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nyheder2019december03

Carbon Pollution Hit a New Record High in 2019

The world's carbon pollution from fossil fuels rose this year, reaching a record high, according to new research published today. This is the third year in a row that carbon-dioxide emissions from fossil fuels have increased. "Obviously it's a bad thing," Rob Jackson, an Earth-science professor at Stanford University who led the new research, told me. "It's just one more year where we churn along

28min

41min

The Justinianic Plague: An inconsequential pandemic? [Social Sciences]

Existing mortality estimates assert that the Justinianic Plague (circa 541 to 750 CE) caused tens of millions of deaths throughout the Mediterranean world and Europe, helping to end antiquity and start the Middle Ages. In this article, we argue that this paradigm does not fit the evidence. We examine a…

52min

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Sleep helps memory, right? Not for eyewitnesses

New research investigating the effect of sleep on eyewitness memory has found that having a period of sleep, compared to a period of wake, does not improve eyewitness identification accuracy.

6min

Global carbon emissions increase but rate has slowed

Global carbon emissions are set to grow more slowly in 2019, with a decline in coal burning offset by strong growth in natural gas and oil use worldwide — according to new research. Emissions from burning fossil fuels are projected to grow by 0.6% this year to reach almost 37 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2).

6min

A quarter of cancer patients experience avoidable delay to diagnosis

One in four cancer patients experienced a delay to their diagnosis that could have been avoided, according to a new study by Cancer Research UK.

6min

Healing power of honey

Sandwiching nano-layers of manuka honey between layers of surgical mesh inhibits bacteria for up to three weeks as the honey is slowly released, new research shows.

6min

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Hit a Record in 2019, Even as Coal Fades

Global consumption of coal declined unexpectedly this year, but a surge in oil and gas pushed up greenhouse gas emissions over all.

8min

We need to halve emissions by 2030. They rose again in 2019.

And greenhouse gases will continue to climb until nations collectively commit to much more aggressive action.

12min

Paris climate deal: world not on track to meet goal amid continuous emissions

Slowdown this year in rising greenhouse gases does not negate long-term trend, finds carbon budget analysis Carbon dioxide emissions rose weakly this year as the use of coal declined but natural gas took up the slack, a comprehensive study of the global "carbon budget" has found. The rise in emissions was much smaller than in the last two years, but the continued increase means the world is still

14min

Tackling degraded oceans could mitigate climate crisis – report

Greenpeace says efforts to restore seas' ecosystems would boost their capacity to absorb heat and store carbon Halting overfishing and the plastic pollution of the oceans could help tackle the climate emergency by improving the degraded state of the world's biggest carbon sink, a report has found. The oceans absorb both the excess heat generated by our greenhouse gas emissions, and absorb carbon

14min

Internet Cables Could Also Measure Quakes

The fiberoptic cables that connect the global internet could potentially be used as seismic sensors. Christopher Intagliata reports. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

15min

Dogs hear words the same way we do

"Solid" study reveals a sophisticated ear in canines

16min

Larry Page and Sergey Brin Hand Over Alphabet's Reins

Google chief Sundar Pichai is now also the CEO of Alphabet, but Page and Brin aren't totally out of the picture.

20min

Cholesterol levels predict if under-45s will ever have heart disease

An analysis of nearly 400,000 people suggests that the cholesterol levels of young adults can predict whether they'll develop cardiovascular disease in later life

20min

Ultrasound techniques give warning signs of preterm births

Ultrasound can be used to examine cervix tissue and improve diagnostics, which is essential for predicting preterm births, and ultrasound data is used to compare two techniques for evaluating changes in cervical tissue throughout pregnancy. Researchers are looking at ultrasonic attenuation coefficients that can help scientists characterize cervical changes throughout pregnancy and in preparation f

27min

Global carbon emissions growth slows, but hits record high

The runaway train that is climate change is about to blow past another milestone: global fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions will reach yet another record high. Driven by rising natural gas and oil consumption, levels of CO2 are expected to hit 37 billion tons this year, according to new estimates from the Global Carbon Project, an initiative led by Stanford University scientist Rob Jackson.

29min

How a Manuka honey 'sandwich' could be the key to fighting infections

Layering minute amounts of Manuka honey between layers of surgical mesh acts as a natural antibiotic that could prevent infection following an operation, new research has shown.

29min

How a Manuka honey 'sandwich' could be the key to fighting infections

Layering minute amounts of Manuka honey between layers of surgical mesh acts as a natural antibiotic that could prevent infection following an operation, new research has shown.

32min

Prescribing for self, family, and friends widespread among young Irish doctors, poll shows

Prescribing for self, family, friends and colleagues is widespread among young Irish doctors, suggest the results of a survey, published online in the Journal of Medical Ethics.

49min

25-fold surge in vitamin D supplement prescriptions for kids in UK primary care

The number of vitamin D supplement prescriptions written for children in primary care in the UK has surged 25-fold in under 10 years, reveals an analysis of family doctor (GP) prescribing data, published in the online journal BMJ Open.

49min

Concerns over regulation of oral powders or gels sold as medical devices in Europe

Oral powders or gels, sold as medical devices in the European Union (EU), aren't regulated to the same safety standards as those applied to medicines, reveals research published online in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

49min

Blockchain Developer Gets Busted After Talk in North Korea

Hacker and Ethereum developer Virgil Griffith was recently arrested by US authorities for speaking at a conference on blockchain technologies.

50min

Behavior is the ultimate arbiter: An alternative explanation for the inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on the ovulatory homolog model of orgasm in rabbits [Letters (Online Only)]

Pavlicev et al. (1) offer an experimental test of the ovulatory homolog model of female orgasm in rabbits. While we appreciate the importance of designing animal models of such elusive phenomena, there are several issues we would like to address. Pavlicev et al. tested whether a daily dose of the…

52min

Reply to Quintana et al.: Behavior is an unlikely mediator of fluoxetine effects on ovulation in rabbits [Letters (Online Only)]

In a Letter in PNAS, Quintana et al. (1) raise 2 issues with respect to our paper on the ovulatory homolog model of female orgasm (2). One is about the statistical analysis, and the second is about biological interpretation. We address both issues below. Statistical Issues In their Letter, Quintana…

52min

Brain-wide genetic mapping identifies the indusium griseum as a prenatal target of pharmacologically unrelated psychostimulants [Neuroscience]

Psychostimulant use is an ever-increasing socioeconomic burden, including a dramatic rise during pregnancy. Nevertheless, brain-wide effects of psychostimulant exposure are incompletely understood. Here, we performed Fos-CreERT2–based activity mapping, correlated for pregnant mouse dams and their fetuses with amphetamine, nicotine, and caffeine applied acutely during midgestation. While light-shee

52min

Ca2+/CaM interaction with voltage-gated Na+ channels [Letters (Online Only)]

Gardill et al. (1) describe a crystal structure for a complex of Ca2+-loaded calmodulin (CaM) and the cardiac NaV1.5 Na+ channel intracellular C terminus (C-terminal domain [CTD]) (Protein Data Bank [PDB]: 6MUD). They found, as we reported (2) with ternary complexes (PDB: 4JQ0 and 4JPZ) of NaVCTD, Ca2+-CaM, and the…

52min

Reply to Pitt and Lee: Occupancies of Ca2+ in complexes of calmodulin with voltage-gated sodium channels [Letters (Online Only)]

In PNAS, we describe a crystal structure of Ca2+-loaded calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) in complex with the C-terminal region (CT) of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5 (1). We contrasted our findings with those of Wang et al. (2) for the following reasons: The title and abstract had suggested a structure of Ca2+/CaM…

52min

Atmospheric modeling and source reconstruction of radioactive ruthenium from an undeclared major release in 2017 [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

In October 2017 unusual 106Ru detections across most of Europe prompted the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) to analyze the event in order to locate the origin and identify the magnitude of the release. This paper presents the inverse modeling techniques used during the event to achieve…

52min

Corpora amylacea act as containers that remove waste products from the brain [Physiology]

Corpora amylacea (CA) in the human brain are granular bodies formed by polyglucosan aggregates that amass waste products of different origins. They are generated by astrocytes, mainly during aging and neurodegenerative conditions, and are located predominantly in periventricular and subpial regions. This study shows that CA are released from these…

52min

Characterization of the activity, aggregation, and toxicity of heterodimers of WT and ALS-associated mutant Sod1 [Neuroscience]

Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) have been reported in both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we investigated the behavior of heteromeric combinations of wild-type (WT) and mutant Sod1 proteins A4V, L38V, G93A, and G93C in human cells. We showed that both WT and mutant…

52min

Cross-talk between iNKT cells and CD8 T cells in the spleen requires the IL-4/CCL17 axis for the generation of short-lived effector cells [Immunology and Inflammation]

Mounting an effective immune response relies critically on the coordinated interactions between adaptive and innate compartments. How and where immune cells from these different compartments interact is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the cross-talk between invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) and CD8+ T cells in the spleen,…

52min

Native habitat mitigates feast-famine conditions faced by honey bees in an agricultural landscape [Ecology]

Intensive agriculture can contribute to pollinator decline, exemplified by alarmingly high annual losses of honey bee colonies in regions dominated by annual crops (e.g., midwestern United States). As more natural or seminatural landscapes are transformed into monocultures, there is growing concern over current and future impacts on pollinators. To forecast…

52min

Intermolecular coupling and fluxional behavior of hydrogen in phase IV [Physics]

We performed Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements of hydrogen at 295 K up to 280 GPa at an IR synchrotron facility of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). To reach the highest pressure, hydrogen was loaded into toroidal diamond anvils with 30-μm central culet. The intermolecular coupling has been…

52min

Development of an autonomous and bifunctional quorum-sensing circuit for metabolic flux control in engineered Escherichia coli [Engineering]

Metabolic engineering seeks to reprogram microbial cells to efficiently and sustainably produce value-added compounds. Since chemical production can be at odds with the cell's natural objectives, strategies have been developed to balance conflicting goals. For example, dynamic regulation modulates gene expression to favor biomass and metabolite accumulation at low cell…

52min

A gatekeeping function of the replicative polymerase controls pathway choice in the resolution of lesion-stalled replisomes [Biochemistry]

DNA lesions stall the replisome and proper resolution of these obstructions is critical for genome stability. Replisomes can directly replicate past a lesion by error-prone translesion synthesis. Alternatively, replisomes can reprime DNA synthesis downstream of the lesion, creating a single-stranded DNA gap that is repaired primarily in an error-free, homology-directed…

52min

Engineering geometrical 3-dimensional untethered in vitro neural tissue mimic [Engineering]

Formation of tissue models in 3 dimensions is more effective in recapitulating structure and function compared to their 2-dimensional (2D) counterparts. Formation of 3D engineered tissue to control shape and size can have important implications in biomedical research and in engineering applications such as biological soft robotics. While neural spheroids…

52min

Optimizing photoswitchable MEK [Engineering]

Optogenetic approaches are transforming quantitative studies of cell-signaling systems. A recently developed photoswitchable mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) enzyme (psMEK) short-circuits the highly conserved Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK)-signaling cascade at the most proximal step of effector kinase activation. However, since this optogenetic tool relies on phosphory

52min

Molecular determinants of chaperone interactions on MHC-I for folding and antigen repertoire selection [Biochemistry]

The interplay between a highly polymorphic set of MHC-I alleles and molecular chaperones shapes the repertoire of peptide antigens displayed on the cell surface for T cell surveillance. Here, we demonstrate that the molecular chaperone TAP-binding protein related (TAPBPR) associates with a broad range of partially folded MHC-I species inside…

52min

An absence of lamin B1 in migrating neurons causes nuclear membrane ruptures and cell death [Medical Sciences]

Deficiencies in either lamin B1 or lamin B2 cause both defective migration of cortical neurons in the developing brain and reduced neuronal survival. The neuronal migration abnormality is explained by a weakened nuclear lamina that interferes with nucleokinesis, a nuclear translocation process required for neuronal migration. In contrast, the explanation…

52min

B cell receptor ligation induces display of V-region peptides on MHC class II molecules to T cells [Immunology and Inflammation]

The B cell receptors (BCRs) for antigen express variable (V) regions that are enormously diverse, thus serving as markers on individual B cells. V region-derived idiotypic (Id) peptides can be displayed as pId:MHCII complexes on B cells for recognition by CD4+ T cells. It is not known if naive B…

52min

Epstein-Barr virus EBER1 and murine gammaherpesvirus TMER4 share conserved in vivo function to promote B cell egress and dissemination [Microbiology]

The oncogenic gammaherpesviruses, including human Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, γHV68, MuHV-4) establish life-long latency in circulating B cells. The precise determinants that mediate in vivo gammaherpesvirus latency and tumorigenesis remain unclear. The EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) are among the first noncoding

53min

Smad7 in intestinal CD4+ T cells determines autoimmunity in a spontaneous model of multiple sclerosis [Immunology and Inflammation]

Environmental triggers acting at the intestinal barrier are thought to contribute to the initiation of autoimmune disorders. The transforming growth factor beta inhibitor Smad7 determines the phenotype of CD4+ T cells. We hypothesized that Smad7 in intestinal CD4+ T cells controls initiation of opticospinal encephalomyelitis (OSE), a murine model of…

53min

TRPA1 modulation by piperidine carboxamides suggests an evolutionarily conserved binding site and gating mechanism [Pharmacology]

The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel functions as an irritant sensor and is a therapeutic target for treating pain, itch, and respiratory diseases. As a ligand-gated channel, TRPA1 can be activated by electrophilic compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) through covalent modification or activated by noncovalent agonists through…

53min

Chronic well leakage probability relative to basin and fluid characteristics [Commentaries]

Regulation of wells is largely concerned with precluding leakage along them. Studies of the proportion of wells in large populations that leak provide one means of reviewing the effectiveness of these regulations. The article entitled "A portrait of wellbore leakage in northeastern British Columbia, Canada" in PNAS (1) provides the…

53min

Cellular redox sensor HSCARG negatively regulates the translesion synthesis pathway and exacerbates mammary tumorigenesis [Biochemistry]

The translesion synthesis (TLS) pathway is a double-edged sword in terms of genome integrity. Deficiency in TLS leads to generation of DNA double strand break (DSB) during replication stress, while excessive activation of the TLS pathway increases the risk of point mutation. Here we demonstrate that HSCARG, a cellular redox…

53min

Alcohol shifts gut microbial networks and ameliorates a murine model of neuroinflammation in a sex-specific pattern [Immunology and Inflammation]

Alcohol is a widely consumed dietary component by patients with autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases, but current evidence on the effects of alcohol in these conditions is confounding. Epidemiological studies suggest moderate consumption of alcohol may be protective in some autoimmune diseases; however, this correlation has not been directly investigated. Here, we…

53min

Demographic change, political backlash, and challenges in the study of geography [Commentaries]

Hill et al.'s study (1) of the relationship between Hispanic population growth and voters' support for Donald Trump contributes to our understanding of the larger puzzle of diversity and politics. The relationship between diversity and reactionary politics should be considered one of the most important sociopolitical issues facing the world…

53min

Magnetoelastoresistance in WTe2: Exploring electronic structure and extremely large magnetoresistance under strain [Physics]

Strain describes the deformation of a material as a result of applied stress. It has been widely employed to probe transport properties of materials, ranging from semiconductors to correlated materials. In order to understand, and eventually control, transport behavior under strain, it is important to quantify the effects of strain…

53min

QnAs with Max D. Cooper and Jacques F. A. P. Miller [QnAs]

Anyone who has ever contracted chicken pox can thank the adaptive immune system for future protection against the disease. It is also thanks to this system that vaccines prevent diseases. The adaptive immune system provides organisms with a memory of past infections, enabling the body to quickly kill returning infections…

53min

Profile of Dennis L. Kasper [Profiles]

"I was working on the microbiome before it was called the microbiome," says Harvard microbiologist and immunobiologist Dennis L. Kasper, who for over 4 decades has delineated the central role of the mammalian microbiota in immune system development, maturation, and regulation. His achievements, including identification of immunomodulatory molecules from the…

53min

Metabolite-mediated TOR signaling regulates the circadian clock in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

Circadian clocks usually run with a period close to 24 h, but are also plastic and can be entrained by external environmental conditions and internal physiological cues. Two key nutrient metabolites, glucose and vitamin B3 (nicotinamide), can influence the circadian period in both mammals and plants; however, the underlying molecular…

53min

Molecular basis for allosteric regulation of the type 2 ryanodine receptor channel gating by key modulators [Biochemistry]

The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is responsible for releasing Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes, subsequently leading to muscle contraction. Here, we report 4 cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of porcine RyR2 bound to distinct modulators that, together with our published structures, provide mechanistic insight into RyR2 regulation. Ca2+…

53min

Endogenous retroviruses are associated with hippocampus-based memory impairment [Neuroscience]

Retrotransposons compose a staggering 40% of the mammalian genome. Among them, endogenous retroviruses (ERV) represent sequences that closely resemble the proviruses created from exogenous retroviral infection. ERVs make up 8 to 10% of human and mouse genomes and range from evolutionarily ancient sequences to recent acquisitions. Studies in Drosophila have…

53min

Treg-inducing microparticles promote donor-specific tolerance in experimental vascularized composite allotransplantation [Engineering]

For individuals who sustain devastating composite tissue loss, vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA; e.g., hand and face transplantation) has the potential to restore appearance and function of the damaged tissues. As with solid organ transplantation, however, rejection must be controlled by multidrug systemic immunosuppression with substantial side effects. As an alternative…

53min

Bubble pinch-off in turbulence [Applied Physical Sciences]

Although bubble pinch-off is an archetype of a dynamical system evolving toward a singularity, it has always been described in idealized theoretical and experimental conditions. Here, we consider bubble pinch-off in a turbulent flow representative of natural conditions in the presence of strong and random perturbations, combining laboratory experiments, numerical…

53min

Heritability of education rises with intergenerational mobility [Social Sciences]

Intergenerational education mobility—how strongly educational attainment persists from parent to child—is commonly used to indicate societies' degree of openness or equality of opportunity (1, 2). A limitation of this literature is that it often is silent on the channels of transmission. Yet, we may view genetic transmission differently from other…

53min

Insect-damaged Arabidopsis moves like wounded Mimosa pudica [Plant Biology]

Slow wave potentials (SWPs) are damage-induced electrical signals which, based on experiments in which organs are burned, have been linked to rapid increases in leaf or stem thickness. The possibility that pressure surges in injured xylem underlie these events has been evoked frequently. We sought evidence for insect feeding-induced positive…

