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nyheder2019august21

New study highlights sociodemographic disparities in oral cancer screening rates

Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital led a study to examine oral cancer screening rates among those who had been to the dentist within two years, looking at whether sociodemographic factors such as income or race predicted differences in these rates. The team found that a significantly higher proportion of minority and low-income individuals reported that they had not received an OCS exam d

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Sikkerhedshul langt om længe lukket i populær spil-platform

Sikkerhedsbrist i den udbredte spil-platform Steam blev først anerkendt efter flere måneder. Ifølge eksperter er platformen nu sårbar overfor nyt angreb via samme teknik som den oprindelig sårbarhed.

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Trods affalds-forbrænding: Brændeovne er langt de største dioxin-syndere

PLUS. Brændeovnsrøg indeholder gennemsnitligt næsten 30 gange så meget dioxin som grænseværdien for affaldsforbrændinger. Paradoksalt nok udledes dioxinen, når du fyrer rigtigt.

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Nigeria to be last African nation declared polio-free

Wednesday marks three years since the last reported case on the continent

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'Spontaneous chemistry' may drive Alzheimer's

A new study asks whether subtle changes to the chemistry of proteins might explain why they build up in the brains of people with Alzheimer's.

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Welcome to The Deepest Hole on The Entire Planet

One of the most ambitious science experiments ever performed.

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Parallel transcriptomic changes in the origins of divergent monogamous vertebrates? [Letters (Online Only)]

Comparing the neural transcriptomes of 5 phylogenetically independent pairs of monogamous and nonmonogamous vertebrates, Young et al. (1) claim to have found evidence for “a universal transcriptomic mechanism underlying the evolution of monogamy in vertebrates.” They state that “while evolutionary divergence time between species or clades did not explain gene…

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Reply to Jiang and Zhang: Parallel transcriptomic signature of monogamy: What is the null hypothesis anyway? [Letters (Online Only)]

To explore whether parallel transcriptomic patterns underlie behavioral similarities across vertebrates, we compared the brain transcriptomes of 5 species pairs representing independent transitions to monogamy. We found similar expression patterns associated with monogamy across deep phylogenetic distances (1). In their letter (2), Jiang and Zhang reanalyze our publicly available data….

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Emotional contagion or sensitivity to behavior in ravens? [Letters (Online Only)]

I commend Adriaense et al. (1) for studying emotional contagion by cleverly using the judgment bias paradigm to assess emotional states in ravens who have experienced a manipulation vicariously. This construct is controversial, especially with regard to its relationship to empathy (2). Sensitivity to the behaviors of others does not…

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Reply to Vonk: Disentangling emotional contagion from its underlying causes [Letters (Online Only)]

We thank Vonk (1) for her interest in our paper (2) in PNAS. We appreciate her concerns; however, several comments in her Letter are already discussed and supported by data in our paper. We thus respectfully disagree with her claims about the limitations of our study and theoretical interpretation. Vonk…

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What was it like to live in a Japanese concentration camp?

Now that the issue of concentration camps in the U.S. has once again reared its head, it can be beneficial to recall the last time such camps were employed in the U.S. After Pearl Harbor, the U.S. incarcerated over 100,000 Japanese Americans in camps, ostensibly for national security purposes. In truth, the incarceration was primarily motivated by racism. What was life like in the U.S.'s concentr

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Jan-Michael Peters (IMP) 2: How do Cohesin and CTCF Fold DNA in Mammalian Genomes?

https://www.ibiology.org/cell-biology/cohesin The cohesin protein complex joins sister chromatids together before they are segregated during mitosis. In this talk, Dr. Peters presents evidence that cohesin also plays an important role in DNA folding and genome organization. Talk Overview: It has been known for many years that the protein cohesin is necessary to join sister chromatids together bef

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Jan-Michael Peters (IMP) 1: Cohesin: Roles Beyond Sister Chromatid Cohesion?

https://www.ibiology.org/cell-biology/cohesin The cohesin protein complex joins sister chromatids together before they are segregated during mitosis. In this talk, Dr. Peters presents evidence that cohesin also plays an important role in DNA folding and genome organization. Talk Overview: It has been known for many years that the protein cohesin is necessary to join sister chromatids together bef

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Fecal transplants to help save koalas

Fecal transplants are helping expand koala microbiomes, allowing the marsupials to eat a wider range of eucalypts and possibly survive habitat loss. A study has analyzed and altered microbes in koalas' guts, finding that a fecal transplant may influence what species of eucalypt koalas can feed on.

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New rapid DNA test to diagnose chlamydia infection in koalas

A new DNA test to detect chlamydia infection in koalas which gives on-the-spot results within 30 minutes has been developed in a collaboration between researchers in Brisbane, Australia.

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Vehicle exhaust pollutants linked to near doubling in risk of common eye condition

Long term exposure to pollutants from vehicle exhaust is linked to a heightened risk of the common eye condition age-related macular degeneration, or AMD for short, suggests new research.

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Antibiotic use linked to heightened bowel cancer risk

Antibiotic use (pills/capsules) is linked to a heightened risk of bowel (colon) cancer, but a lower risk of rectal cancer, and depends, to some extent, on the type and class of drug prescribed, suggests new research.

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Lifestyle counselling and mobile application helped people change their lifestyle

Finnish StopDia study yielded promising preliminary results in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle guidance in a group and application that supports the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits helped participants to reduce their waist circumference and improve their dietary habits. For example, their fruit and vegetable consumption increased.

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Poo transplants to help save koalas

Poo transplants are helping expand koala microbiomes, allowing the marsupials to eat a wider range of eucalypts and possibly survive habitat loss.A study featuring University of Queensland researchers has analysed and altered microbes in koalas' guts, finding that a faecal transplant may influence what species of eucalypt koalas can feed on.

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Wearable sensor detects what your sweat is saying

Wearable skin sensors that detect what’s in your sweat could one day replace invasive procedures like blood draws and provide real-time updates on dehydration, fatigue, and other health problems. Researchers used the sensors to monitor the sweat rate , and the electrolytes and metabolites in sweat, from volunteers who were exercising, and others who were experiencing chemically induced perspirati

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Does the future of farming exist beneath city streets?

In a disused air raid shelter one company is growing crops, but what are the pros and cons of vertical farming?

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G7 summit: Inside the climate activist training camp

Campaign groups in France are teaching people how to protest effectively, ahead of the G7 summit.

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Former Farc rebels become eco-warriors to stop deforestation in the Amazon

Ex-Farc rebels in Colombia, who spent decades fighting the government over land and power, have reinvented themselves as eco-warriors protecting the Amazon from illegal logging.

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SPONSORED: Launching the 'Space & Beyond' Subscription Box

I was 14 years old when I first saw Saturn through a telescope, its rings glowing a vibrant yellow-orange. In that moment, the seemingly two-dimensional landscape of Earth’s surface was irreversibly transformed. From then on, I was hooked on the night sky. I was no longer just a kid from suburban Ohio, I was a resident of a vast cosmos waiting to be explored. Who knew that you could just walk into

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It’ll be hard, but we can feed the world with plant protein

submitted by /u/PinkLouie [link] [comments]

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Lifestyle counselling and mobile application helped people change their lifestyle habits

'The wife urged me to come' — Finnish StopDia study yielded promising preliminary results in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes.

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Do X-ray spectroscopies provide evidence for continuous distribution models of water at ambient conditions? [Letters (Online Only)]

Ambient water properties have been shown to require heterogeneity (1). Niskanen et al. (2) apply a linear relationship between the intensity of the 4a1 excitation in an electron energy loss spectroscopy gas-phase spectrum and the preedge in water and ice from X-ray Raman scattering to extract the number of hydrogen…

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Reply to Pettersson et al.: Why X-ray spectral features are compatible to continuous distribution models in ambient water [Letters (Online Only)]

“Ambient water properties have been shown to require heterogeneity” (1) is the imperative followed by Pettersson et al. (2) to relate X-ray spectroscopic findings to a heterogeneous or 2-phase model of ambient water. In ref. 3 we question this hypothesis based on quantitative X-ray spectroscopic evidence. We come to conclude…

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Divergent allocation of sperm and the seminal proteome along a competition gradient in Drosophila melanogaster [Evolution]

Sperm competition favors large, costly ejaculates, and theory predicts the evolution of allocation strategies that enable males to plastically tailor ejaculate expenditure to sperm competition threat. While greater sperm transfer in response to a perceived increase in the risk of sperm competition is well-supported, we have a poor understanding of…

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Interaction specificity of clustered protocadherins inferred from sequence covariation and structural analysis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Clustered protocadherins, a large family of paralogous proteins that play important roles in neuronal development, provide an important case study of interaction specificity in a large eukaryotic protein family. A mammalian genome has more than 50 clustered protocadherin isoforms, which have remarkable homophilic specificity for interactions between cellular surfaces. A…

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Origins of the concepts cause, cost, and goal in prereaching infants [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

We investigated the origins and interrelations of causal knowledge and knowledge of agency in 3-month-old infants, who cannot yet effect changes in the world by reaching for, grasping, and picking up objects. Across 5 experiments, n = 152 prereaching infants viewed object-directed reaches that varied in efficiency (following the shortest…

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The iron-regulated vacuolar Legionella pneumophila MavN protein is a transition-metal transporter [Biochemistry]

Legionella pneumophila causes a potentially fatal form of pneumonia by replicating within macrophages in the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Bacterial survival and proliferation within the LCV rely on hundreds of secreted effector proteins comprising high functional redundancy. The vacuolar membrane-localized MavN, hypothesized to support iron transport, is unique among effectors because…

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Disintermediating your friends: How online dating in the United States displaces other ways of meeting [Social Sciences]

We present data from a nationally representative 2017 survey of American adults. For heterosexual couples in the United States, meeting online has become the most popular way couples meet, eclipsing meeting through friends for the first time around 2013. Moreover, among the couples who meet online, the proportion who have…

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A conserved but plant-specific CDK-mediated regulation of DNA replication protein A2 in the precise control of stomatal terminal division [Plant Biology]

The R2R3-MYB transcription factor FOUR LIPS (FLP) controls the stomatal terminal division through transcriptional repression of the cell cycle genes CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE (CDK) B1s (CDKB1s), CDKA;1, and CYCLIN A2s (CYCA2s). We mutagenized the weak mutant allele flp-1 seeds with ethylmethane sulfonate and screened out a flp-1 suppressor 1 (fsp1) that…

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Runx1 promotes murine erythroid progenitor proliferation and inhibits differentiation by preventing Pu.1 downregulation [Cell Biology]

Pu.1 is an ETS family transcription factor (TF) that plays critical roles in erythroid progenitors by promoting proliferation and blocking terminal differentiation. However, the mechanisms controlling expression and down-regulation of Pu.1 during early erythropoiesis have not been defined. In this study, we identify the actions of Runx1 and Pu.1 itself…

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Role of soluble endoglin in BMP9 signaling [Biochemistry]

Endoglin (ENG) is a coreceptor of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family signaling complex, which is highly expressed on endothelial cells and plays a key role in angiogenesis. Its extracellular domain can be cleaved and released into the circulation as soluble ENG (sENG). High circulating levels of sENG contribute to…

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Gangliosides interact with synaptotagmin to form the high-affinity receptor complex for botulinum neurotoxin B [Pharmacology]

Botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) recognizes nerve terminals by binding to 2 receptor components: a polysialoganglioside, predominantly GT1b, and synaptotagmin 1/2. It is widely thought that BoNT/B initially binds to GT1b then diffuses in the plane of the membrane to interact with synaptotagmin. We have addressed the hypothesis that a…

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Robust computation with rhythmic spike patterns [Neuroscience]

Information coding by precise timing of spikes can be faster and more energy efficient than traditional rate coding. However, spike-timing codes are often brittle, which has limited their use in theoretical neuroscience and computing applications. Here, we propose a type of attractor neural network in complex state space and show…

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Correlations between social dominance orientation and political attitudes reflect common genetic underpinnings [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

A foundational question in the social sciences concerns the interplay of underlying causes in the formation of people’s political beliefs and prejudices. What role, if any, do genes, environmental influences, or personality dispositions play? Social dominance orientation (SDO), an influential index of people’s general attitudes toward intergroup hierarchy, correlates robustly…

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Sequential localization of a complex electron fluid [Physics]

Complex and correlated quantum systems with promise for new functionality often involve entwined electronic degrees of freedom. In such materials, highly unusual properties emerge and could be the result of electron localization. Here, a cubic heavy fermion metal governed by spins and orbitals is chosen as a model system for…

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Horizontal gene transfer overrides mutation in Escherichia coli colonizing the mammalian gut [Evolution]

Bacteria evolve by mutation accumulation in laboratory experiments, but tempo and mode of evolution in natural environments are largely unknown. Here, we study the ubiquitous natural process of host colonization by commensal bacteria. We show, by experimental evolution of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine, that the ecology of the…

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AP3M harbors actin filament binding activity that is crucial for vacuole morphology and stomatal closure in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

Stomatal movement is essential for plant growth. This process is precisely regulated by various cellular activities in guard cells. F-actin dynamics and vacuole morphology are both involved in stomatal movement. The sorting of cargoes by clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes from the Golgi to the vacuole is critical for establishing…

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Recognition with metallo cavitands [Chemistry]

We describe here the effects of metal complexation on the molecular recognition behavior of cavitands with quinoxaline walls. The nitrogen atoms of the quinoxalines are near the upper rim of the vase-like shape and treatment with Pd(II) gave 2:1 metal:cavitand derivatives. Characterization by 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy, HR ESI-MS, and…

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Awakening: Predicting external stimulation to force transitions between different brain states [Neuroscience]

A fundamental problem in systems neuroscience is how to force a transition from one brain state to another by external driven stimulation in, for example, wakefulness, sleep, coma, or neuropsychiatric diseases. This requires a quantitative and robust definition of a brain state, which has so far proven elusive. Here, we…

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The Drosophila Trpm channel mediates calcium influx during egg activation [Developmental Biology]

Egg activation is the process in which mature oocytes are released from developmental arrest and gain competency for embryonic development. In Drosophila and other arthropods, eggs are activated by mechanical pressure in the female reproductive tract, whereas in most other species, eggs are activated by fertilization. Despite the difference in…

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Disrupted mechanobiology links the molecular and cellular phenotypes in familial dilated cardiomyopathy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death and a major indicator for heart transplant. The disease is frequently caused by mutations of sarcomeric proteins; however, it is not well understood how these molecular mutations lead to alterations in cellular organization and contractility. To address this…

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Inhibitory interneurons mediate autism-associated behaviors via 4E-BP2 [Neuroscience]

Translational control plays a key role in regulation of neuronal activity and behavior. Deletion of the translational repressor 4E-BP2 in mice alters excitatory and inhibitory synaptic functions, engendering autistic-like behaviors. The contribution of 4E-BP2-dependent translational control in excitatory and inhibitory neurons and astrocytic cells to these behaviors remains unknown. To…

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Power-law tail in lag time distribution underlies bacterial persistence [Microbiology]

Genetically identical microbial cells respond to stress heterogeneously, and this phenotypic heterogeneity contributes to population survival. Quantitative analysis of phenotypic heterogeneity can reveal dynamic features of stochastic mechanisms that generate heterogeneity. Additionally, it can enable a priori prediction of population dynamics, elucidating microbial survival strategies. Here, we q

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Peroxidase evolution in white-rot fungi follows wood lignin evolution in plants [Evolution]

A comparison of sequenced Agaricomycotina genomes suggests that efficient degradation of wood lignin was associated with the appearance of secreted peroxidases with a solvent-exposed catalytic tryptophan. This hypothesis is experimentally demonstrated here by resurrecting ancestral fungal peroxidases, after sequence reconstruction from genomes of extant white-rot Polyporales, and evaluating their

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Developmental plasticity of epithelial stem cells in tooth and taste bud renewal [Developmental Biology]

In Lake Malawi cichlids, each tooth is replaced in one-for-one fashion every ∼20 to 50 d, and taste buds (TBs) are continuously renewed as in mammals. These structures are colocalized in the fish mouth and throat, from the point of initiation through adulthood. Here, we found that replacement teeth (RT)…

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Cell-to-cell interaction requires optimal positioning of a pilus tip adhesin modulated by gram-positive transpeptidase enzymes [Microbiology]

Assembly of pili on the gram-positive bacterial cell wall involves 2 conserved transpeptidase enzymes named sortases: One for polymerization of pilin subunits and another for anchoring pili to peptidoglycan. How this machine controls pilus length and whether pilus length is critical for cell-to-cell interactions remain unknown. We report here in…

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Identification of a uranium-rhodium triple bond in a heterometallic cluster [Chemistry]

The chemistry of d-block metal–metal multiple bonds has been extensively investigated in the past 5 decades. However, the synthesis and characterization of species with f-block metal–metal multiple bonds are significantly more challenging and such species remain extremely rare. Here, we report the identification of a uranium–rhodium triple bond in a…

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Signatures of replication timing, recombination, and sex in the spectrum of rare variants on the human X chromosome and autosomes [Evolution]

The sources of human germline mutations are poorly understood. Part of the difficulty is that mutations occur very rarely, and so direct pedigree-based approaches remain limited in the numbers that they can examine. To address this problem, we consider the spectrum of low-frequency variants in a dataset (Genome Aggregation Database,…

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Site-specific impairment of perivascular adipose tissue on advanced atherosclerotic plaques using multimodal nonlinear optical imaging [Applied Biological Sciences]

Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), as a mechanical support, has been reported to systemically regulate vascular physiology by secreting adipokines and cytokines. How PVAT spatially and locally changes as atherosclerosis progresses is not known, however. We aimed to reveal the molecular changes in PVAT in advanced atherosclerosis based on multimodal nonlinear…

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An asymmetry that leads to activity [Commentaries]

A defining characteristic of all retroviruses is the ability to undergo reverse transcription, allowing for the viral RNA genome’s conversion from single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA, enabling subsequent integration into the host genome, and thereby resulting in infection (1). This process is catalyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme discovered…

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Plants obey (and disobey) the island rule [Ecology]

The island rule predicts that small animals evolve to become larger on islands, while large animals evolve to become smaller. It has been studied for over half a century, and its validity is fiercely debated. Here, we provide a perspective on the debate by conducting a test of the island…

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Correction for Yang et al., Leveraging abscisic acid receptors for efficient water use in Arabidopsis [Corrections]

PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for “Leveraging abscisic acid receptors for efficient water use in Arabidopsis,” by Zhenyu Yang, Jinghui Liu, Stefanie V. Tischer, Alexander Christmann, Wilhelm Windisch, Hans Schnyder, and Erwin Grill, which was first published May 31, 2016; 10.1073/pnas.1601954113 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 6791–6796). The authors wish to…

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Mapping visual symbols onto spoken language along the ventral visual stream [Neuroscience]

Reading involves transforming arbitrary visual symbols into sounds and meanings. This study interrogated the neural representations in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) that support this transformation process. Twenty-four adults learned to read 2 sets of 24 novel words that shared phonemes and semantic categories but were written in different artificial orthographies….

