoGamesDay

People are hungry for data about video games and the brain. One of our most popular stories, still consistently in the Top 10, is a longreads Cerebrum essay from back in 2009, “Video Games Affect the Brain—for Better and Worse.” Writer Douglas Gentile, Ph.D., concludes: With the exception of educational games, most video games’ effects on brain and behavior are unintentional on the part of both t

2h

 

Researchers create most tangled interlocked molecule ever

A team of researchers at the University of Manchester has created the most tangled interlocked molecule ever. In their paper published in the journal Nature Chemistry, the group describes creating the knot and their hope that such knots will one day become useful. Edward Fenlon with Franklin & Marshall College offers a News and Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue.

2h

 

Prompting people to listen to each other reduces inequality and improves group performance

A small but impactful shift in the way a group assignment is presented can significantly reduce racial inequality within the group, as well as lead to better work, according to new research by Bianca Manago, assistant professor of sociology at Vanderbilt University. Groups, Inequality and Synergy, co-authored with Jane Sell at Texas A&M University and Carla Goar at Kent State University, appears o

2h

 

Readers’ interest piqued by Parker Solar Probe, general relativity and more

Readers had questions about NASA's Parker Solar Probe, Einstein's general relativity theory and underwater cables used as earthquake sensors.

3h

 

To boldly go where no robot explorer has gone before

Editor in Chief Nancy Shute discusses the importance of robotic space missions for scientific research.

3h

 

Mysterious Light Flashes Discovered in Deep Space. But What Created Them?

Astronomers used A.I. to find 72 more fast radio bursts, but they are still puzzled over what the flashes are.

3h

 

Is your microbiome making you sick?

Our gut bacteria can play a role in everything from sleep to IBS and how we deal with stress, and we are finally working out how to use them to improve our health

3h

 

Immunophenotypic Analysis of Human Blood Leukocyte Subsets

Download this application note from ACEA Biosciences, Inc., to find out how to perform an immunophenotypic analysis of a human blood sample utilizing 13 fluorescent markers using a compact benchtop flow cytometer equipped with 3 lasers!

3h

 

New cities may make millions more vulnerable to climate change

A forthcoming study of over a hundred new cities being built around the world suggests developers and planning authorities are doing very little to make their projects resilient to climate change. On the contrary, a boom in new city projects in coastal areas – including some on reclaimed land in the sea – appears to fly in the face of the danger of rising sea levels and more frequent extreme weath

3h

 

Another step closer to tunable liquids

Using electrical fields to modify the properties of liquids in contact with a surface can be used in several applications, such as electrophoresis, where an electric current can separate molecules by size. Researchers at A*STAR have now developed a technique for investigating the effect of electric fields on the properties of oil-based lubricants, that could lead to new applications in nanofluidic

3h

 

Cobalt-based catalysts could fast-track the industrial-scale production of hydrogen from water

A low-cost and simple alternative to expensive platinum-based catalysts that generate hydrogen from water could soon be available, thanks to A*STAR researchers.

3h

 

Forskere afdækker hidtil ubeskrevet cancer-enzym

I et nyt studie i det anerkendte, videnskabelige tidsskrift Nature Communications har forskere fra Københavns…

3h

 

Alan Kimper-Karl stopper som lægelig direktør i Esbjerg

Efter to år som lægelig direktør på Sydvestjysk Sygehus stopper Alan Kimper-Karl for at indtræde som partner i Privathospitalet H. C. Andersen Klinikken i Odense.

3h

 

Aarhusianske læger vil 3D-printe stamceller til nye bryster

SERIE: 3D-print i sundhedssektoren: I Aarhus arbejder forskere på at skabe alternativ til eksempelvis silikone og bygge bortopererede bryster op igen med stamceller. Professor tror på muligheden inden for en kort årrække.

3h

 

The Folk Alchemy of Hiss Golden Messenger

A lmost a decade ago , a failed musician sat down at his kitchen table in Pittsboro, North Carolina, and began singing some new songs into a portable cassette player. M. C. Taylor had spent his youth dabbling in bands, skateboarding, and drugs in Southern California, but had given up on music and moved east to study folklore at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Taylor had to sing s

3h

 

The surprising foods that are messing with your gut

We're finally starting to understand which foods are causing tummy troubles for so many, and the culprits challenge everything we thought we knew about healthy eating

3h

 

EU lawmakers vote for new online copyright rules

European Union lawmakers on Wednesday voted in favor of new copyright rules that could shake up the way internet companies use media, books, music and other content posted online.

3h

 

Social media have 1 hour to remove terror propaganda: EU bill

The European Union on Wednesday proposed steps to force social networks and websites to remove terrorist propaganda within an hour of receiving the order from authorities, or companies like Facebook and Twitter could face massive fines.

3h

 

White House Hobbles Nuclear Weapons Safety Agency

As Trump calls for new bomb production, the administration cuts safety board access to nuclear facilities — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

3h

 

'American Horror Story: Apocalypse' Is Ryan Murphy’s 'Infinity War'—Here's a Primer

Haven't been keeping up on FX's anthology series but want to tune in for the end of the world? Start here.

3h

 

Image of the Day: A Fungus Among Us

A new report from Kew Gardens highlights the fungal diversity of the world.

3h

 

How we found a beautiful new species of snailfish deep beneath the sea

Animals Researchers discovered these ethereal purple specimens four-and-a-half miles down. Four-and-a-half miles beneath our research vessel, which was floating on the surface of the Pacific Ocean, we captured footage of several previously undiscovered species…

3h

 

Let’s watch Apple’s iPhone X event live stream together

Technology Smaller iPhone X? Bigger iPhone X? Cheaper iPhone X? More expensive iPhone X? Let's find out! Pull up a beanbag chair, grab a Snapple (not the lemon teas, those are mine), and let's watch Tim Cook and his Cupertino pals announce some new Apple hardware.

3h

 

A Culture of Standards Matters

Perhaps the most dangerous effect of the alternative medicine movement has been an erosion of the culture of dedication to science and standards within medicine. This has to change.

3h

 

Faulty sunglasses and fake news—how a solar eclipse shut down Serbia

Fake news about the dangers to Serbians from being outside during the 1999 solar eclipse resulted in the government advising the country to stay indoors, according to new research.

3h

 

AI-based research toward autonomous robots and drones

What if a parent could feel safe allowing a drone to walk their child to the bus stop?

3h

 

Legislation on increasing flexible working has failed, research says

Legislation giving employees the right to request flexible working has failed to increase take-up, new research shows.

4h

 

Why False Beliefs Are Hard to Shake

Why do some people seriously think the Earth is flat? Turns out, they aren't good at judging how certain they should be.

4h

 

Juncker scorns Chequers proposals in state of union speech

Key tenet of UK’s Brexit plan dismissed along with proposals for rival to Galileo satellite Jean-Claude Juncker has ruled out the central plank of Theresa May’s Chequers proposals and scorned the British government’s plans to build a rival to the EU’s Galileo satellite project, in a downcast reading of the Brexit negotiations in his annual state of the union speech. The European commission presid

4h

 

Probing individual edge states with unprecedented precision

A new technique makes it possible to obtain an individual fingerprint of the current-carrying edge states occurring in novel materials such as topological insulators or 2-D materials. Physicists of the University of Basel present the new method together with American scientists in Nature Communications.

4h

 

Water in small dust grains can explain large amounts of water on Earth

Water trapped in dust grains from which the Earth formed can explain the current large amount of water on Earth.

4h

 

A galactic gem

FORS2, an instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope, has observed the spiral galaxy NGC 3981 in all its glory. The image was captured as part of the ESO Cosmic Gems Programme, which makes use of the rare occasions when observing conditions are not suitable for gathering scientific data. Instead of sitting idle, the ESO Cosmic Gems Programme allows ESO's telescopes to be used to capture visu

4h

 

Snapshots of the future: Tool learns to predict user's gaze in headcam footage

The miniaturization of video cameras has led to an explosion in their use, including their incorporation into a range of portable devices such as headcams, used in scenarios ranging from sporting events to armed combat. To analyze tasks performed in view of such devices and provide real-time guidance to individuals using them, it would be helpful to characterize where the user is actually focusing

4h

 

Magnetization in small components can now be filmed in the laboratory

Current electronic storage technology may be superseded in the future by devices based on tiny magnetic structures. These individual magnetic regions correspond to bits; they need to be as small as possible and capable of rapid switching. In order to better understand the underlying physics and to optimize the components, various techniques can be used to visualize the magnetization behavior.

4h

 

Driving for Uber When You Can’t Afford a Car

In 2013, Uber was in the midst of an aggressive global expansion when it launched in South Africa. The app requires a critical mass of drivers to function properly, otherwise riders must wait prohibitively long for trips. In Cape Town, a Zimbabwean driver who I will call Mike (he asked that his name not be used because he fears deactivation for criticizing the platform) attended several meetings

4h

 

Can Samantha Bee's Comedy Quiz App Gamify Getting out the Vote?

The comedy host's viewers are loyal, but they're not registered to vote—and now she's hoping to change that for the midterms.

4h

 

Waze Uses Beacons to Untangle Chicago’s Baffling Streets

To guide drivers through a multi-layered labyrinth where GPS doesn't work, Waze hooked up 500 coordinate-beaming beacons.

4h

 

Researchers show how toxins of the bacterium Clostridium difficile get into gut cells

Treating bacterial infections with antibiotics often kills intestinal flora, leading to diarrhoea and inflammation of the gut. Often it is bacteria known as Clostridium difficile which are responsible; they proliferate when the normal microbiome is killed by antibiotics. A working group headed by Professor Dr. Dr. Klaus Aktories of the Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology at the Uni

4h

 

Barriers and opportunities in renewable biofuels production

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have identified two main challenges for renewable biofuel production from cheap sources: First, lowering the cost of developing microbial cell factories, and second, establishing more efficient methods for hydrolysis of biomass to sugars for fermentation. Their study was recently published in the journal Nature Energy.

4h

 

Predictability of the EAP teleconnection pattern can improve climate services over East Asia

A group of scientists from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the UK Met Office Hadley Center, investigated the absence of the East Asia-Pacific pattern in the extratropics using state-of-the-art coupled seasonal forecast systems. Their results indicate that the extratropical circulation is much less predictable, compared to the tropical component, owing to the

4h

 

Virus may combat fire ants, but caution is needed

Native to South America, imported red fire ants were introduced accidentally into the United States in the early 20th century. These ants subsequently invaded other countries, including Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, China, and more recently, Japan and South Korea.

4h

 

Will Hurricane Florence Strengthen into a Rare Category 5 Storm?

Hurricane Florence will be a dangerous storm regardless of wind speed.

4h

 

A galactic gem: FORS2 instrument captures stunning details of spiral galaxy NGC 3981

This wonderful image shows the resplendent spiral galaxy NGC 3981 suspended in the inky blackness of space. This galaxy, which lies in the constellation of Crater (the Cup), was imaged in May 2018 using the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 – FORS2) instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope – VLT).

4h

 

Clock-carrying quadcopters could provide ultra-accurate GPS

A new technique could open up scientific applications and offer a way to restore the GPS system if disaster strikes the satellites.