53min

Subglacial meltwater supported aerobic marine habitats during Snowball Earth [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The Earth's most severe ice ages interrupted a crucial interval in eukaryotic evolution with widespread ice coverage during the Cryogenian Period (720 to 635 Ma). Aerobic eukaryotes must have survived the "Snowball Earth" glaciations, requiring the persistence of oxygenated marine habitats, yet evidence for these environments is lacking. We examine…

53min

Determination and evaluation of the nonadditivity in wetting of molecularly heterogeneous surfaces [Physics]

The interface between water and folded proteins is very complex. Proteins have "patchy" solvent-accessible areas composed of domains of varying hydrophobicity. The textbook understanding is that these domains contribute additively to interfacial properties (Cassie's equation, CE). An ever-growing number of modeling papers question the validity of CE at molecular length…

53min

Autonomous bioluminescence imaging of single mammalian cells with the bacterial bioluminescence system [Applied Physical Sciences]

Bioluminescence-based imaging of living cells has become an important tool in biological and medical research. However, many bioluminescence imaging applications are limited by the requirement of an externally provided luciferin substrate and the low bioluminescence signal which restricts the sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution. The bacterial bioluminescence system is fully genetically…

53min

Loss of p57KIP2 expression confers resistance to contact inhibition in human androgenetic trophoblast stem cells [Cell Biology]

A complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is androgenetic in origin and characterized by enhanced trophoblastic proliferation and the absence of fetal tissue. In 15 to 20% of cases, CHMs are followed by malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasms including choriocarcinoma. Aberrant genomic imprinting may be responsible for trophoblast hypertrophy in CHMs, but the…

53min

Unraveling the T-B tangle in anti-CD20 multiple sclerosis therapy [Commentaries]

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory T cell-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) (1). It is characterized by focal demyelination and axonal loss leading to a range of symptoms including decline in motor function and sense perception (2). In PNAS, Sabatino et al. (3) further shed light on…

53min

Homeobox protein Hhex negatively regulates Treg cells by inhibiting Foxp3 expression and function [Immunology and Inflammation]

Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis, but the suppressive function of Treg cells can be an obstacle in the treatment of cancer and chronic infectious diseases. Here, we identified the homeobox protein Hhex as a negative regulator of Treg cells. The expression of Hhex…

53min

Divergent trophic responses of sympatric penguin species to historic anthropogenic exploitation and recent climate change [Ecology]

The Southern Ocean is in an era of significant change. Historic overharvesting of marine mammals and recent climatic warming have cascading impacts on resource availability and, in turn, ecosystem structure and function. We examined trophic responses of sympatric chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) penguins to nearly 100 y…

53min

Repurposing dichloroacetate for the treatment of women with endometriosis [Medical Sciences]

Endometriosis is a chronic pain condition affecting ∼176 million women worldwide. It is defined by the presence of endometrium-like tissue (lesions) outside the uterus, most commonly on the pelvic peritoneum. There is no cure for endometriosis. All endometriosis drug approvals to date have been contraceptive, limiting their use in women…

53min

Supraglacial lake drainage at a fast-flowing Greenlandic outlet glacier [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Supraglacial lake drainage events influence Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics on hourly to interannual timescales. However, direct observations are rare, and, to date, no in situ studies exist from fast-flowing sectors of the ice sheet. Here, we present observations of a rapid lake drainage event at Store Glacier, west Greenland, in…

53min

The influence of the global electric power system on terrestrial biodiversity [Sustainability Science]

Given its total contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, the global electric power sector will be required to undergo a fundamental transformation over the next decades to limit anthropogenic climate change to below 2 °C. Implications for biodiversity of projected structural changes in the global electric power sector are rarely considered…

53min

Young children spontaneously recreate core properties of language in a new modality [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

How the world's 6,000+ natural languages have arisen is mostly unknown. Yet, new sign languages have emerged recently among deaf people brought together in a community, offering insights into the dynamics of language evolution. However, documenting the emergence of these languages has mostly consisted of studying the end product; the…

53min

Targeting liver aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 prevents heavy but not moderate alcohol drinking [Neuroscience]

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a key enzyme for detoxification the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde, is recognized as a promising therapeutic target to treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Disulfiram, a potent ALDH2 inhibitor, is an approved drug for the treatment of AUD but has clinical limitations due to its side effects. This…

53min

Inland water bodies in China: Features discovered in the long-term satellite data [Ecology]

Water bodies (WBs), such as lakes, ponds, and impoundments, provide essential ecosystem services for human society, yet their characteristics and changes over large areas remain elusive. Here we used unprecedented data layers derived from all Landsat images available between 1984 and 2015 to understand the overall characteristics and changes of…

53min

Tracking emissions in the US electricity system [Environmental Sciences]

Understanding electricity consumption and production patterns is a necessary first step toward reducing the health and climate impacts of associated emissions. In this work, the economic input–output model is adapted to track emissions flows through electric grids and quantify the pollution embodied in electricity production, exchanges, and, ultimately, consumption for…

53min

1h

Author Correction: Cardiac glycoside/aglycones inhibit HIV-1 gene expression by a mechanism requiring MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling

Scientific Reports, Published online: 04 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-54732-8

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1h

Author Correction: Association of TLR4 and TLR9 polymorphisms and haplotypes with cervical cancer susceptibility

Scientific Reports, Published online: 04 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55122-w

1h

Publisher Correction: Anticipatory postural adjustments during joint action coordination

Scientific Reports, Published online: 04 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55184-w

1h

Author Correction: Drug screening of cancer cell lines and human primary tumors using droplet microfluidics

Scientific Reports, Published online: 04 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55120-y

1h

Author Correction: Selection of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in myxosporean (Myxozoa, Cnidaria) parasites

Scientific Reports, Published online: 04 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-54998-y

1h

1h

Publisher Correction: Prominence of the tropics in the recent rise of global nitrogen pollution

Nature Communications, Published online: 04 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13567-7

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Author Correction: Marrying chemistry with biology by combining on-chip solution-based combinatorial synthesis and cellular screening

Nature Communications, Published online: 04 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13725-x

1h

Author Correction: Gastroesophageal reflux GWAS identifies risk loci that also associate with subsequent severe esophageal diseases

Nature Communications, Published online: 04 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13526-2

1h

Author Correction: Gene correction for SCID-X1 in long-term hematopoietic stem cells

Nature Communications, Published online: 04 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13620-5

1h

The Physics (and Economics, and Politics) of Wheelchairs on Planes

Twenty-nine years after the Americans with Disabilities Act, air travel remains inaccessible to many Americans who are prohibited from sitting in their wheelchairs during flight. The explicit rationale is safety, but a closer look tells a more complicated story about physics, cost, and inclusion.

1h

5 ways to eat acorns for survival

Green acorns, ready for processing. (Tim MacWelch/) This story was originally featured on Outdoor Life . "I didn't know you could eat acorns !" It pains me to hear this phrase, and I hear it often. It seems that the average person has no idea they are crushing valuable wild edibles underfoot. Many areas with oak trees are loaded with acorns this year, so it's proving to be a great year to harvest

1h

Siting cell towers needs careful planning

The health impacts of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) are still inconclusive, but the data to date warrants more caution in placing cell towers. An engineering team considers the current understanding of health impacts and possible solutions, which indicate a 500-meter (one third of a mile) buffer around schools and hospitals may help reduce risk for vulnerable populations.

1h

General and pediatric 'Treat All' policies lead to increased ART initiation among youth

A new study published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases found that expansion of HIV treatment eligibility to include those under age 15 led to large and significant increases in initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 30 days of enrollment in care among 10- to 14-year-olds living with HIV.

2h

UMD astronomers catch a natural comet outburst in unprecedented detail

University of Maryland astronomers have made the most complete and detailed observations to date of the formation and dissipation of a naturally occurring comet outburst. Using data from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), the researchers gained a clear start-to-finish image sequence of an explosive emission of dust, ice and gases during the close approach to Earth of comet 46P/Wi

2h

Elon Musk's Slander Trial, Offensive Ornaments on Amazon, and More News

Catch up on the most important news from today in two minutes or less.

2h

Kamala Harris drops out of 2020 presidential race

Senator Kamala Harris of California announced Tuesday that she was ending her presidential campaign due to a lack of financial resources. Harris had once been considered one of the top candidates in the Democratic field, but her support has been falling in national polls since the summer. Former Vice President Joe Biden currently leads the Democratic field, with an average of 27 percent support i

2h

A common drug could help restore limb function after spinal cord injury

Long-term treatment with gabapentin, a commonly prescribed drug for nerve pain, could help restore upper limb function after a spinal cord injury, new research in mice suggests.

2h

New screening method identifies potential anticancer compounds that reawaken T cells

Scientists at Scripps Research have developed a method for rapidly discovering potential cancer-treating compounds that work by resurrecting anti-tumor activity in immune cells called T cells. Cancerous tumors often thrive because they render T cells dysfunctional or 'exhausted.' The new method uncovers medicinal compounds that can restore the function of these T cells, making cancers vulnerable t

2h

Labor Unions Team Up With Drug Makers to Defeat Drug-Price Proposals

A low-profile group, financed by the pharmaceutical industry, has hired former union officials to oppose drug-price proposals around the country.

2h

Everything you'll need for your first overnight backpacking trip

Sleep tight on your camping trip. ( Cameron Vaughan via Unsplash/) I recently set out on an overnight trip along the Appalachian Trail. Since I'm lucky enough to call Vermont home, I didn't have to go far (in fact, just a couple miles from my house). My plan was to hike for a full day, night, and morning—solo. While this wasn't my very first backpacking trip, I'm still a fairly novice backpacker,

2h

Foldable furniture for tiny apartments

Space is precious. (Eduard Militaru /) The problem with furniture is that it takes up a lot of space. When empty, a bedroom might look spacious, but as soon as you move in your bed it becomes cramped. If you need your space to serve multiple purposes (like a place to sleep and eat), foldable furniture can help make the most of a small room. Here are some ideas and products we recommend. Choose be

2h

Tech startups gravitate toward cities with strong social networks, study finds

The presence of technology startups can drive economic growth for their home cities. So how can cities better appeal to entrepreneurs? A new study shows the connections they can offer matter more than big money.

2h

Siting cell towers needs careful planning

The health impacts of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) are still inconclusive, but the data to date warrants more caution in placing cell towers. An engineering team considers the current understanding of health impacts and possible solutions, which indicate a 500-meter (one third of a mile) buffer around schools and hospitals may help reduce risk for vulnerable populations.

2h

Climate change splits two penguin species into winners and losers

Nature, Published online: 03 December 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03724-9 As the world warms, an adaptable Antarctic bird thrives while the fortunes of a specialist relative fall.

2h

Tech startups gravitate toward cities with strong social networks, study finds

The presence of technology startups can drive economic growth for their home cities. So how can cities better appeal to entrepreneurs? A new study from the McCombs School of Business at The University of Texas at Austin shows the connections they can offer matter more than big money.

2h

Women wearing hijabs in news stories may be judged negatively

Women wearing a veil or headscarf in the United States may face harsher social judgement, according to a study by Penn State researchers that found when given the same information in a news story, some people may consider a woman wearing a headscarf to be more likely to have committed a crime.

2h

NASA finds second tropical system develops in Arabian Sea

Tropical Storm 07A has developed in the eastern Arabian Sea, one day after Tropical Storm 06A developed in the western part of the sea. Infrared imagery from an instrument aboard Terra revealed that very high, powerful storms with very cold cloud top temperatures were southwest of the center.

2h

China Is Using DNA from Uighurs to Predict Physical Features

An investigation reveals that the government is developing technology to try to reconstruct a person's appearance based on a genetic sample, raising concerns for the rights of Muslim minority groups in the country.

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Women wearing hijabs in news stories may be judged negatively

Women wearing a veil or headscarf in the United States may face harsher social judgement, according to a study by Penn State researchers that found when given the same information in a news story, some people may consider a woman wearing a headscarf to be more likely to have committed a crime.

2h

Tech startups gravitate toward cities with strong social networks, study finds

The presence of technology startups can drive economic growth for their home cities. So how can cities better appeal to entrepreneurs? A new study from the McCombs School of Business at The University of Texas at Austin shows the connections they can offer matter more than big money.

2h

Siting cell towers needs careful planning

The health impacts of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) are still inconclusive, but the data to date warrants more caution in placing cell towers. An engineering team from Michigan Tech considers the current understanding of health impacts and possible solutions, which indicate a 500-meter (one third of a mile) buffer around schools and hospitals may help reduce risk for vulnerable populations.

2h

Får det lov att vara en bakteriepannkaka?

Du säger att detta är helt ny mat för mänskligheten, vad är det som är nytt? − Bakterien vi använder har inte använts förut, varken till mat eller något annat. Quorn, spirulina och chlorella är också mikrobiella livsmedel, men de är andra organismer och odlas annorlunda. Vad gör detta helt annorlunda från till exempel Quorn?

2h

Lack of specialists doom rural sick patients

Residents of rural areas are more likely to be hospitalized and to die than those who live in cities primarily because they lack access to specialists, according to new research.

2h

Great Barrier Reef study shows how reef copes with rapid sea-level rise

A survey of coral reef cores on the Great Barrier Reef has revealed how it has responded to recent periods of rapid sea-level rise. The study, covering the past 9000 years, has revealed a system in delicate balance.

2h

Easy-to-install wall sconces that will revamp any space in your home

Lighting options for any room. Improving your lighting can vastly change the atmosphere. Think about the lighting in an operating room compared to the lighting in a log cabin. Floor lamps only give so much light, and they take up valuable square footage. When installing ceiling light fixtures isn't an option, sconces are a great next step. Some are cordless, which require wall fixtures, but other

2h

Trump's Biggest Impeachment Mistake

Part of what has distinguished the House's impeachment drive against President Donald Trump is that its inquiry was not principally about a cover-up. Unlike the scandals that prompted the previous two impeachments, the Ukraine affair was no "third-rate burglary," nor was it an extramarital assignation in the Oval Office. The underlying accusation of wrongdoing against Trump—that he held up hundre

2h

Coral gardeners bring back Jamaica's reefs, piece by piece

Everton Simpson squints at the Caribbean from his motorboat, scanning the dazzling bands of color for hints of what lies beneath. Emerald green indicates sandy bottoms. Sapphire blue lies above seagrass meadows. And deep indigo marks coral reefs. That's where he's headed.

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For some corals, meals can come with a side of microplastics

Tiny microplastic particles are about as common in the ocean today as plastic is in our daily lives.

2h

Massive Philanthropic Infusions Announced for US Universities

A total of more than $1 billion will go to institutions including the Cleveland Clinic, Duke University, and branches of the University of California.

2h

Cannabis extraction on the cutting edge

Tully Stroud, Chief Scientific Officer for Elite Molecular Labs, talks about the growing field of cannabis extraction and refinement.

2h

Mass-producible, centimeter-scale metalens for VR, imaging

Metalenses — flat surfaces that use nanostructures to focus light — are poised to revolutionize everything from microscopy to cameras, sensors, and displays. But so far, most of the lenses have been about the size of a piece of glitter. While lenses this size work well for some applications, a larger lens is needed for low-light conditions, such as an imaging system onboard orbital satellites, a

2h

Successful instrument guidance through deep and convulted blood vessel networks

A team led by Professor Sylvain Martel at the Polytechnique Montréal Nanorobotics Laboratory has developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations. Their solution is a robotic platform that uses the fringe field generated by the superconducting magnet of a clinical magnetic resonance imagi

3h

NASA's exoplanet-hunting mission catches a natural comet outburst in unprecedented detail

Using data from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), astronomers at the University of Maryland (UMD), in College Park, Maryland, have captured a clear start-to-finish image sequence of an explosive emission of dust, ice and gases during the close approach of comet 46P/Wirtanen in late 2018. This is the most complete and detailed observation to date of the formation and dissipation

3h

U.S. Homeland Security Wants to Scan the Face of All Travelers

Say Cheese The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is set to propose regulations next July that would require all travelers to consent to face scans when entering or leaving the U.S., according to Reuters . The idea is to cut down on the number of fraudulent uses of travel documents and help catch criminals and suspected terrorists. But unsurprisingly, the plans are already being met with

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NASA finds second tropical system develops in Arabian Sea

Tropical Storm 07A has developed in the eastern Arabian Sea, one day after Tropical Storm 06A developed in the western part of the sea. Infrared imagery from an instrument aboard Terra revealed that very high, powerful storms with very cold cloud top temperatures were southwest of the center.

3h

Lack of specialists doom rural sick patients

Residents of rural areas are more likely to be hospitalized and to die than those who live in cities primarily because they lack access to specialists, according to research in Health Affairs.

3h

Rural-urban flip: How changing ACA rules affected health insurance premium costs

People in rural areas of the US who receive subsidies to buy health insurance in the Health Insurance Marketplaces pay less in premiums than their counterparts in urban areas, a flip that occurred in 2018 and has been widening since, according to a new analysis.

3h

High-tech hair dryers to keep your mane fabulous

Better hair dryers. (Theme Photos via Unsplash/) If the thought of leaving the house with wet hair makes you shudder, you probably are a blow dryer devotee. But are you getting the shampoo-commercial glamour you want on a daily basis? These high-end hair dryers offer smart features and designs to help you master fresh-from-the-salon locks. Make every day a spa day. Rusk products are found at salo

3h

Highly sensitive epigenomic technology combats disease

Much remains unknown about diseases and the way our bodies respond to them, in part because the human genome is the complete DNA assembly that makes each person unique. A Virginia Tech professor and his team of researchers have created new technology to help in understanding how the human body battles diseases.

3h

Study reveals dynamics of crucial immune system proteins

Of the many marvels of the human immune system, the processing of antigens by the class I proteins of the major histocompatability complex (MHC-I) is among the most mind-boggling. Exactly how these proteins carry out their crucial functions has not been well understood. Now, however, researchers at UC Santa Cruz have worked out the details of key molecular interactions involved in the selection an

3h

Highly sensitive epigenomic technology combats disease

Much remains unknown about diseases and the way our bodies respond to them, in part because the human genome is the complete DNA assembly that makes each person unique. A Virginia Tech professor and his team of researchers have created new technology to help in understanding how the human body battles diseases.

3h

Highly sensitive epigenomic technology combats disease

Much remains unknown about diseases and the way our bodies respond to them, in part because the human genome is the complete DNA assembly that makes each person unique. Researchers have created new technology to help in understanding how the human body battles diseases.