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Tissue-specific geometry and chemistry of modern and fossilized melanosomes reveal internal anatomy of extinct vertebrates [Evolution]

Recent discoveries of nonintegumentary melanosomes in extant and fossil amphibians offer potential insights into the physiological functions of melanin not directly related to color production, but the phylogenetic distribution and evolutionary history of these internal melanosomes has not been characterized systematically. Here, we present a holistic method to discriminate among…

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A unique variant of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus that induces pheromone binding protein MUP: Critical role for CTL [Microbiology]

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) WE variant 2.2 (v2.2) generated a high level of the major mouse urinary protein: MUP. Mice infected with LCMV WE v54, which differed from v2.2 by a single amino acid in the viral glycoprotein, failed to generate MUP above baseline levels found in uninfected controls. Variant…

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Parkinson’s disease is a type of amyloidosis featuring accumulation of amyloid fibrils of {alpha}-synuclein [Medical Sciences]

Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates in the brain. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), α-synuclein (α-syn) forms such aggregates called Lewy bodies (LBs). Recently, it has been reported that aggregates of α-syn with a cross-β structure are capable of propagating within the brain in a…

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Repurposing off-the-shelf antihelix antibodies for enabling structural biology [Commentaries]

Antibodies are among the most impactful reagents in biological research and medicine. Both the immune system and recent advancements in antibody engineering technology are capable of generating potent and selective antibodies to virtually any antigen. In structural biology, antibodies and other types of engineered target-binding proteins, collectively termed “binders” hereafter,…

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A kleptoplastidic dinoflagellate and the tipping point between transient and fully integrated plastid endosymbiosis [Evolution]

Plastid endosymbiosis has been a major force in the evolution of eukaryotic cellular complexity, but how endosymbionts are integrated is still poorly understood at a mechanistic level. Dinoflagellates, an ecologically important protist lineage, represent a unique model to study this process because dinoflagellate plastids have repeatedly been reduced, lost, and…

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A large-scale analysis of task switching practice effects across the lifespan [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

An important feature of human cognition is the ability to flexibly and efficiently adapt behavior in response to continuously changing contextual demands. We leverage a large-scale dataset from Lumosity, an online cognitive-training platform, to investigate how cognitive processes involved in cued switching between tasks are affected by level of task…

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On the evolution and physiology of cable bacteria [Microbiology]

Cable bacteria of the family Desulfobulbaceae form centimeter-long filaments comprising thousands of cells. They occur worldwide in the surface of aquatic sediments, where they connect sulfide oxidation with oxygen or nitrate reduction via long-distance electron transport. In the absence of pure cultures, we used single-filament genomics and metagenomics to retrieve…

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Proglacial freshwaters are significant and previously unrecognized sinks of atmospheric CO2 [Environmental Sciences]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from freshwater ecosystems are almost universally predicted to increase with climate warming. Glacier-fed rivers and lakes, however, differ critically from those in nonglacierized catchments in that they receive little terrestrial input of organic matter for decomposition and CO2 production, and transport large quantities of easily mobilized…

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Correction for Wu et al., Wettability effect on nanoconfined water flow [Corrections]

ENGINEERING Correction for “Wettability effect on nanoconfined water flow,” by Keliu Wu, Zhangxin Chen, Jing Li, Xiangfang Li, Jinze Xu, and Xiaohu Dong, which was first published March 13, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1612608114 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, 3358–3363). The authors note that the reference to a previously published version of…

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Correction for Piccardo et al., Radio frequency transmitter based on a laser frequency comb [Corrections]

APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Radio frequency transmitter based on a laser frequency comb,” by Marco Piccardo, Michele Tamagnone, Benedikt Schwarz, Paul Chevalier, Noah A. Rubin, Yongrui Wang, Christine A. Wang, Michael K. Connors, Daniel McNulty, Alexey Belyanin, and Federico Capasso, which was first published April 24, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1903534116 (Proc….

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Abiotic methane synthesis and serpentinization in olivine-hosted fluid inclusions [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The conditions of methane (CH4) formation in olivine-hosted secondary fluid inclusions and their prevalence in peridotite and gabbroic rocks from a wide range of geological settings were assessed using confocal Raman spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and thermodynamic modeling. Detailed examination of 160 samples from ultraslow-…

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Biomineralization by particle attachment in early animals [Evolution]

Crystallization by particle attachment (CPA) of amorphous precursors has been demonstrated in modern biomineralized skeletons across a broad phylogenetic range of animals. Precisely the same precursors, hydrated (ACC-H2O) and anhydrous calcium carbonate (ACC), have been observed spectromicroscopically in echinoderms, mollusks, and cnidarians, phyla drawn from the 3 major clades of…

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Correction for Shpigler et al., Deep evolutionary conservation of autism-related genes [Corrections]

EVOLUTION Correction for “Deep evolutionary conservation of autism-related genes,” by Hagai Y. Shpigler, Michael C. Saul, Frida Corona, Lindsey Block, Amy Cash Ahmed, Sihai D. Zhao, and Gene E. Robinson, which was first published July 31, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1708127114 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, 9653–9658). The authors note that on…

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Makes caterpillars floppy-like effector-containing MARTX toxins require host ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) proteins for systemic pathogenicity [Microbiology]

Upon invading target cells, multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins secreted by bacterial pathogens release their disease-related modularly structured effector domains. However, it is unclear how a diverse repertoire of effector domains within these toxins are processed and activated. Here, we report that Makes caterpillars floppy-like effector (MCF)-containing MARTX toxins

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Nuclear safety in the unexpected second nuclear era [Engineering]

Nuclear energy development has entered an unexpected second nuclear era, which is mainly driven by developing countries. Despite major efforts to pursue a safe nuclear energy system in the first nuclear era, severe nuclear accidents occurred. A basic problem is that we do not have an adequate understanding of nuclear…

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Birch tar production does not prove Neanderthal behavioral complexity [Anthropology]

Birch tar production by Neanderthals—used for hafting tools—has been interpreted as one of the earliest manifestations of modern cultural behavior. This is because birch tar production per se was assumed to require a cognitively demanding setup, in which birch bark is heated in anaerobic conditions, a setup whose inherent complexity…

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A high-throughput system to identify inhibitors of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus transcription regulators [Microbiology]

Citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing (HLB), is the most devastating disease of Citrus worldwide. This incurable disease is caused primarily by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and spread by feeding of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Ca. L. asiaticus cannot be cultured; its growth is restricted to…

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Global change effects on plant communities are magnified by time and the number of global change factors imposed [Ecology]

Global change drivers (GCDs) are expected to alter community structure and consequently, the services that ecosystems provide. Yet, few experimental investigations have examined effects of GCDs on plant community structure across multiple ecosystem types, and those that do exist present conflicting patterns. In an unprecedented global synthesis of over 100…

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Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B variants affect viral entry, cell fusion, and genome stability [Microbiology]

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), like many other DNA viruses, can cause genome instability and activate a DNA damage response (DDR). Activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a kinase activated by DNA breaks, is a hallmark of the HCMV-induced DDR. Here we investigated the activation of caspase-2, an initiator caspase activated in response…

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Large-scale identification of pathogen essential genes during coinfection with sympatric and allopatric microbes [Microbiology]

Recent evidence suggests that the genes an organism needs to survive in an environment drastically differ when alone or in a community. However, it is not known if there are universal functions that enable microbes to persist in a community and if there are functions specific to interactions between microbes…

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Risk attitudes and personality traits of entrepreneurs and venture team members [Economic Sciences]

Personality distinctions between entrepreneurs, nonfounder CEOs/leaders, and inventor employees have received limited attention, especially in innovative settings where they are working together. We surveyed these groups, along with other employees of innovative firms, at 4 locations of a prominent innovation and coworking center. Entrepreneurs display the greatest tolerance of risk,…

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A primarily serial, foveal accumulator underlies approximate numerical estimation [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

The approximate number system (ANS) has attracted broad interest due to its potential importance in early mathematical development and the fact that it is conserved across species. Models of the ANS and behavioral measures of ANS acuity both assume that quantity estimation is computed rapidly and in parallel across an…

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Private prayer may boost memory for adults over 50

People over 50 who attend religious services and pray privately may notice better memory performance, researchers report. According to the study’s findings, frequent religious service attendance and private prayer was linked to stronger cognitive health among blacks, Hispanics, and whites. Previous research has shown religious involvement benefits physical and mental health of older minority adul

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Blow to 10,000-hour rule as study finds practice doesn't always make perfect

Research of violinists undermines popular idea as average players practise more than best ones With blatant disregard for the public benefits of motivational idioms, researchers have concluded that practice does not, necessarily, make perfect. A study of violinists found that merely good players practised as much as, if not more than, better players, leaving other factors such as quality of tuiti

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World's first link layer protocol brings quantum internet closer to a reality

Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. A team led by Professor Stephanie Wehner has developed a so-called link layer protocol that brings the phenomenon of quantum entanglement from experimental physics to a real-world quantum network. This brings closer the day when quantum internet can become a reality, delivering applications that are impossible to

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Why Slavoj Zizek thinks political correctness is dumb

Slavoj Zizek is a well-known opponent of political correctness and has often critiqued the concept. He doesn't suggest anybody should go around uttering slurs for the sake of it though. His stance led him to agree with Jordan Peterson at their famed debate. Slavoj Zizek is a well-known philosopher and cultural critic; loved as much for his eccentricities and provocative statements as his thought.

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Mathematical framework turns any sheet of material into any shape using kirigami cuts

Researchers have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).

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Sony comments on Spider-Man possibly leaving the Marvel Cinematic Universe – CNET

Sony is "disappointed" but respects Disney's decision.

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Walmart sues Tesla over string of solar panel fires at its stores

In a complaint filed Wednesday in New York court, Wal-Mart alleged Tesla solar panels had caught fire at least seven times dating back to 2012.

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High blood pressure in your 40s linked to smaller brain size at 70

People with high blood pressure in their 40s seem to have smaller brains at age 70, suggesting that looking after your health may help prevent some forms of dementia

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A lack of self control during adolescence is not uniquely human

Impulsiveness in adolescence isn't just a phase, it's biology. And despite all the social factors that define our teen years, the human brain and the brains of other primates go through very similar changes, particularly in the areas that affect self-control.

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Quitting smoking associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease

Heavy cigarette smokers with at least a 20 pack-year smoking history can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by 39% within five years if they quit, according to a new study.

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To make lakes healthy, you first need the right recipe

Pollution of lakes is a worldwide problem. Restoration attempts take a lot of time and effort, and even then they might backfire. A team of researchers suggests a different approach. First, you have to determine to which of four different types your lake belongs. Spatial differences are the key to a successful restoration recipe.

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Cancer survivors likely to face increase in long-term risk of cardiovascular disease

Survivors from a wide range of cancers could experience increased risks of heart disease and blood circulation problems compared to those who have never had cancer, according to new estimates published in the Lancet.

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Lifelong study links early blood pressure change to poorer brain health

Changes in blood pressure in those as young as 36 are linked to markers of poorer brain health in later life, finds UCL-led research involving participants of Britain's oldest running birth cohort study.

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The Lancet Neurology: High blood pressure and rising blood pressure between ages 36-53 are associated with smaller brain volume and white matter lesions in later years

A study of the world's oldest, continuously-studied birth cohort tracked blood pressure from early adulthood through to late life and explored its influence on brain pathologies detected using brain scanning in their early 70s.

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Doctors tell parents too late that their child is near death, survey suggests

Doctors tell parents too late that their child is near death, suggest the results of a small survey, published online in the journal BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care.

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Vehicle exhaust pollutants linked to near doubling in risk of common eye condition

Long term exposure to pollutants from vehicle exhaust is linked to a heightened risk of the common eye condition age-related macular degeneration, or AMD for short, suggests research published online in the Journal of Investigative Medicine.

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Antibiotic use linked to heightened bowel cancer risk

Antibiotic use (pills/capsules) is linked to a heightened risk of bowel (colon) cancer, but a lower risk of rectal cancer, and depends, to some extent, on the type and class of drug prescribed, suggests research published online in the journal Gut.

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Lung cell transplant boosts healing after the flu in mice

A serious case of the flu can cause lasting damage to the lungs. In a study in mice, researchers found that transplanting cells from the lungs of healthy animals enhanced healing in others that had had a severe respiratory infection.

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Mathematical framework turns any sheet of material into any shape using kirigami cuts

Researchers have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).

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Toolkit could improve detection and management of iron deficiency in pregnancy

Iron deficiency in pregnancy is a common problem that often goes unrecognized and untreated due to a lack of knowledge of its implications and competing clinical priorities. To enhance screening and management of iron deficiency in pregnancy, a research team has developed a quality improvement toolkit, called IRON MOM. The implementation of IRON MOM resulted in increased rates of ferritin testing

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Rise of dinosaurs linked to increasing oxygen levels

Scientists have found that increasing oxygen levels are linked to the rise of North American dinosaurs around 215 million years ago. A new technique for measuring oxygen levels in ancient rocks shows that oxygen levels in North American rocks leaped by nearly a third in just a couple of million years, possibly setting the scene for a dinosaur expansion into the tropics of North America and elsewhe

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Scientists unpick the history of Western France, written in 300-million-year-old rainwater

For the first time scientists have been able to reconstruct the chemical composition of rainwater from 300-million-year-old minerals, allowing them to unpick some of the history of Brittany and Western France since the rain fell in the late Carboniferous period, just before the time of the dinosaurs. The results point to the area being mountainous and originally located close to the Equator. This

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New research links air pollution to increased risk of depression and bipolar disorder

Poor air quality is associated with an array of health harms. (Pixabay/) Over the past decade, researchers have identified dozens of genes that are associated with risk for conditions like bipolar disorder and depression. However, genetics can only explain a small portion of a person’s risk of developing a disease, sending researchers searching for other factors that could contribute. Air polluti

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Scientists unpack the history of Western France, written in 300 million year old rainwater

For the first time scientists have been able to reconstruct the chemical composition of rainwater from 300 million year old minerals, allowing them to unpack some of the history of Brittany and Western France since the rain fell in the late Carboniferous period, just before the time of the dinosaurs. The results point to the area being mountainous and originally located close to the Equator. This

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Rise of dinosaurs linked to increasing oxygen levels

Scientists have found that increasing oxygen levels are linked to the rise of North American dinosaurs around 215 M years ago. A new technique for measuring oxygen levels in ancient rocks shows that oxygen levels in North American rocks leapt by nearly a third in just a couple of million years, possibly setting the scene for a dinosaur expansion into the tropics of North America and elsewhere. Thi

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Facebook’s New Privacy Feature Comes With a Loophole

"Off-Facebook Activity" will give users more control over their data, but Facebook needs up to 48 hours to aggregate your information into a format it can share with advertisers.

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Just seven really excellent pens

Pens for every occasion. (Aaron Burden via Unsplash/) Given how ubiquitous smartphones are, it’s not hard to imagine why handwriting is in decline. Yet, no matter how tech-oriented we’ve become, you’ll likely still need to jot down a few notes here and there. If you’re looking for a new favorite pen, here are a few great options. Keep in mind how thick the tip is, as well as what kind of ink it u

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Laptop backpacks for your office on-the-go

Great knapsacks to keep your laptop and other daily supplies. (Jake Ingle via Unsplash/) There are as many different types of backpacks as there are uses for them. Yet, when it comes to objects that help carry other objects, form so often compromises function. For example, design elements like thin straps may be fashionable but will be uncomfortable sooner or later. If you’ve been meaning to swap

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7 tips on how to boost creativity in the workplace

Creativity in the workplace requires flexibility and a strong company culture. Experts encourage lateral thinking and meditation. A diverse and inclusive company also spurs creativity. Letting creativity reign in the workplace is key to establishing an engaged and innovative workforce. The introduction of new ideas and new ways of doing things maximizes workers' well-being and encourages them to

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Yet another American divide: 'crunk' vs 'bible studies'

America is a divided nation, but perhaps its divisions are as much in the eye of the beholder. This map charts the geographic fault lines between 'crazy drunk' America and 'bible study' America. Strangely, Las Vegas falls in the latter category – and Salt Lake City in the former. American fault line America is not one nation – not even two, but a seemingly endless procession of opposites: red vs.

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The Atlantic Politics & Policy Daily: Taxing Times

Were you forwarded this email? Sign yourself up here. We have many other free email newsletters on a variety of other topics. Browse the full list. What We’re Following Today It’s Tuesday, August 20. Trump Has Economic Anxiety: Yesterday, President Donald Trump accused members of the media, and later Democrats, for rooting for an economic recession. And today, Trump confirmed that he’s “been thin

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France’s Solar Road Is a Complete Failure

Inauguration Wattway 16_06_2018 Remember solar roads? Five years ago, the idea of building insanely expensive solar panels on the ground and driving pollution-spewing vehicles over them was all the rage. Scientists pointed out the obvious flaws. A flat surface that can’t tilt or move to capture sunlight doesn’t hit very high-efficiency targets. Driving pollution-spewing vehicles over the solar pa

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Origin of massive methane reservoir identified

New research from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) published Aug. 19, 2019, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science provides evidence of the formation and abundance of abiotic methane—methane formed by chemical reactions that don't involve organic matter—on Earth and shows how the gases could have a similar origin on other planets and moons, even those no longer home to li

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Smoke from Burning Amazon Turns São Paulo Afternoon into Midnight

There's so much smoke from wildfires in the Amazon rainforest that São Paulo plunged into darkness on Monday afternoon (Aug. 19), with day turning into night.

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The Racism of Carl Jung

The Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung (1875-1961) was one of the best-known psychologists of the 20th century. He introduced such famous concepts as introverted and extraverted personalities, and the idea of the psychological 'complex'. Today, Jungian or analytical psychology retains an active community. But a recently published Open Letter from a number of prominent Jungians points to troubles within

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Astronomers Discover a Second Giant Planet In a Nearby Star System

Beta Pictoris c, the large planet in the foreground of this artist’s concept, orbits the star Beta Pictoris much more closely than Beta Pictoris b, which is a similarly massive planet located farther out in the system. (Credit: P. Rubini/A.M. Lagrange) The Beta Pictoris system swirls with activity — a dusty disk of debris, comets falling toward the central star, and at least one giant planet. And

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Pollution May Be a Hidden Factor in Mental Illness, Study Finds

(Credit: Shutterstock) The roots of mental illness are still a mystery. But researchers think our mental health is shaped by a combination of factors, like genetics, our developmental environment and our life experiences. But there’s one factor that scientists say may have gone unnoticed. It appears that where we live, and how polluted it is, can increase our likelihood of developing a mental illn

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Florida’s Panthers Hit With Mysterious Crippling Disorder

State wildlife officials are sharing video of disabled animals in an effort to identify the ailment and save the beloved, endangered cats.

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The FCC created an online index for known phone scams

This may is upset, perhaps because he was the victim of a cramming scam. (Bruce Mars (via Pexels)/) It's worryingly simple to get scammed if you're not careful. Even if you're a relatively tech-savvy person, the sheer volume of grifts out there, most of which aim to pry your money or personal information away from you via phone, can be hard to navigate. The FCC recently added a Scam Glossary to i

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The Dangers of Vaping, a Texas Ransomware Attack, and More News

Catch up on the most important news from today in two minutes or less.

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Lung cell transplant boosts healing after the flu in mice

A serious case of the flu can cause lasting damage to the lungs. In a study in mice, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and colleagues found that transplanting cells from the lungs of healthy animals enhanced healing in others that had had a severe respiratory infection.

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Fluoride Exposure During Pregnancy Linked to Lower IQ in Sons

The authors of the study that found the association say more research is needed on maternal fluoride and child IQ.

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Disney+ Brandishes Its Weapon: An Infinity Gauntlet of Brands

While everyone else was yelling about chicken sandwiches, Disney assembled its forces to fire the first shot in the Streaming Wars.

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Trump’s Phone Calls With Wayne LaPierre Reveal NRA’s Influence

Three days after a pair of mass shootings in Ohio and Texas that left 31 people dead, President Donald Trump was preoccupied with visions of a Rose Garden ceremony. His daughter and senior adviser, Ivanka Trump, had proposed the idea of a televised Rose Garden appearance as a way to nudge her father toward supporting universal background checks. The president had recently suggested he was open to

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Alarm as Devastating Banana Fungus Reaches the Americas

The region produces most of the world’s banana exports—and the fungus affects the most popular commercial variety — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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To make lakes healthy, you first need the right recipe

Pollution of lakes is a worldwide problem. Restoration attempts take a lot of time and effort, and even then they might backfire. A team of researchers led by the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) suggests a different approach. First, you have to determine to which of four different types your lake belongs, they write in the August issue of Science of the Total Environment. Spatial diff

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Origin of massive methane reservoir identified

New research provides evidence of the formation and abundance of abiotic methane — methane formed by chemical reactions that don't involve organic matter — on Earth and shows how the gases could have a similar origin on other planets and moons, even those no longer home to liquid water.