4h

 

Why lithium-ion may rule batteries for a long time to come

Materials scientist Gerd Ceder is overseeing a research effort to extend the capabilities of the dominant form of energy storage, using a new class of compounds.

4h

 

What Worries People about Future Science and Tech Innovations?

According to new survey data, many fear that humans could lose their autonomy or even their free will — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

4h

 

What Role Should Race Play in Medicine?

Rather than a risk factor, it’s better conceptualized as a risk marker of vulnerability, bias, or systemic disadvantage — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

4h

 

The Closest Exoplanet to Earth Could Be 'Highly Habitable'

A global, liquid-water ocean could exist under range of conditions on Proxima Centauri b, the closest known exoplanet to Earth.

4h

 

How Mammals Maintain Symmetry during Development

Communication with the placenta is key to ensuring body parts grow at the same rate — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

4h

 

Bioinformaticians examine new genes the moment they are born

Accumulating evidence suggests that new genes can arise spontaneously from previously non-coding DNA instead of through the gradual mutation of established genes. Bioinformaticians at the University of Münster (Germany) are now, for the first time, studying the earliest stages in the emergence of these "genes out of thin air," also known as de novo genes.

4h

 

TEST Googles Assistent skuffer: Ikke et hak bedre end Apples Siri

​​​​​​​Hvis man troede, at Googles digitale assistent ville give Apples digitale assistent baghjul, bliver man skuffet. På flere områder halter den faktisk bagefter.

4h

 

The Martians have landed in London, and they’re hogging the camera

Artist Jenna Sutela has used Mars-friendly bacteria grow an alien culture, rich in music and poetry – but is it any good?

4h

 

You should soothe babies who wake at night – it speeds sleep training

Parents may be told to let babies “cry it out” if they wake at night – but comforting very young infants who wake helps them develop a better night-time routine

4h

 

Shedding light on 100-year-old cancer mystery

Using genetic and pharmacological means, scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) were surprised to find that blocking LDHA had only a limited impact on melanoma cells, since they were able to redirect energy production. Their results identify an alternative growth pathway driven by a molecule called ATF4, revealing new potential targets for drug development. The stud

5h

 

Norsk ekspeditionsskib leder efter forsvundet argentinsk ubåd

Først på året ledte Ocean Infinity efter det forsvundne Malaysian Airlines-fly MH370. Nu er det samme norskleasede skib stævnet ud for at finde ubåden, der forsvandt sidste efterår.

5h

 

Offentlige myndigheder skal i højere grad indsamle borgerdata

En øget indsamling af borgeres data fra offentligtlige myndigheder skal forbedre brugeroplevelsen, lyder det fra Digitaliseringsstyrelsen.

5h

 

In Sweden, Populist Nationalists Won on Policy, but Lost on Politics

Never mind the headlines: Sunday’s election in Sweden was a major setback for the far right. The populist-nationalist Sweden Democrats may have seen their percentage of the vote increase from 13 percent in 2014 to just shy of 18 percent this year, but they and many experts anticipated a much higher share; some even predicted that they would become the largest party in the country. Such an outcome

5h

 

Phishing Is the Internet’s Most Successful Con

In the classic 1973 heist movie The Sting , two con men—played by Robert Redford and Paul Newman—build a fictitious world in a Depression-era Chicago basement to defraud a corrupt banker. They make an offtrack-betting room, hire actors to ensure the scene is convincing, and even enlist pretend law enforcement to fake-bust their mark. The film is memorable because it is one of the finest movies in

5h

 

The Chekhov Sentence That Contains Almost All of Life

Doug McLean Most stories about relationships in literature, TV, and film end one of two ways: The couple breaks up, or else they live happily ever after. But in a conversation for this series, Gary Shteyngart, the author of Lake Success , discussed a third possibility. He described how Anton Chekhov’s “The Lady With the Dog” ends not with a breakup or a wedding, but with a cliff-hanger, a brillia

5h

 

Against the Ideal of a ‘Melting Pot’

Though the United States would not enter World War I for another year, by 1916 the ethnic animosities tearing Europe apart could be felt keenly within American communities. Immigration rates had soared in the preceding decades—in 1910, nearly 15 percent of the population had been born outside of the United States. The growing number of new arrivals was regarded with resentment and suspicion from

5h

 

Hurricane, Typhoon or Cyclone? Same Storm, Different Name

Tropical cyclones occur all over the world, but what they’re called depends on where they form.

5h

 

Ekstremorkan rammer USA: Ekstrem vind og 1 meter regn over industri og atomkraft

Der er varslet 1,1 meter nedbør under orkanen Florence, der kan blive den kraftigste siden 1950'erne.

5h

 

America’s Courts Can’t Ignore the World

Editor’s Note: This article is part of a series that attempts to answer the question: Is democracy dying? These stories appear in the October 2018 print edition. It is often said that the world is becoming more international in nature. What does this mean for those of us who live in such a world? When I hear words such as globalization , interdependence , and multinational , I sometimes feel like

5h

 

America Is Living James Madison’s Nightmare

Editor’s Note: This article is part of a series that attempts to answer the question: Is democracy dying? These stories appear in the October 2018 print edition. James Madison traveled to Philadelphia in 1787 with Athens on his mind. He had spent the year before the Constitutional Convention reading two trunkfuls of books on the history of failed democracies, sent to him from Paris by Thomas Jeff

5h

 

A Warning From Europe: The Worst Is Yet to Come

Editor’s Note: This article is part of a series that attempts to answer the question: Is democracy dying? These stories appear in the October 2018 print edition. On December 31, 1999, we threw a party. It was the end of one millennium and the start of a new one; people very much wanted to celebrate, preferably somewhere exotic. Our party fulfilled that criterion. We held it at Chobielin, the mano

5h

 

The American Crisis

T he National Constitution Center , in Philadelphia, is a monument to the benefits of pessimism. The center, which is situated across an open expanse from Independence Hall, is a superior educational institution, but, understood correctly, it is also a warning about the fragility of the American experiment. The 42 Founding Fathers who are celebrated there, life-size and in bronze—the 39 who signe

5h

 

Many 'Recovery Houses' Won't Let Residents Use Medicine To Quit Opioids

Evidence shows the drugs methadone and buprenorphine can help people recover from opioid use disorder by reducing withdrawal symptoms and cravings. So why do many sobriety facilities ban their use? (Image credit: Kimberly Paynter/WHYY)

6h

 

Probing individual edge states with unprecedented precision

A new technique makes it possible to obtain an individual fingerprint of the current-carrying edge states occurring in novel materials such as topological insulators or 2D materials. Physicists of the University of Basel present the new method together with American scientists in Nature Communications.

6h

 

Researchers explain how viral protein promotes deadly infection by Nipah and Hendra viruses

Researchers have identified how a viral protein, which plays a major role in causing deadly Nipah and Hendra virus infections, targets a critical function in human cells to suppress immune responses and promote fatal disease.

6h

 

Europe's renewable energy directive poised to harm global forests

Europe's decision to promote the use of wood as a 'renewable fuel' will likely greatly increase Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and cause severe harm to the world's forests, according to a new paper published in Nature Communications.

6h

 

New sensors track dopamine in the brain for more than year

MIT neuroscientists devised a way to measure dopamine in the brain for up to a year, which they believe will teach them much more about its role in key brain functions and in disorders such as depression and Parkinson's disease.

6h

 

Discovery of new neurons in the inner ear can lead to new therapies for hearing disorders

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have identified four types of neurons in the peripheral auditory system, three of which are new to science. The analysis of these cells can lead to new therapies for various kinds of hearing disorders, such as tinnitus and age-related hearing loss. The study is published in Nature Communications.

6h

 

To flee or not to flee: how the brain decides what to do in the face of danger

Fight, flee, or freeze; when faced with a threat, everyone, from mice to humans, are certain to choose one of these three strategies. Though critical for survival, we are still at a loss as to how the brain chooses which strategy to apply in any given instance. In this new study, a team of scientists not only identified variables that lead the brain to apply a specific strategy, but also uncovered

6h

 

ADHD may increase risk of Parkinson's disease and similar disorders

Researchers at University of Utah Health found that ADHD patients had an increased risk of developing Parkinson's and Parkinson-like diseases than individuals with no ADHD history.

6h

 

Den pruttende proton og krypteringsskurken

To forfattere vil gøre atomfysik tilgængelig for småbørn og forklare kvantekryptologi for de voksne.

6h

 

More Older Americans Are Turning To Marijuana

As marijuana gains popularity among people 65 and older, geriatricians call for more research on how it affects elderly patients. Shifts in metabolism as we age can intensify any drug's side effects. (Image credit: Manonallard/Getty Images)

6h

 

Europe's renewable energy directive poised to harm global forests

Europe's decision to promote the use of wood as a "renewable fuel" will likely greatly increase Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and cause severe harm to the world's forests, according to a new paper published in Nature Communications.

6h

 

The Return to Great-Power Rivalry Was Inevitable

The idea that America should uphold the “liberal international order” is taken as something of an article of faith in foreign-policy circles. I’m no exception. As a scholar at Brookings, I have written at least a dozen articles arguing that the health of the liberal order—generally defined as the alliances, institutions, and rules the United States created and upheld after World War II—must be a

6h

 

US to miss Paris climate pact target by a third

The United States will fall short by a third on its commitment under the Paris climate treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, according to a report released Wednesday in San Francisco.

7h

 

Royal Botanic Garden seeks respect for world's fungus

The scientists at the renowned Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew are trying to correct an injustice: They don't believe fungus gets the respect it deserves.

7h

 

Ny metode giver udsigt til færre bivirkninger ved kræftmedicin

En landvinding inden for proteinforskning gør det muligt i højere grad at skræddersy…

7h

 

Pygmies, masters of the forest, tackle tough lifestyle changes

Just back from the hunt with a choice selection of plants, Ebona feels at home in the endless forest where many Gabonese fear to tread.

8h

 

Operation Tsukiji: Tokyo battles rats as iconic market shuts

The operation must be ruthless, thorough and silent. Without alerting the watchful enemy, a unit of highly trained Japanese agents will throw up a ring of steel to block any escape from the vast battleground.

8h

 

US to take longer to mull Sprint merger with T-Mobile

The US Federal Communications Commission on Tuesday told Sprint and T-Mobile it will take more time than first expected to review a proposed merger of the telecommunications firms.

8h

 

Vote on EU online copyright reform splits usual alliesEU European Parliament

The European Parliament votes Wednesday on a highly complex online copyright law that has split natural political bedfellows and pitted music and news companies against Google and Facebook.

8h

 

How to Watch Apple’s 2018 Event Live Stream

Fire up Safari or your Apple TV and get ready for Wednesday's big unveiling.

8h

 

Apple Event Liveblog: iPhone, Apple Watch, iOS 12, and More

Follow Apple's September 12, 2018 iPhone event in Cupertino with our live news updates.

8h

 

German strike plunges Ryanair into fresh turmoil

German pilots and cabin crew for budget Irish carrier Ryanair walked off the job Wednesday, disrupting travel for thousands of passengers in the latest flare-up of a bitter Europe-wide battle for better pay and conditions.