3h

Transition to exhaustion: Clues for cancer immunotherapy

Research on immune cells 'exhausted' by chronic viral infection provides clues on how to refine cancer immunotherapy. The Immunity paper defines a transitional stage in between stem-like and truly exhausted cells.

3h

How does protein fit in your holiday diet or New Year's resolutions?

While some diets load up on protein and other diets dictate protein sources, it can be hard to know what to consume while managing weight or during weight loss. A new study by nutrition scientists shows that eating more protein daily than what is recommended may benefit only a few – those who are actively losing weight by cutting calories or those strength training to build more lean muscle mass.

3h

Successful instrument guidance through deep and convoluted blood vessel networks

Researchers have developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations. Their solution is a robotic platform that uses the fringe field generated by the superconducting magnet of a clinical MRI scanner to guide medical instruments through deeper and more complex vascular structures. The approa

3h

Novel material switches between electrically conducting and insulating states

A new approach could inform the design of quantum materials platforms for future electronics, as well as faster devices with more storage capabilities.

3h

Study reveals dynamics of crucial immune system proteins

Of the many marvels of the human immune system, the processing of antigens by the class I proteins of the major histocompatability complex (MHC-I) is among the most mind-boggling. Exactly how these proteins carry out their crucial functions has not been well understood. Now, however, researchers at UC Santa Cruz have worked out the details of key molecular interactions involved in the selection an

3h

Surgeons Use Eye-Tracking Tech to Find the "Perfect Boob"

Plastic surgeons have difficulty assessing the success of a breast surgery because, well, the beauty of a pair of breasts is in the eye of the beholder. "Terms such as 'beauty' or 'aesthetics' are subjective and thus poorly defined and understood," plastic surgeon Piotr Pietruski told Motherboard . "Due to this fact, both aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery suffer from the lack of a stand

3h

Listen: Emotions shape memory for people with dementia

Intense emotions may explain why some people with dementia can remember things that happened a long time ago while forgetting things they did just hours in the past, a memory expert explains in this podcast. "Your mother's retirement party 30 years ago is a series of sounds that she remembers, visions that she remembers, and emotions. Because it was a highly emotional event she is far more likely

3h

NASA Suggests Giant Dust Storms Blew Mars' Water Into Space

Blowout NASA thinks it might know what happened to the water that vanished from the surface of Mars a long time ago: massive dust storms might have gradually rocketed it all into space. It turns out that dust towers — gigantic cylindrical plumes that form during massive dust storms — could have carried ancient surface water up and out of Mars' atmosphere, Space.com reports . While the towers are

3h

Transition to exhaustion: clues for cancer immunotherapy

Emory research on immune cells 'exhausted' by chronic viral infection provides clues on how to refine cancer immunotherapy. The Immunity paper defines a transitional stage in between stem-like and truly exhausted cells.

3h

NASA's exoplanet-hunting mission catches a natural comet outburst in unprecedented detail

Using data from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), astronomers at the University of Maryland (UMD), in College Park, Maryland, have captured a clear start-to-finish image sequence of an explosive emission of dust, ice and gases during the close approach of comet 46P/Wirtanen in late 2018.

3h

Highly sensitive epigenomic technology combats disease

Much remains unknown about diseases and the way our bodies respond to them, in part because the human genome is the complete DNA assembly that makes each person unique. A Virginia Tech professor and his team of researchers have created new technology to help in understanding how the human body battles diseases.

3h

Mass-producible, centimeter-scale metalens for VR, imaging

Metalenses — flat surfaces that use nanostructures to focus light — are poised to revolutionize everything from microscopy to cameras, sensors, and displays. But so far, most of the lenses have been about the size of a piece of glitter. While lenses this size work well for some applications, a larger lens is needed for low-light conditions, such as an imaging system onboard orbital satellites, a

3h

200,000 Uninsured Americans to Get Free H.I.V.-Prevention Drugs

A new government program will provide donated drugs through major drugstore chains.

3h

The Vibrant Visions of Refugees

From January 2015 to October 2016, a refugee camp that came to be known as the Calais Jungle housed more than 8,000 migrants. Located near the French port of Calais, the encampment's conditions were notoriously poor —Human Rights Watch described the environment there as " like living in hell ." Lutia Swan-Hutton, a filmmaker, had been following the dire situation in Calais in the news. When she r

3h

A tiny bend gives semiconductors a big boost

Slightly bending semiconductors made of organic materials can roughly double the speed of electricity flowing through them, according to new research. The finding could benefit next-generation electronics such as sensors and solar cells. "If implemented in electrical circuits, such an enhancement—achieved by very slight bending—would mean a major leap toward realizing next-generation, high-perfor

3h

How an Idea Becomes a Published Scientific Paper

Everyday Einstein interviews exoplanetary scientist Moiya McTier to learn about the process and why we can trust scientific papers — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

3h

The 53 Best Cyber Monday 2019 Deals Still Available Now: Amazon, Walmart, Etc

These deals from Amazon, Walmart, Best Buy, Target, Adorama, and other retailers were extended and are still going on, but they may end at any time.

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How does protein fit in your holiday diet or New Year's resolutions?

While some diets load up on protein and other diets dictate protein sources, it can be hard to know what to consume while managing weight or during weight loss. A new study by Purdue University nutrition scientists shows that eating more protein daily than what is recommended may benefit only a few – those who are actively losing weight by cutting calories or those strength training to build more

3h

Cold take: Ice baths don't help sore muscles heal

Using ice baths after exercising might stall muscle regeneration, a key component to building and maintaining muscle. Working out isn't always for the faint of heart. Intense cardiovascular exercises and lifting sessions can give way to the dreaded delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)—that stiff, can't-walk-down-the-stairs muscle pain that manifests a day or two after hitting the gym. To offset t

3h

Hackers Stole, Sold Data of Women Who Bought Plus-Sized Clothes

Online Shopping Hackers stole the personal data of thousands — or potentially hundreds of thousands — of women who bought plus-size clothes, and now they're auctioning off the records online. The unusual hack was first spotted by the security agency DynaRisk, Business Insider reports , which spotted the perpetrators selling the data on forums. DynaRisk suggests that the personal data was being sc

4h

Welcome to Boca Chica, the Tiny Texas Town Where SpaceX is Building its Starship

A tiny community on Texas' southernmost tip has become a prime destination for the spaceflight faithful.

4h

Hubble Sees a Galaxy Brimming with Young Suns

By analyzing the light and energy from galaxies like NGC 3749, astronomers can learn about them from millions of light-years away.

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Is disability a risk factor for miscarriage?

A new study compared the proportion of women with any cognitive, physical, or independent living disability who experienced a miscarriage during the previous 5-year period to women without disabilities.

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For some corals, meals can come with a side of microplastics

A new experiment has found that some corals are more likely to eat microplastics when they are consuming other food, yet microplastics alone are undesirable.

4h

The best rain jackets for surprise downpours, hiking, and the slopes

Perfect rain jackets for outdoor escapades. (Stio/) Whether you're an urban commuter just trying to get to the subway in the drizzle, or an outdoorsy soul who loves to flee to the mountains to hike or ski, a good rain jacket is an essential piece in your closet. Of course, there are lots of waterproof, breathable rain jackets out there, and their prices and attributes vary. You can find a good it

4h

How to help fix the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' hospital rating system

The current hospital star-rating system used by the US government's Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services is plagued with numerous flaws, and University of Chicago Booth School of Business Professor Dan Adelman has come up with a new way to address one of its most controversial issues.

4h

For some corals, meals can come with a side of microplastics

A new experiment by the University of Washington has found that some corals are more likely to eat microplastics when they are consuming other food, yet microplastics alone are undesirable.

4h

Dynamics of crucial immune system proteins

Of the many marvels of the human immune system, the processing of antigens by the class I proteins of the major histocompatability complex (MHC-I) is among the most mind-boggling. Exactly how these proteins carry out their crucial functions has not been well understood. Now, however, researchers have worked out the details of key molecular interactions involved in the selection and processing of a

4h

Detecting solar flares, more in real time

Computers can learn to find flares and other events in vast streams of solar images to help forecasters issue timely alerts, according to a new study. The machine-learning technique searches satellite data for features significant for space weather. Changing conditions on the Sun can affect various technologies on Earth, blocking radio communications, damaging power grids, and diminishing navigati

4h

Southern Arizona once looked like Tibet

A new study determined that the Earth's crust in southern Arizona was once almost 60 kilometers thick, which is twice as thick as it is today — and comparable to how thick the crust is in parts of the Himalayas.

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Study sheds light on the peculiar 'normal' phase of high-temperature superconductors

Every character has a back story, and so do high-temperature superconductors, which conduct electricity with no loss at much higher temperatures than scientists once thought possible. Recent experiments have probed the normal state more accurately than ever before and discover an abrupt shift in the behavior of electrons in which they suddenly give up their individuality and behave like an electro

4h

Distress tolerance plays role in alcohol use and abuse among firefighters

A newly published report finds that firefighters who struggle with PTSD symptoms, and who think they cannot handle negative emotions, are likely to drink and use alcohol it to cope with negative emotions.

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Study reveals dynamics of crucial immune system proteins

Of the many marvels of the human immune system, the processing of antigens by the class I proteins of the major histocompatability complex (MHC-I) is among the most mind-boggling. Exactly how these proteins carry out their crucial functions has not been well understood. Now, however, researchers at UC Santa Cruz have worked out the details of key molecular interactions involved in the selection an

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Micro implants could restore standing and walking

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China Deploys World's First Commercial Hydrogen Tram

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Iveco and Nikola unveil Tre semi truck in electric and hydrogen forms

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Self-Driving Cars Are Predicting Driving Personalities

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Andrew Yang Is Right – The US Is Losing The AI Arms Race

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U.S. homeland security proposes face scans for U.S. citizens

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SpaceX Will Bring the Science of Fire and Beer to the ISS

A SpaceX rocket, slated to launch Wednesday, is carrying experiments on beer brewing, muscle decay, and fire behavior to the International Space Station.

4h

How a cellular shuttle helps HIV-1 spread in immune organs

New insight on how a type of cell facilitates the spread of HIV-1 has just been published.

4h

Virtual reality could help flu vaccination rates

Using a virtual reality simulation to show how flu spreads and its impact on others could be a way to encourage more people to get a flu vaccination, according to a new study.

4h

Dramatic transition in Streptomyces life cycle explained in new discovery

Streptomyces bacteria are our primary source of antibiotics, which are produced in the transition from vegetative growth to sporulation in a complex developmental life cycle.

4h

Rain gets worse after hurricane winds die down

Rains that come after hurricanes have weakened may actually be more intense than when the storm is at its strongest, a new study shows. "The highest intensities of rainfall occur after the hurricanes have weakened to tropical storms, not when they first make landfall as major hurricanes," says lead author Danielle Touma, a postdoctoral scholar at the Bren School of Environmental Science & Managem

4h

Scientists Finally Build Artificial Brain Cells

Scientists have finally decoded the bizarre behaviors of brain cells — and recreated them in tiny computer chips. The tiny neurons could change the way we build medical devices because they replicate healthy biological activity but require only a billionth of the energy needed by microprocessors, according to a University of Bath press release . Neurons behave similar to electrical circuits withi

4h

Imaging technique gives catalytic 2D material engineering a better view

A scanning electrochemical cell imaging technique shows how nanoscale structural features affect the catalytic activity of MoS2 monolayers for hydrogen evolution reactions, report researchers.

5h

Meet the early internet's black 'vanguard'

Studying #BlackLivesMatter made Charlton McIlwain's wonder about that movement's digital predecessors. Did those 21st-century activists who turned to social media to bring attention to police brutality draw from an earlier playbook? And if so, who was the first to leverage the power of the internet in the pursuit of racial justice? The questions led McIlwain, a professor of media, culture, and co

5h

Pablo Escobar's Brother Is Selling An "Unbreakable" Folding Phone

Breaking News Infamous drug lord Pablo Escobar's brother Roberto Escobar is now selling a folding phone — and unlike Samsung's similar device , Escobar claims his is practically unbreakable. "My phone cannot break, because I did not have to make a glass screen like Samsung," he told Digital Trends . "Our screen is made of a special type of plastic, and we still have the best resolution. Our speci

5h

Successful instrument guidance through deep and convoluted blood vessel networks

Researchers have developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations. Their solution is a robotic platform that uses the fringe field generated by the superconducting magnet of a clinical MRI scanner to guide medical instruments through deeper and more complex vascular structures. The approa

5h

How accumulating useful genes helps older yeast fare better in tougher times

Researchers in the Babraham Institute's Epigenetics research programme have used yeast to learn more about how satellite (extrachromosomal) DNA circles are formed to carry amplified genes, how the gene duplication is specific to the environmental pressure and the effects of age. Understanding the mechanism of gene duplication and DNA circle formation has relevance to the biology of ageing and the

5h

Long Live the Multiverse!

The idea that our universe is just part of a much vaster cosmos has a long history—and it's still very much with us — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Egypt is reclaiming its mummies and its past

Since the beginning of archaeological digs in Egypt, Egyptians have been involved, even if they've sometimes pushed out of the spotlight. (Deposit Photos/) Last month, Egyptian excavators revealed a long-undetected trove of treasures in the Al-Asasif Cemetery in Luxor. The discovery, which included 30 beautifully preserved coffins and mummies, dating more than 3,000 years old, is one of the most

5h

Why YouTube Won't Ban Trump's Misleading Ads About Biden

Google says it's against company policies for advertisers to make false claims, but when it comes to politicians, not all lies are created equal.

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Eating in sync with biological clock could replace problematic diabetes treatment

A new study finds that a starch-rich breakfast consumed early in the morning coupled with a small dinner could replace insulin injections and other diabetes medications for many diabetics.

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How the strep bacterium hides from the immune system

A bacterial pathogen that causes strep throat and other illnesses cloaks itself in fragments of red blood cells to evade detection by the host immune system, according to a new study. The researchers found that Group A Streptococcus (GAS) produces a previously uncharacterized protein, named S protein, which binds to the red blood cell membrane to avoid being engulfed and destroyed by phagocytic im

5h

An alloy that retains its memory at high temperatures

Even after the hundredth time the material returns to its original shape when heated.

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Smog-eating graphene composite reduces atmospheric pollution

A graphene-titania photocatalyst degrades up to 70% more atmospheric NOx than standard titania nanoparticles in tests on real pollutants.

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Imaging technique gives catalytic 2D material engineering a better view

A scanning electrochemical cell imaging technique shows how nanoscale structural features affect the catalytic activity of MoS2 monolayers for hydrogen evolution reactions, report researchers.

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How accumulating useful genes helps older yeast fare better in tougher times

Genome amplification, whereby organisms bump up the number of copies of beneficial genes in response to environmental stresses, is implicated in diseases such as cancer and also in ageing. Researchers in the Babraham Institute's Epigenetics research programme have used yeast to learn more about how satellite (extrachromosomal) DNA circles are formed to carry amplified genes, how the gene duplicati

5h

How accumulating useful genes helps older yeast fare better in tougher times

Genome amplification, whereby organisms bump up the number of copies of beneficial genes in response to environmental stresses, is implicated in diseases such as cancer and also in ageing. Researchers in the Babraham Institute's Epigenetics research programme have used yeast to learn more about how satellite (extrachromosomal) DNA circles are formed to carry amplified genes, how the gene duplicati

5h

Long Live the Multiverse!

The idea that our universe is just part of a much vaster cosmos has a long history—and it's still very much with us — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

5h

No, Koalas Aren't 'Functionally Extinct.' But They Are In Danger.

Amid a catastrophic fire season in Australia, what do we know about the fate of the koala? (Image credit: TORSTEN BLACKWOOD/AFP via Getty Images)

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Medical groups push to save institute that helps doctors and patients choose the right treatment

Despite mixed reviews, many say PCORI is now on track and Congress should renew it

5h

Society for American Archaeology Can Ban Harassers from Meetings

Members approve a bylaw change that could prohibit someone guilty of misconduct from attending a conference, following uproar over the presence of a known harasser at a meeting earlier this year.

5h

Detecting solar flares, more in real time

Computers can learn to find solar flares and other events in vast streams of solar images and help NOAA forecasters issue timely alerts, according to a new study. The machine-learning technique, developed by scientists at CIRES and NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), searches massive amounts of satellite data to pick out features significant for space weather. Changing co

5h

Study shows Southern Arizona once looked like Tibet

A University of Wyoming researcher and his colleagues have shown that much of the southwestern United States was once a vast high-elevation plateau, similar to Tibet today.

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NASA catches typhoon Kammuri post landfall

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP or S-NPP satellite provided infrared and night-time imagery of Typhoon Kammuri shortly after it made landfall in the Philippines.

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Gas giant composition not determined by host star

A surprising analysis of the composition of gas giant exoplanets and their host stars shows that there isn't a strong correlation between their compositions when it comes to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. This finding has important implications for our understanding of the planetary formation process.

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Saturn's largest moon, Titan, may offer insights for Earth

Scientists studying the weather and climate of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, have reported a significant seasonal variation in its energy budget, a finding which could yield new insights into climate on Earth.

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What's driving erosion worldwide?

Researchers are reexamining the causes of soil erosion around the world — and have found that countries themselves have a surprisingly strong influence on their soil. This country effect was previously undetected.