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Elon Musk Wants Newt Gingrich’s $2 Billion Moon Payout

Space Race 2.0 Elon Musk is very excited at the prospect of a new race to the Moon, calling Newt Gingrich’s proposed contest “ a great idea .” But let’s back up. On Monday, Politico reported that former House Speaker Newt Gingrich has been pitching a new space race contest for private companies to Donald Trump and other government officials. The gist: a $2 billion prize goes to whichever company

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Origin of massive methane reservoir identified

New research provides evidence of the formation and abundance of abiotic methane — methane formed by chemical reactions that don't involve organic matter — on Earth and shows how the gases could have a similar origin on other planets and moons, even those no longer home to liquid water.

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Laser printing technology: Creating the perfect bioprinter

Scientists from Russia, China, and the US have drawn the attention of the scientific community to one of the newest and most promising areas in bioprinting — laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT). They have compared laser printing parameters, bioink composition, donor ribbons, and collector substrates for LIFT bioprinters, as well as post-printing treatments of fabricated materials — all of this

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Shape-shifting sheets

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).

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Alarm as Devastating Banana Fungus Reaches the Americas

The region produces most of the world’s banana exports—and the fungus affects the most popular commercial variety — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Water pollution can reduce economic growth by a third: World Bank

Heavily polluted water is reducing economic growth by up to a third in some countries, a World Bank report said Tuesday, calling for action to address human and environmental harm.

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Mathematical framework turns any sheet of material into any shape using kirigami cuts

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).

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You butter believe it: Low-calorie spread made mostly of water

Cornell University food scientists have created a new low-calorie 'butter' spread that consists mostly of water. A tablespoon of this low-calorie spread has 2.8 grams of fat and 25.2 calories. Butter, on the other hand, which is 84% fat and about 16% water, has about 11 grams of fat and nearly 100 calories.

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Truth, Lies & Uncertainty

Searching for reality in unreal times — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Truth, Lies & Uncertainty

Searching for reality in unreal times — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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New rechargeable aqueous battery challenges Lithium-ion dominance

A new rechargeable high voltage manganese dioxide zinc battery exceeds the 2 V barrier in aqueous zinc chemistry. With a voltage of 2.45-2.8V, the alkaline MnO2|Zn battery could break the long dominance of flammable and expensive lithium (Li)-ion batteries in the market.

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Teen Files Lawsuit Against JUUL, Phillip Morris for Targeting Kids

When Christian Foss was 16, the Illinois teen started using JUUL’s e-cigarette device. Three years later, he says he’s now battling a nicotine addiction and suffering from worsening asthma symptoms — and it’s compelled him to sue JUUL on behalf of all Illinois minors. According to a Bloomberg story , the lawsuit, which was filed Monday in a Chicago federal court, accuses JUUL and another defendan

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Legionnaires' disease is totally preventable, but surprisingly deadly

Legionella pneumophila Inhaling mist contaminated with Legionella pneumophila can lead to Legionnaires' disease. (Denis Klimov 3000/Shutterstock.com/) In the nearly 50 years since epidemiologists first discovered Legionnaires’ disease, we have learned how to test for it, treat it and prevent it. So why are people still dying from it, and why are more and more people becoming sick with it every si

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Bias at Facebook? Audit lists conservatives' complaints

Promising to be more transparent about how it makes content decisions, Facebook on Tuesday released the first results of an audit addressing conservatives' accusations that it is biased against …

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Why the U.S. Disaster Agency Is Not Ready for Catastrophes

Responding unnecessarily to smaller events has left FEMA understaffed and short of funds for major disasters — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Team hunts for ‘optical counterparts’ of gravitational waves

A new campaign is using the Catalina Sky Survey’s near-Earth object telescope to find the optical counterparts to gravitational waves, researchers report. Since the construction of technology that can detect gravitational waves , ripples in space and time that collisions from massive objects in the universe trigger, astronomers around the world have been searching for the bursts of light that cou

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Immune-Activating Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma

The results of an early trial in 31 brain cancer patients finds immune activity boosted in the tumor, and possibly longer survival.

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This General Says the US Army Is Outgunned in Information Warfare

Going In Blind The U.S. Army is unprepared for the future of informational warfare. That’s according to General Paul Funk, who oversees the entirety of the Army’s combat training programs, C4ISRNET reports . Speaking at the military technology conference TechNet Augusta on Tuesday, Funk said that the Army is not organized enough to handle and dominate the flow of information across modern and fut

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New, healthier 'butter' spread almost entirely water

Food scientists have created a new low-calorie 'butter' spread that consists mostly of water. A tablespoon of this low-calorie spread has 2.8 grams of fat and 25.2 calories. Butter, on the other hand, which is 84% fat and about 16% water, has about 11 grams of fat and nearly 100 calories.

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New rechargeable aqueous battery challenges Lithium-ion dominance

A new rechargeable high voltage manganese dioxide zinc battery exceeds the 2 V barrier in aqueous zinc chemistry. With a voltage of 2.45-2.8V, the alkaline MnO2|Zn battery could break the long dominance of flammable and expensive lithium (Li)-ion batteries in the market.

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Alternative to 'revolving door' of opioid detox and relapse

In a first-ever randomized trial, patients at a short-term inpatient program began long-term outpatient treatment with buprenorphine before discharge, with better outcomes than detox patients.

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Treating dogs with human breast cancer drug

Like many women who develop a particular type of breast cancer, the same gene — HER2 — also appears to be the cause of lung cancer in many dogs. Researchers found that neratinib — a drug that has successfully been used to battle human breast cancer — might also work for many of the nearly 40,000 dogs in the US that annually develop the most common type of canine lung cancer, known as CPAC.

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New tools to minimize risks in shared, augmented-reality environments

Security researchers have created ShareAR, a toolkit that lets developers build collaborative and interactive features into AR apps without sacrificing their users' privacy and security.

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Arctic researchers will lock this ship in ice for a year to study the changing polar region

German icebreaker will lead unprecedented $134 million effort

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Microbes Can Change How Spiders Mate

Scientists show that bacteria have unexpected effects in spider sex. Funnel-Weaver-Spider.jpg Image credits: Mircea Costina/ Shutterstock Creature Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – 15:00 Rodrigo Pérez Ortega, Contributor (Inside Science) — Spider sex is full of elaborate dances, danger, uncertainty and — researchers now know — microbes. Funnel-web spiders ( Agelenopsis pennsylvanica ) hide in the ho

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FogCam Is Signing Off in San Francisco

Long before streaming video, it captured images of campus life every 20 seconds. The quirky project, believed to be the longest-running public webcam, will shut down at the end of August.

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Profound patterns in globally important algae

A globally important ocean algae is mysteriously scarce in one of the most productive regions of the Atlantic Ocean, according to a new article. A massive dataset has revealed patterns in the regions where Atlantic coccolithophores live, illuminating the inner workings of the ocean carbon cycle and raising new questions.

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Astronomers Trained AI to find Ancient Galaxy Collisions from the Early Universe

There are bright lights all over the universe where galaxies are smashing together. And now astronomers have a new way to find them.

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New species of stegosaurus uncovered in Moroccan dig

Scientists believe dinosaur dates back to 168m years ago during the middle Jurassic period A new species of one of the most recognisable types of dinosaur is also the oldest of its kind ever discovered, British scientists believe. Remains of a stegosaurus, an armoured dinosaur instantly recognisable by the plate-like bones protruding from its spine and spikes on its tails, were studied by a team

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New rechargeable CCNY aqueous battery challenges Lithium-ion dominance

A new rechargeable high voltage manganese dioxide zinc battery, exceeding the 2 V barrier in aqueous zinc chemistry, is the latest invention by City College of New York researchers. With a voltage of 2.45-2.8V, the alkaline MnO2|Zn battery, developed by Dr. Gautam G. Yadav and his group in the CCNY-based CUNY Energy Institute, could break the long dominance of flammable and expensive lithium (Li)-

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Study finds toolkit could improve detection and management of iron deficiency in pregnancy

Iron deficiency in pregnancy is a common problem that often goes unrecognized and untreated due to a lack of knowledge of its implications and competing clinical priorities. To enhance screening and management of iron deficiency in pregnancy, a research team at Toronto's St. Michael's Hospital developed a quality improvement toolkit, called IRON MOM. The implementation of IRON MOM resulted in incr

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New, healthier 'butter' spread almost entirely water

Cornell University food scientists have created a new low-calorie 'butter' spread that consists mostly of water. A tablespoon of this low-calorie spread has 2.8 grams of fat and 25.2 calories. Butter, on the other hand, which is 84% fat and about 16% water, has about 11 grams of fat and nearly 100 calories.

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TGen and Ohio State collaborate on landmark precision medicine canine cancer study

Like many women who develop a particular type of breast cancer, the same gene — HER2 — also appears to be the cause of lung cancer in many dogs. TGen and Ohio State found that neratinib — a drug that has successfully been used to battle human breast cancer — might also work for many of the nearly 40,000 dogs in the US that annually develop the most common type of canine lung cancer, known as C

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BU finds alternative to 'revolving door' of opioid detox and relapse

In a first-ever randomized trial, patients at a short-term inpatient program began long-term outpatient treatment with buprenorphine before discharge, with better outcomes than detox patients.

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OHIO receives $1.7 million grant to study potential treatment for skin cancer

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences has awarded Ohio University scientists Shiyong Wu and Lingying Tong a five-year $1.7 million grant to advance research on a potential prevention and treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers.

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New tools to minimize risks in shared, augmented-reality environments

UW security researchers have created ShareAR, a toolkit that lets developers build collaborative and interactive features into AR apps without sacrificing their users' privacy and security.

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Study reveals profound patterns in globally important algae

A globally important ocean algae is mysteriously scarce in one of the most productive regions of the Atlantic Ocean, according to a new paper. A massive dataset has revealed patterns in the regions where Atlantic coccolithophores live, illuminating the inner workings of the ocean carbon cycle and raising new questions.

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Study reveals profound patterns in globally important algae

A globally important ocean algae is mysteriously scarce in one of the most productive regions of the Atlantic Ocean, according to a new paper in Deep Sea Research I. A massive dataset has revealed patterns in the regions where Atlantic coccolithophores live, illuminating the inner workings of the ocean carbon cycle and raising new questions.

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U.S. Recycling Industry Is Struggling To Figure Out A Future Without China

China is no longer taking the world's waste. The U.S. recycling industry is overwhelmed — it can't keep up with the plastic being churned out. This doesn't bode well for our plastic waste problem. (Image credit: Saul Loeb/AFP/Getty Images)

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Readers Share Pain and Frustration Over Urinary Tract Infections

Hundreds of readers shared their experiences with drug-resistant U.T.I.s, many describing deep frustration with persistent, painful infections.

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23 Local Governments in Texas Slammed By Ransomware Attack

Coordinated Attack 23 local government organizations in Texas were hit by the same coordinated ransomware attack last week, Ars Technica reports . Local authorities have yet to confirm which organizations are affected by the attack — all we know so far is that it came from one single source. “Investigations into the origin of this attack are ongoing; however, response and recovery are the priorit

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What's at the 'heart' of a heartbeat?

A new finding has changed the understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to atrial fibrillation.

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Earth's future is being written in fast-melting Greenland

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Space Force will launch Aug. 29, US Vice President says

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This automated device performs uninterrupted CPR.

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What Science Says About Using Sleep Medications

Medications for better sleep are ubiquitous. But they're no cure-all. (Credit: YAKOBCHUK VIACHESLAV/Shutterstock) The importance of a good night’s rest cannot be overstated. Poor sleep is linked to all-cause mortality, which means getting too little or too much sleep are “significant predictors of death,” according to a 2010 meta-analysis study. But good sleep is increasingly a privilege, as stres

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Why the smartest people can make the dumbest mistakes

A high IQ and education won’t necessarily protect you from highly irrational behavior—and it may sometimes amplify your errors. (Pexels/) It is June 17, 1922, and two middle-aged men—one short and squat, the other tall and lumbering with a walrus moustache—are sitting on the beach in Atlantic City, New Jersey. They are Harry Houdini and Arthur Conan Doyle—and by the end of the evening, their frie

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Climate facts subject to rules on partisan advertising in Canada

Announcement from election watchdog rattles charities that support climate action

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Twitter’s state-media ban should include Voice of America

Twitter and Facebook have hosted ads from US-backed outlets, sometimes even illegally.

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Prescription omega 3s keep triglycerides in check

Prescription omega-3 fatty acid medications are a safe and effective option for reducing high triglycerides, which increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, according to a new study. Every 38 seconds, a person dies from cardiovascular disease. To put that in perspective, that’s 2,303 people every day. “High triglycerides are becoming increasingly common because they often occur in people with

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What's at the 'heart' of a heartbeat?

A new finding has changed the understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to atrial fibrillation.

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Robust molecular propeller for unidirectional rotations created

A team of scientists has developed a molecular propeller that enables unidirectional rotations on a material surface when energized.

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A new way to 'hoard' resources in nano-sized factories targeted for biotech

Scientists have created a synthetic nano-sized factory, based on natural ones found in bacteria. This research could someday lead to new medical, industrial or bioenergy applications.

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British food crowned the healthiest in major global survey

It turns out that British food isn't that terrible, after all. A global survey has found that when it comes to having the healthiest packaged foods and drinks, the UK tops the charts, with the USA in 2nd place and Australia coming in at 3rd.

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India’s Space Probe Is Now Orbiting the Moon

Rounding Home India’s Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft is now in orbit around the Moon. That means it’s on schedule to touch down on the lunar surface on September 7, according to Agence France-Presse . If the mission continues as planned, India will become the fourth country to land a spacecraft on the Moon, following Russia, the U.S., and China — an accomplishment that would cement its space agency’s r

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Autonomous vehicle company Waymo to test in Florida rain

Google autonomous vehicle spinoff Waymo says it will start testing on public roads in Florida to better experience heavy rain.

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Tesla-chef: Nu har vi teknologien til at sætte en computer ind i din hjerne

Science fiction-teknologien har allerede givet døve mennesker hørelsen tilbage.

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Free rides could lead to better health outcomes for seniors

Older adults are enthusiastic adopters of ridesharing technology. Access to on-demand ride sharing improves their access to health care and improves their overall quality of life. However, the cost remains a challenge.

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Novel combination of drugs may overcome drug-resistant cancer cells

A new study suggests that a combination of three drugs, including a new class of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors, could overcome cross-therapy resistance.

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Painting a bigger biosociological picture of chronic pain

An integrated approach that unifies psychosocial factors with neurobiology sheds light on chronic pain traits and their underlying brain networks, according to a new study.

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Is pollution linked to psychiatric disorders?

Researchers are increasingly studying the effects of environmental insults on psychiatric and neurological conditions, motivated by emerging evidence from environmental events like the record-breaking smog that choked New Delhi two years ago. The results suggests a possible link between exposure to environmental pollution and an increase in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

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Physicists use light flashes to discover, control new quantum states of matter

Scientists are developing new tools and techniques to access new states of matter hidden within superconducting and other complex materials. Harnessing these exotic states and their unique properties could lead to better computing, communicating and data storing technologies.

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Robust molecular propeller for unidirectional rotations created

A team of scientists has developed a molecular propeller that enables unidirectional rotations on a material surface when energized.

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Queen bees face increased chance of execution if they mate with two males rather than one

Queen stingless bees face an increased risk of being executed by worker bees if they mate with two males rather than one, according to new research.

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E. coli's secret weapon in launching infections

Most types of Escherichia coli are harmless, but the ones that aren't can cause severe life-threatening diarrhea. These problematic bacteria launch infections by inducing intestinal cells to form tiny structures, called pedestals, that anchor the pathogens in place and help the colonies grow.

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Alzheimer's drug reverses brain damage from adolescent alcohol exposure in rats

A drug used to slow cognitive decline in adults with Alzheimer's disease appears to reverse brain inflammation and neuron damage in rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence.

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Malaria expert warns of need for malaria drug to treat severe cases in US

The US each year sees more than 1,500 cases of malaria, and currently there is limited access to an intravenously-administered (IV) drug needed for the more serious cases.

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Why strawberries look red, even when they aren't

Color-blinded by the light. (Thomas Payne, adapted from an illusion by Akiyoshi Kitaoka/) These strawberries look red ­(almost), like fresh fruit should. But this tasty image doesn’t have any rosy hues in it at all. Zoom way in, and you’ll find that the pixels that make up this snack are actually shades of blue and green. You’re seeing scarlet because of a visual phenomenon called color constancy

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A new way to 'hoard' resources in nano-sized factories targeted for biotech

Scientists have created a synthetic nano-sized factory, based on natural ones found in bacteria. This research could someday lead to new medical, industrial or bioenergy applications.

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African elephants demonstrate movements that vary in response to ecological change

Wild African elephants show markedly different movements and reactions to the same risks and resources, according to a new study.

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Discharge incentives in emergency rooms could lead to higher patient readmission rates

In an effort to address emergency department overcrowding, pay-for-performance (P4P) incentive programs have been implemented in various regions around the world, including hospitals in Metro Vancouver. But a new study shows that while such programs can reduce barriers to access for admitted patients, they can also lead to patient discharges associated with return visits and readmissions.

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Machine learning models help clinicians identify people who need advanced depression care

Researchers have created decision models capable of predicting which patients might need more treatment for their depression than what their primary care provider can offer. The algorithms were specifically designed to provide information the clinician can act on and fit into existing clinical workflows.

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New hydrogels show promise in treating bone defects

Bioengineers and dentists have developed a new hydrogel that is more porous and effective in promoting tissue repair and regeneration. Once injected in a mouse model, the new hydrogel is shown to induce migration of naturally occurring stem cells to better promote bone healing. Current experimental applications using hydrogels and stem cells introduced into the body or expensive biological agents

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Cost-effective fuel cell technology

Researchers have identified ammonia as a source for engineering fuel cells that can provide a cheap and powerful source for fueling cars, trucks and buses with a reduced carbon footprint.

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Is air pollution causing mental health conditions like depression?

Evidence is growing that air pollution is linked to mental health conditions. But it's not clear yet how – and if – pollution may be affecting our brains.

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British food crowned the healthiest in major global survey

It turns out that British food isn't that terrible, after all. A global survey has found that when it comes to having the healthiest packaged foods and drinks, the UK tops the charts, with the USA in 2nd place and Australia coming in at 3rd.

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Novel combination of drugs may overcome drug-resistant cancer cells

A new study led by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital suggests that a combination of three drugs, including a new class of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors, could overcome cross-therapy resistance. The results of the study are published today in Science Signaling.

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Study supports link between pollution and neuropsychiatric disorders

Based on analysis of large population data sets from both the United States and Denmark, a new study found poor air quality associated with increased rates of bipolar disorder and major depression in both countries.

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Painting a bigger biosociological picture of chronic pain

An integrated approach that unifies psychosocial factors with neurobiology sheds light on chronic pain traits and their underlying brain networks, according to a study published Aug. 20, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by A. Vania Apkarian of Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, and colleagues.

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Is pollution linked to psychiatric disorders?

Researchers are increasingly studying the effects of environmental insults on psychiatric and neurological conditions, motivated by emerging evidence from environmental events like the record-breaking smog that choked New Delhi two years ago. The results of a new study publishing Aug. 20 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by an international group of researchers using large data sets from the

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There Are Too Many Damn National ‘Something’ Days

On July 31, North Korea tested a ballistic missile. Prisoners in Egypt refused food in protest of inhumane treatment. Residents of Baltimore rebuked the president of the United States for calling their district “a disgusting, rat and rodent infested mess.” Yet for much of the day, the No. 1 trending topic on Twitter was avocados. People shared recipes and photos, trivia and tales about the fruit.

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The mystery surrounding the skeletons of Roopkund Lake

This lake has been filled with skeletons for hundreds of years and was thought to be the site of an ancient catastrophic event. But scientists have shed new light …

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Scientists Decry New Study Linking Fluoride to Lower IQ in Kids

On Monday, a team of Canadian scientists published a new study claiming a link between fluoride and a decrease in childhood IQ — and the science community was quick to stomp all over it. Some backstory: In 1945, Grand Rapids, Mich., agreed to host a first-of-its-kind experiment in which it would add fluoride to its public water supply in the hopes that the chemical would strengthen residents’ tee

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What ethical rules should guide using CRISPR in people?