8h

 

Champagne in space: Zero-G bottle lets tourists drink bubbly

Future space tourists may be able to toast the view from orbit with fine champagne, after designers came up with a high-tech bottle made for knocking back bubbly in zero gravity.

8h

 

Panel endorses bills for online sales tax special session

South Dakota would start collecting sales taxes from many out-of-state internet retailers this fall under a bill the Legislature's budget-writing committee endorsed Tuesday ahead of this week's special legislative session to implement a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that cleared the way for the changes.

8h

 

Moon rock hunter searching for states' final missing stones

A strange thing happened after Neil Armstrong and the Apollo 11 crew returned from the moon with lunar rocks: Many of the mementos given to every U.S. state vanished. Now, after years of sleuthing, a former NASA investigator is closing in on his goal of locating the whereabouts of all 50.

8h

 

Voting for the losing side can affect your performance at work

Companies should avoid scheduling important work tasks immediately following an election, according to a study from the University of Waterloo.

8h

 

Astronomers witness birth of new star from stellar explosion

The explosions of stars, known as supernovae, can be so bright they outshine their host galaxies. They take months or years to fade away, and sometimes, the gaseous remains of the explosion slam into hydrogen-rich gas and temporarily get bright again—but could they remain luminous without any outside interference?

8h

 

Anbefaling: ‘Personal data store’ er vejen frem til trygge borgerdata

Borgerne skal rustes til at leve i verden med konstant påvirkning af AI. En personlig databank kan være en del af løsningen.

9h

 

Kunstig intelligens for fuld udblæsning: Sådan fungerer en digital assistent

Med Google Assistent er der nu to muligheder for at stemmestyre sine enheder på dansk.

11h

 

Voting for the losing side can affect your performance at work

Companies should avoid scheduling important work tasks immediately following an election, according to a study from the University of Waterloo.

11h

 

Astronomers witness birth of new star from stellar explosion

Astronomers have observed a new phenomena in the aftermath of a stellar explosion.

11h

 

AACR releases annual Cancer Progress Report

The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) releases its annual Cancer Progress Report highlighting how federally funded research discoveries are fueling the development of new and even more effective ways to prevent, detect, diagnose, and treat cancer.

11h

 

Caffeine consumption may extend life expectancy for people with kidney disease

A new study in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation indicates that consuming more caffeine may help reduce the risk of death for people with chronic kidney disease.

11h

 

End of Colombia conflict may bring new threats to ecosystems

The end of a 52-year internal conflict could spell trouble for the second most biodiverse country in the world. A new study outlines a sustainable path forward.

11h

 

It’s Not Just You: 2017 Was Rough for Humanity, Study Finds

Humanity had its darkest year in at least a decade, according to a Gallup survey of the emotional lives of more than 154,000 people around the world.

11h

 

End of Colombia conflict may bring new threats to ecosystems

More than 50 years of internal conflict in Colombia have left behind roughly 8 million victims, including 220,000 dead. Now the country is in the midst of a tenuous ceasefire, thanks to a November 2016 peace treaty between the Colombian government and the largest group of rebels, formerly known as Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC). The second largest group of guerrillas, the Ejérc

11h

 

'Cloud computing' takes on new meaning for scientists

Clouds may be wispy puffs of water vapor drifting through the sky, but they're heavy lifting computationally for scientists wanting to factor them into climate simulations. Researchers have turned to data science to achieve better cumulus calculating results.

14h

 

New method of pinpointing cancer mutations could lead to more targeted treatments

A team of researchers has developed a new framework that can combine three existing methods of finding large mutations in cancer cells — called structural variants — into a single, more complete picture of cancer.

14h

 

'Evil' proteins a force for good in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

Researchers have clarified questions surrounding estrogen's role in breast cancer, which could lead to more precise treatments for ER-positive breast cancers.

14h

 

Total of 21 new parasitoid wasps following the first ever revision of their genus

As many as 21 species of parasitoid wasps are described as new to science, following the first ever revision of their genus since its establishment back in 1893. Currently amounting to 27 in total, all species inhabit the Neotropical region, apart from a single species known from west Africa.

14h

 

Racial wealth inequality overlooked as cause of urban unrest, study says

More than 50 years ago, riots tore through many U.S. cities, prompting national scrutiny of the root causes. Yet a half-century later, says new research, a key contributor to the social upheaval of the 1960s remains under-explored: racial wealth inequality.

14h

 

Your genes determine how your heart rate responds to exercise

Your genes can determine how your heart rate and blood pressure respond to exercise — and may act as an early warning of future problems with your heart or blood vessels — according to new research published in The Journal of Physiology.

14h

 

Artificial intelligence helps track down mysterious cosmic radio bursts

Fast radio bursts are powerful blasts of energy from across the cosmos caused by unknown events, perhaps emissions from a collapsed and highly magnetized neutron star. One FRB source has attracted attention because it repeats. Researchers recorded radio data from this source and scraped it with a new machine learning algorithm that uncovered 72 new bursts undetected by normal techniques.

14h

 

Ambitious plan for seven London-sized forests to meet UK climate goals

By expanding forest cover in the UK by 1.2 million hectares, the country could initiate its first practical plan to limit global warming

14h

 

Peaceful basking sharks can leap just as powerfully as great whites

Basking sharks are slow movers that eat zooplankton, but sometimes they jump out of the water like ferocious great white sharks – and we don't know why

14h

 

The Latest Battleground for Chipmakers: Self-Driving Cars

Japan's Renesas is buying Integrated Device Technology to bolster its position in the automotive market.

14h

 

Individuals with criminal records may stay in their jobs longer

In sales and customer service positions, employees with criminal records may stay in their jobs longer and be less likely to leave, according to a study published in the IZA Journal of Labor Policy.

15h

 

Organ formation is a lot like glass molding

Researchers have cracked the longstanding mystery of how groups of cells manage to build human tissues and organs during the embryo stage. Not only does it bring a century-old hypothesis into the modern age, the study and its techniques provide the researchers a foundation to study other questions key to human health, such as how cancers form and spread and how to engineer organs. “In a nutshell,

15h

 

Individuals with criminal records may stay in their jobs longer

In sales and customer service positions, employees with criminal records may stay in their jobs longer and be less likely to leave, according to a study published in the IZA Journal of Labor Policy.

15h

 

'Nature-based' greenhouse gas removal to limit UK climate change

Millions of acres of trees and energy crops will be needed to help the UK become carbon neutral by 2050, say scientists

15h

 

The secret life of fungi: Ten fascinating facts

The first major assessment of the state of the fungi kingdom says they are vital for life on Earth.

15h

 

New edible mushrooms among thousands of recently discovered fungi

Fungi are vital to life on Earth but little studied – new species of mould were found on baby-carrier backpack and an oil painting New species of porcini, chanterelle and portobello mushrooms were among 2,000 new species of fungi discovered in 2017, which scientists say shows how little is known about the organisms. More than £30bn of edible fungi are sold each year, according to the State of the

16h

 

A single gene mutation may have helped humans become optimal long-distance runners

Two to three million years ago, the functional loss of a single gene triggered a series of changes in what would eventually become the modern human species. Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report on studies of mice engineered to lack the same gene and resulting data that suggest the lost gene may also have contributed to humanity's well-documented claim to be a

16h

 

A single gene mutation may have helped humans become optimal long-distance runners

Two to three million years ago, the functional loss of a single gene triggered a series of significant changes in what would eventually become the modern human species, altering everything from fertility rates to increasing cancer risk from eating red meat.

16h

 

Corporate Sponsors for NASA? Agency to Study Making Space for Brands

In an era of flat budgets for the agency, Jim Bridenstine has started talking about corporate sponsorships for NASA missions.

16h

 

Matter: Seeking Human Generosity’s Origins in an Ape’s Gift to Another Ape

Studying the behavior of our closest living relatives may help scientists better understand the human impulse for generosity.

16h

 

Is Bob Woodward Like Walter Cronkite?

Two very useful assessments of Bob Woodward’s mega-best-selling Fear , officially published today, are this one by Isaac Chotiner, in Slate , and this one by Andrew Prokop, in Vox. They both make one of the enduring points about Woodward’s long-running inside-Washington saga: how easy it is to guess at least some of the people who have talked with him. Partly that is because these figures are pre

16h

 

What's Mine Is Yours, Sort Of: Bonobos And The Tricky Evolutionary Roots Of Sharing

Bonobos are much more likely than common chimpanzees to share their food, a study suggests. But researchers who study sharing say human kids are more helpful and cooperative than either species. (Image credit: Fiona Rogers/Getty Images)

16h

 

UK heart failure patients twice as likely to die as their Japanese counterparts

Patients with heart failure in the UK are twice as likely to die six months after a hospital admission for their condition as their Japanese counterparts, finds the first analysis of its kind published in the online journal Open Heart.This gap persisted even after taking account of the fact that those admitted to hospital with heart failure in the UK tended to be sicker.

16h

 

North-South chronic 'pain divide' evident in England

England has a North-South 'pain divide', with a clear geographical split in the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and the use of potentially addictive opioids for symptom relief, reveals research published in the online journal BMJ Open.Given the public health concerns associated with the long term use of opioids and doubts about their ability to effectively treat chronic pain, better guida

16h

 

The Lancet: Dairy consumption linked to lower rates of cardiovascular disease and mortality

A global study finds that diets that include whole-fat dairy were linked to lower rates of cardiovascular disease, compared to those that didn't. The authors say that regions with lowest intakes including south Asia, southeast Asia and Africa may benefit from increased consumption of dairy.

16h

 

‘Once-in-a-lifetime’: Miners in Australia discover gold rocks worth over $10 million

A mining company in Australia has unearthed what could be some of the largest gold specimens ever discovered. Read More

17h

 

Antidepressants might contribute to antibiotic resistance

Health But even if they do, they're not our biggest concern. To investigate how this might relate to antibiotic resistance, a team of researchers exposed E. coli populations to various doses of fluoxetine in the lab.

17h

 

The Atlantic Daily: ‘Made of Literature’

What We’re Following The War Is Not Over: Today marks 17 years since the September 11 attacks, and nearly 17 years since the start of the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan. Soon, young people who never knew a world with the Twin Towers will be old enough to fight in a conflict that has seemingly no end in sight. One veteran is helping thousands of local interpreters who assisted the troops find a

17h

 

These 3 Hurricane Misconceptions Can Be Dangerous. Scientists Want to Clear Them Up.Hurricane Florence

Some experts say that storm forecasts and risk assessments, like the “cone of uncertainty,” could be more clearly communicated to the public.

17h

 

The Atlantic Politics & Policy Daily: Seventeen Years Later

Written by Madeleine Carlisle ( @maddiecarlisle2 ) and Olivia Paschal ( @oliviacpaschal ) Today in 5 Lines President Trump and First Lady Melania Trump traveled to Pennsylvania to pay tribute to the late passengers of United Flight 93 who resisted hijackers on 9/11. “America will never forget what your loved ones did for all of us,” Trump said. Washington D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser declared a state

17h

 

Sending wireless data 372 miles between two balloons takes really good aim

Technology Here's why one of Google's sister companies is working on the tech. Loon just announced they’d sent data between two balloons more than 372 miles over the Atlantic.