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Early evidence of insect pollination of flowering plants Artist's reconstruction of A. burmitina feeding on eudicot flowers. Colors of beetles and flowers are artistic only. Insects are thought to have pollinated flowering plants during the Cretaceous Period, when flowering plants rapidly diversified. However, direct evidence of insect pollination of Cretaceous…

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Questionnaires and task-based measures assess different aspects of self-regulation: Both are needed [Social Sciences]

While Enkavi et al.'s (1) examination of the reliability of self-regulation dependent variables (DVs) from online assessments is an important addition to the field, their conclusion that "survey DVs are more appropriate for individual differences analyses [than behavioral tasks]" (p. 5476) is likely overstated. Existing research indicates that task-based constructs…

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Reply to Friedman and Banich: Right measures for the research question [Social Sciences]

In their Letter to the Editor, Friedman and Banich (1) suggest we (2) "overstate" the higher suitability of dependent variables (DVs) derived from surveys for individual difference analyses. We appreciate this opportunity for a continued discussion regarding the measurement of self-regulation. However, their critiques (1) do not provide evidence against…

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Diversification rates, clade ages, and macroevolutionary methods [Biological Sciences]

Henao Diaz et al. (1), hereafter HDEA, claim to find a "hidden generality" about macroevolutionary rates, specifically, that diversification rates are faster in younger clades. However, this pattern was far from hidden. It was previously shown across the tree of life in a paper (2) cited by HDEA, but with…

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Reply to Wiens and Scholl: The time dependency of diversification rates is a widely observed phenomenon [Biological Sciences]

In their comment on our recent paper (1), Wiens and Scholl (2) raise 2 points that are hard to reconcile with one another: First, they argue that one of our primary findings—of the time dependency of diversification rate estimates—was also reported by them and, second, that the methods we used…

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Smallest water clusters supporting the ice I structure [Chemistry]

The article by Moberg et al. (1) addresses the fundamental question of the number of molecules a water cluster must contain in order to find a significant fraction of the molecules with a hydrogen-bonding arrangement characteristic of ice I, which is a mixture of the structurally similar hexagonal ice Ih…

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Tunable superlubricity of 2-dimensional materials [Engineering]

Friction is responsible for an estimated 20 to 30% of world energy consumption (1). It is a major source of wear for both man and machine and causes most of the noise around us. But friction is also useful or even necessary, for example, to walk, drive, or skate, or…

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Glia modulate growth of the fly neurovascular unit [Developmental Biology]

The last decade has seen an explosion of research on exosomes, small (30 to 100 nm) vesicles that are trafficked to the extracellular environment by the fusion of the multivesicular body to the plasma membrane (1, 2). Exosomes arise from endosomal microdomains that, through the agency of ESCRT proteins and…

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Octahedral spinel electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells [Chemistry]

Designing high-performance nonprecious electrocatalysts to replace Pt for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been a key challenge for advancing fuel cell technologies. Here, we report a systematic study of 15 different AB2O4/C spinel nanoparticles with well-controlled octahedral morphology. The 3 most active ORR electrocatalysts were MnCo2O4/C, CoMn2O4/C, and CoFe2O4/C….

5h

Evidence that a national REDD+ program reduces tree cover loss and carbon emissions in a high forest cover, low deforestation country [Sustainability Science]

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is a climate change mitigation policy in which rich countries provide payments to developing countries for protecting their forests. In 2009, the countries of Norway and Guyana entered into one of the first bilateral REDD+ programs, with Norway offering to pay US$250…

5h

RNA base-pairing complexity in living cells visualized by correlated chemical probing [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

RNA structure and dynamics are critical to biological function. However, strategies for determining RNA structure in vivo are limited, with established chemical probing and newer duplex detection methods each having deficiencies. Here we convert the common reagent dimethyl sulfate into a useful probe of all 4 RNA nucleotides. Building on…

5h

Glia-derived exosomal miR-274 targets Sprouty in trachea and synaptic boutons to modulate growth and responses to hypoxia [Developmental Biology]

Secreted exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate interorgan/tissue communications by modulating target gene expression, thereby regulating developmental and physiological functions. However, the source, route, and function in target cells have not been formally established for specific miRNAs. Here, we show that glial miR-274 non-cell-autonomously modulates the growth of synaptic boutons and tracheal.

5h

Defense of Scots pine against sawfly eggs (Diprion pini) is primed by exposure to sawfly sex pheromones [Ecology]

Plants respond to insect infestation with defenses targeting insect eggs on their leaves and the feeding insects. Upon perceiving cues indicating imminent herbivory, such as damage-induced leaf odors emitted by neighboring plants, they are able to prime their defenses against feeding insects. Yet it remains unknown whether plants can amplify…

5h

Chemical and microbial diversity covary in fresh water to influence ecosystem functioning [Environmental Sciences]

Invisible to the naked eye lies a tremendous diversity of organic molecules and organisms that make major contributions to important biogeochemical cycles. However, how the diversity and composition of these two communities are interlinked remains poorly characterized in fresh waters, despite the potential for chemical and microbial diversity to promote…

5h

The evolution and genomic basis of beetle diversity [Evolution]

The order Coleoptera (beetles) is arguably the most speciose group of animals, but the evolutionary history of beetles, including the impacts of plant feeding (herbivory) on beetle diversification, remain poorly understood. We inferred the phylogeny of beetles using 4,818 genes for 146 species, estimated timing and rates of beetle diversification…

5h

Vertical transmission in Caenorhabditis nematodes of RNA molecules encoding a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [Genetics]

Here, we report on the discovery in Caenorhabditis nematodes of multiple vertically transmitted RNAs coding for putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Their sequences share similarity to distinct RNA viruses, including bunyaviruses, narnaviruses, and sobemoviruses. The sequences are present exclusively as RNA and are not found in DNA form. The RNAs persist…

5h

Dichotomous regulation of group 3 innate lymphoid cells by nongastric Helicobacter species [Immunology and Inflammation]

Intestinal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to the protective immunity and homeostasis of the gut, and the microbiota are critically involved in shaping ILC function. However, the role of the gut microbiota in regulating ILC development and maintenance still remains elusive. Here, we identified opposing effects on ILCs by two…

5h

PPAR{alpha}-targeted mitochondrial bioenergetics mediate repair of intestinal barriers at the host-microbe intersection during SIV infection [Microbiology]

Chronic gut inflammatory diseases are associated with disruption of intestinal epithelial barriers and impaired mucosal immunity. HIV-1 (HIV) causes depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells early in infection and disruption of gut epithelium, resulting in chronic inflammation and immunodeficiency. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in suppressing viral replication, it…

5h

Learning optimal decisions with confidence [Neuroscience]

Diffusion decision models (DDMs) are immensely successful models for decision making under uncertainty and time pressure. In the context of perceptual decision making, these models typically start with two input units, organized in a neuron–antineuron pair. In contrast, in the brain, sensory inputs are encoded through the activity of large…

5h

The scientific challenge of understanding and estimating climate change [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Given the slow unfolding of what may become catastrophic changes to Earth's climate, many are understandably distraught by failures of public policy to rise to the magnitude of the challenge. Few in the science community would think to question the scientific response to the unfolding changes. However, is the science…

5h

Honeybees use their wings for water surface locomotion [Applied Biological Sciences]

Honeybees display a unique biolocomotion strategy at the air–water interface. When water's adhesive force traps them on the surface, their wetted wings lose ability to generate aerodynamic thrust. However, they adequately locomote, reaching a speed up to 3 body lengths·s−1. Honeybees use their wetted wings as hydrofoils for their water…

5h

Magnetic handshake materials as a scale-invariant platform for programmed self-assembly [Applied Physical Sciences]

Programmable self-assembly of smart, digital, and structurally complex materials from simple components at size scales from the macro to the nano remains a long-standing goal of material science. Here, we introduce a platform based on magnetic encoding of information to drive programmable self-assembly that works across length scales. Our building…

5h

Structures and single-molecule analysis of bacterial motor nuclease AdnAB illuminate the mechanism of DNA double-strand break resection [Biochemistry]

Mycobacterial AdnAB is a heterodimeric helicase–nuclease that initiates homologous recombination by resecting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The AdnA and AdnB subunits are each composed of an N-terminal motor domain and a C-terminal nuclease domain. Here we report cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of AdnAB in three functional states: in the absence…

5h

Effects of ALS-associated TANK binding kinase 1 mutations on protein-protein interactions and kinase activity [Biochemistry]

Exonic DNA sequence variants in the Tbk1 gene associate with both sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we examine functional defects in 25 missense TBK1 mutations, focusing on kinase activity and protein–protein interactions. We identified kinase domain (KD) mutations that abolish kinase activity or display substrate-specific defects in…

5h

Vitamin D binding protein is required to utilize skin-generated vitamin D [Biochemistry]

Vitamin D is produced in the skin following exposure to sunlight. Ultraviolet (UV) B (UVB, 280–310 nm) results in isomerization of 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D that spontaneously isomerizes to vitamin D. This pool of skin-derived vitamin D is the major source of vitamin D for animals. However, the mechanisms by…

5h

Branched unwinding mechanism of the Pif1 family of DNA helicases [Biochemistry]

Members of the Pif1 family of helicases function in multiple pathways that involve DNA synthesis: DNA replication across G-quadruplexes; break-induced replication; and processing of long flaps during Okazaki fragment maturation. Furthermore, Pif1 increases strand-displacement DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase δ and allows DNA replication across arrays of proteins tightly bound…

5h

The conserved structure of plant telomerase RNA provides the missing link for an evolutionary pathway from ciliates to humans [Biochemistry]

Telomerase is essential for maintaining telomere integrity. Although telomerase function is widely conserved, the integral telomerase RNA (TR) that provides a template for telomeric DNA synthesis has diverged dramatically. Nevertheless, TR molecules retain 2 highly conserved structural domains critical for catalysis: a template-proximal pseudoknot (PK) structure and a downstream stem-loop…

5h

ITPK1 mediates the lipid-independent synthesis of inositol phosphates controlled by metabolism [Biochemistry]

Inositol phosphates (IPs) comprise a network of phosphorylated molecules that play multiple signaling roles in eukaryotes. IPs synthesis is believed to originate with IP3 generated from PIP2 by phospholipase C (PLC). Here, we report that in mammalian cells PLC-generated IPs are rapidly recycled to inositol, and uncover the enzymology behind…

5h

A high-affinity human PD-1/PD-L2 complex informs avenues for small-molecule immune checkpoint drug discovery [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Immune checkpoint blockade of programmed death-1 (PD-1) by monoclonal antibody drugs has delivered breakthroughs in the treatment of cancer. Nonetheless, small-molecule PD-1 inhibitors could lead to increases in treatment efficacy, safety, and global access. While the ligand-binding surface of apo-PD-1 is relatively flat, it harbors a striking pocket in the…

5h

Clustering and dynamics of crowded proteins near membranes and their influence on membrane bending [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of concentrated protein solutions in the presence of a phospholipid bilayer are presented to gain insights into the dynamics and interactions at the cytosol–membrane interface. The main finding is that proteins that are not known to specifically interact with membranes are preferentially excluded from the membrane,…

5h

Protein-assisted RNA fragment docking (RnaX) for modeling RNA-protein interactions using ModelX [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

RNA–protein interactions are crucial for such key biological processes as regulation of transcription, splicing, translation, and gene silencing, among many others. Knowing where an RNA molecule interacts with a target protein and/or engineering an RNA molecule to specifically bind to a protein could allow for rational interference with these cellular…

5h

A locomotor assay reveals deficits in heterozygous Parkinson's disease model and proprioceptive mutants in adult Drosophila [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Severe locomotor impairment is a common phenotype of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Drosophila models of PD, studied for more than a decade, have helped in understanding the interaction between various genetic factors, such as parkin and PINK1, in this disease. To characterize locomotor behavioral phenotypes for these…

5h

Combined mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibition blocks growth and induces catastrophic macropinocytosis in cancer cells [Cell Biology]

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which plays a critical role in regulating cellular growth and metabolism, is aberrantly regulated in the pathogenesis of a variety of neoplasms. Here we demonstrate that dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitors OSI-027 and PP242 cause catastrophic macropinocytosis in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells and cancers of the…

5h

Differentiation of leukemic blasts is not completely blocked in acute myeloid leukemia [Cell Biology]

Hematopoiesis, the formation of blood cells, involves the hierarchical differentiation of immature blast cells into mature, functional cell types and lineages of the immune system. Hematopoietic stem cells precisely regulate self-renewal versus differentiation to balance the production of blood cells and maintenance of the stem cell pool. The canonical view…

5h

Cell adhesion signals regulate the nuclear receptor activity [Cell Biology]

Cell adhesion is essential for proper tissue architecture and function in multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion molecules not only maintain tissue integrity but also possess signaling properties that contribute to diverse cellular events such as cell growth, survival, differentiation, polarity, and migration; however, the underlying molecular basis remains poorly defined. Here…

5h

ROS-mediated PI3K activation drives mitochondrial transfer from stromal cells to hematopoietic stem cells in response to infection [Cell Biology]

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo rapid expansion in response to stress stimuli. Here we investigate the bioenergetic processes which facilitate the HSC expansion in response to infection. We find that infection by Gram-negative bacteria drives an increase in mitochondrial mass in mammalian HSCs, which results in a metabolic transition from…

5h

HERES, a lncRNA that regulates canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways via interaction with EZH2 [Cell Biology]

Wnt signaling through both canonical and noncanonical pathways plays a core role in development. Dysregulation of these pathways often causes cancer development and progression. Although the pathways independently contribute to the core processes, a regulatory molecule that commonly activates both of them has not yet been reported. Here, we describe…

5h

Four-dimensional analyses show that replication compartments are clonal factories in which Epstein-Barr viral DNA amplification is coordinated [Cell Biology]

Herpesviruses must amplify their DNA to load viral particles and they do so in replication compartments. The development and functions of replication compartments during DNA amplification are poorly understood, though. Here we examine 2 functionally distinct replicons in the same cells to dissect DNA amplification within replication compartments. Using a…

5h

The end of ice I [Chemistry]

The appearance of ice I in the smallest possible clusters and the nature of its phase coexistence with liquid water could not thus far be unraveled. The experimental and theoretical infrared spectroscopic and free-energy results of this work show the emergence of the characteristic hydrogen-bonding pattern of ice I in…

5h

Thermal reaction and luminescence of long-lived N 2D in N2 ice [Chemistry]

Photochemistry of an N2 ice and thermal reaction of the irradiated sample were studied with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) light from a synchrotron. Concurrent detection of infrared absorption and visible emission spectra provide evidence for the generation of energetic products N (2D) and N (2P) atoms, N2 (A) molecule and linear-N3 (l-N3)…

5h

The proteasome regulator PI31 is required for protein homeostasis, synapse maintenance, and neuronal survival in mice [Developmental Biology]

Proteasome-mediated degradation of intracellular proteins is essential for cell function and survival. The proteasome-binding protein PI31 (Proteasomal Inhibitor of 31kD) promotes 26S assembly and functions as an adapter for proteasome transport in axons. As localized protein synthesis and degradation is especially critical in neurons, we generated a conditional loss of…

5h

A diurnal carbon engine explains 13C-enriched carbonates without increasing the global production of oxygen [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

In the past 3 billion years, significant volumes of carbonate with high carbon-isotopic (δ13C) values accumulated on shallow continental shelves. These deposits frequently are interpreted as records of elevated global organic carbon burial. However, through the stoichiometry of primary production, organic carbon burial releases a proportional amount of O2, predicting…

5h

Extraterrestrial ribose and other sugars in primitive meteorites [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Sugars are essential molecules for all terrestrial biota working in many biological processes. Ribose is particularly essential as a building block of RNA, which could have both stored information and catalyzed reactions in primitive life on Earth. Meteorites contain a number of organic compounds including key building blocks of life,…

5h

Pervasive decreases in living vegetation carbon turnover time across forest climate zones [Ecology]

Forests play a major role in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies on the capacity of forests to sequester atmospheric CO2 have mostly focused on carbon uptake, but the roles of carbon turnover time and its spatiotemporal changes remain poorly understood. Here, we used long-term inventory data (1955 to 2018)…

5h

Tuning friction to a superlubric state via in-plane straining [Engineering]

Controlling, and in many cases minimizing, friction is a goal that has long been pursued in history. From the classic Amontons–Coulomb law to the recent nanoscale experiments, the steady-state friction is found to be an inherent property of a sliding interface, which typically cannot be altered on demand. In this…

5h

Bone-inspired microarchitectures achieve enhanced fatigue life [Engineering]

Microarchitectured materials achieve superior mechanical properties through geometry rather than composition. Although ultralightweight microarchitectured materials can have high stiffness and strength, application to durable devices will require sufficient service life under cyclic loading. Naturally occurring materials provide useful models for high-performance materials. Here, we show that in c

5h

Production dynamics reveal hidden overharvest of inland recreational fisheries [Environmental Sciences]

Recreational fisheries are valued at $190B globally and constitute the predominant way in which people use wild fish stocks in developed countries, with inland systems contributing the main fraction of recreational fisheries. Although inland recreational fisheries are thought to be highly resilient and self-regulating, the rapid pace of environmental change…

5h

Molybdenum threshold for ecosystem scale alternative vanadium nitrogenase activity in boreal forests [Environmental Sciences]

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by microorganisms associated with cryptogamic covers, such as cyanolichens and bryophytes, is a primary source of fixed nitrogen in pristine, high-latitude ecosystems. On land, low molybdenum (Mo) availability has been shown to limit BNF by the most common form of nitrogenase (Nase), which requires Mo in…

5h

Origin of the avian predentary and evidence of a unique form of cranial kinesis in Cretaceous ornithuromorphs [Evolution]

The avian predentary is a small skeletal structure located rostral to the paired dentaries found only in Mesozoic ornithuromorphs. The evolution and function of this enigmatic element is unknown. Skeletal tissues forming the predentary and the lower jaws in the basal ornithuromorph Yanornis martini are identified using computed-tomography, scanning electron…

5h

Pollination of Cretaceous flowers [Evolution]

Insect pollination of flowering plants (angiosperms) is responsible for the majority of the world's flowering plant diversity and is key to the Cretaceous radiation of angiosperms. Although both insects and angiosperms were common by the mid-Cretaceous, direct fossil evidence of insect pollination is lacking. Direct evidence of Cretaceous insect pollination…

5h

Obligate bacterial endosymbionts limit thermal tolerance of insect host species [Evolution]

The thermal tolerance of an organism limits its ecological and geographic ranges and is potentially affected by dependence on temperature-sensitive symbiotic partners. Aphid species vary widely in heat sensitivity, but almost all aphids are dependent on the nutrient-provisioning intracellular bacterium Buchnera, which has evolved with aphids for 100 million years…

5h

BMP signaling inhibition in Drosophila secondary cells remodels the seminal proteome and self and rival ejaculate functions [Evolution]

Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) exert potent effects on male and female fitness. Rapidly evolving and molecularly diverse, they derive from multiple male secretory cells and tissues. In Drosophila melanogaster, most SFPs are produced in the accessory glands, which are composed of ∼1,000 fertility-enhancing "main cells" and ∼40 more functionally cryptic…

5h

Contribution of proteasome-catalyzed peptide cis-splicing to viral targeting by CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 infection [Immunology and Inflammation]

Peptides generated by proteasome-catalyzed splicing of noncontiguous amino acid sequences have been shown to constitute a source of nontemplated human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) epitopes, but their role in pathogen-specific immunity remains unknown. CD8+ T cells are key mediators of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) control, and identification of novel…