Last November, scientist He Jiankui claimed he had edited the genomes of twin girls with the CRISPR/Cas technology, news that shook the scientific world. “There was this uproar… It became a topic for everybody,” says Effy Vayena, professor of bioethics at ETH Zurich. “At the time, the topic was, ‘We are all shocked. What are we going do with this? Something is really wrong.’ “I think after that,

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Starship Technologies Wants to Deploy Thousands of Delivery Robots at US Colleges

College campuses are being flooded with new students right now, but there could be some other new arrivals if Starship Technologies has its way. The robotics company has closed a new round of funding that will allow it to deploy a small army of autonomous sidewalk delivery robots to as many as 100 college campuses around the US. The six-wheeled Starship robots are small, about knee-high, and full

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Could air pollution contribute to psychiatric illness?

Research suggests it does, but the findings are controversial. Natalie Parletta reports.

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The mystery of Skeleton Lake

Remains were deposited 1000 years apart. Biplab Das reports.

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The resilient seaweed-eating sheep of the Orkneys

Farming became established on some inhospitable islands after animals adapted their diet. Barry Keily reports.

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Free rides could lead to better health outcomes for seniors

Older adults are enthusiastic adopters of ridesharing technology. Access to on-demand ride sharing improves their access to health care and improves their overall quality of life. However, the cost remains a challenge.

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Planned Parenthood Makes a Huge Bet

This week, Planned Parenthood decided to walk away from an estimated $60 million in annual federal funds for low-income women’s reproductive-health care. The organization claims that it was forced into this decision by Donald Trump’s administration, which recently finalized a new rule barring recipients of money from Title X, a federal family-planning program, from making referrals for abortions.

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Studying organ crosstalk leads to a deeper understanding of sepsis

Sepsis, a complex systemic response to infection leading to organ failure, is generally studied at the level of individual organs; this research has hinted at altered metabolic changes. A new study takes a two-pronged approach and investigates for the first time the metabolic changes across affected organs in a large animal model of sepsis and identifies both potential common and organ-specific me

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Examining the link between caste and under-five mortality in India

In India, children that belong to disadvantaged castes face a much higher likelihood of not living past their fifth birthday than their counterparts in non-deprived castes. Researchers examined the association between castes and under-five mortality in an effort to help reduce the burden of under-five deaths in the country.

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The meat allergy: Researcher IDs biological changes triggered by tick bites

Researchers have identified key immunological changes in people who abruptly develop an allergic reaction to mammalian meat, such as beef. The work is an important step in developing a treatment for the strange allergy triggered by tick bites.

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Enabling longer space missions

The Hall thruster is a propulsion system that is often used by spacecraft engaged in longer missions. A recent study has shown how the operating lives of these systems can be further extended.

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Cost-effective fuel cell technology

Researchers have identified ammonia as a source for engineering fuel cells that can provide a cheap and powerful source for fueling cars, trucks and buses with a reduced carbon footprint.

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The journey of the pollen

When insects carry the pollen from one flower to another to pollinate them, the pollen must attach to and detach from different surfaces. Scientists have discovered that the mechanisms are far more complex than previously assumed. They differ depending on the duration of the contact and the microstructure of the plant surfaces. The results could be interesting for drug delivery and for developing

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Plants could remove six years of carbon dioxide emissions — if we protect them

By analysing 138 experiments, researchers have mapped the potential of today's plants and trees to store extra carbon by the end of the century.

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Best practices for wildfire adaptation and resilience

New research outlines best practices for social and ecological resilience in a Western landscape where wildfires are becoming inevitable.

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A battery-free sensor for underwater exploration

Researchers have developed a battery-free underwater communication system that uses near-zero power to transmit sensor data. The system could be used to monitor sea temperatures to study climate change and track marine life over long periods — and even sample waters on distant planets.

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Mini kidneys grown from stem cells give new insights into kidney disease and therapies

Medical researchers have grown 'miniature kidneys' in the laboratory that could be used to better understand how kidney diseases develop in individual patients. These kidney organoids were grown outside the body from skin cells derived from a single patient who has polycystic kidney disease. This method has paved the way for tailoring treatment plans specific to each patient, which could be extend

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Gravitational astronomy proves its maturity

With the sighting of a merger between a black hole and a neutron star

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Shedding light on the reaction mechanism of PUVA light therapy for skin diseases

Physical chemists have clarified which chemical reactions take place during PUVA therapy. The therapy involves light-induced damage to the DNA of diseased cells.

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New protein spin labelling technique

Researchers develop a new site-directed spin labeling approach based on genetically encoded noncanonical amino acids amenable to Diels-Alder chemistry as well as a new spin label, PaNDA.

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Mini kidneys grown from stem cells give new insights into kidney disease and therapies

Medical researchers have grown 'miniature kidneys' in the laboratory that could be used to better understand how kidney diseases develop in individual patients. These kidney organoids were grown outside the body from skin cells derived from a single patient who has polycystic kidney disease. This method has paved the way for tailoring treatment plans specific to each patient, which could be extend

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Tweets from the park aren’t all from the birds

Social media users are enjoying being there too. Amelia Nichele reports.

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Different cultures see similar meanings in the constellations

University of Melbourne researchers look at us looking up.

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When secondary is important

JWST’s unfolding mechanism goes through its paces.

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500-year-old mummy of Incan girl returns to Bolivia

A 500-year-old mummy of an Incan girl has been returned to Bolivia some 129 years after it was donated to the Michigan State University Museum, marking what an official says is the first time human remains of archaeological importance have been repatriated to the Andean country.

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Team develops robust molecular propeller for unidirectional rotations

A team of scientists from Ohio University, Argonne National Laboratory, Universitié de Toulouse in France and Nara Institute of Science and Technology in Japan led by Ohio Professor of Physics Saw-Wai Hla and Prof. Gwenael Rapenne from Toulouse developed a molecular propeller that enables unidirectional rotations on a material surface when energized.

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Top DOJ official signals intensifying state and federal antitrust probe of big tech

The U.S. government is forging ahead with its review of online platforms for potential competition concerns, coordinating with state attorneys general and signaling it could soon send document …

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Skeptical Science New Research for Week #33, 2019

39 articles, 5 open access. Keep calm but don't carry on Skeptical Science was founded for the purpose of debunking misunderstandings and intentional misinformation about anthropogenic climate change. In this interest, this week we've included an article from the Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences that is not a research paper but rather a critique of Wolfgang Behringer’s A Cultural His

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How the Turtle Got Its Shell, With Apologies to Aesop

Smithsonian paleontologist Hans Sues unpacks the complicated evolution of how this creature grew a home upon its back

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Biomolecular analyses of Roopkund skeletons show Mediterranean migrants in Indian Himalaya

A large-scale study conducted by an international team of scientists has revealed that the mysterious skeletons of Roopkund Lake — once thought to have died during a single catastrophic event – belong to genetically highly distinct groups that died in multiple periods in at least two episodes separated by one thousand years.

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Stone Age boat building site has been discovered underwater

Researchers have discovered a new 8,000 year old structure 11 meters below sea level on the Isle of Wight. It is the most intact, wooden Middle Stone Age structure ever found in the UK.

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Shedding light on the reaction mechanism of PUVA light therapy for skin diseases

Physical chemists have clarified which chemical reactions take place during PUVA therapy. The therapy involves light-induced damage to the DNA of diseased cells.

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Skeletal shapes key to rapid recognition of objects

In the blink of an eye, the human visual system can process an object, determining whether it's a cup or a sock within milliseconds, and with seemingly little effort. It's well-established that an object's shape is a critical visual cue to help the eyes and brain perform this trick. A new study, however, finds that while the outer shape of an object is important for rapid recognition, the object's

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Low levels of vitamin D in elementary school could spell trouble in adolescence

Vitamin D deficiency in middle childhood could result in aggressive behavior as well as anxious and depressive moods during adolescence, according to a new study of school children in Bogotá, Colombia.

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Connected forest networks on oil palm plantations key to protecting endangered species

Set-aside patches of high-quality forest on palm oil plantations may help protect species like orangutans, as well as various species of insects, birds and bats — many of which are threatened with extinction in areas of Indonesia and Malaysia, where 85% of the world's palm oil is produced.

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Nicotine-free e-cigarettes can damage blood vessels

A Penn study reveals single instance of vaping immediately leads to reduced vascular function.

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More children suffer head injuries playing recreational sport than team sport

An Australian/ New Zealand study examining childhood head injuries has found that children who do recreational sports like horse riding, skate boarding and bike riding are more likely to suffer serious head injuries than children who play contact sport like AFL or rugby.

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Studying animal cognition in the wild

Studying cognition in the wild is a challenge. Field researchers and their study animals face many factors that can easily interfere with their variables of interest and that many say are 'impossible' to control for. A novel observational approach for field research can now guide young scholars, who want to study cognition in the field before this opportunity disappears.

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New protein spin labelling technique

Researchers develop a new site-directed spin labeling approach based on genetically encoded noncanonical amino acids amenable to Diels-Alder chemistry as well as a new spin label, PaNDA.

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World's thinnest, lightest signal amplifier enables bioinstrumentation with reduced noise

A research group succeeded in developing the world's thinnest and lightest differential amplifier for bioinstrumentation.

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Biohacking: Why I'll live to be 180 years old

As a teenager, founder of Bulletproof, Dave Asprey, began experiencing health issues that typically plague older adults. After surrounding himself with anti-aging researchers and scientists, he discovered the tools of biohacking could dramatically change his life and improve his health. He's now confident he'll live to at least 180 years old. "It turns out that those tools that make older people

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A new way to 'hoard' resources in nano-sized factories targeted for biotech

The lab of Cheryl Kerfeld at Michigan State University has created a synthetic nano-sized factory, based on natural ones found in bacteria. This research could someday lead to new medical, industrial or bioenergy applications.

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OHIO professor Hla develops robust molecular propeller for unidirectional rotations

A team of scientists from Ohio University, Argonne National Laboratory, Universitié de Toulouse in France and Nara Institute of Science and Technology in Japan led by OHIO Professor of Physics Saw-Wai Hla and Prof. Gwenael Rapenne from Toulouse developed a molecular propeller that enables unidirectional rotations on a material surface when energized.

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Physicists use light flashes to discover, control new quantum states of matter

Jigang Wang and the members of his research group are developing new tools and techniques to access new states of matter hidden within superconducting and other complex materials. Harnessing these exotic states and their unique properties could lead to better computing, communicating and data storing technologies. Wang's research is supported by the US Army Research Office.

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Gene Editing Humans: It's Not Just about Safety

The temptation to use these technologies to “enhance” ourselves or our children, or to edit out undesirable traits, will be enormous — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Make sure your lost devices can always be found

It's likely you'll forget at least one of these items. Better not to take the chance. (Héctor Martínez via Unsplash/) We all do it. The tap-tap-panic thing. You’re walking down the street on your way home after a long week, thinking how great it is you won’t have to come back until Monday, and suddenly, it hits you. You tap your front pockets, you tap your back pockets, and you panic—you left you

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Nasa mission to Jupiter moon Europa moves step closer to launch

Mission that could shed light on possibility of life on icy rock is expected to lift off in 2025 A Nasa mission to explore the most tantalising of Jupiter’s 79 moons has been given the green light to proceed to the final stages of development. Europa – which is slightly smaller than our own moon – has long been considered a possible candidate in the hunt for alien life. Evidence suggests there is

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Gene Editing Humans: It's Not Just about Safety

The temptation to use these technologies to “enhance” ourselves or our children, or to edit out undesirable traits, will be enormous — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Biohacking: Why I'll live to be 180 years old

As a teenager, founder of Bulletproof, Dave Asprey, began experiencing health issues that typically plague older adults. After surrounding himself with anti-aging researchers and scientists, he discovered the tools of biohacking could dramatically change his life and improve his health. He's now confident he'll live to at least 180 years old. "It turns out that those tools that make older people

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Nvidia Game Ready Update brings ultra-low latency mode, integer scaling, and more

Nvidia had some exciting news at Gamescom. In addition to ray tracing and Android support for its game-streaming platform GeForce Now, Nvidia has also released driver update (436.02) bringing …

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You Can Now Beta Test Microsoft’s Chromium Edge Browser

While variety and having options is usually a good thing, this can also sometimes create problems. For example, there are different browsers in the market today but they are all built differently, …

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Book traces rise of 'free enterprise' as cornerstone of conservatism

Warning of "an attack on the American free enterprise system," Lewis F. Powell Jr.'s 1971 memo is considered a turning point in American politics.

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Donald Trump’s Economic Anxiety

As the political world struggled to understand the 2016 election, one common (and commonly derided) explanation was that “ economic anxiety ” among some voters, especially white working-class ones, had helped propel Donald Trump to victory. It finds an ironic echo this week, as the president displays his own economic anxiety—a fear that a recession might turn him out of office. Trump’s anxiety ha

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Metabolic Biomarker "Score" May Predict Death in Next 5-10 Years

The researchers intend for the tool to eventually help doctors make treatment decisions.

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Dreaded Banana-Infecting Fungus Spreads to Latin America

Researchers confirm TR4’s presence in Colombia, increasing concerns about the future of the industry.

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As Wildfires Get Worse, Insurers Pull Back From Riskiest Areas

A growing number of Western homeowners are being dropped by their insurance companies, prompting warnings from officials and worries about what comes next.

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Giant planet is more than 2,800x the mass of Earth

Astronomers have discovered a new planet around a nearby star that is nine times the mass of Jupiter and more than 2,800 times the mass of Earth. It is the second giant plant scientists have discovered in orbit around β Pictoris, a star that is relatively young (23 million years old) and close (63.4 light years), and surrounded by a disk of dust. The β Pictoris system has fascinated astronomers f

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Hydrant is a Rapid Hydration Mix That Helps Stop Dehydration Before it Hits

For human beings, water is an invaluable resource, which makes it odd that almost 80 percent of working Americans say they don’t drink enough water, daily . The main reason for this is that most people don’t feel thirsty. However, it turns out that thirst isn’t an indicator of dehydration, because feeling parched doesn’t occur until after people already dehydrated. In case you didn’t know, water

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Scientists Develop a Blood Test That Predicts Risk of Death

(Credit: Olena Yakobchuk/Shutterstock) If you've ever wondered how likely you are to die in the next five to 10 years, scientists may now have an answer for you. Researchers identified 14 molecules in blood that are associated with dying from any cause. They say a score based on the molecules can predict one’s risk of death. But the ominous foretelling is not all bad. Scientists say it may encoura

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Skeleton Lake: Genetic Surprise Deepens Riddle Of The Dead

Skeleton Lake, formally known as Roopkund Lake, sits at more than 16,000 feet above sea levels in the Himalayas. (Credit: Atish Waghwase) At the mysterious Skeleton Lake in northern India, the dead are talking, revealing surprises through centuries-old DNA. And it's not what anyone expected. New research suggests the site is not the scene of a single natural disaster that killed hundreds, as once

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An inside look at the NHS's plans to revolutionise healthcare with AI

From spotting cancer and triaging patients to rearranging hospital appointments, artificial intelligence has a lot to offer the NHS, says Indra Joshi

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How big data and unfair algorithms change our lives

On a daily basis, we each leave behind a huge digital footprint in all sorts of ways, researchers say. “Everything I do on the computer or smartphone is public to a certain extent,” says Hoda Heidari, a computer scientist at ETH Zurich. Algorithms can use that data to make real decisions about our lives, from bank loans to prison time. In this podcast episode, Heidari and Elliott Ash, a professor

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Tired of Feeling Tired? Boost Your Brain Power With This All-in-One Brain Training Bundle

Do you feel like your brain is operating at peak capacity ? If your answer is “no,” you’re not alone. At one point or another, everyone has wondered what it would be like to boost their brain power and experience the benefits of better memory and enhanced cognition. Would your job performance improve? Would your personal life flourish? Well, now you can find out thanks to the Supercharged Brain T

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You Can Now Rent Tesla Solar Panels for Crazy Cheap

Rent a Roof In March, Tesla CEO Elon Musk declared that 2019 would be “the year of the solar roof,” but so far, that hasn’t been the case. The second quarter of 2019 marked Tesla’s fewest solar panel installations of any quarter since it first got into the home solar market — and that’s after it slashed prices in April in an attempt to spur sales. Now, the company is trying yet another approach,

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My younger sister died by suicide. Can science succeed in helping others?

A Science special package explores how researchers are tackling this devastating public health challenge

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Brain scans could help personalize treatment for people who are depressed or suicidal

A Stanford neuroscientist tries to identify depression subtypes and tailor care

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Don’t rush India’s health-care reforms

Nature, Published online: 20 August 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02469-9 India’s doctors and its government are at loggerheads over much-needed changes to medical education. Differences must be settled and cool heads must prevail.

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Rhodopsin-based voltage imaging tools for use in muscles and neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans [Neuroscience]

Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) based on microbial rhodopsins utilize the voltage-sensitive fluorescence of all-trans retinal (ATR), while in electrochromic FRET (eFRET) sensors, donor fluorescence drops when the rhodopsin acts as depolarization-sensitive acceptor. In recent years, such tools have become widely used in mammalian cells but are less commonly used…

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Molecular codes and in vitro generation of hypocretin and melanin concentrating hormone neurons [Neuroscience]

Hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) neuropeptides are exclusively produced by the lateral hypothalamus and play important roles in sleep, metabolism, reward, and motivation. Loss of HCRT (ligands or receptors) causes the sleep disorder narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and in animal models. How these neuropeptides are produced and…

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BCL6 regulates brown adipocyte dormancy to maintain thermogenic reserve and fitness [Physiology]

Brown adipocytes provide a metabolic defense against environmental cold but become dormant as mammals habituate to warm environments. Although dormancy is a regulated response in brown adipocytes to environmental warmth, its transcriptional mechanisms and functional importance are unknown. Here, we identify B cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6) as a critical regulator…

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Identification of key enzymes responsible for protolimonoid biosynthesis in plants: Opening the door to azadirachtin production [Plant Biology]

Limonoids are natural products made by plants belonging to the Meliaceae (Mahogany) and Rutaceae (Citrus) families. They are well known for their insecticidal activity, contribution to bitterness in citrus fruits, and potential pharmaceutical properties. The best known limonoid insecticide is azadirachtin, produced by the neem tree (Azadirachta indica). Despite intensive…

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CsBRC1 inhibits axillary bud outgrowth by directly repressing the auxin efflux carrier CsPIN3 in cucumber [Plant Biology]

Shoot branching is an important agronomic trait that directly determines plant architecture and affects crop productivity. To promote crop yield and quality, axillary branches need to be manually removed during cucumber production for fresh market and thus are undesirable. Auxin is well known as the primary signal imposing for apical…

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TNFR2 promotes Treg-mediated recovery from neuropathic pain across sexes [Neuroscience]

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) is a transmembrane receptor that is linked to immune modulation and tissue regeneration. Here, we show that TNFR2 essentially promotes long-term pain resolution independently of sex. Genetic deletion of TNFR2 resulted in impaired neuronal regeneration and chronic nonresolving pain after chronic constriction injury (CCI)….

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The avocado genome informs deep angiosperm phylogeny, highlights introgressive hybridization, and reveals pathogen-influenced gene space adaptation [Plant Biology]

The avocado, Persea americana, is a fruit crop of immense importance to Mexican agriculture with an increasing demand worldwide. Avocado lies in the anciently diverged magnoliid clade of angiosperms, which has a controversial phylogenetic position relative to eudicots and monocots. We sequenced the nuclear genomes of the Mexican avocado race,…

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A role for S-nitrosylation of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme SCE1 in plant immunity [Plant Biology]

SUMOylation, the covalent attachment of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to target proteins, is emerging as a key modulator of eukaryotic immune function. In plants, a SUMO1/2-dependent process has been proposed to control the deployment of host defense responses. The molecular mechanism underpinning this activity remains to be determined, however….