17h

 

September/October 2018 Annals of Family Medicine tip sheet

Annals of Family Medicine is a peer-reviewed, indexed research journal that provides a cross-disciplinary forum for new, evidence-based information affecting the primary care disciplines.

18h

 

Hurricane Florence: How Evacuation Plans Move Millions of People to Safety

After years of planning, officials have just a few days to get their citizens to safety.

18h

 

Lasker Awards Recognize Work on Histones, Anesthesia, RNA

This year’s winners are C. David Allis, Michael Grunstein, John Glen, and Joan Steitz.

18h

 

Hog Farmers Scramble to Drain Waste Pools Ahead Of Hurricane Florence

Hurricane Florence is heading toward a part of North Carolina where pigs far outnumber people. Farmers and environmentalists are worried about the fate of hundreds of open-air manure lagoons. (Image credit: John Althouse/AFP/Getty Images)

18h

 

Oddball Philosopher Had His Mummified Body Put on Display … and Now His Rings Are Missing

Famed philosopher Jeremy Bentham — an oddball British gentleman who requested that his dead body be mummified and put on public display — is missing some rings.

18h

 

UCalgary researchers discover critical differences in the clots that cause a stroke

There are two main treatments for stroke caused by a clot in a blood vessel in the brain. University of Calgary scientists with the Hotchkiss Brain Institute at the Cumming School of Medicine have discovered that clots have different compositions and depending on where they are located in the brain, administering the clot-busting drug, Alteplase (also known as tPA), can be almost as effective as t

18h

 

Marine Labs in the Southeast Prepare for Hurricane Florence

Some scientists are taking advantage of the monster storm to study how ecosystems and animals respond to major disturbances.

18h

 

Beauty or Beast? Iceland Quarrels Over an Invasive Plant

Nootka lupine, introduced in the 1970s to control soil erosion, has spread wildly, threatening native species. But many adore its purplish blue flowers.

18h

 

Træhuse på vej mod nye danmarksrekorder

6-7-etagers boligtårne i træ er på vej i København og Køge. Alle vil lege med, men entreprenørerne mangler erfaring.

18h

 

California's New Clean Energy Goal Could Be Difficult To Reach

A new California law mandates that the state move to 100 percent clean energy for electricity in the state by 2045. But getting rid of fossil fuel power will be a challenge.

18h

 

How the 'sunk cost fallacy' wreaks havoc on your money and your mind

We all make mistakes. However, acknowledging them can help you overcome the "sunk cost fallacy" and move on. Read More

18h

 

On shared false memories: What lies behind the Mandela effect

Can neuroscience provide an alternative hypothesis for the Mandela effect, without evoking quantum physics? Read More

18h

 

A Solar Storm Is Coming Tonight — Here's Where You Might See the Aurora

An alert released yesterday (Sept. 10) warns of a moderate geomagnetic storm that will lash the planet tonight. It shouldn't be dangerous, but might bring auroras.

19h

 

A Massive Floating Boom Is Supposed To Clean Up The Pacific. Can It Work?

The giant, U-shaped tube is designed to form a garbage-corralling barrier propelled by wind and waves. Its creator hopes to remove half the plastic in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch in five years. (Image credit: The Ocean Cleanup)

19h

 

Bigger, pricier iPhone expected at Apple event WednesdayApple iPhone Max New

Apple is expected to showcase three new iPhones on Wednesday, including its biggest and most expensive model yet, as the company seeks to widen the product's appeal amid slowing sales growth.

19h

 

Fighting the cold virus and other threats, body makes trade-off, says study

A research team has revealed how cells in different parts of the human airway vary in their response to the common cold virus. Their finding could help solve the mystery of why some people exposed to the cold virus get ill while others don't, said the researchers.

19h

 

Back pain linked to mental health problems and risky behaviors in teenagers

A new study indicates that adolescents who experience back pain more frequently are also more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and report problems like anxiety and depression.

19h

 

'Vampire Facials' May Have Exposed People to HIV and Hepatitis

This bloody facial may have exposed people to blood-borne infections

19h

 

Separating the sound from the noise in hot plasma fusion

For fusion power plants to be effective, scientists must find a way to trigger the low-to-high confinement transition, associated with zonal flows of plasma. Theoretically, these consist of both a stationary flow and one that oscillates at the geodesic acoustic mode. For the first time, researchers have detected GAM at two different points simultaneously within the reactor. This experimental setup

19h

 

Why diversity is vital for a healthy democracy

Democracy demands a robust contest of ideas to thrive, and diversity is the best way of protecting the democratic foundation of the American experiment, a new paper argues. Diversity inspires new thoughts and ideas while discouraging stagnation and increasing the possibilities of finding better ways to address various issues. But some scholarship points to ethnic, religious, and linguistic divers

19h

 

From Cornerstone to Skyscraper: One World Trade Center

Shortly after the attacks of September 11, 2001, discussion began about what, if anything, to build in place of the fallen Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. After years of planning, negotiation, and false starts, a complex of towers, memorials, and a museum was settled on—its main building a super-tall structure called “Freedom Tower.” Construction of the tower began in 2006

19h

 

Crispr’s Epic Patent Fight Changed the Course of Biology

The Crispr-Cas9 intellectual property battle forced scientists to innovate quickly, rendering the expensive, drawn-out legal process nearly irrelevant.

19h

 

The double-hinged door between astrophysics and the military

Military Excerpt: Accessory to War One notable twentieth-century result of the countless alliances between astrophysics and the military is the thermonuclear fusion bomb, whose design principles arise in…

19h

 

Scientists Study Barn Owls To Understand Why People With ADHD Struggle To Focus

Research on the brains of barn owls suggests that attention problems like ADHD may involve a brain circuit that usually helps us ignore distractions. (Image credit: Meredith Rizzo/NPR)

19h

 

Immunology: Mononuclear phagocytes can both promote and inhibit inflammation

Mononuclear phagocytes can both promote and inhibit inflammation. A team has now shown that individual phagocytes in the central nervous system can play both roles, sequentially adopting different phenotypes with distinct functions.

20h

 

Duchenne muscular dystrophy: How muscle cells journey to the dark side

Answers to treating muscular dystrophies could lie in better understanding muscle repair — which resembles a delicate cellular dance choreographed by special cells called fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs). Now, scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have revealed that FAPs don't have just one identity–but several distinct identities that emerge during key stages

20h

 

Beyond deep fakes: Transforming video content into another video's style, automatically

Researchers have devised a way to automatically transform the content of one video into the style of another, making it possible to transfer the facial expressions of comedian John Oliver to those of a cartoon character, or to make a daffodil bloom in much the same way a hibiscus would.

20h

 

New study finds unexpected link between immune cells and male/ female differences

Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have made a surprising discovery: during fetal development, a particular immune cell seems to play a key role in determining the male or female characteristics of the brain.

20h

 

NASA's Space Probes Shouldn't Be Tacky Billboards

The year is 2043. A skyscraper-tall rocket sits atop a launchpad. The engines ignite with a roar. The rocket lurches upward, climbing higher and higher until it leaves Earth’s atmosphere. In space, the nose of the rocket breaks open and releases its payload. It’s the most powerful space telescope in history, built by NASA to photograph Earth-like exoplanets orbiting stars like our own. The techno

20h

 

Barriers and opportunities in renewable biofuels production

Researchers have identified two main challenges for renewable biofuel production from cheap sources. First, lowering the cost of developing microbial cell factories, and second, establishing more efficient methods for hydrolysis of biomass to sugars for fermentation.

20h

 

Decoding robotic surgery skills

Researchers are looking to technology to help deconstruct expert surgeons' robotic surgery skills so they can create an objective, standardized way to train the next generation of surgeons.

20h

 

You probably made a better first impression than you think

After we have conversations with new people, our conversation partners like us and enjoy our company more than we think, according to new findings.

20h

 

Molecule with anti-aging effects on vascular system identified

A molecule produced during fasting or calorie restriction has anti-aging effects on the vascular system, which could reduce the occurrence and severity of human diseases related to blood vessels, such as cardiovascular disease, according to a new study.

20h

 

Zika virus strips immune cells of their identity

Macrophages are immune cells that are supposed to protect the body from infection by viruses and bacteria. Yet Zika virus preferentially infects these cells. Researchers have now unraveled how the virus shuts down the genes that make macrophages function as immune cells.

20h

 

Our street lighting doesn’t need to be this bad

Technology Light shines at full intensity even during periods of low activity. Most streets are either too bright or too dark. If we have the technology, why are we still over-lighting our streets?

20h

 

20h

 

NASA-NOAA satellite tracking Super Typhoon Mangkhut

Typhoon Mangkhut had already strengthened into a Super Typhoon when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite grabbed a visible image of the storm in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on Sept. 11. It is forecast to intensify even more.

20h

 

Natural mechanism could lower emissions from tropical peatlands

Scientists have long feared that as Earth warms, tropical peatlands — which store up to 10 percent of the planet's soil carbon — could dry out, decay and release vast pools of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, accelerating climate change. A new study however, finds theses swamps and marshes have a natural biochemical defense mechanism that helps them resist decay and could reduce o

20h

 

Protocol for measuring distances within biomolecules

Scientist have devised a standard protocol for measuring distances in biomolecules.

20h

 

Bioinformaticians examine new genes the moment they are born

Accumulating evidence suggests that new genes can arise spontaneously from previously non-coding DNA instead of through the gradual mutation of established genes. Bioinformaticians are now, for the first time, studying the earliest stages in the emergence of such 'genes out of thin air', also known as de novo genes.

20h

 

New genetic compound marker could help early diagnosis of aggressive prostate cancer

A research team has discovered a link between the interplay of certain simultaneously occurring genetic changes in the HOXB13 and CIP2A genes, aggressiveness of prostate cancer, high risk of developing the disease, and poorer survival rates of patients. Prostate cancer is a major challenge in health care with over one million new cases and 300,000 deaths from it each year worldwide.

20h

 

Analyzing roadside dust to identify potential health concerns

Findings from studies of traffic-related abrasion particles point to tires, brake pads, and road materials as significant sources of environmental pollution with potential health implications.

20h

 

For Years, the U.S. Failed to Protect Thousands Who Risked Everything in Iraq and Afghanistan

Matt Zeller joined the U.S. Army after 9/11. “The idea of not serving at that moment was something I couldn’t fathom,” Zeller says in a new short documentary, premiering on The Atlantic today. Directed by Hunter Johnson and Daniel Klein, Brother is the poignant story of a heroic act that led to a life debt, an indelible friendship, and, ultimately, a fierce fight to rectify a betrayal by the U.S.

20h

 

Glaciers Falling on Tourists: Yet Another Danger of Climate Change

In the summer of 1987, a woman visiting Alaska was crushed by a 1,000-pound chunk of ice. According to news reports at the time, Thais Grabenauer, 59, had been taking pictures with her husband at the foot of Exit Glacier, a towering wall of ice that’s one of the most popular attractions in Kenai Fjords National Park. A half-ton piece of the glacier calved off as the couple was snapping, killing G

20h

 

Agency seeks anti-lock brakes on all new US road motorcycles

A federal safety agency is recommending that all new motorcycles built for road use in the U.S. have anti-lock brakes and electronic stability control as standard equipment.