5h

Core Concept: The rise of bioelectric medicine sparks interest among researchers, patients, and industry [Medical Sciences]

In the corner of Kevin Tracey's office, behind a long shelf lined with medical books, rests "Rosie," a pink cane adorned with roses. It once belonged to Kelly Owens, who spent her teens and 20s crippled by inflammatory arthritis and Crohn's disease. Today, she no longer needs Rosie's help. Silicon…

5h

Proof of concept for identifying cystic fibrosis from perspiration samples [Medical Sciences]

The gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis is the determination of chloride concentration in sweat. Current testing methodology takes up to 3 h to complete and has recognized shortcomings on its diagnostic accuracy. We present an alternative method for the identification of CF by combining desorption electrospray ionization mass…

5h

N-acyl taurines are endogenous lipid messengers that improve glucose homeostasis [Medical Sciences]

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades 2 major classes of bioactive fatty acid amides, the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and N-acyl taurines (NATs), in central and peripheral tissues. A functional polymorphism in the human FAAH gene is linked to obesity and mice lacking FAAH show altered metabolic states, but whether these phenotypes…

5h

A high-resolution landscape of mutations in the BCL6 super-enhancer in normal human B cells [Medical Sciences]

The super-enhancers (SEs) of lineage-specific genes in B cells are off-target sites of somatic hypermutation. However, the inability to detect sufficient numbers of mutations in normal human B cells has precluded the generation of a high-resolution mutational landscape of SEs. Here we captured and sequenced 12 B cell SEs at…

5h

High-resolution view of the type III secretion export apparatus in situ reveals membrane remodeling and a secretion pathway [Microbiology]

Type III protein secretion systems are essential virulence factors for many important pathogenic bacteria. The entire protein secretion machine is composed of several substructures that organize into a holostructure or injectisome. The core component of the injectisome is the needle complex, which houses the export apparatus that serves as a…

5h

Imaging the dynamic recruitment of monocytes to the blood-brain barrier and specific brain regions during Toxoplasma gondii infection [Microbiology]

Brain infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii in mice is thought to generate vulnerability to predation by mechanisms that remain elusive. Monocytes play a key role in host defense and inflammation and are critical for controlling T. gondii. However, the dynamic and regional relationship between brain-infiltrating monocytes and parasites is…

5h

Self-identity barcodes encoded by six expansive polymorphic toxin families discriminate kin in myxobacteria [Microbiology]

Myxobacteria are an example of how single-cell individuals can transition into multicellular life by an aggregation strategy. For these and all organisms that consist of social groups of cells, discrimination against, and exclusion of, nonself is critical. In myxobacteria, TraA is a polymorphic cell surface receptor that identifies kin by…

5h

Early epigenomic and transcriptional changes reveal Elk-1 transcription factor as a therapeutic target in Huntington's disease [Neuroscience]

Huntington's disease (HD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a late clinical onset despite ubiquitous expression of the mutant Huntingtin gene (HTT) from birth. Transcriptional dysregulation is a pivotal feature of HD. Yet, the genes that are altered in the prodromal period and their regulators, which present opportunities for…

5h

Roles of ErbB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) in embryonic development and gene-silencing control [Neuroscience]

ErbB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) is implicated in diverse cellular functions, including apoptosis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Here, by generating genetic inactivation of Ebp1 mice, we identified the physiological roles of EBP1 in vivo. Loss of Ebp1 in mice caused aberrant organogenesis, including brain malformation, and death between E13.5 and 15.5…

5h

Body map proto-organization in newborn macaques [Neuroscience]

Topographic sensory maps are a prominent feature of the adult primate brain. Here, we asked whether topographic representations of the body are present at birth. Using functional MRI (fMRI), we find that the newborn somatomotor system, spanning frontoparietal cortex and subcortex, comprises multiple topographic representations of the body. The organization…

5h

Inhibition of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 2 perturbs 26S proteasome-addicted neoplastic progression [Pharmacology]

Dependence on the 26S proteasome is an Achilles' heel for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and multiple myeloma (MM). The therapeutic proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, successfully targets MM but often leads to drug-resistant disease relapse and fails in breast cancer. Here we show that a 26S proteasome-regulating kinase, DYRK2, is a therapeutic…

5h

Dichotomy of superconductivity between monolayer FeS and FeSe [Physics]

The discovery of high-temperature (Tc) superconductivity in monolayer FeSe on SrTiO3 raised a fundamental question: Whether high Tc is commonly realized in monolayer iron-based superconductors. Tetragonal FeS is a key material to resolve this issue because bulk FeS is a superconductor with Tc comparable to that of isostructural FeSe. However,…

5h

A nonlinear, geometric Hall effect without magnetic field [Physics]

The classical Hall effect, the traditional means of determining charge-carrier sign and density in a conductor, requires a magnetic field to produce transverse voltages across a current-carrying wire. We demonstrate a use of geometry to create transverse potentials along curved paths without any magnetic field. These potentials also reflect the…

5h

A ligand-independent origin of abscisic acid perception [Plant Biology]

Land plants are considered monophyletic, descending from a single successful colonization of land by an aquatic algal ancestor. The ability to survive dehydration to the point of desiccation is a key adaptive trait enabling terrestrialization. In extant land plants, desiccation tolerance depends on the action of the hormone abscisic acid…

5h

The retrograde signaling protein GUN1 regulates tetrapyrrole biosynthesis [Plant Biology]

The biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus in developing seedlings requires the assembly of proteins encoded on both nuclear and chloroplast genomes. To coordinate this process there needs to be communication between these organelles, but the retrograde signals by which the chloroplast communicates with the nucleus at this time are still…

5h

Similarity in transgender and cisgender children's gender development [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Gender is one of the central categories organizing children's social world. Clear patterns of gender development have been well-documented among cisgender children (i.e., children who identify as a gender that is typically associated with their sex assigned at birth). We present a comprehensive study of gender development (e.g., gender identity…

5h

Drivers of improved PM2.5 air quality in China from 2013 to 2017 [Sustainability Science]

From 2013 to 2017, with the implementation of the toughest-ever clean air policy in China, significant declines in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations occurred nationwide. Here we estimate the drivers of the improved PM2.5 air quality and the associated health benefits in China from 2013 to 2017 based on a measure-specific…

5h

Stakeholder engagement increases transparency, satisfaction, and civic action [Sustainability Science]

This study evaluates the effectiveness of a Stakeholder Engagement (SE) intervention in improving outcomes for communities affected by oil and gas extraction in Western Uganda. The study design is a randomized controlled trial where villages are randomly assigned to a treatment group (participating in SE) or a control group (not…

5h

Correction for Amirbeigiarab et al., Invariable stoichiometry of ribosomal proteins in mouse brain tissues with aging [Corrections]

BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for "Invariable stoichiometry of ribosomal proteins in mouse brain tissues with aging," by Susan Amirbeigiarab, Parnian Kiani, Ana Velazquez Sanchez, Christoph Krisp, Andriy Kazantsev, Lars Fester, Hartmut Schlüter, and Zoya Ignatova, which was first published October 21, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1912060116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 22567–22572). The authors…

5h

Retraction for Cifuentes-Rojas et al., Two RNA subunits and POT1a are components of Arabidopsis telomerase [Retractions]

BIOCHEMISTRY Retraction for "Two RNA subunits and POT1a are components of Arabidopsis telomerase," by Catherine Cifuentes-Rojas, Kalpana Kannan, Lin Tseng, and Dorothy E. Shippen, which was first published December 16, 2010; 10.1073/pnas.1013021107 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 73–78). The authors wish to note the following: "It has come to…

5h

Scientists Discover Black Hole Too Massive for Current Theories

Scientists have found many truly massive black holes in the cosmos, some of which weigh in at millions of billions of times the mass of our sun. These monsters lurk at the heart of galaxies like the Milky Way and M87 , but smaller stellar-mass black holes can be anyplace. Astronomers have spotted one of these black holes in our galactic backyard, but it's a bit heftier than it ought to be. In fac

6h

Are Tesla Cybertruck, Mustang Mach-E Moving the Needle Toward EVs?

The Los Angeles Auto Show/Automobility last month was a coming-out party for EVs targeting the US market, currently still below 2 percent of sales. Audi, BMW, Hyundai, Mercedes, Toyota, Volkswagen, and others announced or showcased electric and electrified vehicles. All were overshadowed by the introductions of the Ford Mustang Mach-E and the Tesla Cybertruck. But will these two controversial, hi

6h

Evacuation Slide Falls off Boeing Jet, Lands in Backyard

Free Falling On Sunday, an uninflated evacuation slide fell from a Boeing 767 airplane while it flew over a Boston suburb. Thankfully, the slide hit the ground several feet away from two people — and not on top of them — but the incident is yet another black mark against Boeing during a time when the aerospace megacorporation is desperate to restore its tarnished reputation. Near Miss A Delta Air

6h

Detecting solar flares, more in real time

Computers can learn to find flares and other events in vast streams of solar images to help forecasters issue timely alerts, according to a new study in the Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate. The machine-learning technique, developed by CIRES and NOAA scientists, searches satellite data for features significant for space weather. Changing conditions on the Sun can affect various technolog

6h

Southern Arizona once looked like Tibet

The study determined that the Earth's crust in southern Arizona was once almost 60 kilometers thick, which is twice as thick as it is today — and comparable to how thick the crust is in parts of the Himalayas.

6h

NASA catches typhoon Kammuri post landfall

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP or S-NPP satellite provided infrared and night-time imagery of Typhoon Kammuri shortly after it made landfall in the Philippines.

6h

Virtual reality could help flu vaccination rates

Using a virtual reality simulation to show how flu spreads and its impact on others could be a way to encourage more people to get a flu vaccination, according to a study by researchers at the University of Georgia and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

6h

Researchers use genomics to discover potential new treatment for parasite disease

Using innovative RNA sequencing techniques, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) Institute for Genome Sciences identified a promising novel treatment for lymphatic filariasis, a disabling parasitic disease that is difficult to treat. The potential new therapy is an experimental cancer drug called JQ1 and targets proteins found prominently in the worm's genome; it ap

6h

Characterizing whale vocalization can help map migration

Killer whale pods each have their own set of calls they use to communicate, sometimes referred to as the pod's 'dialect.' By characterizing a pod's calls, researchers can track its seasonal movements, gaining a better understanding of the whales' lives. Jessica Sportelli at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography studies a pod of relatively unknown killer whales in Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada and

6h

A New Silicon Chip Might One Day Replace Damaged Brain Cells

The chip responds to electrical activity just like real neurons do.

6h

This Space Anthropologist Is Chronicling Astronauts' Lives in Orbit

Space anthropologist Jack Stuster has interviewed and observed astronauts for decades. He's also worked with NASA to improve the human experience of space exploration.

6h

2019 in Photos: How the First Months Unfolded

As the year comes to a close, it's time to take a look at some of the most memorable events and images of 2019. Events covered in this essay (the first of a three-part photo summary of the year) include the abdication of Japan's Emperor Akihito, a performance by Lil Nas X, the impact of Cyclone Idai in Mozambique, the battle for the last holdout of the Islamic State, a landing on the far side of

6h

Artificial neurons developed to fight disease

Scientists make artificial nerve cells, paving the way for new ways to repair the human brain.

6h

Researchers develop a mass-producible, centimeter-scale metalens for VR, imaging

Metalenses—flat surfaces that use nanostructures to focus light—are poised to revolutionize everything from microscopy to cameras, sensors, and displays. But so far, most of the lenses have been about the size of a piece of glitter. While lenses this size work well for some applications, a larger lens is needed for low-light conditions, such as an imaging system onboard orbital satellites, and VR

6h

Novel material switches between electrically conducting and insulating states

Northwestern Engineering researchers have developed a novel design strategy to identify new materials exhibiting a metal-insulator transition (MIT), a rare class of materials categorized by their ability to reversibly switch between electrically conducting and insulating states.

6h

NASA-NOAA satellite finds development of tropical cyclone 06A

Imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite showed that a tropical depression in the Arabian Sea has consolidated and organized despite facing wind shear. Tropical Depression 06A is now Tropical Cyclone 06A.

6h

Overset lidelse rammer mange danske kvinder: Din risiko for PCOS kan afgøres i mors mave

Der er fem gange større risiko for at du får PCOS, hvis din mor har haft tilstanden.

6h

Amazon enters quantum computing race with cloud quantum processors

Amazon has combined three types of quantum computing processors from D-Wave Systems, IonQ, and Rigetti Computing into a cloud service to test quantum algorithms

6h

Revealed: Mental health websites are selling your data to advertisers

Websites that provide resources about mental health conditions such as depression track individual users and share their data with advertisers.

6h

Genomic gymnastics help sorghum plant survive drought

Scorching temperatures and parched earth are no match for the sorghum plant—this cereal crop, native to Africa and Australia, will remain green and productive, even under conditions that would render other plants brown, brittle and barren.

6h

Young tree swallows carry environmental stress into adulthood

Cornell University researchers have found that colder temperatures during tree swallows' development stage has an effect on swallows later in life.

6h

Towards high quality zinc oxide quantum dots for biomedical applications

Nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) is currently one of the most commonly used semiconductor metal oxide nanomaterials due to its unique catalytic and electro-optical characteristics. The inherent and distinctive physicochemical properties of ZnO nanostructures are dependent on a variety of factors that are determined by the applied synthetic procedure and the character of the resulting nanocrystal-l

6h

Genomic gymnastics help sorghum plant survive drought

Scorching temperatures and parched earth are no match for the sorghum plant—this cereal crop, native to Africa and Australia, will remain green and productive, even under conditions that would render other plants brown, brittle and barren.

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Young tree swallows carry environmental stress into adulthood

Cornell University researchers have found that colder temperatures during tree swallows' development stage has an effect on swallows later in life.

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Characterizing whale vocalization can help map migration

Killer whale pods each have their own set of calls they use to communicate, sometimes referred to as the pod's "dialect." By characterizing an individual pod's calls, researchers can track the pod's seasonal movements, gaining a better understanding of the whales' lives.

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Researchers use genomics to discover potential new treatment for parasite disease

Using innovative RNA sequencing techniques, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) Institute for Genome Sciences identified a promising novel treatment for lymphatic filariasis, a disabling parasitic disease that is difficult to treat. The potential new therapy is an experimental cancer drug called JQ1 and targets proteins found prominently in the worm's genome; it ap

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Characterizing whale vocalization can help map migration

Killer whale pods each have their own set of calls they use to communicate, sometimes referred to as the pod's "dialect." By characterizing an individual pod's calls, researchers can track the pod's seasonal movements, gaining a better understanding of the whales' lives.

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Researchers use genomics to discover potential new treatment for parasite disease

Using innovative RNA sequencing techniques, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) Institute for Genome Sciences identified a promising novel treatment for lymphatic filariasis, a disabling parasitic disease that is difficult to treat. The potential new therapy is an experimental cancer drug called JQ1 and targets proteins found prominently in the worm's genome; it ap

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Daily briefing: The unpublished CRISPR-babies papers

Nature, Published online: 03 December 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03743-6 Excerpts from He Jankui's draft manuscripts, how a space enthusiast found the crash site of India's Moon lander and what rain did for the dinosaurs.

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Turn your photography skills into a side hustle

If you're already doing it, why not make a buck off of it? (DragonImages via Deposit Photos/) Photography is not the easiest way to make money, but it can help you grab a couple of bucks on the side. If you've started shooting photos you think might do the trick (whether with your iPhone or a dedicated camera ) there are a few ways for you to get started and sell them online—though you probably s

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Female brown bears hang out near humans to keep cubs safe from males

Bear mothers who keep their cubs for longer tend to live closer to people – perhaps as a way to avoid males who would drive their offspring away

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How a cellular shuttle helps HIV-1 spread in immune organs

New insight on how a type of cell facilitates the spread of HIV-1 has been published today in the open-access journal eLife.

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Metalens grows up

Researchers have developed an all-glass, centimeter-scale metalens in the visible spectrum that can be manufactured using conventional chip fabrication methods

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Novel material switches between electrically conducting and insulating states

The new approach developed by Professor James Rondinelli could inform the design of quantum materials platforms for future electronics, as well as faster devices with more storage capabilities.

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Mexican Cops Pre-Order Fleet of Cybertrucks

Cyber Cops The police force of San Luis Potosí, a city in Mexico, just pre-ordered 15 Tesla Cybertrucks. That makes the Mexican city the second to share plans to put cops into the Cybertruck, following Dubai's announcement last week. The San Luis Potosí government is reportedly interested in replacing its internal combustion engine vehicles with the trucks, according to El Imparcial , to cut down

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Huge Lakes Abruptly Empty into Greenland Ice Sheet

Draining meltwater could lubricate the base of the ice, speeding its flow and hastening sea level rise — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Distress tolerance plays role in alcohol use and abuse among firefighters

A newly published report from a University of Houston psychology professor finds that firefighters who struggle with PTSD symptoms, and who think they cannot handle negative emotions, are likely to drink and use alcohol it to cope with negative emotions.

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Neuro interface adds tactile dimension to screen images

Researchers from Duke University and HSE University have succeeded in creating artificial tactile perception in monkeys through direct brain stimulation. This breakthrough can be used to create upper-limb neuroprostheses, capable of delivering a tactile sensation. The study's results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://www.pnas.org/content/116/43

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Investigating the human intestinal mucus barrier up-close and personal

Focusing on the large intestine or colon which houses the greatest number of commensal microbes and has the thickest mucus layer, a team of tissue engineers at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering has developed a colon-on-a-chip (Colon Chip) microfluidic culture device lined by patient-derived colon cells that spontaneously accumulates a mucus layer with the thickness, bi

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NASA-NOAA satellite finds development of tropical cyclone 06A

Imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite showed that a tropical depression in the Arabian Sea has consolidated and organized despite facing wind shear. Tropical Depression 06A is now Tropical Cyclone 06A.

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CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing shows very low risk of mistakes

Along with the promise that CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology can offer new human therapies is the need to ensure its safety. A recent study showed that CRISPR-Cas9 did not produce off-target gene mutations in zebrafish.