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Inference of complex population histories using whole-genome sequences from multiple populations [Population Biology]

There has been much interest in analyzing genome-scale DNA sequence data to infer population histories, but inference methods developed hitherto are limited in model complexity and computational scalability. Here we present an efficient, flexible statistical method, diCal2, that can use whole-genome sequence data from multiple populations to infer complex demographic…

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Long noncoding RNAs are involved in multiple immunological pathways in response to vaccination [Systems Biology]

Understanding the mechanisms of vaccine-elicited protection contributes to the development of new vaccines. The emerging field of systems vaccinology provides detailed information on host responses to vaccination and has been successfully applied to study the molecular mechanisms of several vaccines. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucially involved in multiple biological…

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Correction for Sevier et al., Mechanical bounds to transcriptional noise [Correction]

PHYSICS, SYSTEMS BIOLOGY Correction for “Mechanical bounds to transcriptional noise,” by Stuart A. Sevier, David A. Kessler, and Herbert Levine, which was first published November 22, 2016; 10.1073/pnas.1612651113 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 13983–13988). The authors wish to note the following: “An error in collecting statistics for simulations presented…

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Correction for Zirin et al., Interspecies analysis of MYC targets identifies tRNA synthetases as mediators of growth and survival in MYC-overexpressing cells [Correction]

CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Interspecies analysis of MYC targets identifies tRNA synthetases as mediators of growth and survival in MYC-overexpressing cells,” by Jonathan Zirin, Xiaochun Ni, Laura M. Sack, Donghui Yang-Zhou, Yanhui Hu, Roderick Brathwaite, Martha L. Bulyk, Stephen J. Elledge, and Norbert Perrimon, which was first published July 1,…

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Correction for Watanabe et al., Ecomorphological diversification in squamates from conserved pattern of cranial integration [Correction]

EVOLUTION Correction for “Ecomorphological diversification in squamates from conserved pattern of cranial integration,” by Akinobu Watanabe, Anne-Claire Fabre, Ryan N. Felice, Jessica A. Maisano, Johannes Müller, Anthony Herrel, and Anjali Goswami, which was first published July 1, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1820967116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 14688–14697). The authors note that…

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Correction for Timberlake et al., Mutations in TFAP2B and previously unimplicated genes of the BMP, Wnt, and Hedgehog pathways in syndromic craniosynostosis [Correction]

GENETICS Correction for “Mutations in TFAP2B and previously unimplicated genes of the BMP, Wnt, and Hedgehog pathways in syndromic craniosynostosis,” by Andrew T. Timberlake, Sheng Chih Jin, Carol Nelson-Williams, Robin Wu, Charuta G. Furey, Barira Islam, Shozeb Haider, Erin Loring, Amy Galm, Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Derek M. Steinbacher,…

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Tracking the source of radioactive ruthenium An air sampler stationed at the top of Puy de Dôme in central France. In October 2017, significant atmospheric levels of the radioactive isotope ruthenium-106 (106Ru) were detected in many countries throughout Europe. The detected levels, although too low to endanger human or environmental…

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Impact factor impacts on early-career scientist careers [Editorials]

When I was named the new Editor-in-Chief of PNAS in October 2018, I received hearty congratulations from colleagues from a wide range of disciplines, befitting the intended audience of this venerable journal. The appointment is not my first experience serving as Editor-in-Chief; in 2017, I stepped down after 21 years…

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Concerns regarding the prediction of behavioral measures from multilayer network switching [Biological Sciences]

In a recent PNAS paper by Pedersen et al. (1), the authors report impressive performance when attempting to predict phenotypic variables (e.g., duration of previous night’s sleep) using individual differences in brain network switching. Although the results are intriguing, we have major concerns regarding the prediction model used to generate…

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Reply to Yang et al.: Multilayer network switching and behavior [Biological Sciences]

Yang et al. (1) comment on the link between interindividual variation in network switching and sleep quality that we report (2). We appreciate the keen interest in our work and thank the authors for clarifying our description of the sleep quality index. We believe that asking participants how much they…

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Spurious inference when comparing networks [Biological Sciences]

Comparing networks is challenging (1–3). van Leeuwen et al. (4) use variation in networks among 4 chimpanzee groups as evidence for cultural differences in social behavior. However, social networks can be shaped by many factors. The authors control for group size, an obvious correlate of many network metrics, but do…

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Reply to Farine and Aplin: Chimpanzees choose their association and interaction partners [Biological Sciences]

Farine and Aplin (1) question the validity of our study reporting group-specific social dynamics in chimpanzees (2). As alternative to our approach, Farine and Aplin advance a “prenetwork permutation” methodology that tests against random assortment (3). We appreciate Farine and Aplin’s interest and applied their suggested approaches to our data….

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Network analysis predicts failure of materials and structures [Engineering]

Network analysis deals with the mathematical characterization of structure and topology of networks which are envisaged as sets of “nodes” connected by “edges.” Its concepts do not depend on the physical nature of the entities that constitute a network—be it neurons connected by synapses, cities connected by highways, or humans…

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How drag sharpens a T cell’s view on antigen [Immunology and Inflammation]

How about a Gedankenexperiment (German for thought experiment)? Let us consider a surface which is sticky, yet to an unknown degree. To determine stickiness we may do the following (experimental strategy 1): We place an object onto the surface, turn the surface upside down, and measure the time until the…

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The entropic bond in colloidal crystals [Applied Physical Sciences]

A vast array of natural phenomena can be understood through the long-established schema of chemical bonding. Conventional chemical bonds arise through local gradients resulting from the rearrangement of electrons; however, it is possible that the hallmark features of chemical bonding could arise through local gradients resulting from nonelectronic forms of…

1d

Forecasting failure locations in 2-dimensional disordered lattices [Engineering]

Forecasting fracture locations in a progressively failing disordered structure is of paramount importance when considering structural materials. We explore this issue for gradual deterioration via beam breakage of 2-dimensional (2D) disordered lattices, which we represent as networks, for various values of mean degree. We study experimental samples with geometric structures…

1d

Airborne concentrations and chemical considerations of radioactive ruthenium from an undeclared major nuclear release in 2017 [Environmental Sciences]

In October 2017, most European countries reported unique atmospheric detections of aerosol-bound radioruthenium (106Ru). The range of concentrations varied from some tenths of µBq·m−3 to more than 150 mBq·m−3. The widespread detection at such considerable (yet innocuous) levels suggested a considerable release. To compare activity reports of airborne 106Ru with…

1d

Itinerant quantum critical point with fermion pockets and hotspots [Physics]

Metallic quantum criticality is among the central themes in the understanding of correlated electronic systems, and converging results between analytical and numerical approaches are still under review. In this work, we develop a state-of-the-art large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulation technique and systematically investigate the itinerant quantum critical point on a…

1d

Energy and air pollution benefits of household fuel policies in northern China [Environmental Sciences]

In addition to many recent actions taken to reduce emissions from energy production, industry, and transportation, a new campaign substituting residential solid fuels with electricity or natural gas has been launched in Beijing, Tianjin, and 26 other municipalities in northern China, aiming at solving severe ambient air pollution in the…

1d

Sequence-dependent RNA helix conformational preferences predictably impact tertiary structure formation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Structured RNAs and RNA complexes underlie biological processes ranging from control of gene expression to protein translation. Approximately 50% of nucleotides within known structured RNAs are folded into Watson–Crick (WC) base pairs, and sequence changes that preserve these pairs are typically assumed to preserve higher-order RNA structure and binding of…

1d

Distance-based protein folding powered by deep learning [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Direct coupling analysis (DCA) for protein folding has made very good progress, but it is not effective for proteins that lack many sequence homologs, even coupled with time-consuming conformation sampling with fragments. We show that we can accurately predict interresidue distance distribution of a protein by deep learning, even for…

1d

p120-catenin regulates WNT signaling and EMT in the mouse embryo [Developmental Biology]

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) require a complete reorganization of cadherin-based cell–cell junctions. p120-catenin binds to the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane domain of classical cadherins and regulates their stability, suggesting that p120-catenin may play an important role in EMTs. Here, we describe the role of p120-catenin in mouse gastrulation, an EMT that can be…

1d

Endocrine regulation of multichromatic color vision [Developmental Biology]

Vertebrate color vision requires spectrally selective opsin-based pigments, expressed in distinct cone photoreceptor populations. In primates and in fish, spectrally divergent opsin genes may reside in head-to-tail tandem arrays. Mechanisms underlying differential expression from such arrays have not been fully elucidated. Regulation of human red (LWS) vs. green (MWS) opsins…

1d

Resistance in marine cyanobacteria differs against specialist and generalist cyanophages [Ecology]

Long-term coexistence between unicellular cyanobacteria and their lytic viruses (cyanophages) in the oceans is thought to be due to the presence of sensitive cells in which cyanophages reproduce, ultimately killing the cell, while other cyanobacteria survive due to resistance to infection. Here, we investigated resistance in marine cyanobacteria from the…

1d

Paradoxical association of TET loss of function with genome-wide DNA hypomethylation [Genetics]

Cancer genomes are characterized by focal increases in DNA methylation, co-occurring with widespread hypomethylation. Here, we show that TET loss of function results in a similar genomic footprint. Both 5hmC in wild-type (WT) genomes and DNA hypermethylation in TET-deficient genomes are largely confined to the active euchromatic compartment, consistent with…

1d

Epithelial delamination is protective during pharmaceutical-induced enteropathy [Immunology and Inflammation]

Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) shedding is a fundamental response to intestinal damage, yet underlying mechanisms and functions have been difficult to define. Here we model chronic intestinal damage in zebrafish larvae using the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) Glafenine. Glafenine induced the unfolded protein response (UPR) and inflammatory pathways in IECs,…

1d

Immuno-PET identifies the myeloid compartment as a key contributor to the outcome of the antitumor response under PD-1 blockade [Immunology and Inflammation]

Immunotherapy using checkpoint-blocking antibodies against PD-1 has produced impressive results in a wide range of cancers. However, the response remains heterogeneous among patients. We used noninvasive immuno-positron emission tomography (PET), using 89Zr-labeled PEGylated single-domain antibody fragments (nanobodies or VHHs), to explore the dynamics and distribution of intratumoral CD8+ T cells

1d

EglN3 hydroxylase stabilizes BIM-EL linking VHL type 2C mutations to pheochromocytoma pathogenesis and chemotherapy resistance [Medical Sciences]

Despite the discovery of the oxygen-sensitive regulation of HIFα by the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) protein, the mechanisms underlying the complex genotype/phenotype correlations in VHL disease remain unknown. Some germline VHL mutations cause familial pheochromocytoma and encode proteins that preserve their ability to down-regulate HIFα. While type 1, 2A, and 2B…

1d

Analysis of lipoprotein transport depletion in Vibrio cholerae using CRISPRi [Microbiology]

Genes necessary for the survival or reproduction of a cell are an attractive class of antibiotic targets. Studying essential genes by classical genetics, however, is inherently problematic because it is impossible to knock them out. Here, we screened a set of predicted essential genes for growth inhibition using CRISPR-interference (CRISPRi)…

1d

Neonicotinoids in excretion product of phloem-feeding insects kill beneficial insects [Agricultural Sciences]

Pest control in agriculture is mainly based on the application of insecticides, which may impact nontarget beneficial organisms leading to undesirable ecological effects. Neonicotinoids are among the most widely used insecticides. However, they have important negative side effects, especially for pollinators and other beneficial insects feeding on nectar. Here, we…

1d

X-ray induced photodynamic therapy with copper-cysteamine nanoparticles in mice tumors [Applied Biological Sciences]

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a treatment that uses a photosensitizer, molecular oxygen, and light to kill target cells, is a promising cancer treatment method. However, a limitation of PDT is its dependence on light that is not highly penetrating, precluding the treatment of tumors located deep in the body. Copper-cysteamine nanoparticles…

1d

Core Concept: Quantum sensors probe uncharted territories, from Earth’s crust to the human brain [Applied Physical Sciences]

The quantum realm is often portrayed as weird and nebulous, far removed from our everyday world. Subatomic particles can be in many places at once or linked across vast distances by the intimate connection known as entanglement. But researchers are now using this quantum fuzziness to forge a new set…

1d

Dichotomy of the photo-induced 2-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO3 surface terminations [Applied Physical Sciences]

Oxide materials are important candidates for the next generation of electronics due to a wide array of desired properties, which they can exhibit alone or when combined with other materials. While SrTiO3 (STO) is often considered a prototypical oxide, it, too, hosts a wide array of unusual properties, including a…

1d

Programming curvilinear paths of flat inflatables [Applied Physical Sciences]

Inflatable structures offer a path for light deployable structures in medicine, architecture, and aerospace. In this study, we address the challenge of programming the shape of thin sheets of high-stretching modulus cut and sealed along their edges. Internal pressure induces the inflation of the structure into a deployed shape that…

1d

Two types of magnetic shape-memory effects from twinned microstructure and magneto-structural coupling in Fe1+yTe [Applied Physical Sciences]

A detailed experimental investigation of Fe1+yTe (y = 0.11, 0.12) using pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T confirms remarkable magnetic shape-memory (MSM) effects. These effects result from magnetoelastic transformation processes in the low-temperature antiferromagnetic state of these materials. The observation of modulated and finely twinned microstructure at the nanoscale…

1d

Building a synthetic mechanosensitive signaling pathway in compartmentalized artificial cells [Biochemistry]

To date, reconstitution of one of the fundamental methods of cell communication, the signaling pathway, has been unaddressed in the bottom-up construction of artificial cells (ACs). Such developments are needed to increase the functionality and biomimicry of ACs, accelerating their translation and application in biotechnology. Here, we report the construction…

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Structure, function, and ion-binding properties of a K+ channel stabilized in the 2,4-ion-bound configuration [Biochemistry]

Here, we present the atomic resolution crystallographic structure, the function, and the ion-binding properties of the KcsA mutants, G77A and G77C, that stabilize the 2,4-ion–bound configuration (i.e., water, K+, water, K+-ion–bound configuration) of the K+ channel’s selectivity filter. A full functional and thermodynamic characterization of the G77A mutant revealed wild-type–like…

1d

Desmin forms toxic, seeding-competent amyloid aggregates that persist in muscle fibers [Biochemistry]

Desmin-associated myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) has pathologic similarities to neurodegeneration-associated protein aggregate diseases. Desmin is an abundant muscle-specific intermediate filament, and disease mutations lead to its aggregation in cells, animals, and patients. We reasoned that similar to neurodegeneration-associated proteins, desmin itself may form amyloid. Desmin peptides correspondi

1d

Application of millisecond time-resolved solid state NMR to the kinetics and mechanism of melittin self-assembly [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Common experimental approaches for characterizing structural conversion processes such as protein folding and self-assembly do not report on all aspects of the evolution from an initial state to the final state. Here, we demonstrate an approach that is based on rapid mixing, freeze-trapping, and low-temperature solid-state NMR (ssNMR) with signal…

1d

Five-coordinate MnIV intermediate in the activation of nature’s water splitting cofactor [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Nature’s water splitting cofactor passes through a series of catalytic intermediates (S0-S4) before O-O bond formation and O2 release. In the second last transition (S2 to S3) cofactor oxidation is coupled to water molecule binding to Mn1. It is this activated, water-enriched all MnIV form of the cofactor that goes…

1d

TCR-pMHC kinetics under force in a cell-free system show no intrinsic catch bond, but a minimal encounter duration before binding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The T cell receptor (TCR)–peptide-MHC (pMHC) interaction is the only antigen-specific interaction during T lymphocyte activation. Recent work suggests that formation of catch bonds is characteristic of activating TCR–pMHC interactions. However, whether this binding behavior is an intrinsic feature of the molecular bond, or a consequence of more complex multimolecular…

1d

Liquid-crystalline phase transitions in lipid droplets are related to cellular states and specific organelle association [Cell Biology]

Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles comprising a central hub for cellular lipid metabolism and trafficking. This role is tightly associated with their interactions with several cellular organelles. Here, we provide a systematic and quantitative structural description of LDs in their native state in HeLa cells enabled by cellular cryoelectron…

1d

Direct observation of 2-dimensional ices on different surfaces near room temperature without confinement [Chemistry]

Water–solid interfaces play important roles in a wide range of fields, including atmospheric science, geochemistry, electrochemistry, and food science. Herein, we report simulation evidence of 2-dimensional (2D) ice formation on various surfaces and the dependence of the 2D crystalline structure on the hydrophobicity and morphology of the underlying surface. Contrary…

1d

Melanin-dot-mediated delivery of metallacycle for NIR-II/photoacoustic dual-modal imaging-guided chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy [Chemistry]

Discrete Pt(II) metallacycles have potential applications in biomedicine. Herein, we engineered a dual-modal imaging and chemo-photothermal therapeutic nano-agent 1 that incorporates discrete Pt(II) metallacycle 2 and fluorescent dye 3 (emission wavelength in the second near-infrared channel [NIR-II]) into multifunctional melanin dots with photoacoustic signal and photothermal features. Nano-agent

1d

A general framework for quantitatively assessing ecological stochasticity [Ecology]

Understanding the community assembly mechanisms controlling biodiversity patterns is a central issue in ecology. Although it is generally accepted that both deterministic and stochastic processes play important roles in community assembly, quantifying their relative importance is challenging. Here we propose a general mathematical framework to quantify ecological stochasticity under different…

1d

Standardizing the fee-waiver application increased naturalization rates of low-income immigrants [Economic Sciences]

Citizenship can accelerate immigrant integration and result in benefits for both local communities and the foreign-born themselves. Yet the majority of naturalization-eligible immigrants in the United States do not apply for citizenship, and we lack systematic evidence on policies specifically designed to encourage take-up. In this study, we analyze the…

1d

Fast contribution to the activation energy of a glass-forming liquid [Engineering]

This paper presents physical-aging data for the silicone oil tetramethyl-tetraphenyl trisiloxane. The density and the high-frequency plateau shear modulus G∞ were monitored following temperature jumps starting from fully equilibrated conditions. Both quantities exhibit a fast change immediately after a temperature jump. Adopting the material-time formalism of Narayanaswamy, we determine from…

1d

Disentangling the role of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on rising forest water-use efficiency [Environmental Sciences]

Multiple lines of evidence suggest that plant water-use efficiency (WUE)—the ratio of carbon assimilation to water loss—has increased in recent decades. Although rising atmospheric CO2 has been proposed as the principal cause, the underlying physiological mechanisms are still being debated, and implications for the global water cycle remain uncertain. Here,…

1d

Thylakoid localized bestrophin-like proteins are essential for the CO2 concentrating mechanism of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [Environmental Sciences]

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses a CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) that helps in successful acclimation to low CO2 conditions. Current models of the CCM postulate that a series of ion transporters bring HCO3− from outside the cell to the thylakoid lumen, where the carbonic anhydrase 3 (CAH3) dehydrates accumulated…

1d

Automatic generation of evolutionary hypotheses using mixed Gaussian phylogenetic models [Evolution]

Phylogenetic comparative methods are widely used to understand and quantify the evolution of phenotypic traits, based on phylogenetic trees and trait measurements of extant species. Such analyses depend crucially on the underlying model. Gaussian phylogenetic models like Brownian motion and Ornstein–Uhlenbeck processes are the workhorses of modeling continuous-trait evolution. However,…

1d

Contrasting evolution of virulence and replication rate in an emerging bacterial pathogen [Evolution]

Host resistance through immune clearance is predicted to favor pathogens that are able to transmit faster and are hence more virulent. Increasing pathogen virulence is, in turn, typically assumed to be mediated by increasing replication rates. However, experiments designed to test how pathogen virulence and replication rates evolve in response…

1d

DNA probes that store mechanical information reveal transient piconewton forces applied by T cells [Immunology and Inflammation]

The advent of molecular tension probes for real-time mapping of piconewton forces in living systems has had a major impact on mechanobiology. For example, DNA-based tension probes have revealed roles for mechanics in platelet, B cell, T cell, and fibroblast function. Nonetheless, imaging short-lived forces transmitted by low-abundance receptors remains…

1d

Molecular mimicry between Anoctamin 2 and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 associates with multiple sclerosis risk [Immunology and Inflammation]

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, likely autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, among which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a strong suspect. We have previously identified increased autoantibody levels toward the chloride-channel protein Anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS….