20h

 

Scientists identified enzyme in milk production as target for novel breast cancer drugs

VCU Massey Cancer Center researchers have identified a protein involved in milk production that stimulates the growth and spread of breast cancer and could ultimately serve as a target for novel therapies to treat breast cancer.

20h

 

A model to predict and quantify racism, sexism, and other unequal treatment

A new paper published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences cuts to the heart of messy social interactions with a set of computational models to quantify and predict unequal treatment.

20h

 

Beetle adapts chemical mimicry to parasitize different bee species

A beetle that tricks bees into carrying it into their nests where it can live off their pollen, nectar and eggs adapts its deceptions to local hosts.

20h

 

NASA-NOAA satellite tracking Super Typhoon Mangkhut

Typhoon Mangkhut had already strengthened into a Super Typhoon when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite grabbed a visible image of the storm in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on Sept. 11. It is forecast to intensify even more.

20h

 

Can stereotypes be quantified?

When a Starbucks employee recently called the police on two black men who asked for a bathroom key but hadn't yet ordered anything, it seemed a clear-cut case of racial bias leading directly to unfair treatment. Many outraged white customers publicly contrasted it with their years of hassle-free, purchase-free Starbucks pit stops.

20h

 

Drones, ride sharers could team up for package delivery

In the future, when you hail an Uber or take the bus, you might not only be sharing the ride with another traveler, but perhaps with a drone out on delivery as well. That is the vision of Naira Hovakimyan, professor of mechanical science and engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who is leading a six-person, three institution (Illinois, Stanford, South Carolina) $1 million

20h

 

Nearly 30% of opioid prescriptions lack valid medical justification

The researchers in this study found that doctors are prescribing opioids even to patients who don't have any pain-related symptoms. Why? Read More

20h

 

New nanoparticles wait to release drugs, target infection

Current WSU research shows stimuli-responsive nanoparticles can specifically target infections to simultaneously prevent the spread of bacteria and reduce the inflammation it causes. These microscopic particles are loaded with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents which are released when the particles encounter infection in the body.

20h

 

If You Stay Put During Hurricane Florence, Be Ready for Challenges After the Storm

Many people will likely decide to stay put despite evacuation orders ahead of Hurricane Florence. And if history is any guide, they may not be fully thinking through the problems they'll face in the aftermath.

20h

 

The Federal Government Doesn’t Track Police Violence—But I Do

In the latest shooting to outrage the nation, Amber Guyger, an off-duty Dallas police officer, claims she walked into the wrong apartment in the building where she lives and pointed her gun at Botham Shem Jean, thinking that he was an intruder. Guyger then shot and killed Jean. By all accounts, Jean was doing nothing wrong. He was simply at home minding his own business. As a country, we used to

21h

 

New College Rankings Are Out—Including Some That Are Actually Useful

As a one-time staff editor of The Washington Monthly magazine, I am biased in favor of that plucky enterprise and its approach to the world. As a one-time chief editor of US News & World Report , I am all too aware of the fatuousness imperfections of its college-ranking system. Being a pioneer in ranking has been the economic salvation of US News . But the premise that vastly different institutio

21h

 

Pain response in babies' brains controlled in 'similar way to adults'

Researchers have identified the neural network that helps control babies' brain activity in response to pain in a similar way to adults. Their findings build on their previous study from 2015, which revealed that newborns experience pain like adults.

21h

 

Prenatal exposure to cannabis impacts sociability of male offspring only

Taking cannabinoids during pregnancy can cause behavioral and neuronal deficits in adult male offspring, while females remain unaffected, says new research.

21h

 

New insight on rotavirus mechanics could lead to improved treatments

Researchers have provided new insight on the mechanics of a virus that causes severe diarrhea and sickness in young children.

21h

 

Heart: Changes in mitochondrial DNA control how nuclear DNA mutations are expressed in cardiomyopathy

Differences in the DNA within the mitochondria, the energy-producing structures within cells, can determine the severity and progression of heart disease caused by a nuclear DNA mutation. When combined with a mutation in nuclear DNA in animals, one mitochondrial DNA variant greatly worsened heart disease, while a different variant had a protective effect.

21h

 

It pays to be nice to your employees

New research finds that showing compassion to subordinates almost always pays off, especially when combined with the enforcement of clear goals and benchmarks.

21h

 

Regrowing dental tissue with stem cells from baby teeth

In a clinical trial stem cells extracted from children's baby teeth were used to regrow the living tissue in teeth damaged by injury. The promising findings highlight the potential of dental stem cells, which could one day be used in a wide range of dental procedures or even for treating certain systemic diseases.

21h

 

Coral bleaching increases disease risk in threatened species

Bleaching events caused by rising water temperatures could increase mortality among a coral species already threatened by disease, says new research.

21h

 

Engineers protect artifacts by graphene gilding

Gilding is the process of coating intricate artifacts with precious metals. Ancient Egyptians and Chinese coated their sculptures with thin metal films using gilding. Scientists inspired by this ancient process, have added a single layer of carbon atoms, known as graphene, on top of metal leaves — doubling the protective quality of gilding against wear and tear.

21h

 

Finding Nemo's genes

An international team of researchers has mapped Nemo's genome, providing the research community with an invaluable resource to decode the response of fish to environmental changes, including climate change.

21h

 

Obamacare keeps more young stroke survivors on their meds

More young stroke survivors can afford their medication thanks to the federal Affordable Care Act (ACA), according to new research. Much of the credit may go specifically to the decision by a majority of states to let more people enroll in Medicaid. People who survive a stroke in their 40s, 50s, or early 60s may still have decades to live. But that’s only if they take blood thinners, blood pressu

21h

 

New method of pinpointing cancer mutations could lead to more targeted treatments

A team of researchers has developed a new framework that can combine three existing methods of finding large mutations in cancer cells–called structural variants–into a single, more complete picture of cancer.

21h

 

Snapshots of the future: Tool learns to predict user's gaze in headcam footage

University of Tokyo researchers have developed a computational tool that can learn from headcam footage of complex tasks to predict where the user's future gaze will be focused. This tool combines 'visual-saliency' mapping of frames of footage based on distinctive visual features with 'gaze-prediction' mapping based on head movement and previous gaze direction. This tool could facilitate real-time

21h

 

How bad bacteria gain an edge in the gut

The bacterium Clostridium difficile, which is responsible for the majority of antibiotic-associated diarrhea outbreaks worldwide, produces a unique compound called p-cresol to gain a competitive advantage over natural protective gut bacteria. The findings were reported by Lisa Dawson and Team at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and colleagues on Sept. 11 in the open-access journa

21h

 

Intense, recent physical activity linked to healthy metabolic profiles in adolescents

More time spent intensely active, to a greater extent than less time spent sedentary, correlates with a healthier metabolic profile in adolescence, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine. The study, conducted by Joshua Bell and colleagues from the University of Bristol, United Kingdom, also suggests that the metabolic effects of physical activity, if causal, largely depend on re

21h

 

After the cat: Celebrating Schrödinger’s 75-year influence on biology

In 1943, physicist Erwin Schrödinger gave a lecture in Dublin that kick-started modern biology. A star-studded conference last week celebrated his legacy

21h

 

Watch a blast of sound turn floating drops into bubbles

Sound can counteract gravity, making droplets float in the air. It can also turn them into bubbles, which could prove useful for creating hollow materials

21h

 

Understanding 6th-century barbarian social organization and migration through paleogenomics

Applying a comprehensive analysis of genetic, historical, and archeological factors in two 6th-century barbarian cemeteries, researchers have gleaned new insights into a key era known as the Migration Period that laid the foundation for modern European society.

21h

 

New nanoparticles wait to release drugs, target infection

Current research shows stimuli-responsive nanoparticles can specifically target infections to simultaneously prevent the spread of bacteria and reduce the inflammation it causes. These microscopic particles are loaded with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents which are released when the particles encounter infection in the body. Researchers in the lab of Pharmaceutical Sciences Assistant Profes

21h

 

Inhaled version of blood pressure drug shows promise in treating anxiety, pain

An inhaled form of a high blood pressure medication has potential to treat certain types of anxiety as well as pain, according to a new study.

21h

 

Health of the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

A new study has quantified trends in the condition of 35 ecological 'vital signs' dealing with snow, rivers, forests, fire, wildlife and fish.

21h

 

Stumping for Democrats Hasn’t Always Been Obama’s Favorite Place

When Chance the Rapper appeared last November on Saturday Night Live and sang a tune titled “Come Back, Barack,” he spoke for all the bereft Democrats who believed that only Barack Obama had the requisite credentials and charisma to lead the fight against Trumpism. Now nearly a year later, their wish has come true. He has interrupted his excellent retirement to stump in the midterms for a Democra

21h

 

Pro-hunting nations block whale sanctuary bid

Pro-whaling nations on Tuesday blocked a near two-decade effort to create a South Atlantic haven for the endangered marine mammals, deepening divisions at an already fractious International Whaling Commission meeting in Brazil.

21h

 

Nanotubes ‘freeze’ water no matter the temperature

Researchers have discovered a way to “freeze” water molecules in place with nanotubes. Researchers used molecular models to demonstrate their theory that weak van der Waals forces between the inner surface of the nanotube and the water molecules are strong enough to snap the oxygen and hydrogen atoms into place. Rouzbeh Shahsavari, a materials scientist at Rice University, refers to the contents

21h

 

Magnetization in small components can now be filmed in the laboratory

In the future, today's electronic storage technology may be superseded by devices based on tiny magnetic structures. Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have refined an electron microscope-based technique that makes it possible not only to capture static images of these components but also to film the high-speed switching processes. They have also employed a speciali

21h

 

'Cloud computing' takes on new meaning for scientists

Clouds may be wispy puffs of water vapor drifting through the sky, but they're heavy lifting computationally for scientists wanting to factor them into climate simulations. Researchers from the University of California, Irvine, the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and Columbia University have turned to data science to achieve better cumulus calculating results.

21h

 

Folding poisons

Researchers show how toxins of the bacterium Clostridium difficile get into cells in the gut.

21h

 

A running list of hacks, leaks, and vulnerabilities that have recently given up your personal information

Technology Maybe it's time to change that password. It's hard to keep up on all the hacks, so we're starting a list.

21h

 

For the first time, a neural link between altruism and empathy toward strangers

Using fMRI scans of a brain region called the anterior insula, researchers have discovered that people who donated a kidney to an anonymous recipient were more sensitive to a stranger's fear and pain.

21h

 

Jim Carrey Masters His Act in Kidding

Kidding , which premiered on Showtime Sunday night, stars Jim Carrey as Jeff Piccirillo, a beloved children’s television entertainer/puppeteer and one-man franchise operating under the name “Mr. Pickles.” The problem for Mr. Pickles—and the philosophical engine of the show—is the fact that one year ago Piccirillo’s son was killed by an ice cream truck. To quote Rudyard Kipling: “Oh what avails th

21h

 

They Defied Trump on Climate Change. Now, It’s Their Moment of Truth.