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Russia Says It Will Replace Wikipedia With State-Run Site

In Russia Last month, Russian president Vladimir Putin complained that the popular online encyclopedia Wikipedia was "unreliable" and called for it to be replaced. Now, the Russian government has confirmed it will replace Wikipedia with an online version of the "Great Russian Encyclopedia," Reuters reports . "As for Wikipedia… it's better to replace it with the new Big Russian Encyclopaedia in el

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Electron correlations in carbon nanostructures

New materials are needed to further reduce the size of electronic components and thus make devices such as laptops and smartphones faster and more efficient. Tiny nanostructures of the novel material graphene are promising in this respect. Graphene consists of a single layer of carbon atoms and, among other things, has a very high electrical conductivity. However, the extreme spatial confinement i

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How to Permanently End Diseases

The world officially became a slightly safer place in October, when the World Health Organization declared that polio's type 3 strain had been eradicated. This strain — joining type 2, which was eradicated in 2015 — no longer exists anywhere in the world, outside of highly secure laboratories. (Type 1 is the only strain still at large.) Thanks to the hard work of thousands of dedicated individual

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Could Fruit Flies Reveal the Hidden Mechanisms of the Mind?

New understandings in neurobiology are emerging from experiments on Drosophila, raising hopes the tiny insect will aid insights into human cognition and dementia — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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COP25: WWF and Prado Museum use art to show climate change

WWF and the Prado Museum join forces to raise the alarm during the COP25 summit in Madrid.

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Could Fruit Flies Reveal the Hidden Mechanisms of the Mind?

New understandings in neurobiology are emerging from experiments on Drosophila, raising hopes the tiny insect will aid insights into human cognition and dementia — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Potentially harmful air contamination near New Bedford Harbor

A new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study indicates that the contaminated water of New Bedford Harbor may pose an airborne health hazard for residents living nearby in Acushnet, Dartmouth, Fairhaven, and New Bedford. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) declared the southeastern Massachusetts harbor a Superfund site and has been cleaning up sediment contaminated with

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The finalists are in: Vote for the 2019 People's Choice for Breakthrough of the Year!

Four candidates topped the first round of voting. Now is your chance to choose your favorite

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Harmful Bacteria Masquerade as Red Blood Cells to Evade the Immune System

Studying the stealthy strategy could help researchers develop new treatments for group A strep infections, which kill more than 500,000 people each year

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Study sheds light on the peculiar 'normal' phase of high-temperature superconductors

Experiments at SLAC and Stanford probe the normal state more accurately than ever before and discover an abrupt shift in the behavior of electrons in which they suddenly give up their individuality and behave like an electron soup.

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Scientists devise catalyst that uses light to turn carbon dioxide to fuel

In a recent study from Argonne, scientists have used sunlight and a catalyst largely made of copper to transform carbon dioxide to methanol.

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Young tree swallows carry environmental stress into adulthood

Cornell University researchers have found that colder temperatures during tree swallows' development stage has an effect on swallows later in life.

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Early immune response may improve cancer immunotherapies

Researchers report a new mechanism for detecting foreign material during early immune responses.

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Neurodegenerative diseases may be caused by transportation failures inside neurons

Protein clumps are routinely found in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Now researchers find a link between this buildup and the intracellular movement of proteasomes, molecular machines tasked with degrading protein waste inside cells.

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Young children receiving housing vouchers had lower hospital spending into adulthood

Young children whose household received a housing voucher were admitted to the hospital fewer times and incurred lower hospital costs in the subsequent two decades than children whose households did not receive housing vouchers, according to a new study from researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

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Gas giant composition not determined by host star

A surprising analysis of the composition of gas giant exoplanets and their host stars shows that there isn't a strong correlation between their compositions when it comes to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, according to new work led by Carnegie's Johanna Teske and published in the Astronomical Journal. This finding has important implications for our understanding of the planetary formati

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A study of Saturn's largest moon may offer insights for earth

Scientists studying the weather and climate of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, have reported a significant seasonal variation in its energy budget—that is the amount of solar energy absorbed by the celestial body and the thermal energy it emits.

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Formation of ducts connecting digestive organs in zebrafish

A specialized system of ducts transports bile and enzymes from the liver and pancreas to the intestine. Researchers have shown how this ductal system is formed. The new knowledge can help understanding how congenital diseases in that part of the body arise.

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Could Fruit Flies Reveal the Hidden Mechanisms of the Mind?

New understandings in neurobiology are emerging from experiments on Drosophila, raising hopes the tiny insect will aid insights into human cognition and dementia — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Bed nets with extra layer better shield against malaria

The addition of a barrier above a malaria bed net can significantly improve its performance and reduce the amount of insecticide needed, a new study shows. Sleeping under a long-lasting insecticidal net is currently the most effective way of preventing malaria in Africa. However, health experts have seen a resurgence of malaria since 2015—at the same time that typical bed nets treated with insect

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US scores above average in reading, science, lags in math

American students may not be reading any better, but they're moving up in rankings of educational achievement worldwide because many of their peers in other countries are performing worse.

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Great Barrier Reef study shows how reef copes with rapid sea-level rise

A new study into the recent history of the Great Barrier Reef has shown how it responds to rapid sea-level rise and other environmental stresses. The study, conducted at the University of Sydney's research station at One Tree Island, has upended the established model of Holocene-era reef growth.

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Dramatic transition in Streptomyces life cycle explained in new discovery

Streptomyces bacteria are our primary source of antibiotics, which are produced in the transition from vegetative growth to sporulation in a complex developmental life cycle.

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VTT developed an optical fiber made of cellulose

VTT researchers were able to transmit light in wood-based fibre. Optical fibre made of cellulose is best suited for sensors that benefit from the biodegradability of the material. In the future, optical cellulose fibre may allow detecting changes in the moisture level of buildings.

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Dramatic transition in Streptomyces life cycle explained in new discovery

Streptomyces bacteria are our primary source of antibiotics, which are produced in the transition from vegetative growth to sporulation in a complex developmental life cycle.

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Want Vintage NASA Space Photos? Sotheby's Can Help

Sure, NASA gives away digital files for free, but the auction house is currently selling some of its original prints.

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BU finds potentially harmful air contamination near new Bedford Harbor

A new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study indicates that the contaminated water of New Bedford Harbor may pose an airborne health hazard for residents living nearby in Acushnet, Dartmouth, Fairhaven, and New Bedford.

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Got a migraine? Relief may already be on your medicine shelf

According to a new report in The American Journal of Medicine, published by Elsevier, aspirin can be considered an effective and safe option to other, more expensive medications to treat acute migraines as well as prevent recurrent attacks. A review of randomized evidence suggests efficacy and safety of high dose aspirin in doses from 900 to 1,300 milligrams taken at the onset of acute symptoms. T

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Gas giant composition not determined by host star

A surprising analysis of the composition of gas giant exoplanets and their host stars shows that there isn't a strong correlation between their compositions when it comes to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, according to new work led by Carnegie's Johanna Teske. This finding has important implications for our understanding of the planetary formation process.

7h

A study of Saturn's largest moon may offer insights for earth

Scientists studying the weather and climate of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, have reported a significant seasonal variation in its energy budget, a finding which could yield new insights into climate on Earth.

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Great Barrier Reef study shows how reef copes with rapid sea-level rise

A survey of coral reef cores on the Great Barrier Reef has revealed how it has responded to recent periods of rapid sea-level rise. The study, covering the past 9000 years, has revealed a system in delicate balance.

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Eating in sync with biological clock could replace problematic diabetes treatment

A new Tel Aviv University study finds that a starch-rich breakfast consumed early in the morning coupled with a small dinner could replace insulin injections and other diabetes medications for many diabetics.

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Cannabis dependence and abuse nearly doubled risk of heart attack post-surgery

According to a study led by researchers at St. Michael's Hospital of Unity Health Toronto, patients with cannabis use disorders had an increased cardiac risk post-surgery.

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Finnish rivers transport carbon to Baltic Sea at an increasing rate

The amount of carbon transported via Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea has risen substantially in the past few decades. The researchers don't know the exact effects yet.

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Why doesn't the flu freak us out more?

Why are people so concerned about certain viruses in the news but aren't too worried when flu season rolls around each year? From late summer into early fall, the fear of being bitten by mosquitoes infected with eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) gripped Greater Boston and much of New England. Yet the disease, a deadly virus capable of causing brain swelling, is typically transmitted by a species

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2010s hottest decade in history, UN says as emissions rise again

This decade is set to be the hottest in history, the United Nations said Tuesday in an annual assessment outlining the ways in which climate change is outpacing humanity's ability to adapt to it.

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Finnish rivers transport carbon to the Baltic Sea at an increasing rate

The amount of carbon transported via Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea has risen substantially in the past few decades. This was found in a collaborative study by the University of Helsinki, Aarhus University and the Finnish Environment Institute. The researchers don't know the exact effects yet.

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Improving drug delivery for brain tumor treatment

Despite improvements in drug delivery mechanisms, treating brain tumors has remained challenging. Researchers have studied the processes affecting therapeutic drug penetration into brain tumors. One approach is to use microbubbles to help overcome vascular barriers within the tumors and improve nanoparticle penetration across the vessel wall. The second method uses ultrasound in combination with t

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Two chiral catalysts working hand in hand

The stereoisomers of a molecule can cause different effects in a biological system, which is important for the development of drugs. Chemists have developed a synthetic method that can produce different stereoisomers from identical starting materials.

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Silicon chip that mimics brain cells to be tested on patients

Low-power artificial neuron chip can co-ordinate heartbeats with breathing

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Reef Fish with Parental Care Are Being Conned

Damselfish often end up raising young that aren't their own. Damselfish_top.jpg Of the nearly 400 species of damselfish, only four are known to care for their young. Image credits: Rickard Zerpe via Flickr Rights information: CC-BY 2.0 Creature Tuesday, December 3, 2019 – 11:00 Amanda Heidt, Contributor (Inside Science) — Reef fish that care for their offspring after hatching are vulnerable to

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New approach to treating cystic fibrosis could lower risk of lung transplants and death

A new approach to treating people with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been shown to reduce inflammation, which has the potential to reduce the need for lung transplants and lower the risk of death.

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How stem cells decide their identity

Several hundred different cell types of the adult human body are formed during embryonic development, starting from just a few identical stem cells. The differentiation potential of the cells is progressively restricted in the course of this process, causing changes in their morphology and functions.

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Compound eyes: The visual apparatus of today's horseshoe crabs goes back 400 million years

The extinct sea scorpion species Jaekelopterus rhenaniae had eyes comparable to those of today's horseshoe crabs. The two-and-a-half-meter predator was particularly apt at perceiving contrasts and contours under water.

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Pot while pregnant: Doctors urge caution

Daily marijuana use during pregnancy may lead to an increased risk of low birth weight, low resistance to infection, decreased oxygen levels and other negative fetal health outcomes, according to a new study.

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Improving drug delivery for brain tumor treatment

Despite improvements in drug delivery mechanisms, treating brain tumors has remained challenging. Researchers have studied the processes affecting therapeutic drug penetration into brain tumors. One approach is to use microbubbles to help overcome vascular barriers within the tumors and improve nanoparticle penetration across the vessel wall. The second method uses ultrasound in combination with t

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Australian GPs widely offering placebos

Most Australian GPs have used a placebo in practice at least once, with active placebos (active treatments used primarily to generate positive expectations) more commonly used than inert placebos, according to a new study.

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Tumblr's First Year Without Porn

There are two stories about what Tumblr was like in 2019, its first year after officially prohibiting sex acts, nudity, and "female-presenting nipples." The first is that it barely survived. From 2018 to 2019, the average number of unique monthly visitors to Tumblr's website decreased by 21.2 percent, according to data compiled by the analytics service SimilarWeb. The total volume of visits to th

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Love, lies and money: Study introduces, defines and measures financial infidelity

Romantic relationships are built on trust—yet when it comes to money, even faithful partners are not always honest about their spending and saving habits.

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Scientist develops game to arm users against climate change 'fake news'

A George Mason University scientist is developing a mobile game that will teach users to defend themselves from 'fake news' on climate change.

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Researchers map the formation of ducts connecting digestive organs in zebrafish

A specialised system of ducts transports bile and enzymes from the liver and pancreas to the intestine. In a new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have shown how this ductal system is formed. The new knowledge can help understanding how congenital diseases in that part of the body arise.

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Meteorite-loving microorganism

Chemolithotrophic microorganisms derive their energy from inorganic sources. Research into the physiological processes of these organisms—which are grown on meteorite—provides new insights into the potential of extraterrestrial materials as a source of accessible nutrients and energy for microorganisms of the early Earth. Meteorites may have delivered a variety of essential compounds facilitating

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Researchers map the formation of ducts connecting digestive organs in zebrafish

A specialised system of ducts transports bile and enzymes from the liver and pancreas to the intestine. In a new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have shown how this ductal system is formed. The new knowledge can help understanding how congenital diseases in that part of the body arise.

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Climate talks must chart an equitable path to net-zero emissions

Nature, Published online: 03 December 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03708-9 Madrid meeting will remain deadlocked unless developed countries accept responsibility for past emissions.

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Unemployment encourages men to try traditionally female-dominated work

A study finds that men who previously worked in male-dominated or mixed-gender fields are significantly more likely to transition to female-dominated jobs following a bout of unemployment, bucking past evidence showing resistance by men to working female-dominated jobs. When they do make the switch, the study finds they reap benefits in wages and job prestige.

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Love, lies and money: Study introduces, defines and measures financial infidelity

New research from the University of Notre Dame introduces the concept of financial infidelity — engaging in any financial behavior likely to be frowned upon by a romantic partner and intentionally failing to disclose that behavior.

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Co-combustion of wood and oil-shale reduces carbon emissions

Utilization of fossil fuels, which represents an increasing environmental risk, can be made more environmentally friendly by adding wood — as concluded based on the preliminary results of the year-long study carried out by thermal engineers of Tallinn University of Technology. In search of less polluting ways of energy production, increasing the amount of biomass as a source of raw materials offe

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What's driving erosion worldwide?

ETH Zurich researchers are reexamining the causes of soil erosion around the world — and have found that countries themselves have a surprisingly strong influence on their soil. This country effect was previously undetected.

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MA physician assistant programs adopt first-in-nation partnership to prevent opioid abuse

Morbidity and mortality from prescription and synthetic opioid use and abuse continues to be a U.S. public health issue. In an effort to help curtail this crisis, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) describe an approach to ensure Physician Assistant (PA) students graduating from any PA program in Massachusetts will have the knowledge and skills to prescribe opiates safely.

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Electron correlations in carbon nanostructures

Graphene nanoribbons are only a few carbon atoms wide and have different electrical properties depending on their shape and width. A team from Kiel University has now succeeded in simulating the detailed behavior of electrons in these special nanostructures using an elaborate computational model.

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Dramatic transition in Streptomyces life cycle explained in new discovery

Streptomyces bacteria are our primary source of antibiotics, which are produced in the transition from vegetative growth to sporulation in a complex developmental life cycle.

8h

VTT developed an optical fiber made of cellulose

VTT researchers were able to transmit light in wood-based fibre. Optical fibre made of cellulose is best suited for sensors that benefit from the biodegradability of the material. In the future, optical cellulose fibre may allow detecting changes in the moisture level of buildings.

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Diabetes drug has unexpected, broad implications for healthy aging

Metformin is the most commonly prescribed type 2 diabetes drug, yet scientists still do not fully know how it works to control blood sugar levels. In a collaborative effort, researchers from the Salk Institute, The Scripps Research Institute and Weill Cornell Medical College have used a novel technology to investigate why it functions so well. The findings could also explain why metformin has been

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One dose of radiotherapy as effective as five doses for cancer in the spine

A single dose of radiotherapy is as 'effective' as five doses for end-of-life cancer patients suffering with painful spinal canal compression, finds a large study conducted by UCL.

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World first as artificial neurons developed to cure chronic diseases

Artificial neurons on silicon chips that behave just like the real thing have been invented by scientists — a first-of-its-kind achievement with enormous scope for medical devices to cure chronic diseases, such as heart failure, Alzheimer's, and other diseases of neuronal degeneration.

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How the strep bacterium hides from the immune system

A bacterial pathogen that causes strep throat and other illnesses cloaks itself in fragments of red blood cells to evade detection by the host immune system, according to a study publishing December 3 in the journal Cell Reports. The researchers found that Group A Streptococcus (GAS) produces a previously uncharacterized protein, named S protein, which binds to the red blood cell membrane to avoid

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Social influencers: What can we learn from animals?

Research from Oxford University calls us to reconsider how behaviors may spread through societies of wild animals, and how this might provide new insights into human social networks.

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Improving blood vessel health in the brain may help combat Alzheimer's

Researchers have found that very slow spontaneous blood vessel pulsations drive the clearance of substances from the brain, indicating that targeting and improving this process may help to prevent or treat amyloid-beta accumulation.

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Smog-eating graphene composite reduces atmospheric pollution

Graphene Flagship partners the University of Bologna, Politecnico di Milano, CNR, NEST, Italcementi HeidelbergCement Group, the Israel Institute of Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology, and the University of Cambridge have developed a graphene-titania photocatalyst that degrades up to 70% more atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NOx) than standard titania nanoparticles in tests on real pollutan

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F.D.A. Nominee Clears Senate Panel

As a teen vaping and health crisis dominates public concerns, the Food and Drug Administration has been without a permanent commissioner since April.

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Greta Thunberg: People underestimate 'angry kids'

Climate activist Greta Thunberg said that adults should stop making young people "angry" over global warming.

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Bionic neurons could enable implants to restore failing brain circuits

Scientists say creation could be used to circumvent nerve damage and help paralysed people regain movement Scientists have created artificial neurons that could potentially be implanted into patients to overcome paralysis, restore failing brain circuits, and even connect their minds to machines. The bionic neurons can receive electrical signals from healthy nerve cells, and process them in a natu

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Purrfect presents for the playful cat in your life

Feline finds for your furry friend. (Mikhail Vasilyev via Una/) I was always a dog person growing up, but it turns out cats are great in their own kind of way. They're independent and don't need your undivided attention at all times, but will still snuggle you when you sleep and sit contently on your lap while you watch TV. So, it's only fair that you return the favor during the giving season. Yo

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New material offers lots of perks to soft robots

Researchers have created a new metal-based material for use in soft robots. "Origami robots" are state-of-the-art soft, flexible robots that could find use in drug delivery in human bodies, search and rescue missions in disaster environments, and humanoid robotic arms. Because these robots need to be flexible, they are often made from soft materials such as paper, plastic, and rubber. To be funct

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Cadmium, gene combo can speed up cognitive decline

Exposure to cadmium, a known human carcinogen, even at levels found in people who do not smoke cigarettes, leads to accelerated cognitive impairment, according to a new animal study. Those with genetic risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, particularly males, are most vulnerable to the adverse health effects, the study suggests. Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal released into the environment throu

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A decade of 'exceptional global heat'

WMO says we've had another year of high-impact weather.