1d

Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race-ethnicity, and sex [Medical Sciences]

We use data on police-involved deaths to estimate how the risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States varies across social groups. We estimate the lifetime and age-specific risks of being killed by police by race and sex. We also provide estimates of the proportion…

1d

Repurposing dasatinib for diffuse large B cell lymphoma [Medical Sciences]

To repurpose compounds for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we screened a library of drugs and other targeted compounds approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on 9 cell lines and validated the results on a panel of 32 genetically characterized DLBCL cell lines. Dasatinib, a multikinase inhibitor,…

1d

Proteomic and genomic signatures of repeat instability in cancer and adjacent normal tissues [Medical Sciences]

Repetitive sequences are hotspots of evolution at multiple levels. However, due to difficulties involved in their assembly and analysis, the role of repeats in tumor evolution is poorly understood. We developed a rigorous motif-based methodology to quantify variations in the repeat content, beyond microsatellites, in proteomes and genomes directly from…

1d

Highly diversified shrew hepatitis B viruses corroborate ancient origins and divergent infection patterns of mammalian hepadnaviruses [Microbiology]

Shrews, insectivorous small mammals, pertain to an ancient mammalian order. We screened 693 European and African shrews for hepatitis B virus (HBV) homologs to elucidate the enigmatic genealogy of HBV. Shrews host HBVs at low prevalence (2.5%) across a broad geographic and host range. The phylogenetically divergent shrew HBVs comprise…

1d

An initial investigation of neonatal neuroanatomy, caregiving, and levels of disorganized behavior [Neuroscience]

Attachment disorganization is a risk factor for difficulties in attention, social relationships, and mental health. Conceptually, attachment disorganization may indicate a breakdown in fear regulation resulting from repeated exposure to frightening maternal care. In addition, past research has examined the influence of stress-inducing contextual factors and/or child factors upon the…

1d

A small number of cholinergic neurons mediate hyperaggression in female Drosophila [Neuroscience]

In the Drosophila model of aggression, males and females fight in same-sex pairings, but a wide disparity exists in the levels of aggression displayed by the 2 sexes. A screen of Drosophila Flylight Gal4 lines by driving expression of the gene coding for the temperature sensitive dTRPA1 channel, yielded a…

1d

Activity-evoked and spontaneous opening of synaptic fusion pores [Neuroscience]

Synaptic release of neuropeptides packaged in dense-core vesicles (DCVs) regulates synapses, circuits, and behaviors including feeding, sleeping, and pain perception. Here, synaptic DCV fusion pore openings are imaged without interference from cotransmitting small synaptic vesicles (SSVs) with the use of a fluorogen-activating protein (FAP). Activity-evoked kiss and run exocytosis opens…

1d

Language influences mass opinion toward gender and LGBT equality [Political Sciences]

To improve gender equality and tolerance toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities, several nations have promoted the use of gender-neutral pronouns and words. Do these linguistic devices actually reduce biases that favor men over women, gays, lesbians, and transgender individuals? The current article explores this question with 3…

1d

Competing national memories of World War II [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

We assessed the knowledge of 1,338 people from 11 countries (8 former Allied and 3 former Axis) about World War II. When asked what percentage their country contributed to the war effort, across Allied countries, estimates totaled 309%, and Axis nations’ estimates came to 140%. People in 4 nations claimed…

1d

The causal role of {alpha}-oscillations in feature binding [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

The binding problem—how to integrate features into objects—poses a fundamental challenge for the brain. Neural oscillations, especially γ-oscillations, have been proposed as a potential mechanism to solve this problem. However, since γ-oscillations usually reflect local neural activity, how to implement feature binding involving a large-scale brain network remains largely unknown….

1d

Subȷective well-being in China’s changing society [Social Sciences]

There is now recognition that a population’s overall level of well-being is defined not just by income and wealth. Where we live and who we interact with are likely to be equally important in our overall levels of satisfaction with our lives. This thinking has stimulated studies of subjective well-being,…

1d

Why foreign STEM PhDs are unlikely to work for US technology startups [Social Sciences]

Visa policies to retain United States-trained STEM PhDs are of central importance to national innovation and economic competitiveness. There is also growing interest in “startup” visas that stimulate entrepreneurial activity and job creation, particularly in technology sectors. However, there is little understanding of how visa policies might influence foreign PhDs’…

1d

Classifying fishing behavioral diversity using high-frequency movement data [Sustainability Science]

Effective management of social-ecological systems (SESs) requires an understanding of human behavior. In many SESs, there are hundreds of agents or more interacting with governance and regulatory institutions, driving management outcomes through collective behavior. Agents in these systems often display consistent behavioral characteristics over time that can help reduce the…

1d

Nest users can now voluntarily euthanize their accounts, switch to Google

Google takeover will kill "Works with Nest," and there's no going back.

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African elephants demonstrate movements that vary in response to ecological change

Wild African elephants, known for their intelligence, show markedly different movements and reactions to the same risks and resources. A new study led by Colorado State University and Save the Elephants reveals the magnitude and complexity of this variation in behavior and how it occurs in space and time, and among individual animals.

1d

African elephants demonstrate movements that vary in response to ecological change

Wild African elephants, known for their intelligence, show markedly different movements and reactions to the same risks and resources. A new study led by Colorado State University and Save the Elephants reveals the magnitude and complexity of this variation in behavior and how it occurs in space and time, and among individual animals.

1d

African elephants demonstrate movements that vary in response to ecological change

Wild African elephants show markedly different movements and reactions to the same risks and resources, according to a new study from Colorado State University and Save the Elephants.

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Discharge incentives in emergency rooms could lead to higher patient readmission rates

In an effort to address emergency department overcrowding, pay-for-performance (P4P) incentive programs have been implemented in various regions around the world, including hospitals in Metro Vancouver. But a new study from the UBC Sauder School of Business shows that while such programs can reduce barriers to access for admitted patients, they can also lead to patient discharges associated with r

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Machine learning models help clinicians identify people who need advanced depression care

Regenstrief Institute and Indiana University researchers have created decision models capable of predicting which patients might need more treatment for their depression than what their primary care provider can offer. The algorithms were specifically designed to provide information the clinician can act on and fit into existing clinical workflows.

1d

New hydrogels show promise in treating bone defects

Bioengineers and dentists from the UCLA School of Dentistry have developed a new hydrogel that is more porous and effective in promoting tissue repair and regeneration. Once injected in a mouse model, the new hydrogel is shown to induce migration of naturally occurring stem cells to better promote bone healing. Current experimental applications using hydrogels and stem cells introduced into the bo

1d

The journey of pollen and the process of pollen dispersal

For allergy sufferers, the pollination period is a tough time, whereas for plants it is the opportunity to reproduce: in addition to the wind, insects, in particular, carry pollen from one flower to another to pollinate them. During this transport, the pollen must repeatedly attach to and detach from different surfaces. To date, the underlying adhesive mechanisms have hardly been studied so far. N

1d

Earth's future is being written in fast-melting Greenland

This is where Earth's refrigerator door is left open, where glaciers dwindle and seas begin to rise.

1d

The journey of pollen and the process of pollen dispersal

For allergy sufferers, the pollination period is a tough time, whereas for plants it is the opportunity to reproduce: in addition to the wind, insects, in particular, carry pollen from one flower to another to pollinate them. During this transport, the pollen must repeatedly attach to and detach from different surfaces. To date, the underlying adhesive mechanisms have hardly been studied so far. N

1d

YouTube Accidentally Removed Robot Battle Videos for “Animal Cruelty”

Robot Cruelty Popular video platform YouTube took down a number of combat robotics videos — robot vs. robot competitions popularized by the show “BattleBots” — on the grounds that they include “deliberate infliction of animal suffering or the forcing of animals to fight,” including “cock fighting.” A recent video by YouTube channel “Maker’s Muse” brought the strange phenomenon to light, and a You

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Six well-made notebooks for any occasion

High-quality notepads for any phase or project. (Kelly Sikkema via Unsplash/) Even if you use your phone for everything, occasionally it's refreshing to take notes with a simple pen and paper. Whether you keep a journal , are going back to school this fall, or find writing things down helps you remember them, a well-made notebook can help keep your thoughts and ideas organized . You might even fi

1d

Putting Kids on Diets Won’t Solve Anything

Getting smaller is big business in America. Last year, the country’s market for weight-loss products and services reached an all-time high of $72 billion. Analysts predict it will only grow in the years ahead, in large part because of the potential for apps and tech products like FitBit and MyFitnessPal to capture the attention of young consumers, who tend to like data and hate the in-person meet

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Ban the detention of pregnant women | Letter

Emma Ginn , the director of Medical Justice, warns that women in immigration detention receive inadequate healthcare You report how a pregnant rape survivor experiencing a miscarriage and barely able to stand was unlawfully held in immigration detention which amounted to inhuman and degrading treatment ( Home Office pays £50,000 to trafficked woman detained during miscarriage , 20 August). This c

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Atom spy Klaus Fuchs was motivated by conscience | Letter

John Green says it’s simplistic to describe as a ‘traitor’ the physicist who supplied information about the Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union Graham Farmelo’s review of a new book by Frank Close about the atom spy Klaus Fuchs ( Review , 17 August) fails completely to understand the motivation of Fuchs or comprehend the historical context of his action. He simplistically labels him the “most c

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Simple computational models can help predict post-traumatic osteoarthritis

Researchers have developed a method to predict post-traumatic osteoarthritis in patients with ligament ruptures using a simplified computational model. The researchers also verified the model predictions against measured structural and compositional changes in the knee joint between follow-up times.

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Broccoli Is Dying. Corn Is Toxic. Long Live Microbiomes!

Let’s move past the green and gene revolutions to a microbiome renaissance — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Bacterial trick may lead to antibiotics without side effects

The way the bacterium that causes Legionnaires’ Disease begins its invasion into host cells could pave the way for more targeted antibiotics, researchers report. Although we may think of bacteria as disease-causing microorganisms, there are about as many bacteria in your body as human cells. And nearly all are helpful—they are nearly as essential for human survival as air, food, and water. Which

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Studying organ crosstalk leads to a deeper understanding of sepsis

Sepsis, a complex systemic response to infection leading to organ failure, is generally studied at the level of individual organs; this research has hinted at altered metabolic changes. A new study in The American Journal of Pathology, published by Elsevier, takes a two-pronged approach and investigates for the first time the metabolic changes across affected organs in a large animal model of seps

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Ammonia for fuel cells

Researchers at the University of Delaware have identified ammonia as a source for engineering fuel cells that can provide a cheap and powerful source for fueling cars, trucks and buses with a reduced carbon footprint.

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A Stone Age boat building site has been discovered underwater

The Maritime Archaeological Trust has discovered a new 8,000 year old structure 11 metres below sea level on the Isle of Wight. It is the most intact, wooden Middle Stone Age structure ever found in the UK.

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The journey of the pollen

When insects carry the pollen from one flower to another to pollinate them, the pollen must attach to and detach from different surfaces. Scientists from Kiel University have discovered that the mechanisms are far more complex than previously assumed. They differ depending on the duration of the contact and the microstructure of the plant surfaces. The results could be interesting for drug deliver

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Scientists find way to cut nanoparticle toxicity levels

Bioengineers and biophysicists from the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, the Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, the Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne in France, and the University of Tubingen in Germany have discovered that the toxicity of nanoparticles depends more on their size and the extent to which their surface area is charged than on their chemical composition.

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It’s 10 p.m. Do You Know Where Your Friends Are?

Jennifer Mohr likes to sing in the shower, but she doesn’t want anyone to hear her. “I don’t sound good,” Mohr, a 20-year-old college junior studying information science at Temple University in Philadelphia, told me. “I never want to sing when anyone’s in my house with me.” So before she gets in the shower, she checks the location-sharing app Find My Friends on her phone to see whether her roomma

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Lightweight Google Go now available worldwide – CNET

The Android app includes Lens and page-reading features.

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In Brazil, Thousands of Research Fellowships Are at Risk

A lack of funding for the country's main research agency threatens the future of Brazilian scientific research.

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Meet the 'rock star' frog breeder vying to save Southern California's rarest amphibian

It was happy hour at the "Frog Shack," a tiny building at the Los Angeles Zoo offering all the amenities that Southern California's rarest—and perhaps fussiest—amphibians might need to survive.

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Microbes on the menu for bee larvae

Bees only feast on nectar and pollen, right?

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Enabling longer space missions

The 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing has reignited interest in space travel. However, almost any mission beyond the moon, whether manned or unmanned, will require the spacecraft to remain fully operational for at least several years. The Hall thruster is a propulsion system that is often used by craft involved in long missions. A recent study by Andrey Shashkov and co-workers at the

1d

Meet the 'rock star' frog breeder vying to save Southern California's rarest amphibian

It was happy hour at the "Frog Shack," a tiny building at the Los Angeles Zoo offering all the amenities that Southern California's rarest—and perhaps fussiest—amphibians might need to survive.

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Microbes on the menu for bee larvae

Bees only feast on nectar and pollen, right?

1d

A Huge Ransomware Attack Messes With Texas

A coordinated strike against 23 local governments is called the largest such hack from a single source.

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Tripping on Broadway: A New Musical Explores LSD Use by Cary Grant and More

The Lincoln Center Theater show is written by James Lapine, Tom Kitt and Michael Korie, and will star Carmen Cusack, Harry Hadden-Paton and Tony Yazbeck.

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Scientists discover star dust in Antarctic snow

A team of scientists hauled 500 kilograms of fresh snow back from Antarctica, melted it, and sifted through the particles that remained. Their analysis yielded a surprise: The snow held significant amounts of a form of iron that isn't naturally produced on Earth.

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Alzheimer’s drug reverses binge drinking damage in teen rats

Donepezil, a drug used to slow cognitive decline in adults with Alzheimer’s disease, appears to reverse brain inflammation and neuron damage in rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence, researchers report. In a study in the journal Scientific Reports , researchers sought to understand how intermittent binge drinking changes the hippocampus—a region long known to be critical for learning and mem

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A Dire Diagnosis and Multiple Medications — What's Really Afflicting This Elderly Patient?

Symptoms of advanced Parkinson's and dementia might mask another problem.

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Shedding light on the reaction mechanism of PUVA light therapy for skin diseases

The term "PUVA' stands for 'psoralen' and 'UV-A radiation.' Psoralens are natural plant-based compounds that can be extracted from umbelliferous plants such as giant hogweeds. Plant extracts containing psoralens were already used in Ancient Egypt for the treatment of skin diseases. Modern medical use began in the 1950s. From then on, they were applied for light-dependent treatment of skin diseases

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Enabling longer space missions

The Hall thruster is a propulsion system that is often used by spacecraft enaged in longer missions. A recent study by Andrey Shashkov and co-workers at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia has shown how the operating lives of these systems can be further extended; their work was recently published in EPJ D.

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New immune system understanding may help doctors target cancer

University of Colorado Cancer Center study overturns conventional wisdom to show that immune system natural killer cells recognize cancer DNA displayed by HLA class 2 genes, offering a new way to point the immune system at cancer.

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Examining the link between caste and under-five mortality in India

In India, children that belong to disadvantaged castes face a much higher likelihood of not living past their fifth birthday than their counterparts in non-deprived castes. IIASA researchers examined the association between castes and under-five mortality in an effort to help reduce the burden of under-five deaths in the country.

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Daily briefing: A devastating banana fungus just reached the Americas

Nature, Published online: 20 August 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02506-7 Banana-killing fungus, 80,000 science scholarships at risk in Brazil and the world’s most extreme self-citers.

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The UK just lost its measles elimination status. We could be next.

Vaccination programs like this one (Detroit, 1975) helped eliminate measles in the U.S. But endemic measles could come back. (CDC/Jack Kirby/) Public Health England confirmed on Monday that the UK has lost its "measles-free" status. The country had eliminated measles by World Health Organization standards in 2017 (based on data from 2014-2016), but an uptick in cases in recent months led to the r

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Broccoli Is Dying. Corn Is Toxic. Long Live Microbiomes!

Let’s move past the green and gene revolutions to a microbiome renaissance — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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The Mystery of ‘Skeleton Lake’ Gets Deeper

In a kinder world, archaeologists would study only formal cemeteries, carefully planned and undisturbed. No landslides would have scattered the remains. No passersby would have taken them home as souvenirs, or stacked them into cairns, or made off with the best of the artifacts. And all this certainly wouldn’t be happening far from any evidence of human habitation, under the surface of a frozen g

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Indigenous scholars confront the power, limitations of genomics

They traveled to central Illinois from Manitoba, Mexico City, Nova Scotia and 18 U.S. states, bringing expertise in a variety of fields, including anthropology, biomedical engineering, ethics, health and environmental policy, law, neurobiology, and social and behavioral science.

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Decades-old puzzle of the ecology of soil animals solved

An international research team led by the University of Göttingen has deciphered the defence mechanism of filamentous fungi. Moulds are a preferred food source for small animals. As fungi cannot escape predation by running away, they produce defence metabolites, thereby rendering themselves toxic or unpalatable. After decades-long unsuccessful investigation, these defence compounds have now been i

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A solution to prevent beer bottle explosions

Some contaminant yeasts make beer bottles and cans explode. Apart from being dangerous for consumers these 'diastatic' yeasts also cause loss of beer batches due to off-flavours, increased alcohol and over-carbonation in products. VTT scientists developed a genetic test for brewers to detect the strains that cause these problems.

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Indigenous scholars confront the power, limitations of genomics

They traveled to central Illinois from Manitoba, Mexico City, Nova Scotia and 18 U.S. states, bringing expertise in a variety of fields, including anthropology, biomedical engineering, ethics, health and environmental policy, law, neurobiology, and social and behavioral science.

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Shedding light on the reaction mechanism of PUVA light therapy for skin diseases

The term "PUVA' stands for 'psoralen' and 'UV-A radiation.' Psoralens are natural plant-based compounds that can be extracted from umbelliferous plants such as giant hogweeds. Plant extracts containing psoralens were already used in Ancient Egypt for the treatment of skin diseases. Modern medical use began in the 1950s. From then on, they were applied for light-dependent treatment of skin diseases

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Decades-old puzzle of the ecology of soil animals solved

An international research team led by the University of Göttingen has deciphered the defence mechanism of filamentous fungi. Moulds are a preferred food source for small animals. As fungi cannot escape predation by running away, they produce defence metabolites, thereby rendering themselves toxic or unpalatable. After decades-long unsuccessful investigation, these defence compounds have now been i

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A solution to prevent beer bottle explosions

Some contaminant yeasts make beer bottles and cans explode. Apart from being dangerous for consumers these 'diastatic' yeasts also cause loss of beer batches due to off-flavours, increased alcohol and over-carbonation in products. VTT scientists developed a genetic test for brewers to detect the strains that cause these problems.

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Pluripotency: 'Butterfly effect' discovered

Pluripotent cells can give rise to all cells of the body, a power that researchers are eager to control because it opens the door to regenerative medicine and organ culture for transplants. But pluripotency is still a black box for science, controlled by unknown genetic and epigenetic signals. Researchers have now uncovered one of those epigenetic signals, after a detective quest that started almo

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Dog down: Effort helps emergency medical staff treat law enforcement K-9s

Law enforcement K-9s face the same dangers their human handlers confront. Recognizing a gap in care for law enforcement K-9s injured on the job, a team of veterinarians, emergency medical services experts and canine handlers has developed protocols for emergency medical service personnel who may be called upon to help treat and transport the injured dogs.