State, local and business leaders who vowed to uphold the Paris climate pact are gathering for talks in San Francisco. The big question is whether they’ll do more than talk.

21h

 

New nanoparticles wait to release drugs, target infection

Current WSU research shows stimuli-responsive nanoparticles can specifically target infections to simultaneously prevent the spread of bacteria and reduce the inflammation it causes. These microscopic particles are loaded with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents which are released when the particles encounter infection in the body. Researchers in the lab of Pharmaceutical Sciences Assistant Pr

22h

 

Drug for pancreatic cancer developed by college of pharmacy researchers

University of Houston researchers have developed a new medicine that can inhibit two of the major pathways of pancreatic cancer. The new synthetic compound is based on a type of sea sponge.

22h

 

Meet the Transhumanists Turning Themselves Into Cyborgs

Swiss photographer Matthieu Gafsou traveled the world documenting the transhumanist subculture.

22h

 

Suomi NPP Satellite stares Helene in the eye

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the eye of Hurricane Helene in the eastern Atlantic.

22h

 

Natural mechanism could lower emissions from tropical peatlands

Scientists have long feared that as Earth warms, tropical peatlands—which store up to 10 percent of the planet's soil carbon—could dry out, decay and release vast pools of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, rapidly accelerating climate change.

22h

 

NASA sees Tropical Depression Paul's strength sapped

NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at Tropical Depression Paul and found its center pushed away from strongest storms.

22h

 

NASA satellite finds Hurricane Florence undergoing eyewall replacement

NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at powerful Hurricane Florence early on Sept. 11 that indicated it was likely undergoing eyewall replacement.

22h

 

22h

 

'The right trousers': Wallace and Gromit inspire artificial muscle clothing

Smart trousers could dramatically change lives of people with mobility problems Smart trousers with artificial muscles have the potential to improve the lives of people with mobility problems, say researchers. Inspired by the Wallace and Gromit clay animation The Wrong Trousers, the garb has been dubbed “the right trousers”. Continue reading…

22h

 

Want a Carbon Tax? Wait Until Next Year, Advocates Say

A new report argues for a $40 levy to lower greenhouse gas emissions — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

22h

 

NASA finds wind shear pushing on Tropical Storm Isaac's center

NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at Tropical Storm Isaac that revealed its circulation center was displaced from the bulk of clouds and precipitation. That's an indication that wind shear is affecting the storm.

22h

 

NASA sees Hurricane Olivia moving toward Hawaii

NASA's Terra satellite provided an inside look at Hurricane Olivia as it continued to track toward Hawaii. Watches and Warnings remain in effect as Olivia nears.

22h

 

Illinois engineers protect artifacts by graphene gilding

Gilding is the process of coating intricate artifacts with precious metals. Ancient Egyptians and Chinese coated their sculptures with thin metal films using gilding—and these golden sculptures have resisted corrosion, wear, and environmental degradation for thousands of years. The middle and outer coffins of Tutankhamun, for instance, are gold leaf gilded, as are many other ancient treasures.

22h

 

Coral bleaching increases disease risk in threatened species

Bleaching events caused by rising water temperatures could increase mortality among a coral species already threatened by disease, says new research by Mote Marine Laboratory and Penn State, US, published in eLife.

22h

 

It pays to be nice to your employees, new study shows

Want the best results out of your employees? Then be nice to them.

22h

 

10-year study of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections in the US

A 10-year investigation evaluating data from four surveillance systems captured information on the geographic distribution of outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections in the US, who is at greatest risk, the rate of antimicrobial resistance of Newport infections, and how often antimicrobial resistance may be linked to an environmental cause of infection.

22h

 

Natural mechanism could lower emissions from tropical peatlands

Scientists have long feared that as Earth warms, tropical peatlands — which store up to 10 percent of the planet's soil carbon — could dry out, decay and release vast pools of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, accelerating climate change. A new study led by Duke and Florida State researchers, however, finds theses swamps and marshes have a natural biochemical defense mechanism that

22h

 

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Countries’ adaptation to population aging Aging and adaptation. Image courtesy of iStock/monkeybusinessimages. Around the world, the proportion of elderly adults in the population is increasing, and failure to adapt to this demographic transformation poses financial and social risks. Cynthia Chen et al. (pp. 9169–9174) developed the Aging Society Index to…

22h

 

Hypomethylation, endogenous retrovirus expression, and interferon signaling in testicular germ cell tumors [Biological Sciences]

Methylation of cytosine residues exerts a critical role in silencing gene transcription. Importantly, DNA methylation patterns are often altered in cancer, with many tumors showing site-specific gain of methylation marks in a background of global hypomethylation (1). In PNAS, Stone et al. (2) show in an ovarian cancer model that…

22h

 

Reply to Haffner et al.: DNA hypomethylation renders tumors more immunogenic [Biological Sciences]

In the letter by Haffner et al. (1), they report that seminoma cell-intrinsic DNA hypomethylation is associated with endogenous retroviral expression, an IFN response, and lymphocytic infiltration. Their data complement and support our recent therapeutic study in a mouse model of ovarian cancer (2) and support our observations that low…

22h

 

Unraveling the inner workings of respiratory arsenate reductase [Biochemistry]

It began back in 1994 with a short note in the journal Nature, about a curious bacterium from the Aberjona watershed, strain MIT-13, that could grow on arsenic (1). Arsenic resistance had been well established, as it had been found in many clinical species like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli….

22h

 

Understanding refugee naturalization as partnership [Political Sciences]

Acquisition of citizenship may be viewed as an end point of immigrant integration, but recent research suggests that early naturalization catalyzes further incorporation (1, 2). In the United States, naturalized citizens acquire legal advantages, including protection from deportation; broader rights in the judicial system; greater access to social benefits; the…

22h

 

Gating currents indicate complex gating of voltage-gated proton channels [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The voltage-gated proton channel (HV1) is a unique molecule that resides at the interface between ion channels and bioenergetic molecules that use proton gradients to store or transduce energy. HV1 plays key roles in the health and disease of diverse tissues and species (1). Important information regarding the physical components…

22h

 

History of art paintings through the lens of entropy and complexity [Applied Physical Sciences]

Art is the ultimate expression of human creativity that is deeply influenced by the philosophy and culture of the corresponding historical epoch. The quantitative analysis of art is therefore essential for better understanding human cultural evolution. Here, we present a large-scale quantitative analysis of almost 140,000 paintings, spanning nearly a…

22h

 

Entropic forces drive clustering and spatial localization of influenza A M2 during viral budding [Chemistry]

The influenza A matrix 2 (M2) transmembrane protein facilitates virion release from the infected host cell. In particular, M2 plays a role in the induction of membrane curvature and/or in the scission process whereby the envelope is cut upon virion release. Here we show using coarse-grained computer simulations that various…

22h

 

Dynamic process connectivity explains ecohydrologic responses to rainfall pulses and drought [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Ecohydrologic fluxes within atmosphere, vegetation, and soil systems exhibit a joint variability that arises from forcing and feedback interactions. These interactions cause fluctuations to propagate between variables at many time scales. In an ecosystem, this connectivity dictates responses to climate change, land-cover change, and weather events and must be characterized…

22h

 

Structural and mechanistic analysis of the arsenate respiratory reductase provides insight into environmental arsenic transformations [Biochemistry]

Arsenate respiration by bacteria was discovered over two decades ago and is catalyzed by diverse organisms using the well-conserved Arr enzyme complex. Until now, the mechanisms underpinning this metabolism have been relatively opaque. Here, we report the structure of an Arr complex (solved by X-ray crystallography to 1.6-Å resolution), which…

22h

 

{beta}-Subunit of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 drives signaling to the nucleus via H-Ras [Biochemistry]

Depolarization-induced signaling to the nucleus by the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.2 is widely assumed to proceed by elevating intracellular calcium. The apparent lack of quantitative correlation between Ca2+ influx and gene activation suggests an alternative activation pathway. Here, we demonstrate that membrane depolarization of HEK293 cells transfected with α11.2/β2b/α2δ…

22h

 

De novo formation of an aggregation pheromone precursor by an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase-related terpene synthase in the harlequin bug [Biochemistry]

Insects use a diverse array of specialized terpene metabolites as pheromones in intraspecific interactions. In contrast to plants and microbes, which employ enzymes called terpene synthases (TPSs) to synthesize terpene metabolites, limited information from few species is available about the enzymatic mechanisms underlying terpene pheromone biosynthesis in insects. Several stink…

22h

 

Conformational changes in Arp2/3 complex induced by ATP, WASp-VCA, and actin filaments [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

We used fluorescence spectroscopy and EM to determine how binding of ATP, nucleation-promoting factors, actin monomers, and actin filaments changes the conformation of Arp2/3 complex during the process that nucleates an actin filament branch. We mutated subunits of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Arp2/3 complex for labeling with fluorescent dyes at either the…

22h

 

QTY code enables design of detergent-free chemokine receptors that retain ligand-binding activities [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Structure and function studies of membrane proteins, particularly G protein-coupled receptors and multipass transmembrane proteins, require detergents. We have devised a simple tool, the QTY code (glutamine, threonine, and tyrosine), for designing hydrophobic domains to become water soluble without detergents. Here we report using the QTY code to systematically replace…

22h

 

Long noncoding RNA NEAT1 (nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1) is critical for phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells [Cell Biology]

In response to vascular injury, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may switch from a contractile to a proliferative phenotype thereby contributing to neointima formation. Previous studies showed that the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 is critical for paraspeckle formation and tumorigenesis by promoting cell proliferation and migration. However, the role…

22h

 

BRAF/MAPK and GSK3 signaling converges to control MITF nuclear export [Cell Biology]

The close integration of the MAPK, PI3K, and WNT signaling pathways underpins much of development and is deregulated in cancer. In principle, combinatorial posttranslational modification of key lineage-specific transcription factors would be an effective means to integrate critical signaling events. Understanding how this might be achieved is central to deciphering…

22h

 

Physical foundations of biological complexity [Evolution]

Biological systems reach hierarchical complexity that has no counterpart outside the realm of biology. Undoubtedly, biological entities obey the fundamental physical laws. Can today’s physics provide an explanatory framework for understanding the evolution of biological complexity? We argue that the physical foundation for understanding the origin and evolution of complexity…

22h

 

Global analysis of mutations driving microevolution of a heterozygous diploid fungal pathogen [Genetics]

Candida albicans is a heterozygous diploid yeast that is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract and a prevalent opportunistic pathogen. Here, whole-genome sequencing was performed on multiple C. albicans isolates passaged both in vitro and in vivo to characterize the complete spectrum of mutations arising in laboratory culture and…

22h

 

Adȷuvant effect of the novel TLR1/TLR2 agonist Diprovocim synergizes with anti-PD-L1 to eliminate melanoma in mice [Immunology and Inflammation]

Successful cancer immunotherapy entails activation of innate immune receptors to promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation, antigen presentation, up-regulation of costimulatory molecules, and cytokine secretion, leading to activation of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we screened a synthetic library of 100,000 compounds for innate immune activators using TNF production…

22h

 

Structure of a patient-derived antibody in complex with allergen reveals simultaneous conventional and superantigen-like recognition [Immunology and Inflammation]

Antibodies classically bind antigens via their complementarity-determining regions, but an alternative mode of interaction involving V-domain framework regions has been observed for some B cell “superantigens.” We report the crystal structure of an antibody employing both modes of interaction simultaneously and binding two antigen molecules. This human antibody from an…

22h

 

Mechanisms of enhanced drug delivery in brain metastases with focused ultrasound-induced blood-tumor barrier disruption [Medical Sciences]

Blood–brain/blood–tumor barriers (BBB and BTB) and interstitial transport may constitute major obstacles to the transport of therapeutics in brain tumors. In this study, we examined the impact of focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with microbubbles on the transport of two relevant chemotherapy-based anticancer agents in breast cancer brain metastases at…

22h

 

Precursor proadrenomedullin influences cardiomyocyte survival and local inflammation related to myocardial infarction [Medical Sciences]

Increased adrenomedullin (ADM) levels are associated with various cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI). ADM is cleaved off from the full-length precursor protein proadrenomedullin (ProADM) during its posttranslational processing. To date, no biological effect of ProADM is reported, while ADM infusion leads to antiapoptotic effects and improved cardiac function….