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Socialites not the primary behavioural influencers

Research suggests it's more likely close-knit cliques.

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Medicine against bone disease found in the leaves of saussurea

Bacterial bone infections are quite resistant to antibiotics and require new therapeutic approaches. A team of researchers from Kant Baltic Federal University discovered the ability of an extract from the leaves of Saussurea controversa to considerably reduce inflammatory processes and increase immune response in cases of osteomyelitis

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The art of the Roman surveyors emerges from newly discovered pavements in Pompeii

A series of enigmatic images recently recovered in new excavations in Pompeii shed new light upon a fascinating figure of the Roman world: the Gromatics, the surveyours in charge of the regular division of the land and of town planning.

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Meteorite-loving microorganism

The archaeon Metallosphaera sedula can uptake and process extraterrestrial material. This is shown by an international team led by astrobiologist Tetyana Milojevic, who examines microbial fingerprints on meteorite materials. The researchers also conclude that M. sedula colonizes meteorite minerals faster than those of terrestrial origin. The results appear in Scientific Reports.

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In sickness and in health: Study looks at how married couples face chronic conditions

When they said their wedding vows, many of them promised to stand by one another in sickness and in health. But a new study suggests that as married couples age and develop chronic conditions, the daily demands of coping with their own health demands and those of their spouse may take a mental toll.

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Diamonds in your devices: Powering the next generation of energy storage

Our use of battery-operated devices and appliances has been increasing steadily, bringing with it the need for safe, efficient, and high-performing power sources. To this end, a type of electrical energy storage device called the supercapacitor has recently begun to be considered as a feasible, and sometimes even better, alternative to conventional widely used energy-storage devices such as Li-ion

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Two chiral catalysts working hand in hand

Just as our left hand is not superposable to our right hand, the mirror image of certain molecules cannot be overlapped onto it, even when turned or twisted. These two mirror images are referred to by chemists as enantiomers and the molecule is said to be chiral. Chirality, which is a word derived from the ancient Greek word for hand, is important since it is present in our daily lives. For exampl

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How the strep bacterium hides from the immune system

A bacterial pathogen that causes strep throat and other illnesses cloaks itself in fragments of red blood cells to evade detection by the host immune system, according to a study publishing December 3 in the journal Cell Reports. The researchers found that Group A Streptococcus (GAS) produces a previously uncharacterized protein, named S protein, which binds to the red blood cell membrane to avoid

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How the strep bacterium hides from the immune system

A bacterial pathogen that causes strep throat and other illnesses cloaks itself in fragments of red blood cells to evade detection by the host immune system, according to a study publishing December 3 in the journal Cell Reports. The researchers found that Group A Streptococcus (GAS) produces a previously uncharacterized protein, named S protein, which binds to the red blood cell membrane to avoid

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Letters: Sharing a Bed Is 'a Comfort, Not a Burden'

Why Everyone Should Sleep Alone In November, Mallika Rao argued in favor of nightly separation : "Wander too far in search of privacy, and you nullify romance; get too close, and the same occurs." Eight and a half years ago, my wife of 37 years passed away. We always slept together. After she died, the empty bed was so lonely that I had trouble sleeping. But over the next year I began to notice t

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Social influencers: What can we learn from animals?

Research from Oxford University calls us to reconsider how behaviours may spread through societies of wild animals, and how this might provide new insights into human social networks.

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Artificial neurons behave like real ones

Researchers successfully create them on tiny silicon chips.

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When big mammals are lost, so are termites

Ecologists monitor the impact on rainforest ecosystems.

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Superflares don't go away entirely

They still pose a risk, so it would be wise to make some contingency plans.

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You don't see what I see

New software provides a different view of life's colours.

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An alloy that retains its memory at high temperatures

Using computer simulation, Alberto Ferrari calculated a design proposal for a shape memory alloy that retains its efficiency for a long time even at high temperatures. Alexander Paulsen manufactured it and experimentally confirmed the prediction. The alloy of titanium, tantalum and scandium is more than just a new high-temperature shape memory alloy. Rather, the research team from the Interdiscipl

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Social influencers: What can we learn from animals?

Research from Oxford University calls us to reconsider how behaviours may spread through societies of wild animals, and how this might provide new insights into human social networks.

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Science around the planet uses images of Earth from the space station

Artificial lighting at night affects the behavior of urban wildlife, according to a recent study published in Nature Scientific Reports, which examined animals in the laboratory and the field. The researchers mapped light levels in the city of Chicago using publicly available images of Earth taken by astronauts from the International Space Station.

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Elkunder på Sjælland får dyrere strøm ved spisetid

Netselskabet Cerius indfører nu variable nettariffer, så forbrugerne fra oktober til og med marts skal betale tre gange så meget for transport af strøm mellem kl. 17 og 20.

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Two chiral catalysts working hand in hand

The stereoisomers of a molecule can cause different effects in a biological system, which is important for the development of drugs. Chemists have developed a synthetic method that can produce different stereoisomers from identical starting materials.

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Research team deciphers how stem cells decide their identity

A research team headed by Prof. Dr. Sebastian Arnold and Jelena Tosic from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Freiburg has now succeeded in deciphering basic molecular control mechanisms by which stem cells decide which embryonic cell types to turn into. This is achieved at least partially through selective usage of the genes for each different cell type, despite the presence of the iden

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Global education rankings may overlook poor graduation rates

One standardized assessment tool has become the key benchmark for national governments to judge their schools' successes. But the academic rankings generated by the Program in International Student Assessment (PISA) are eclipsing important questions such as how particular groups of students are doing in school or graduation rates.

8h

Research team deciphers how stem cells decide their identity

A research team headed by Prof. Dr. Sebastian Arnold and Jelena Tosic from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Freiburg has now succeeded in deciphering basic molecular control mechanisms by which stem cells decide which embryonic cell types to turn into. This is achieved at least partially through selective usage of the genes for each different cell type, despite the presence of the iden

8h

How does language emerge?

How the languages of the world emerged is largely a mystery. Considering that it might have taken millennia, it is intriguing to see how deaf people can create novel sign languages spontaneously. Observations have shown that when deaf strangers are brought together in a community, they come up with their own sign language in a considerably short amount of time. The most famous example of this is N

8h

How to improve water quality in Europe

The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) adopted in 2000 aims to protect Europe's water resources. By 2027, EU Member States are required to bring all water bodies into a "good ecological" and "good chemical state." There's still a long way to go. This is due, for example, to the fact that a few existing substances, for which there are currently no suitable possibilities for reducing pollution, lead

8h

3 ways to be a more effective fundraiser | Kara Logan Berlin

How do you raise money to get an idea off the ground, support a community, help change the world? Take a crash course on the secret art of successful fundraising with development strategist Kara Logan Berlin as she shows how you can learn to ask for the resources you need — and get them, too.

8h

How Does Alzheimer's Disease Cause People to Die?

The progression of the disease is slow, but inevitable.

8h

Grain boundaries in graphene do not affect spin transport

Researchers from the ICN2 Theoretical and Computational Nanoscience Group as well as the Université catholique de Louvain have used numerical simulations to show that spin diffusion length is independent of grain size. The results are published in Nano Letters and have implications for the optimization of graphene-based spintronic devices.

8h

Compound eyes: The visual apparatus of today's horseshoe crabs goes back 400 million years

The eyes of the extinct sea scorpion Jaekelopterus rhenaniae have the same structure as the eyes of modern horseshoe crabs (Limulidae). The compound eyes of the giant predator exhibited lens cylinders and concentrically organized sensory cells enclosing the end of a highly specialized cell.

8h

All pilsner yeast strains originate from a single yeast ancestor

Pilsner yeast, the well-known microorganism that brewers use every year to make hundreds of billions of liters of pilsner and other lagers, came into being 500 years ago through an accidental encounter between two species of yeast. The yeast strains now used to brew pilsner can all be traced back to that time. This is the conclusion reached by TU Delft researchers based on extensive DNA analysis.

8h

Cooling role of particulate matter on warming Earth stronger than previously thought

The relationship between aerosols (particulate matter) and their cooling effect on the Earth due to the formation of clouds is more than twice as strong as was previously thought. As the amounts of aerosols decrease, climate models that predict a faster warming of the Earth are more probable. These are the conclusions of researcher Otto Hasekamp from SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research,

8h

Laws help reduce pollution and do not affect competitiveness, study finds

The United Nations Climate Change (COP25) World Climate Summit, which starts today in Madrid, is the latest initiative by world governments to seek agreement on legal frameworks to help protect the planet. However, there are still many critical voices that question the effectiveness of laws in reducing pollution. Opponents of regulation claim that laws can lead to systems that are too rigid and un

8h

Imaging technique gives catalytic 2-D material engineering a better view

The properties of 2-D transition metal dichalcogenides are attracting a great deal of interest, and one of the reasons is their catalytic activity. In particular, better catalysts are needed to exploit the potential of water electrolysis—splitting water into its component elements—to provide sustainable energy storage.

8h

Raising plants to withstand climate change

Success with improving a model plant's response to harsh conditions is leading plant molecular researchers to move to food crops including wheat, barley, rice and chickpeas.

8h

Smog-eating graphene composite reduces atmospheric pollution

A graphene-titania photocatalyst degrades up to 70% more atmospheric NOx than standard titania nanoparticles in tests on real pollutants.

8h

Diamonds in your devices: Powering the next generation of energy storage

Supercapacitors, which have begun to stand in for conventional batteries, such as Li-ion batteries, can currently store much less energy than is ideal. To remedy this, a group of scientists from Japan propose using conductive nanodiamond as electrode material. The resultant high-performance energy storage device is suited to applications that require rapid charging and discharging to occur multipl

8h

An alloy that retains its memory at high temperatures

Even after the hundredth time the material returns to its original shape when heated.

8h

Towards high quality ZnO quantum dots prospective for biomedical applications

Scientists from Warsaw together with colleagues from Grenoble have moved a step closer to creating stable, high quality colloidal zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) for use in modern technologies and nanomedicine. Using advanced DNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy they have clearly proved the superiority of the developed organometallic approach over the traditional sol-gel procedure both in terms of stab

8h

How does language emerge?

How did the almost 6,000 languages of the world come into being? Researchers have tried to simulate the process of developing a new communication system in an experiment — with surprising results: even preschool children can spontaneously develop communication systems that exhibit core properties of natural language.

8h

AI helps find signs of heart disease on lung cancer screens

Artificial intelligence (AI) provides an automated and accurate tool to measure a common marker of heart disease in patients getting chest CT scans for lung cancer screening, according to a new study.

8h

Focused ultrasound may open door to Alzheimer's treatment

Focused ultrasound is a safe and effective way to target and open areas of the blood-brain barrier, potentially allowing for new treatment approaches to Alzheimer's disease, according to initial results from a new study.

8h

Concussion alters how information is transmitted within the brain

Damage from concussion alters the way information is transmitted between the 2 halves of the brain, according to a new study.

8h

Motorized scooter injuries

More than half of people who received X-rays or CT scans after electric scooter accidents were found to have injuries, most commonly to the upper extremities, according to a new study. Researchers said the findings underscore the need for more public education on the use of these scooters.

8h

All pilsner yeast strains originate from a single yeast ancestor

Pilsner yeast, the well-known microorganism that brewers use every year to make hundreds of billions of liters of pilsner and other lagers, came into being 500 years ago through an accidental encounter between two species of yeast. The yeast strains now used to brew pilsner can all be traced back to that time. This is the conclusion reached by TU Delft researchers based on extensive DNA analysis.

8h

Raising plants to withstand climate change

Success with improving a model plant's response to harsh conditions is leading plant molecular researchers to move to food crops including wheat, barley, rice and chickpeas.

8h

Earth has a couple more chances to avoid catastrophic climate change. This week is one of them

Almost 200 world leaders gather in Madrid this week for climate talks which will largely determine the success of the Paris agreement, and by extension, the extent to which the planet will suffer under climate change.

8h

Micro implants could restore standing and walking

Researchers are focused on restoring lower-body function after severe spinal injuries using a tiny spinal implant. In new research, the team showcases a map to identify which parts of the spinal cord trigger the hip, knees, ankles and toes, and the areas that put movements together.

9h

Social media could be a force for good in tackling depression but for privacy concerns

Social media has been identified by a number of studies as being a significant factor in mental health problems, especially in young people. But imagine if the power of Twitter, Facebook and Instagram could also be harnessed to identify those with depression symptoms and signpost them to support services.

9h

Researchers map the formation of ducts connecting digestive organs in zebrafish

A specialized system of ducts transports bile and enzymes from the liver and pancreas to the intestine. In a new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have shown how this ductal system is formed. The new knowledge can help understanding how congenital diseases in that part of the body arise.

9h

How to improve water quality in Europe

Toxic substances from agriculture, industry and households endanger water quality in Europe — and by extension, ecosystems and human health. As part of the SOLUTIONS project, over 100 international scientists have developed methods and practical solutions for identifying pollutants and assessing the risks posed by chemical cocktails. This is intended to help reduce pollution in water resources. R

9h

Two chiral catalysts working hand in hand

The stereoisomers of a molecule can cause different effects in a biological system, which is important for the development of drugs. Chemists at Münster University (Germany) have developed a synthetic method that can produce different stereoisomers from identical starting materials. The study appeared in 'Nature Catalysis'.

9h

AI improves chest X-ray interpretation

A sophisticated type of artificial intelligence (AI) can detect clinically meaningful chest X-ray findings as effectively as experienced radiologists, according to a new study. Researchers said their findings, based on a type of AI called deep learning, could provide a valuable resource for the future development of AI chest radiography models.

9h

Fake news feels less immoral to share when we've seen it before

People who repeatedly encounter a fake news item may feel less and less unethical about sharing it on social media, even when they don't believe the information, research indicates.

9h

Micro implants could restore standing and walking

Researchers are focused on restoring lower-body function after severe spinal injuries using a tiny spinal implant. In new research, the team showcases a map to identify which parts of the spinal cord trigger the hip, knees, ankles and toes, and the areas that put movements together.

9h

Bending an organic semiconductor can boost electrical flow

Slightly bending semiconductors made of organic materials can roughly double the speed of electricity flowing through them and could benefit next-generation electronics such as sensors and solar cells, according to new research.

9h

Female fish can breed a new species if they aren't choosy about who is Mr. Right

. Fish will mate with a species outside their own if the male's coloring is attractive enough or if the female can't see him properly, according to new research. Such 'mistakes' in mate choice can lead to the evolution of new species, an international team of scientists found after they analyzed the DNA of more than 400 cichlid fish.

9h

Study calls for improved sanitation and the environmental management of pharmaceuticals

Failure to ensure the environmental sustainability of growing patient access to medicines in developing economies could increase the risk of adverse environmental impacts, according to new research.

9h

A common cold virus may sneak in to infect placenta

A common cold virus can infect cells derived from human placentas, according to a new study. The finding suggests it's possible for an expectant mother to pass the infection to her fetus. "This is the first evidence that a common cold virus can infect the human placenta," says Giovanni Piedimonte, professor of pediatrics, vice president of research at Tulane University, and lead author of the pap

9h

The injustice that education does to the environment: A story from a survivor

I am a survivor of the Bhopal gas tragedy, which is considered to be the world's worst industrial disaster. By writing this piece, I will do what most residents of the city of Bhopal dislike doing, which is to relive the tragedy. But even though many years have passed, I must write about it because I have an important story to tell, and because we can learn from it when dealing with today's enviro

9h

Non-native species should count in conservation – even in Australia

As the world struggles to keep tabs on biodiversity decline, conservation largely relies on a single international database to track life on Earth. It is a mammoth and impressive undertaking—but a glaring omission from the list may be frustrating conservation efforts.

9h

Non-native species should count in conservation – even in Australia

As the world struggles to keep tabs on biodiversity decline, conservation largely relies on a single international database to track life on Earth. It is a mammoth and impressive undertaking—but a glaring omission from the list may be frustrating conservation efforts.

9h

Development of a new low-cost gallium nitride (GaN) crystal manufacturing device

JST announces the successful development of a high-quality bulk GaN growth device based on the THVPE method, a development topic of the Newly extended Technology transfer Program (NexTEP). Development towards commercial applicability was carried out by the Innovation and R&D Division of Taiyo Nippon Sanso from August 2013 to March 2019, based on the research of Professor Akinori Koukitsu of the To

9h

Researchers find that 'native advertising' builds credibility, not perceived as 'tricking' visitors

The concept of native advertising has been in existence for as long as advertisements were designed to resemble the editorial content in newspapers and magazines. As the internet emerged and became a powerful force, native advertising evolved, which has led some in recent times to be concerned that native advertising, which mimics non-advertising content, could serve to deceive web site visitors.

9h

Findings affirm imaging technique's ability to discern healthy tissue after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

In an article published in the peer-reviewed SPIE publication Journal of Biomedical Optics (JBO), titled "Influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on diffuse reflectance spectra of tissue in breast surgery specimens," research observed across 92 ex vivo breast specimens suggests that there is little to no impact on the optical signatures of breast tissue after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

9h

The dangers of deregulation

From unsafe Boeing 737 Max jets to exploding chemical plants in Houston, we are seeing some visible and dramatic impacts of decades of deregulation. This trend did not start under President Donald Trump but has picked up momentum and increased legitimacy since his inauguration. Regulation is simply another word for policing. Cops inspect behavior for illegality and when they find it, turn it over

9h

Modeling the evolutionary development of C4 photosynthesis

The C4 cycle supercharges photosynthesis and evolved independently more than 62 times. Using constraint-based modeling, researchers successfully investigated which factors contributed to the evolution of the C4 trait. The study was a joint project of the Bielefeld University and the IPK in Gatersleben. Findings were published in eLife.

9h

Most complete commercial sugarcane genome sequence assembled

An international group of researchers led by Brazilian scientists has assembled the most complete genome sequence of commercial sugarcane. They mapped 373,869 genes or 99.1 percent of the total genome.

9h

Modeling the evolutionary development of C4 photosynthesis

The C4 cycle supercharges photosynthesis and evolved independently more than 62 times. Using constraint-based modeling, researchers successfully investigated which factors contributed to the evolution of the C4 trait. The study was a joint project of the Bielefeld University and the IPK in Gatersleben. Findings were published in eLife.