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Football scores a health hat-trick for 55- to 70-year-old women with prediabetes

A new study shows that football is a surprisingly efficient type of physical training for female prediabetes patients, with impressive effects on cardiovascular health after 16 weeks of training for 55- to 70-year old women with no prior football experience.

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New System Makes It Troublingly Easy to Create Deepfakes

Winging It A new deepfake-generating system called FSGAN can swap people’s faces in real-time, without needing the extensive training that an AI algorithm normally requires to learn what a specific face looks like. That means that deepfakes could soon proliferate more rapidly than ever before, according to Motherboard , because creating the deceptive, manipulated videos now requires less technica

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NASA is Sending a Probe to Jupiter’s Icy Moon to Look for Life

Icy Moon NASA has announced that it’s completing the final designs, and eventually constructing and testing, a spacecraft that could visit Jupiter’s icy moon Europa to look for signs of life. The agency is looking at a launch date as early as 2023. The mission, dubbed Europa Clipper , involves sending a reconnaissance orbiter to Europa to find out if its salty subsurface ocean has the right condi

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Scientists finally know how big earthquakes start: with many smaller ones

The vast majority of earthquakes we feel come soon after smaller ones, according to new research that offers new insights into how seismology works.

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Earthquake-warning system that could provide smartphone alerts to Pacific Northwest gets funding boost

The U.S. Geological Survey is greatly increasing funding for the region's seismic network, putting it on track to send public alerts of impending earthquake shaking within the next two years, the network's director said.

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Do hospital ads work?

Should hospital advertising be banned? A few policymakers in Washington, D.C., have recently considered such an action based on a long-standing debate on whether it poses the spread of misinformation, and that it is not an effective or responsible use of an already limited healthcare budget. New research in the INFORMS journal Marketing Science studies the impact of a ban on hospital advertising,

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The meat allergy: Researcher IDs biological changes triggered by tick bites

Researchers have identified key immunological changes in people who abruptly develop an allergic reaction to mammalian meat, such as beef. The work is an important step in developing a treatment for the strange allergy triggered by tick bites.

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Low levels of vitamin D in elementary school could spell trouble in adolescence

Vitamin D deficiency in middle childhood could result in aggressive behavior as well as anxious and depressive moods during adolescence, according to a new University of Michigan study of school children in Bogotá, Colombia.

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Antibiotics report highlights stewardship, workforce, research needs

A CDC report on antibiotics use in health care US healthcare settings show progress made in promoting appropriate use of infection-fighting drugs, but strengthened and continued efforts needed.

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Skeletal shapes key to rapid recognition of objects

In the blink of an eye, the human visual system can process an object, determining whether it's a cup or a sock within milliseconds, and with seemingly little effort. It's well-established that an object's shape is a critical visual cue to help the eyes and brain perform this trick. A new study, however, finds that while the outer shape of an object is important for rapid recognition, the object's

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What Is Psoriasis?

Psoriasis causes new skin cells to grow in days rather than weeks. New skin builds up rapidly, forming thick patches and scales on the surface.

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Selfie versus posie

If you lose sleep over the number of likes on your Instagram account, new research suggests you might want to think twice before posting that selfie.

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City parks lift mood as much as Christmas

New research shows that visitors to urban parks use happier words and express less negativity on Twitter than before their visit — and that their elevated mood lasts for up to four hours. The effect is so strong that it's equivalent to the mood spike on Christmas, the happiest day each year on Twitter. With increasing urbanization and mood disorders, this research may have powerful implications f

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Brain takes a beating as arteries age

Researchers have presented a model that explains why memory deteriorates as the body ages. With age, the brain receives an increased load from the heart's beating as the body's large arteries stiffen over the years, causing damage to the smallest blood vessels in the brain.

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Waymo: Building Cars is a “Distraction” From Self-Driving Tech

Different Priorities When it comes to building and perfecting the self-driving car, some companies have elected to build a full vehicle from the ground up, like how Tesla is inching toward autonomous tech as it develops new car models. Others, Like Uber, are using other companies’ vehicles as hosts for their self-driving technology. Waymo, the self-driving tech company owned by Google’s parent co

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Geologist’s sacking prompts outcry

Nature, Published online: 20 August 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02461-3 Researchers say that Irina Artemieva’s dismissal from the University of Copenhagen runs counter to international academic standards.

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Longline fishing hampering shark migration

Longline fisheries around the world are significantly affecting migrating shark populations, according to an international study. The study found that approximately a quarter of the studied sharks' migratory paths fell under the footprint of longline fisheries, directly killing sharks and affecting their food supply.

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A new path to cancer therapy: developing simultaneous multiplexed gene editing technology

Scientists have developed a new gene editing system that could be used for anticancer immunotherapy through the simultaneous suppression of proteins that interfere with the immune system expressed on the surface of lymphoma cells and activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte.

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Possible genetic link between children's language and mental health

A new study has examined genetic variants in six genes that are thought to contribute to language development in children. They found that nearly half of the genetic variants which contribute to children's language difficulties were also associated with poor mental health.

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Amazon rainforest absorbing less carbon than expected

An international team of climate scientists has found that accounting for phosphorus-deficient soils reduced projected carbon dioxide uptake by an average of 50% in the Amazon, compared to current estimates based on previous climate models that did not take into account phosphorus deficiency.

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Moffitt Researchers complete largest genomic analysis of Merkel cell carcinoma patients

Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have developed the largest descriptive genomic analysis of MCC patients to date, in collaboration with Foundation Medicine and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Their analysis, published in Clinical Cancer Research, will provide important information to improve the care and treatment of MCC patients for many years to come.

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Connected forest networks on oil palm plantations key to protecting endangered species

Set-aside patches of high-quality forest on palm oil plantations may help protect species like orangutans, as well as various species of insects, birds and bats — many of which are threatened with extinction in areas of Indonesia and Malaysia, where 85% of the world's palm oil is produced.

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New research explores the use of New Psychoactive Substances by young people

A research study into New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) — formerly referred to as 'legal highs' — provides new evidence about why young people were attracted to the drugs, and the health and social risks associated with taking them. The study was carried out by an interdisciplinary team of researchers from Queen's University Belfast. The research findings recommend support using existing evidenc

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Shedding light on the reaction mechanism of PUVA light therapy for skin diseases

Together with their Munich-based colleagues, a team of physical chemists from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has clarified which chemical reactions take place during PUVA therapy. The therapy involves light-induced damage to the DNA of diseased cells. The team working under Prof. Dr. Peter Gilch has now published its findings in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

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BRCA1/2 genetic testing recommendations still leave issues unresolved

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force offers new guidelines on BRCA1/2 genetic testing. Susan Domchek, MD, writes in JAMA that there is more the medical community should be doing to connect at-risk patients with the most thorough and helpful genetic information.

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Kidney transplants covered by Medicaid increased in states after Medicaid expansion

Medicaid expansion has helped more young, low-income adults with advanced kidney disease to avoid the costs and poor quality-of-life associated with dialysis, reports a study from researchers at Drexel University College of Medicine and the Dornsife School of Public Health at Drexel.

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Helping skin cells differentiate could be key to treating common skin cancer

A new study from Penn researchers has identified the key regulator that controls how the skin replaces itself and which can determine if cells turn into cancer.

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Biomolecular analyses of Roopkund skeletons show Mediterranean migrants in Indian Himalaya

A large-scale study conducted by an international team of scientists has revealed that the mysterious skeletons of Roopkund Lake — once thought to have died during a single catastrophic event – belong to genetically highly distinct groups that died in multiple periods in at least two episodes separated by one thousand years. The study, published this week in Nature Communications, involved an int

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Quitting smoking associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease

Heavy cigarette smokers with at least a 20 pack-year smoking history can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by 39% within five years if they quit, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

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USPSTF recommendation on screening, genetic counseling and testing for BRCA-related cancer

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is broadening its recommendation on screening for potentially harmful mutations of the breast cancer susceptibility BRCA1/2 genes, which are associated with increased risk of certain cancers. The USPSTF now recommends primary care clinicians assess risk in women with a personal or family history of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal (tissu

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How many years after quitting heavy smoking until risk of cardiovascular disease similar to not having ever smoked?

An analysis of Framingham Heart Study data examined the association of the time between quitting smoking and new cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This analysis included nearly 8,800 individuals, including 2,371 heavy smokers who smoked 20 or more pack-years, which is equal to smoking one pack of cigarettes daily for 20 years.

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A lack of self control during adolescence is not uniquely human

Impulsiveness in adolescence isn't just a phase, it's biology. And despite all the social factors that define our teen years, the human brain and the brains of other primates go through very similar changes, particularly in the areas that affect self-control. Two researchers review the adolescent brain across species on Aug. 20, 2019 in the journal Trends in Neurosciences.

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Folded paper creates portable lab for field laboratory tests

Monitoring and tracking biological threats or epidemics require the ability to carry out tests in the field during austere situations. Expensive laboratory equipment is often unavailable in these settings, so inexpensive point-of-care technology is needed. Ordinary paper is often used, since it's cheap, portable and widely available. However, paper poses some problems that hinder its usefulness. I

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Facebook rolls out tool to block off-Facebook data gathering

Soon, you could get fewer familiar ads following you around the internet—or at least on Facebook.

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Forskere gør nyt forsøg: Her er forbrændingsmotoren uden knastaksel

Schweiziske forskere har udviklet en forbrændingsmotor, hvor ventilernes bevægelse styres af hydrauliske aktuatorer. Ved lav last skulle det spare 20 procent af brændstoffet. Andre har forsøgt, men endnu er ingen motorer nået ud i industrien.

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Biomarker Discovery Using Antibody Arrays

Download this original eBook from The Scientist's Creative Services Division and RayBiotech to learn more about screening for biomarkers using arrays!

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A single change at telomeres controls the ability of cells to generate a complete organism

Pluripotent cells can give rise to all cells of the body, a power that researchers are eager to control because it opens the door to regenerative medicine and organ culture for transplants. But pluripotency is still a black box for science, controlled by unknown genetic (expression of genes) and epigenetic signals (biochemical marks that control gene expression like on/off switches). The Telomeres

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A single change at telomeres controls the ability of cells to generate a complete organism

Pluripotent cells can give rise to all cells of the body, a power that researchers are eager to control because it opens the door to regenerative medicine and organ culture for transplants. But pluripotency is still a black box for science, controlled by unknown genetic (expression of genes) and epigenetic signals (biochemical marks that control gene expression like on/off switches). The Telomeres

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Crossover from 2-D metal to 3-D Dirac semimetal in metallic PtTe2 films with local Rashba effect

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) formed by group 10 metals (e.g. PtSe2, PtTe2) have emerged as important materials with intriguing properties discovered both in bulk single crystals and atomically thin films. While bulk PtSe2 and PtTe2 are type-II Dirac semimetals, monolayer (ML) PtSe2 film is a semiconductor with helical spin texture induced by local Rashba effect. However, the properties

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A new protein spin labelling technique

Site-directed spin labelling (SDSL) used in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been a tried and trusted technique for elucidating the structure, function and dynamics of proteins and protein complexes. Nitroxide-based spin labels are among the most popular and best established ones because they are small, non-disturbing and exhibit excellent spectroscopic prope

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Centuries-old Japanese family firms make history relevant to today's business world

Strategy-makers in long-lived Japanese firms face a challenge to match generations of history and guidance with modern-day corporate challenges and change.

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A new protein spin labelling technique

Site-directed spin labelling (SDSL) used in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been a tried and trusted technique for elucidating the structure, function and dynamics of proteins and protein complexes. Nitroxide-based spin labels are among the most popular and best established ones because they are small, non-disturbing and exhibit excellent spectroscopic prope

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Town Denies Planning to Install High-Tech Anti-Sex Toilets

Sex in Public On Friday, Welsh media outlet Wales Online reported that the Porthcawl Town Council had submitted planning documents to build high-tech toilets in a public park. According to the documents, the toilets would be self-cleaning and feature a slew of security features — including one that would put a stop “inappropriate sexual activity” by sounding an alarm and spraying the lovebirds wi

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Biomolecular analyses of Roopkund skeletons show Mediterranean migrants in Indian Himalaya

A large-scale study conducted by an international team of scientists has revealed that the mysterious skeletons of Roopkund Lake—once thought to have died during a single catastrophic event—belong to genetically highly distinct groups that died in multiple periods in at least two episodes separated by 1000 years. The study, published this week in Nature Communications, involved an international te

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Folded paper creates portable lab for field laboratory tests

Monitoring and tracking biological threats or epidemics require the ability to carry out medical and laboratory tests in the field during a disaster or other austere situations. Expensive laboratory equipment is often unavailable in these settings, so inexpensive point-of-care technology is needed.

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Climate is changing faster than animal adaptation

An international team of scientists reviewed more than 10,000 published climate change studies and has reached a sobering conclusion. Birds and other animals cannot adapt fast enough to keep pace with climate change, throwing species survival in doubt.

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Plants could remove six years of carbon dioxide emissions — if we protect them

By analysing 138 experiments, researchers have mapped the potential of today's plants and trees to store extra carbon by the end of the century.

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Centuries-old Japanese family firms make history relevant to today's business world

A study by researchers from Lancaster University, Politecnico di Milano, UCL and Aaalto University reveals that in many Japanese firms family mottos remain relevant for decades, or even centuries.

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How to improve multiple sclerosis therapy

Medications currently used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) can merely reduce relapses during the initial relapsing-remitting phase. Many patients, however, develop progressive MS at a later stage, with disability becoming progressively worse. This type cannot be sufficiently treated at yet. Possible causes why an effective therapy for progressive MS is still lacking have been compiled by an inter

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Treatment for sexual and domestic violence offenders does work

A first-of-its-kind meta-study has found that specialised psychological programmes for sexual and domestic violence offenders have led to major reductions in reoffending but best results are achieved with consistent input from a qualified psychologist.

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Fracking: UK shale reserves may be smaller than previously estimated

Previous research suggested 50 years of shale gas under the UK, but a new study says it could be less than 10.

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How craving attention makes you less creative | Joseph Gordon-Levitt

Joseph Gordon-Levitt has gotten more than his fair share of attention from his acting career. But as social media exploded over the past decade, he got addicted like the rest of us — trying to gain followers and likes only to be left feeling inadequate and less creative. In a refreshingly honest talk, he explores how the attention-driven model of big tech companies impacts our creativity — and s

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Why Conservatives Are Turning Against Higher Education

This article was updated on August 20, 2019 at 5:53pm A native of small-town Missouri who excelled at Stanford and Yale Law School, Josh Hawley, the junior senator from Missouri, is keenly aware of how higher education can serve as a springboard into the elite and the challenges facing those it leaves behind. But that’s not to say he’s a cheerleader for the higher-education industry. Like many on

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Lab-on-a-chip drives search for new drugs to prevent blood clots

The effectiveness of current anti-clotting medication can be limited due to the risk of complications. This is driving a need for alternatives that can both prevent the formation of blood clots and reduce the risk of excessive and life-threatening bleeding. A new biocompatible lab-on-a-chip could help accelerate the discovery and development of new anti-clotting therapies, with automated processes

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Science Communication: Truth, Lies and Uncertainty

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Students who plan to seek more education than needed for their career earn more money

When it comes to career success, it pays to aim for more education than what you need for the job you want.

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How A Warm Bath Or Shower Helps You Get to Sleep

A warm bath before bed can help you get to sleep, research shows. (Credit: MyImages – Micha/Shutterstock) About 30 percent of Americans have trouble sleeping. Shahab Haghayegh, a University of Texas biomedical engineer, was one of them. Sleep eluded him. “I always had a hard time fall[ing] asleep,” he told Discover via email. Over the counter medications like the hormone melatonin and Unisom, a se

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Technologist Kai-Fu Lee says Andrew Yang is way ahead of his time

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Finance Needs People Who Work Well With Robots

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Despite China’s Efforts, the U.S. Still Leads in Artificial Intelligence

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Scientists Detect Eight Mysterious Radio Pulses Coming From Space

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Seniors multitask in this brain game like they’re 20

Online brain games can extend in-game “cognitive youth” into old age, research suggests. “The brain is not a muscle, but like our bodies, if we work out and train it, we can improve our mental performance,” says lead author Mark Steyvers, professor of cognitive sciences at the University of California, Irvine. “We discovered that people in the upper age ranges who completed specific training task

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Decades-old puzzle of the ecology of soil animals solved

An international research team led by the University of Goettingen has deciphered the defence mechanism of filamentous fungi. Moulds are a preferred food source for small animals. As fungi cannot escape predation by running away, they produce defence metabolites, thereby rendering themselves toxic or unpalatable. After decades-long unsuccessful investigation, these defence compounds have now been

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Green space is good for your mental health — the nearer the better!

Living within 300m of urban green space such as parks, nature reserves or play areas is associated with greater happiness, sense of worth, and life satisfaction — according to a new study by researchers at the University of Warwick, Newcastle University and the University of Sheffield.

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Queen bees face increased chance of execution if they mate with two males rather than one

Queen stingless bees face an increased risk of being executed by worker bees if they mate with two males rather than one, according to new research by the University of Sussex and the University of São Paulo.

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A Stone Age boat building site has been discovered underwater

The Maritime Archaeological Trust has discovered a new 8,000 year old structure next to what is believed to be the oldest boat building site in the world on the Isle of Wight.

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Stardust in the Antarctic snow

The rare isotope iron-60 is created in massive stellar explosions. Only a very small amount of this isotope reaches the earth from distant stars. Now, a research team has discovered iron-60 in Antarctic snow for the first time. The scientists suggest that the iron isotope comes from the interstellar neighborhood.

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Embryology: A sequence of reflexive contractions triggers the formation of the limbs

It normally takes about 21 days for chicken embryos to develop into chicks. By observing chicken hindlimb formation, a research team has just discovered that the mechanism at the origin of embryonic development consists of a sequence of reflexive contractions. The researchers were able to artificially recreate the same process and accelerate it by as much as a factor of 20.

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Multi-tasking protein at the root of neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition resulting from nerve injury and is characterized by increased pain sensitivity. Although known to be associated with overly excitable neurons in the spinal cord, the mechanisms leading to chronic pain are poorly understood. Researchers have now shown that expression of a protein called FLRT3 in the spinal dorsal root ganglion causes pain sensitization, which

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Lab-on-a-chip drives search for new drugs to prevent blood clots

The effectiveness of current anti-clotting medication can be limited due to the risk of complications. This is driving a need for alternatives that can both prevent the formation of blood clots and reduce the risk of excessive and life-threatening bleeding. A new biocompatible lab-on-a-chip could help accelerate the discovery and development of new anti-clotting therapies, with automated processes

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Black hole holograms

Researchers show how a holographic tabletop experiment can be used to simulate the physics of a black hole. This work may lead the way to a more complete theory of quantum gravity that harmonizes quantum mechanics and relativity.

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Datatilsynet kritiserer Københavns Universitet: Persondata stjålet fra studerende er jeres ansvar

Hvis håndtering af persondata indgår som et del af et kursus på et universitet og med redskaber, der er ejet af universitetet, så er universitetet – og ikke den studerende – dataansvarlig med de forpligtelser, der følger med, viser sag fra Københavns Universitet.

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Studying animal cognition in the wild

Different types of cognitive abilities can lead to a variety of knowledge that can help an animal to find, access, and guard food and mates. One approach to gain insight into the evolution of such cognitive abilities is by inferring cognitive performances from observed behaviours across closely related species and to compare them. By linking differences in cognitive performances with differences i

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Studying animal cognition in the wild

Different types of cognitive abilities can lead to a variety of knowledge that can help an animal to find, access, and guard food and mates. One approach to gain insight into the evolution of such cognitive abilities is by inferring cognitive performances from observed behaviours across closely related species and to compare them. By linking differences in cognitive performances with differences i

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A Once Common Gecko Is Vanishing from Parts of Asia

With millions of tokay geckos trapped each year for use in traditional Chinese medicine, conservationists are calling for international protections — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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New addiction research center receives trove of molecules from embattled opioidmaker

Purdue Pharma will share drug candidates and blood samples with Oklahoma State University, the beneficiary of a previous legal settlement

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Science Communication: Truth, Lies and Uncertainty

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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These Are the Meta-Trends Shaping the Future (at Breakneck Speed)

Life is pretty different now than it was 20 years ago, or even 10 years ago. It’s sort of exciting, and sort of scary. And hold onto your hat, because it’s going to keep changing—even faster than it already has been. The good news is, maybe there won’t be too many big surprises, because the future will be shaped by trends that have already been set in motion. According to Singularity University c

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Bookmakers capitalize on fans' emotions to turn a profit, new research shows

At the start of each term in Brian Soebbing's class on financial management in sports, he asks students how many would always bet on the hometown Edmonton Oilers, whether they're favored to win or not.