22h

 

Circular DNA tumor viruses make circular RNAs [Microbiology]

Epstein−Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) cause ∼2% of all human cancers. RNase R-resistant RNA sequencing revealed that both gammaherpesviruses encode multiple, uniquely stable, circular RNAs (circRNA). EBV abundantly expressed both exon-only and exon−intron circRNAs from the BamHI A rightward transcript (BART) locus (circBARTs) formed from a spliced…

22h

 

Palmitoylation enables MAPK-dependent proteostasis of axon survival factors [Neuroscience]

Axon degeneration is a prominent event in many neurodegenerative disorders. Axon injury stimulates an intrinsic self-destruction program that culminates in activation of the prodegeneration factor SARM1 and local dismantling of damaged axon segments. In healthy axons, SARM1 activity is restrained by constant delivery of the axon survival factor NMNAT2. Elevating…

22h

 

Distinct roles of prefrontal and parietal areas in the encoding of attentional priority [Neuroscience]

When searching for an object in a crowded scene, information about the similarity of stimuli to the target object is thought to be encoded in spatial priority maps, which are subsequently used to guide shifts of attention and gaze to likely targets. Two key cortical areas that have been described…

22h

 

Early postnatal behavioral, cellular, and molecular changes in models of Huntington disease are reversible by HDAC inhibition [Neuroscience]

Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Although mutant HTT is expressed during embryonic development and throughout life, clinical HD usually manifests later in adulthood. A number of studies document neurodevelopmental changes associated with mutant HTT, but whether…

22h

 

Human iPSC-derived trigeminal neurons lack constitutive TLR3-dependent immunity that protects cortical neurons from HSV-1 infection [Neuroscience]

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadic viral encephalitis in Western countries. Some HSE children carry inborn errors of the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-dependent IFN-α/β– and -λ–inducing pathway. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cortical neurons with TLR3 pathway mutations are highly susceptible to HSV-1,…

22h

 

Transcriptional switch for programmed cell death in pith parenchyma of sorghum stems [Plant Biology]

Pith parenchyma cells store water in various plant organs. These cells are especially important for producing sugar and ethanol from the sugar juice of grass stems. In many plants, the death of pith parenchyma cells reduces their stem water content. Previous studies proposed that a hypothetical D gene might be…

22h

 

Mechanistic insights into plant SUVH family H3K9 methyltransferases and their binding to context-biased non-CG DNA methylation [Plant Biology]

DNA methylation functions in gene silencing and the maintenance of genome integrity. In plants, non-CG DNA methylation is linked through a self-reinforcing loop with histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2). The plant-specific SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION 3–9 HOMOLOG (SUVH) family H3K9 methyltransferases (MTases) bind to DNA methylation marks and catalyze H3K9…

22h

 

Feedback-mediated signal conversion promotes viral fitness [Systems Biology]

A fundamental signal-processing problem is how biological systems maintain phenotypic states (i.e., canalization) long after degradation of initial catalyst signals. For example, to efficiently replicate, herpesviruses (e.g., human cytomegalovirus, HCMV) rapidly counteract cell-mediated silencing using transactivators packaged in the tegument of the infecting virion particle. However, the activity

22h

 

Moving beyond panaceas in fisheries governance [Environmental Sciences]

In fisheries management—as in environmental governance more generally—regulatory arrangements that are thought to be helpful in some contexts frequently become panaceas or, in other words, simple formulaic policy prescriptions believed to solve a given problem in a wide range of contexts, regardless of their actual consequences. When this happens, management…

22h

 

Impact of climate change on the transition of Neanderthals to modern humans in Europe [Anthropology]

Two speleothem stable isotope records from East-Central Europe demonstrate that Greenland Stadial 12 (GS12) and GS10—at 44.3–43.3 and 40.8–40.2 ka—were prominent intervals of cold and arid conditions. GS12, GS11, and GS10 are coeval with a regional pattern of culturally (near-)sterile layers within Europe’s diachronous archeologic transition from Neanderthals to modern…

22h

 

Simultaneous improvements of strength and toughness in topologically interlocked ceramics [Applied Biological Sciences]

Topologically interlocked materials (TIMs) are an emerging class of architectured materials based on stiff building blocks of well-controlled geometries which can slide, rotate, or interlock collectively providing a wealth of tunable mechanisms, precise structural properties, and functionalities. TIMs are typically 10 times more impact resistant than their monolithic form, but…

22h

 

Material barriers to diffusive and stochastic transport [Applied Mathematics]

We seek transport barriers and transport enhancers as material surfaces across which the transport of diffusive tracers is minimal or maximal in a general, unsteady flow. We find that such surfaces are extremizers of a universal, nondimensional transport functional whose leading-order term in the diffusivity can be computed directly from…

22h

 

Aversion to ambiguity and model misspecification in dynamic stochastic environments [Applied Mathematics]

Preferences that accommodate aversion to subjective uncertainty and its potential misspecification in dynamic settings are a valuable tool of analysis in many disciplines. By generalizing previous analyses, we propose a tractable approach to incorporating broadly conceived responses to uncertainty. We illustrate our approach on some stylized stochastic environments. By design,…

22h

 

Absorption by water increases fluorescence image contrast of biological tissue in the shortwave infrared [Applied Physical Sciences]

Recent technology developments have expanded the wavelength window for biological fluorescence imaging into the shortwave infrared. We show here a mechanistic understanding of how drastic changes in fluorescence imaging contrast can arise from slight changes of imaging wavelength in the shortwave infrared. We demonstrate, in 3D tissue phantoms and in…

22h

 

Multivalent, multiflavored droplets by design [Applied Physical Sciences]

Nature self-assembles functional materials by programming flexible linear arrangements of molecules and then folding them to make 2D and 3D objects. To understand and emulate this process, we have made emulsion droplets with specific recognition and controlled valence. Uniquely monovalent droplets form dimers: divalent lead to polymer-like chains, trivalent allow…

22h

 

Molecular strategy for blocking isopeptide bond formation in nascent pilin proteins [Biochemistry]

Bacteria anchor to their host cells through their adhesive pili, which must resist the large mechanical stresses induced by the host as it attempts to dislodge the pathogens. The pili of gram-positive bacteria are constructed as a single polypeptide made of hundreds of pilin repeats, which contain intramolecular isopeptide bonds…

22h

 

Methylglyoxal-derived posttranslational arginine modifications are abundant histone marks [Biochemistry]

Histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) regulate chromatin dynamics, DNA accessibility, and transcription to expand the genetic code. Many of these PTMs are produced through cellular metabolism to offer both feedback and feedforward regulation. Herein we describe the existence of Lys and Arg modifications on histones by a glycolytic by-product, methylglyoxal (MGO)….

22h

 

Ladderane phospholipids form a densely packed membrane with normal hydrazine and anomalously low proton/hydroxide permeability [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Ladderane lipids are unique to anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and are enriched in the membrane of the anammoxosome, an organelle thought to compartmentalize the anammox process, which involves the toxic intermediate hydrazine (N2H4). Due to the slow growth rate of anammox bacteria and difficulty of isolating pure ladderane lipids, experimental…

22h

 

Size and topology modulate the effects of frustration in protein folding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The presence of conflicting interactions, or frustration, determines how fast biomolecules can explore their configurational landscapes. Recent experiments have provided cases of systems with slow reconfiguration dynamics, perhaps arising from frustration. While it is well known that protein folding speed and mechanism are strongly affected by the protein native structure,…

22h

 

Gating charge displacement in a monomeric voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channel [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channel, a voltage sensor and a conductive pore contained in one structural module, plays important roles in many physiological processes. Voltage sensor movements can be directly detected by measuring gating currents, and a detailed characterization of Hv1 charge displacements during channel activation can help to understand…

22h

 

Architecture of cell-cell adhesion mediated by sidekicks [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Cell–cell adhesion is important for cell growth, tissue development, and neural network formation. Structures of cell adhesion molecules have been widely studied by crystallography, revealing the molecular details of adhesion interfaces. However, due to technical limitations, the overall structure and organization of adhesion molecules at cell adhesion interfaces has not…

22h

 

Inferring dynamic topology for decoding spatiotemporal structures in complex heterogeneous networks [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Extracting complex interactions (i.e., dynamic topologies) has been an essential, but difficult, step toward understanding large, complex, and diverse systems including biological, financial, and electrical networks. However, reliable and efficient methods for the recovery or estimation of network topology remain a challenge due to the tremendous scale of emerging systems…

22h

 

Ligand “noninnocence” in coordination complexes vs. kinetic, mechanistic, and selectivity issues in electrochemical catalysis [Chemistry]

The world of coordination complexes is currently stimulated by the quest for efficient catalysts for the electrochemical reactions underlying modern energy and environmental challenges. Even in the case of a multielectron−multistep process, catalysis starts with uptake or removal of one electron from the resting state of the catalyst. If this…

22h

 

Mechanics of elastomeric molecular composites [Chemistry]

A classic paradigm of soft and extensible polymer materials is the difficulty of combining reversible elasticity with high fracture toughness, in particular for moduli above 1 MPa. Our recent discovery of multiple network acrylic elastomers opened a pathway to obtain precisely such a combination. We show here that they can…

22h

 

Specific oxylipins enhance vertebrate hematopoiesis via the receptor GPR132 [Developmental Biology]

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are lipid-derived signaling molecules with cardioprotective and vasodilatory actions. We recently showed that 11,12-EET enhances hematopoietic induction and engraftment in mice and zebrafish. EETs are known to signal via G protein-coupled receptors, with evidence supporting the existence of a specific high-affinity receptor. Identification of a hematopoietic-specif

22h

 

Rapid growth of organic aerosol nanoparticles over a wide tropospheric temperature range [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Nucleation and growth of aerosol particles from atmospheric vapors constitutes a major source of global cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The fraction of newly formed particles that reaches CCN sizes is highly sensitive to particle growth rates, especially for particle sizes <10 nm, where coagulation losses to larger aerosol particles are…

22h

 

Multiproxy evidence for leaf-browsing and closed habitats in extinct proboscideans (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from Central Chile [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Proboscideans are so-called ecosystem engineers and are considered key players in hypotheses about Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions. However, knowledge about the autoecology and chronology of the proboscideans in South America is still open to debate and raises controversial views. Here, we used a range of multiproxy approaches and new radiocarbon…

22h

 

Responses to pup vocalizations in subordinate naked mole-rats are induced by estradiol ingested through coprophagy of queen’s feces [Ecology]

Naked mole-rats form eusocial colonies consisting of a single breeding female (the queen), several breeding males, and sexually immature adults (subordinates). Subordinates are cooperative and provide alloparental care by huddling and retrieving pups to the nest. However, the physiological mechanism(s) underlying alloparental behavior of nonbreeders remains undetermined. Here, we examined…

22h

 

Remoteness promotes biological invasions on islands worldwide [Ecology]

One of the best-known general patterns in island biogeography is the species–isolation relationship (SIR), a decrease in the number of native species with increasing island isolation that is linked to lower rates of natural dispersal and colonization on remote oceanic islands. However, during recent centuries, the anthropogenic introduction of alien…

22h

 

Protein evolution speed depends on its stability and abundance and on chaperone concentrations [Evolution]

Proteins evolve at different rates. What drives the speed of protein sequence changes? Two main factors are a protein’s folding stability and aggregation propensity. By combining the hydrophobic–polar (HP) model with the Zwanzig–Szabo–Bagchi rate theory, we find that: (i) Adaptation is strongly accelerated by selection pressure, explaining the broad variation…

22h

 

Telomere shortening is a hallmark of genetic cardiomyopathies [Genetics]

This study demonstrates that significantly shortened telomeres are a hallmark of cardiomyocytes (CMs) from individuals with end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as a result of heritable defects in cardiac proteins critical to contractile function. Positioned at the ends of chromosomes, telomeres are DNA repeats that serve as…

22h

 

Cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 are critical for initiation, but not for progression of hepatocellular carcinoma [Medical Sciences]

E-type cyclins E1 (CcnE1) and E2 (CcnE2) are regulatory subunits of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and thought to control the transition of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. Initial findings indicated that CcnE1 and CcnE2 have largely overlapping functions for cancer development in several tumor entities including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)….

22h

 

Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase catalytic subunit 2 limits Th17 differentiation [Medical Sciences]

Th17 cells favor glycolytic metabolism, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the key bifurcation enzyme, which in its active dephosphorylated form advances the oxidative phosphorylation from glycolytic pathway. The transcriptional factor, inducible cAMP early repressor/cAMP response element modulator (ICER/CREM), has been shown to be induced in Th17 cells and to be…

22h

 

Seroprevalence, risk factor, and spatial analyses of Zika virus infection after the 2016 epidemic in Managua, Nicaragua [Microbiology]

In 2015, a Zika epidemic in Brazil began spreading throughout the Americas. Zika virus (ZIKV) entered Managua, Nicaragua, in January 2016 and caused an epidemic that peaked in July–September 2016. ZIKV seropositivity was estimated among participants of pediatric (n = 3,740) and household (n = 2,147) cohort studies, including an…

22h

 

Maps of subjective feelings [Neuroscience]

Subjective feelings are a central feature of human life. We defined the organization and determinants of a feeling space involving 100 core feelings that ranged from cognitive and affective processes to somatic sensations and common illnesses. The feeling space was determined by a combination of basic dimension rating, similarity mapping,…

22h

 

Fear extinction reverses dendritic spine formation induced by fear conditioning in the mouse auditory cortex [Neuroscience]

Fear conditioning-induced behavioral responses can be extinguished after fear extinction. While fear extinction is generally thought to be a form of new learning, several lines of evidence suggest that neuronal changes associated with fear conditioning could be reversed after fear extinction. To better understand how fear conditioning and extinction modify…

22h

 

Neurobehavioral correlates of obesity are largely heritable [Neuroscience]

Recent molecular genetic studies have shown that the majority of genes associated with obesity are expressed in the central nervous system. Obesity has also been associated with neurobehavioral factors such as brain morphology, cognitive performance, and personality. Here, we tested whether these neurobehavioral factors were associated with the heritable variance…

22h

 

Lifetime dynamics of plasmons in the few-atom limit [Physics]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are essentially graphene in the subnanometer limit, typically consisting of 50 or fewer atoms. With the addition or removal of a single electron, these molecules can support molecular plasmon (collective) resonances in the visible region of the spectrum. Here, we probe the plasmon dynamics in…

22h

 

Anomalous Hall effect in Weyl semimetal half-Heusler compounds RPtBi (R = Gd and Nd) [Physics]

Topological materials ranging from topological insulators to Weyl and Dirac semimetals form one of the most exciting current fields in condensed-matter research. Many half-Heusler compounds, RPtBi (R = rare earth), have been theoretically predicted to be topological semimetals. Among various topological attributes envisaged in RPtBi, topological surface states, chiral anomaly,…

22h

 

Vanishing quantum oscillations in Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 [Physics]

One of the characteristics of topological materials is their nontrivial Berry phase. Experimental determination of this phase largely relies on a phase analysis of quantum oscillations. We study the angular dependence of the oscillations in a Dirac material ZrTe5 and observe a striking spin-zero effect (i.e., vanishing oscillations accompanied with…

22h

 

Multidimensional comparison of countries’ adaptation to societal aging [Political Sciences]

As long-term changes in life expectancy and fertility drive the emergence of aging societies across the globe, individual countries vary widely in the development of age-relevant policies and programs. While failure to adapt to the demographic transformation carries not only important financial risks but also social risks, most efforts to…

22h

 

Determinants of refugee naturalization in the United States [Political Sciences]

The United States operates the world’s largest refugee resettlement program. However, there is almost no systematic evidence on whether refugees successfully integrate into American society over the long run. We address this gap by drawing on linked administrative data to directly measure a long-term integration outcome: naturalization rates. Assessing the…

22h

 

Militarization fails to enhance police safety or reduce crime but may harm police reputation [Political Sciences]

The increasingly visible presence of heavily armed police units in American communities has stoked widespread concern over the militarization of local law enforcement. Advocates claim militarized policing protects officers and deters violent crime, while critics allege these tactics are targeted at racial minorities and erode trust in law enforcement. Using…

22h

 

Forecast accuracy hardly improves with method complexity when completing cohort fertility [Political Sciences]

Forecasts of completed fertility predict how many children will be born on average by women over their entire reproductive lifetime. These forecasts are important in informing public policy and influencing additional research in the social sciences. However, nothing is known about how to choose a forecasting method from a large…

22h

 

Serious games may improve physician heuristics in trauma triage [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Trauma triage depends on fallible human judgment. We created two “serious” video game training interventions to improve that judgment. The interventions’ central theoretical construct was the representativeness heuristic, which, in trauma triage, would mean judging the severity of an injury by how well it captures (or “represents”) the key features…

22h

 

The conceptual structure of face impressions [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Humans seamlessly infer the expanse of personality traits from others’ facial appearance. These facial impressions are highly intercorrelated within a structure known as “face trait space.” Research has extensively documented the facial features that underlie face impressions, thus outlining a bottom-up fixed architecture of face impressions, which cannot account for…

22h

 

Default mode network can support the level of detail in experience during active task states [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Regions of transmodal cortex, in particular the default mode network (DMN), have historically been argued to serve functions unrelated to task performance, in part because of associations with naturally occurring periods of off-task thought. In contrast, contemporary views of the DMN suggest it plays an integrative role in cognition that…

22h

 

Science and Culture: Raw data videos offer a glimpse into laboratory research [Social Sciences]

In one video, a pair of detached butterfly wings slowly change colors from pale yellow to dark spots with splashes of orange. In another, a mouse explores a raised circular platform, peering at a checkerboard pattern on the floor below. A third clip shows a worm undulating in a funnel-shaped…

22h

 

Exposure to opposing views on social media can increase political polarization [Social Sciences]

There is mounting concern that social media sites contribute to political polarization by creating “echo chambers” that insulate people from opposing views about current events. We surveyed a large sample of Democrats and Republicans who visit Twitter at least three times each week about a range of social policy issues….

22h

 

Projection pursuit in high dimensions [Statistics]

Projection pursuit is a classical exploratory data analysis method to detect interesting low-dimensional structures in multivariate data. Originally, projection pursuit was applied mostly to data of moderately low dimension. Motivated by contemporary applications, we here study its properties in high-dimensional settings. Specifically, we analyze the asymptotic properties of projection pursuit…

22h

 

Asymptotic theory of rerandomization in treatment-control experiments [Statistics]

Although complete randomization ensures covariate balance on average, the chance of observing significant differences between treatment and control covariate distributions increases with many covariates. Rerandomization discards randomizations that do not satisfy a predetermined covariate balance criterion, generally resulting in better covariate balance and more precise estimates of causal effect

22h

 

The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance [Sustainability Science]

This paper examines the effect of both cumulative and transitory exposures to air pollution for the same individuals over time on cognitive performance by matching a nationally representative longitudinal survey and air quality data in China according to the exact time and geographic locations of the cognitive tests. We find…

22h

 

Correction for Tsigkou et al., Engineered vascularized bone grafts [Correction]

APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Engineered vascularized bone grafts,” by Olga Tsigkou, Irina Pomerantseva, Joel A. Spencer, Patricia A. Redondo, Alison R. Hart, Elisabeth O’Doherty, Yunfeng Lin, Claudia C. Friedrich, Laurence Daheron, Charles P. Lin, Cathryn A. Sundback, Joseph P. Vacanti, and Craig Neville, which was first published February 2,…

22h

 

Correction for Tomasini et al., TAp73 regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint by modulating BubR1 activity [Correction]

CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “TAp73 regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint by modulating BubR1 activity,” by Richard Tomasini, Katsuya Tsuchihara, Chiharu Tsuda, Suzanne K. Lau, Margareta Wilhelm, Alessandro Ruffini, Ming-sound Tsao, Juan L. Iovanna, Andrea Jurisicova, Gerry Melino, and Tak W. Mak, which was first published January 12, 2009; 10.1073/pnas.0812096106 (Proc…

22h

 

Correction to Supporting Information for Delvendahl et al., Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling [SI Correction]

NEUROSCIENCE Correction to Supporting Information for “Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling,” by Igor Delvendahl, Lukasz Jablonski, Carolin Baade, Victor Matveev, Erwin Neher, and Stefan Hallermann, which was first published May 26, 2015; 10.1073/pnas.1508419112 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:E3075–E3084). The authors note that the legend for…

22h

 

Behold, a rocket launch from space

The perspective on this is quite novel. Read More

22h

 

New study gauges health of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

A Montana State University study of Yellowstone National Park and the surrounding area shows that increased population and density, as well as a changing climate, are affecting the overall ecological health of the region.

22h

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