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Mozambique case study shows that poverty is much more than income

What does it mean to be poor? On the face of it, this may not sound like a very difficult question. In developed countries, almost all official and everyday definitions refer to poverty in income terms. In this sense, low consumption power (income) and poverty are essentially synonymous.

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Designing new ways to make use of ocean plastic

Beachcombing has long been a part of life for island communities. On the southwestern edge of Scarp, a small, treeless island off the coast of Harris in Scotland's Outer Hebrides, the Mol Mòr ("big beach") was where locals went to collect driftwood for repairing buildings and making furniture and coffins. Today there is still much driftwood, but as much or more plastic.

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When a Still Life Comes Alive

This artist’s paintings walk among us — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Hawaii protests continue against a volcano telescope

Celebrities have joined protestors in Hawaii as a campaign to stop the building of a telescope on a volcano enters its sixth week.

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Professional investors favor white-led venture capital funds

When a black-led venture capital firm has an impressive track record, it encounters more bias from professional investors, according to new research. In the new study, researchers report that when venture capital funds are managed by a person of color with strong credentials, professional investors judge them more harshly than their white counterparts with identical credentials. These findings, w

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A Once Common Gecko Is Vanishing from Parts of Asia

With millions of tokay geckos trapped each year for use in traditional Chinese medicine, conservationists are calling for international protections — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Space station's data rate increase supports future exploration

NASA recently doubled the rate at which data from the International Space Station returns to Earth, paving the way for similar future upgrades on Gateway, NASA's upcoming outpost in lunar orbit, and other exploration missions. This new data rate will enable the space station to send back more science data faster than ever before.

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Newt Gingrich Proposes $2 Billion Prize to Land on the Moon

Former Republican Speaker of the House New Gingrich — alongside a U.S Army general and Michael Jackson’s former publicist — is proposing a $2 billion prize to the first private space company to land Americans on the Moon and establish a lunar base, Politico reports . The contest would pit the likes of Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos against each other and would represent a small fraction of the upwards

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Stardust in the Antarctic snow

The rare isotope iron-60 is created in massive stellar explosions. Only a very small amount of this isotope reaches the earth from distant stars. Now, a research team with significant involvement from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has discovered iron-60 in Antarctic snow for the first time. The scientists suggest that the iron isotope comes from the interstellar neighborhood.

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Embryology: a sequence of reflexive contractions triggers the formation of the limbs

It normally takes about 21 days for chicken embryos to develop into chicks. By observing chicken hindlimb formation, a CNRS / Université de Paris research team has just discovered that the mechanism at the origin of embryonic development consists of a sequence of reflexive contractions. The researchers were able to artificially recreate the same process and accelerate it by as much as a factor of

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Multi-tasking protein at the root of neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition resulting from nerve injury and is characterized by increased pain sensitivity. Although known to be associated with overly excitable neurons in the spinal cord, the mechanisms leading to chronic pain are poorly understood. Researchers from Osaka University have now shown that expression of a protein called FLRT3 in the spinal dorsal root ganglion causes pai

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Nicotine-free e-cigarettes can damage blood vessels

A Penn study reveals single instance of vaping immediately leads to reduced vascular function.

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Some pregnant women are exposed to gadolinium in early pregnancy

A small but concerning number of women are exposed to a commonly used MRI contrast agent early in their pregnancy, likely before many of them are aware that they're pregnant, according to a new study. The results support adherence to effective pregnancy screening measures to help reduce inadvertent exposures to these contrast agents during early pregnancy.

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Vaping impairs vascular function

Inhaling a vaporized liquid solution through an e-cigarette, otherwise known as vaping, immediately impacts vascular function even when the solution does not include nicotine, according to the results of a new study.

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HBO’s New Documentary Asks You to Talk About Death

Dick Shannon knew he was dying. He had been living with a terminal-cancer diagnosis for two years. He had discussed options with his doctors and his wife, Deleaua, and he’d accepted that “there’s nothing I can do to stop it,” he says in HBO’s new documentary Alternate Endings: Six New Ways to Die in America . That acceptance gave rise to different sorts of discussions: conversations about how his

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Researchers propose new holographic method to simulate black holes with tabletop experiment

A research team from Osaka University, Nihon University and Chuo University has proposed a novel theoretical framework whose experiment could be performed in a laboratory to better understand the physics of black holes. This project can shed light on the fundamental laws that govern the cosmos on both unimaginably small and vastly large scales.

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Study with 950 managers from a public institution investigates frequency and causes of defensive decisions

Despite their better judgment, decision-makers such as managers often don't pick what is objectively the best option. Instead, they opt for a safer alternative that protects them against negative repercussions. A research team from the Max Planck Institute for Human Development has investigated how often decision-makers make such defensive decisions and how this behavior is fueled by a negative er

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Image: Luca installs BioRock

Heigh-ho, heigh-ho, it is off to work the microbes go.

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Lab-on-a-chip drives search for new drugs to prevent blood clots

A tiny lab the size of a postage stamp could be the next big thing in the search for safer anti-clotting drugs to prevent heart attacks and strokes.

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Vaping May Create Toxic Chemicals That Damage Your Blood Vessels

Here’s another reason vaping may not be good for you.

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The Puzzling Search for Perfect Randomness

Life is unpredictable, and random things happen to us all the time. You might say the universe itself is random. Yet somehow, large numbers of random events can generate large-scale patterns that science can predict accurately. Heat diffusion and Brownian motion are just two examples. Recently, randomness has even made the news: Apparently there’s hidden order in random surfaces , and we may be c

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Inappropriate housing causing disabled people 'physical and mental harm'

Leading housing experts are warning that disabled home-seekers are experiencing adverse emotional and mental distress due to a lack of suitable accommodation.

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Statistics plot pollution to inform policy

The spatial variation in different air pollution components helps identify possible targets for pollution control.

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Connected forest networks on oil palm plantations key to protecting endangered species

Connected areas of high-quality forest running through oil palm plantations could help support increased levels of biodiversity, new research suggests.

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Vaping May Harm Your Blood Flow—Even Without Nicotine

Inhaling e-cigarette vapor alone had an immediate, negative impact on the vascular systems of first-time vapers.

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Bernie Sanders Vows to Ban Police From Using Facial Recognition

Police Reform Bernie Sanders announced this weekend that he would bar law enforcement agencies from using facial recognition systems if he’s elected president in 2020. The ban is part of Sanders’ broader ideas to reform American policing, which would also involve barring cops from buying military equipment, The Verge reports . Sanders is the first to call for a full federal ban on policing facial

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Rebuilding after wildfire is not enough to curb future disasters

Wildfires in the West are becoming inevitable, and communities that rethink what it means to live with them will likely fare better than those that simply rebuild after they burn. This is the conclusion of a recently published paper authored by a group of scientists from institutions across the U.S. and Canada.

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All-in-one: New microbe degrades oil to gas

Crude oil and gas naturally escape from the seabed in many places known as "seeps." There, these hydrocarbons move up from source rocks through fractures and sediments toward the surface, where they leak out of the ground and sustain a diversity of densely populated habitats in the dark ocean. Alkanes are already degraded before they reach the sediment surface. Even deep down in the sediment, wher

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A new path to cancer therapy: Developing simultaneous multiplexed gene editing technology

Dr. Mihue Jang and her group at the Center for Theragnosis of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST, President Byung-gwon Lee) announced that they have developed a new gene editing system that could be used for anticancer immunotherapy through the simultaneous suppression of proteins that interfere with the immune system expressed on the surface of lymphoma cells and activation of cy

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All-in-one: New microbe degrades oil to gas

Crude oil and gas naturally escape from the seabed in many places known as "seeps." There, these hydrocarbons move up from source rocks through fractures and sediments toward the surface, where they leak out of the ground and sustain a diversity of densely populated habitats in the dark ocean. Alkanes are already degraded before they reach the sediment surface. Even deep down in the sediment, wher

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Cerebras Systems Unveils 1.2 Trillion Transistor Wafer-Scale Processor for AI

Credit: Getty Images Modern CPU transistor counts are enormous — AMD announced earlier this month that a full implementation of its 7nm Epyc “Rome” CPU weighs in at 32 billion transistors. To this, Cerebras Technology says: “Hold my beer.” The AI-focused company has designed what it calls a Wafer Scale Engine. The WSE is a square, approximately eight inches by nine inches, and contains roughly 1.

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Scientist: Major Cyberattack Could Be as Bad as Nuclear War

Cyber Warfare We already know what kind of damage a nuclear weapon attack can do — and according to a computer science expert, a cyberattack could now be just as devastating. “As someone who studies cybersecurity and information warfare, I’m concerned that a cyberattack with widespread impact… could cause significant damage, including mass injury and death rivaling the death toll of a nuclear wea

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Harvard’s Smart Exo-Shorts Talk to the Cloud to Help You Walk and Run

Exosuits don’t generally scream “fashionable” or “svelte.” Take the mind-controlled robotic exoskeleton that allowed a paraplegic man to kick off the World Cup back in 2014. Is it cool? Hell yeah. Is it practical? Not so much. Yapping about wearability might seem childish when the technology already helps people with impaired mobility move around dexterously. But the lesson of the ill-fated Googl

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Simple computational models can help predict post-traumatic osteoarthritis

Researchers from the University of Eastern Finland, in collaboration with the University of California in San Francisco, Cleveland Clinic, the University of Queensland, the University of Oulu and Kuopio University Hospital, have developed a method to predict post-traumatic osteoarthritis in patients with ligament ruptures using a simplified computational model. The researchers also verified the mo

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More children suffer head injuries playing recreational sport than team sport

An Australian/ New Zealand study examining childhood head injuries has found that children who do recreational sports like horse riding, skate boarding and bike riding are more likely to suffer serious head injuries than children who play contact sport like AFL or rugby.

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A single change at telomeres controls the ability of cells to generate a complete organism

Pluripotent cells can give rise to all cells of the body, a power that researchers are eager to control because it opens the door to regenerative medicine and organ culture for transplants. But pluripotency is still a black box for science, controlled by unknown genetic and epigenetic signals. CNIO researchers now uncovers one of those epigenetic signals, after a detective quest that started almos

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Mini kidneys grown from stem cells give new insights into kidney disease and therapies

An international team led by NTU Singapore has grown 'miniature kidneys' in the laboratory that could be used to better understand how kidney diseases develop in individual patients. These kidney organoids were grown outside the body from skin cells derived from a single patient who has polycystic kidney disease. This method has paved the way for tailoring treatment plans specific to each patient,

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Think Video on Your Phone Is Slow? It’s Not Your Imagination

A study by Northeastern University researchers found that major wireless carriers sometimes limit video to DVD-quality, even on some “unlimited” plans.

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Fossil fuel drilling could be contributing to climate change by heating Earth from within

Almost all scientists agree that burning fossil fuels is contributing to climate change. But agreement is less clear cut on how exactly it's influencing rising global temperatures.

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Assessing the possible safety issues in the second nuclear era

A team of researchers with the Chinese Academy of Sciences has carried out an assessment of possible safety issues tied to the rise of the second nuclear era. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes the factors that led to the rise of a second nuclear era and possible safety concerns that need to be addressed.

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We could find alien life on exoplanets by looking for its glow

Most of the closest exoplanets we’ve found orbit stars that can release flares of dangerous UV light, but those very flares might force life to evolve to glow

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Cities are using walls of moss to tackle air pollution from traffic

Expensive moss walls are the latest trend to combat air pollution in major cities, but can a few square metres of plant matter really solve the problem?

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3000 timer ved 80 grader: Lego jagter fremtidens bæredygtige klods

PLUS. Lego vil producere mere bæredygtige klodser i 2030, og jagten på det rette materiale er sat ind i samarbejde med blandt andet Aarhus Universitet. Polyester har netop været under luppen.

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Glacier-fed rivers may consume atmospheric carbon dioxide

Glacier-fed rivers in Northern Canada may be consuming significant amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, according to new research by University of Alberta biologists.

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Climate change may change the way ocean waves impact 50% of the world's coastlines

The rise in sea levels is not the only way climate change will affect the coasts. Our research, published today in Nature Climate Change, found a warming planet will also alter ocean waves along more than 50% of the world's coastlines.

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First major superconducting component for new high-power particle accelerator arrives at Fermilab

It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago.

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Stacked graphene layers act as a mirror for electron beams

Stacked layers of graphene can act like a mirror for beams of electrons. Physicists Daniël Geelen and colleagues discovered this using a new type of electron microscope. In an article in Physical Review Letters, they describe their results, which could lead to the development of optics for electron beams instead of light.

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World's thinnest, lightest signal amplifier enables bioinstrumentation with reduced noise

A research group led by Professor Tsuyoshi Sekitani and Associate Professor Takafumi Uemura of The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, succeeded in developing the world's thinnest and lightest differential amplifier for bioinstrumentation.

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BAFfling cancer growth strategies

More than one-fifth of all human cancers harbor mutations in one of the members of the BAF chromatin remodeling complex. Deep biochemical and epigenomic characterization of a cell line panel comprehensively representing all these mutations enabled researchers at the CeMM Research Center for Molecule Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences to identify new approaches to target BAF mutant cancer

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Studying animal cognition in the wild

Studying cognition in the wild is a challenge. Field researchers and their study animals face many factors that can easily interfere with their variables of interest and that many say are 'impossible' to control for. A novel observational approach for field research developed by Karline Janmaat at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology can now guide young scholars, who want to stud

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A battery-free sensor for underwater exploration

MIT researchers have developed a battery-free underwater communication system that uses near-zero power to transmit sensor data. The system could be used to monitor sea temperatures to study climate change and track marine life over long periods — and even sample waters on distant planets. They are presenting the system at the SIGCOMM conference this week, in a paper that has won the conference's

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New protein spin labelling technique

University of Konstanz researchers develop a new site-directed spin labelling approach based on genetically encoded noncanonical amino acids amenable to Diels-Alder chemistry as well as a new spin label, PaNDA.

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Weather on ancient Mars: Warm with occasional rain, turning cold

A new study of conditions on Mars indicates that the climate 3 to 4 billion years ago was warm enough to provoke substantial rainstorms and flowing water, followed by a longer cold period where the water froze. This may have implications on the conditions for the development of life on Mars

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Crossover from 2D metal to 3D Dirac semimetal in metallic PtTe2 films with local Rashba effect

Shuyun Zhou's group from Tsinghua University reported the evolution of the electronic structure of PtTe2 thin films using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A transition from 2D metal at 2 monolayers (ML) to 3D Dirac semimetal (> 4 ML) has been reported. Helical spin texture induced by local Rashba effect has been reported in bulk PtTe2 crystal and expected in PtTe2 films. Such metallic fi

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Measuring temperatures similar to those occurring in star collisions in the lab

Collisions between neutron stars are fascinating cosmic events that lead to the formation of numerous chemical elements. Temperatures during these collisions are exponentially high, typically reaching up to hundreds of billions of degrees Celsius.

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FDA Proposes Grotesque New Warning Images for Cigarette Packs

The Food and Drug Administration has a plan to deter cigarette smoking — and it involves photos of blackened feet with missing toes. On Thursday, the agency proposed changing the packaging rules for cigarettes to include 13 new health warnings. Each of the warnings features a short statement and a realistic color image depicting a health risk of smoking cigarettes. The aforementioned photo of a t

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Neighbors’ houses can make you feel worse about your own

Satisfaction with your home can depend on its size compared to the homes of your neighbors, according to new research. Daniel Kuhlmann, assistant professor of community and regional planning at Iowa State University, found that people are more likely to be dissatisfied with their house if it is smaller than their neighbors’. This study provides evidence that people care not only about their house

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Fracking isn’t the worst way to get at oil and gas

Conventional oil and gas production activities inject much more water underground than fracking and other petroleum-production methods, according to a new study. High-volume hydraulic fracturing, known as fracking, injects water, sand, and chemicals under high pressure into petroleum-bearing rock formations to recover previously inaccessible oil and natural gas. The method led to the current shal

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Misinformation Has Created a New World Disorder

Our willingness to share content without thinking is exploited to spread disinformation — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Misinformation Has Created a New World Disorder

Our willingness to share content without thinking is exploited to spread disinformation — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Phenotypic Neuroscience

This is a good review from AstraZeneca scientists on phenotypic screening in neurodegenerative disease (by which one means Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, and of course Alzheimer’s). And it’ll serve as a good into to the challenges in these two fields in general, and to why they intersect. Put simply, we don’t have a detailed enough understanding of neurode

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Longline fishing hampering shark migration

Longline fisheries around the world are significantly affecting migrating shark populations, according to an international study featuring a University of Queensland researcher. The study found that approximately a quarter of the studied sharks' migratory paths fell under the footprint of longline fisheries, directly killing sharks and affecting their food supply.

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Black hole holograms

Japanese researchers show how a holographic tabletop experiment can be used to simulate the physics of a black hole. This work may lead the way to a more complete theory of quantum gravity that harmonizes quantum mechanics and relativity.

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Montana examines best practices for wildfire adaptation and resilience

Montana State University's Dave McWethy is the lead author on a paper published in the journal Nature Sustainability that outlines best practices for social and ecological resilience in a Western landscape where wildfires are becoming inevitable.

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Lab-on-a-chip drives search for new drugs to prevent blood clots

The effectiveness of current anti-clotting medication can be limited due to the risk of complications. This is driving a need for alternatives that can both prevent the formation of blood clots and reduce the risk of excessive and life-threatening bleeding. A new biocompatible lab-on-a-chip could help accelerate the discovery and development of new anti-clotting therapies, with automated processes

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Små åkrar ger stor mångfald

– Små fält ses ofta som ett hinder för rationellt jordbruk, men vi ser att de verkligen kan vara en nyckel för att bevara den biologiska mångfalden, säger Yann Clough som är professor i miljövetenskap vid Lunds universitet och en av forskarna bakom studien som publicerats i tidskriften PNAS.

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Everyone Is an Agent in the New Information Warfare

Before you click “like,” hit “pause” — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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From the archive

Nature, Published online: 20 August 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02453-3 How Nature reported early experiments on magnetic data storage in 1969, and an alternative stuffing for lifebelts in 1919.

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Survival: the first 3.8 billion years

Nature, Published online: 20 August 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02475-x Lisa Feldman Barrett ponders Joseph LeDoux’s study on how conscious brains evolved.

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Why Moral Emotions Go Viral Online

A study of Twitter demonstrates the attentional power of certain words — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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The Sega Genesis Mini Offers a Touch of 16-Bit Nostalgia

The new retro console is a thrilling opportunity to experience Sega's fascinating, eclectic library of games.

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Ny ledende overlæge i Nordjyllands ældrepsykiatri

Med en baggrund som overlæge i Region Nordjylland og stor erfaring inden for ældrepsykiatrien, glæder den nye ledende overlæge Lone Jensen sig til arbejdet med de ældre. Hun har tre klare prioriteter.

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Selfie versus posie

If you lose sleep over the number of likes on your Instagram account, new WSU research suggests you might want to think twice before posting that selfie.

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When an ethical vegan met a sheep farmer…

Many vegans boycott woollen clothing on the basis that it is cruel to sheep.

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Spending on illicit drugs in US nears $150 billion annually

Spending on cannabis, cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine fluctuated between $120 billion and $145 billion each year from 2006 to 2016, rivaling what Americans spend each year on alcohol, according to a new study.

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