9h

Most complete commercial sugarcane genome sequence assembled

An international group of researchers led by Brazilian scientists has assembled the most complete genome sequence of commercial sugarcane. They mapped 373,869 genes or 99.1 percent of the total genome.

9h

Space laser sees Earth's biggest animal migration

Some of the world's smallest animals carry out the world's largest animal migration. Every night, Zooplankton—microscopic animals that reside in the depths of the ocean—swim to the surface in hordes to feed and in the morning they descend back to their homes. "It's the greatest migration on Earth," says oceanographer David Siegel of the University of California, Santa Barbara. "It happens every d

9h

Why Are These Foxes Tame? Maybe They Weren't So Wild to Begin With

In a famous experiment, scientists bred Russian foxes without a fear of people. But the foxes' ancestry raises new questions about when they became tame and what counts as domestication.

9h

Future of Conversational AI for Travel and Hospitality Businesses

submitted by /u/Akash_sain [link] [comments]

9h

The impact of molecular rotation on a peculiar isotope effect on water hydrogen bonds

The quantum nature of hydrogen bonds in water manifests itself in peculiar physicochemical isotope effects: While deuteration often elongates and weakens hydrogen bonds of typical hydrogen-bonded systems composed of bulky constituent molecules, it elongates but strengthens hydrogen bonds of water molecular aggregates. The origin of this unique isotope effect of water molecules remains to be elucid

9h

Analyzing seismic patterns to forecast the magnitude of the largest earthquake aftershocks

Earthquakes can have devastating impacts on communities all around the world. They strike without warning, often resulting in large fatalities. Since the aftershocks that follow the initial earthquake often prove to be more catastrophic than the mainshock, being able to accurately predict the intensity of future aftershocks can help to save lives. Associate Professor Jiancang Zhuang and Emeritus P

9h

How micro-doses of nature help our health and climate

Cities around the world are facing major challenges. Industrialised nations are experiencing epidemics of chronic diseases like diabetes, cardio-vascular disease and dementia, and it would be all too easy to give up hope of finding solutions.

9h

Young and old are split on America's greatest issues

A new poll shows that Democrats and Republicans do not see eye to eye on the US economy or the state of its government—nor do young adults and seniors. According to the results , which come from 1,000 responses to a 24-question survey conducted online on October 10 and 11, 77% of self-identified Republicans in the US believe the economy is getting better, while just 14% of Democrats believe the s

9h

How a New Smart Skin Patch Uses Vibrations to Track Your Health

Wearables are so common these days we rarely give them second thought. Yet packed into FitBits and Apple Watches are multiple tiny, sensitive sensors that monitor your steps, heart rate, sleep and—with your input—even menstrual cycles. Smart watches that " watch you " are accurate enough that Apple, for example, is teaming up with Stanford University in a massive clinical trial to see if data col

9h

Om alla människor bara försvann…

Med tanke på klimatkrisen finns nog en eller annan som tänkt tanken, att det varit bäst om alla människor bara försvann från jordens yta. Platser övergivna i all hast ger en fingervisning om hur en sådan framtid skulle se ut. Zombiefilmer och apokalypsrullar i all ära, men den bild av ett postapokalyptiskt samhälle som forskare målar upp, liknar inget som Hollywood producerat hittills. Faktum är

9h

Finnish rivers transport carbon to the Baltic Sea at an increasing rate

The amount of carbon transported via Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea has risen substantially in the past few decades. This was found in a collaborative study by the University of Helsinki, Aarhus University and the Finnish Environment Institute. The researchers don't know the exact effects yet.

9h

A Freiburg research team deciphers how stem cells decide their identity

Several hundred different cell types of the adult human body are formed during embryonic development, starting from just a few identical stem cells. The differentiation potential of the cells is progressively restricted in the course of this process, causing changes in their morphology and functions.

9h

Imaging technique gives catalytic 2D material engineering a better view

A scanning electrochemical cell imaging technique shows how nanoscale structural features affect the catalytic activity of MoS2 monolayers for hydrogen evolution reactions, report researchers at Kanazawa University in Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

9h

How does language emerge?

How did the almost 6000 languages of the world come into being? Researchers from the Leipzig Research Centre for Early Childhood Development at Leipzig University and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology have tried to simulate the process of developing a new communication system in an experiment – with surprising results: even preschool children can spontaneously develop communic

9h

New approach to treating cystic fibrosis could lower risk of lung transplants and death

A new approach to treating people with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been shown to reduce inflammation, which has the potential to reduce the need for lung transplants and lower the risk of death.

9h

Compound eyes: The visual apparatus of today's horseshoe crabs goes back 400 million years

The extinct sea scorpion species Jaekelopterus rhenaniae had eyes comparable to those of today's horseshoe crabs. The two-and-a-half-meter predator was particularly apt at perceiving contrasts and contours under water.

9h

Laws help reduce pollution and do not affect competitiveness, study finds

Researchers from the University of Granada, in collaboration with the universities of Berkeley and Minnesota, have conducted a review of the most important international scholarship on environmental regulation and firmsThe researchers propose that international initiatives, such as the World Climate Summit in Madrid, should provide the basis for more effective future regulationsTheir findings have

9h

Astronomers discover the heaviest black hole in the nearby universe—40 billion solar masses

In space, black holes appear in different sizes and masses. The record is now held by a specimen in the Abell 85 cluster of galaxies, where an ultra-massive black hole with 40 billion times the mass of our sun sits in the middle of the central galaxy Holm 15A. Astronomers at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and the University Observatory Munich discovered this by evaluating ph

9h

NASA develops second-generation search and rescue beacon technology

NASA's Search and Rescue (SAR) office, technology development lead for the international Cospas-Sarsat program, has developed second-generation emergency beacons that offer users improved accuracy and quicker response times. Artemis astronauts returning from the Moon will be the first users of these beacons, which will be commercially available to the general public in the coming years.

9h

Bird evolution unique in seeing shrinking testes

Birds are the only group of vertebrate animals to have repeatedly evolved smaller testes over time according to a new study.

9h

On the road to zero emissions: Nature, climate and a carbon price

This week, the world's governments and leading climate change experts will convene in Madrid for the next round of negotiations on the future of the global response to climate change.

9h

Soil study shows Australia at its most stripped back

New research from The Australian National University (ANU) and Geoscience Australia could provide a much clearer picture of the Australian landscape, and how to better manage it under a changing climate.

9h

Bird evolution unique in seeing shrinking testes

Birds are the only group of vertebrate animals to have repeatedly evolved smaller testes over time according to a new study.

9h

Which Enantiomer, Anyway?

Assigning enantiomers (mirror-image isomers of a compound, for the non-organic-chemists in the crowd) can be a pain. By definition, no non-chiral technique can tell the difference between such things, and many of the chiral techniques will just tell you that they're different, but not which one is which. Take, for example, chiral chromatography, in its various forms. You can often get a very nice

9h

One in two homeless people may have experienced a head injury in their lifetime

People who are homeless experience a disproportionately high lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), according to a new study.

9h

Migraine headaches? Consider aspirin for treatment and prevention

Evidence from 13 randomized trials of the treatment of migraine in 4,222 patients and tens of thousands of patients in prevention of recurrent attacks supports the use of high dose aspirin from 900 to 1,300 milligrams to treat acute migraine as well as low dose daily aspirin from 81 to 325 milligrams to prevent recurrent attacks. Aspirin is available without a prescription, is inexpensive, and has

9h

Water management grows farm profits

A healthy lifestyle consists of a mixture of habits. Diet, exercise, sleep and other factors all must be in balance. Similarly, a sustainable farm operates on a balanced plan of soil, crop, and water management techniques.

9h

'Going negative': how Trump has changed the Twitter narrative

If not for Twitter, U.S. President Donald Trump would not be in the White House today. True/false? That's for others to judge but it's probably true, say two Australian linguists who have released a paper analysing Trump's use of Twitter prior to and six months after his election in 2016.

9h

Can one earthquake cause a cascade of more?

Europe isn't a region well known for intense seismic activity, but large earthquakes do happen. In 1953, a devastating 6.8 magnitude quake struck the Greek Ionian Islands. Though these large events tend to be the exception rather than the rule, a flurry of significant earthquakes struck the Balkans on November 27 2019, with epicenters in Bosnia, Albania and Crete. Geologists are worried that these

9h

Mars: We may have solved the mystery of how its landslides form

Some landslides on Mars seem to defy an important law of physics. "Long, runout landslides" are formed by huge volumes of rock and soil moving downslope, largely due to the force of gravity. But their power is hard to account for. With volumes exceeding that of the Empire State Building, they move at high speeds of up to 360 kilometers per hour over flat surfaces for up to tens of kilometers.

9h

Finanslov: Professor roser forundersøgelser til energi-øer

PLUS. Kommende "energiøer" i Nordsøen og ved Bornholm kan understøtte produktionen af grønne flydende brændsler. Det er professor Henrik Wenzel glad for, men han advarer også om, at vi kan miste vigtige synergifordele, hvis vi vælger de forkerte tekniske løsninger.

9h

Atlas of inequality challenges assumptions of rich and poor areas

The newly published Atlas of Inequality, which aims to challenge misconceptions about rich and poor areas, has been launched today (Friday 29 November 2019).

9h

Professor: Finanslov giver løft til sundhedsvæsenet

Sundhedsvæsenet kan være godt tilfreds med den nye finanslov, mener professor i sundhedsøkonomi. Specielt kan psykiatrien se frem til et løft på 600 mio. kr.

9h

Aktører tilfredse med tiltrængt sundhedsløft

Forskellige aktører roser finansloven for 2020, fordi den giver sundhedsvæsenet et tiltrængt løft. KL undrer sig dog over, at der ikke er afsat midler til den kommunale socialpsykiatri.

9h

Det står der om sundhed i finansloven 2020

Få det store overblik over sundheden i den nye finanslov her.

9h

Bending an organic semiconductor can boost electrical flow

Slightly bending semiconductors made of organic materials can roughly double the speed of electricity flowing through them and could benefit next-generation electronics such as sensors and solar cells, according to Rutgers-led research. The study is published in the journal Advanced Science.

9h

Fake news feels less immoral to share when we've seen it before

People who repeatedly encounter a fake news item may feel less and less unethical about sharing it on social media, even when they don't believe the information, research indicates.

9h

New remote-controlled 'smart' platform helps in cardiovascular disease treatment

A joint research group led by Dr. DU Xuemin at the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently demonstrated a remote-controlled 'smart' platform that effectively directs programmed vascular endothelium remodeling in a temporally controllable manner.

9h

Micro implants could restore standing and walking

Researchers at the University of Alberta are focused on restoring lower-body function after severe spinal injuries using a tiny spinal implant. In new research, the team showcases a map to identify which parts of the spinal cord trigger the hip, knees, ankles and toes, and the areas that put movements together.

9h

'Going negative': How Trump has changed the Twitter narrative

If not for Twitter, US President Donald Trump would not be in the White House today. True/false? That's for others to judge but it's probably true, say two Australian linguists who have released a paper analysing Trump's use of Twitter prior to and six months after his election in 2016.

9h

One in two homeless people may have experienced a head injury in their lifetime

People who are homeless experience a disproportionately high lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), according to a new UBC-led study published today in The Lancet Public Health.

9h

Machine learning that works like a dream

University of Tsukuba researchers developed a machine learning algorithm that classifies the sleep stages of mice with record accuracy. This work may be used to greatly enhance the field of sleep research.

9h

Citizen scientists deserve more credit, researchers argue

In a paper published in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution, a team led by biologist Dr Georgia Ward-Fear from Macquarie University in Australia and Dr Greg Pauly from the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles argues that newfound respect for indigenous knowledge and changes in technology mean that non-professionals are taking greater roles in science work.

9h

IKEA Designed the Interior of a Mars Habitat

ÅSTRO IKEA interior designer Christina Levenborn just helped researchers outfit the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), a habitat in the Utah desert that acts as an analogue for the Martian surface, Fast Company reports . IKEA designers have been trying to come up with new methods to make the cramped space feel like a home while maximizing utility. The vision is surprisingly similar to what you'

9h

Carpentry Compiler helps woodworkers design objects that they can actually make

Researchers have created Carpentry Compiler, a digital tool that allows users to design woodworking projects. Once a project is designed, the tool creates optimized fabrication instructions based on the materials and equipment a user has available.

9h

Click, click, cook: Online grocery shopping leaves 'food deserts' behind

An analysis found that most people in 'food deserts' in 8 states would increase their access to healthy, nutritious food if they purchase groceries online and had the food delivered as part of the federal government's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).

9h

3 ways to encourage people with disabilities to be involved in leading disaster responses

The United Nations recommends governments ensure no one gets left behind before, during and after a disaster. This includes people with disabilities.

9h

Australia's threatened birds declined by 59% over the past 30 years

Australia's threatened birds declined by nearly 60% on average over 30 years, according to new research that reveals the true impact on native wildlife of habitat loss, introduced pests, and other human-caused pressures.

9h

The bizarre and ecologically important hidden lives of mosquitoes

Mosquitoes. Hordes of them, buzzing in your ear and biting incessantly, a maddening nuisance without equal. And not to mention the devastating health impacts caused by malaria, Zika virus and other pathogens they spread.

9h

Australia's threatened birds declined by 59% over the past 30 years

Australia's threatened birds declined by nearly 60% on average over 30 years, according to new research that reveals the true impact on native wildlife of habitat loss, introduced pests, and other human-caused pressures.

9h

The bizarre and ecologically important hidden lives of mosquitoes

Mosquitoes. Hordes of them, buzzing in your ear and biting incessantly, a maddening nuisance without equal. And not to mention the devastating health impacts caused by malaria, Zika virus and other pathogens they spread.

9h

If our plan fails, can we improvise?

There is an old Yiddish proverb that says "Man plans and God laughs". Most—if not all—of us have experienced the truth of this proverb, and faced the failure of our plans. No matter how good you are planning, fluid, changing and unpredictable business environments will prevent your plans being fully implemented. So the question is whether we should continue planning, knowing that circumstances wil

9h

How did the plague reshape Bronze Age Europe?

Europe changed dramatically during the Bronze Age, with huge population shifts generally ascribed to the rise of new metal technologies, trading and climate change. But scientists believe that there may have been another reason for this social upheaval—the plague, possibly transported by, or on the back of, newly domesticated horses.

9h

Climate researcher: Acting now on climate change is our best shot at tolerable future

What will the planet look like if climate change continues unabated? Experts have weighed in on consequences that include more destructive storms, flooded coastal cities, vulnerable animal species extinction, and severe drought. Jonathan Lamontagne, an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at Tufts, warns that considering only a few climate scenarios may miss important risks a

9h

Whaling and climate change led to 100 years of feast or famine for Antarctic penguins

New research reveals how penguins have dealt with more than a century of human impacts in Antarctica and why some species are winners or losers in this rapidly changing ecosystem.

10h

Raising plants to withstand climate change

Success with improving a model plant's response to harsh conditions is leading plant molecular researchers to move to food crops including wheat, barley, rice and chickpeas. Flinders University and La Trobe researchers in Australia are focusing on genes that encode antioxidant enzymes to minimise harmful oxidative responses in leaf cells to environmental stress. Experiments showed the plant with e

10h

Migraine headaches? Consider aspirin for treatment and prevention

Evidence from 13 randomized trials of the treatment of migraine in 4,222 patients and tens of thousands of patients in prevention of recurrent attacks supports the use of high dose aspirin from 900 to 1,300 milligrams to treat acute migraine as well as low dose daily aspirin from 81 to 325 milligrams to prevent recurrent attacks. Aspirin is available without a prescription, is inexpensive, and has

10h

Project to enhance shrimp and fish health in Bangladesh

Experts at the University of Stirling are working with senior industry, government and scientific officials from Bangladesh in a bid to tackle a major issue in the aquaculture sector.

10h

Rezone marine parks to better conserve sharks

A lack of habitat protection is hindering our ability to manage the conservation of endangered open-ocean sharks in Australian waters, according to new research by The University of Western Australia.

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Fungus produces active agent in a medicinal herb

Tatarinow's aster is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a number of ailments; the plant contains an active ingredient known as astin—and it is this agent which cancer researchers are now investigating. However, the plant does not produce the astins itself, as was assumed for a long time; instead, they are made by a fungus that lives in the tissue of the flowers. The discovery was made b

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Project to enhance shrimp and fish health in Bangladesh

Experts at the University of Stirling are working with senior industry, government and scientific officials from Bangladesh in a bid to tackle a major issue in the aquaculture sector.

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Rezone marine parks to better conserve sharks

A lack of habitat protection is hindering our ability to manage the conservation of endangered open-ocean sharks in Australian waters, according to new research by The University of Western Australia.

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Fungus produces active agent in a medicinal herb

Tatarinow's aster is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a number of ailments; the plant contains an active ingredient known as astin—and it is this agent which cancer researchers are now investigating. However, the plant does not produce the astins itself, as was assumed for a long time; instead, they are made by a fungus that lives in the tissue of the flowers. The discovery was made b

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Citizen scientists deserve more credit, researchers argue

Academic journal rules are penalising citizen scientists and indigenous knowledge, say US and Australian scientists.

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Researchers look at factors outside the family that cause child neglect

A recent paper by two UConn researchers and their colleagues highlights the importance of examining factors outside the family that contribute to child neglect. This research strategy could help policymakers and social agencies design programs to reduce child maltreatment—specifically, neglect.

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Amazon følger efter Microsoft og tilbyder kvantecomputing som sky-service

Nu kan kunderne købe kvanteberegninger fra en række leverandører.

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From the archive

Nature, Published online: 03 December 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03703-0 How Nature reported the evolution of the dragon in 1919, and plants that move spasmodically in 1869.

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NASA images reveal crashed Indian Moon lander

Nature, Published online: 03 December 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03741-8 Eagle-eyed engineer spied debris from the spacecraft in a photo of the landing site.

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It's Time to Shift Tactics on Alzheimer's Disease

After a string of drug failures, researchers are looking beyond amyloid as a target — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Gamma-ray binary HESS J0632+057 contains a pulsar, study suggests

Using NuSTAR spacecraft and the VERITAS array of telescopes, an international team of astronomers has investigated a gamma-ray binary known as HESS J0632+057. The study found that a compact object in this system is most likely a pulsar—a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star emitting beams of electromagnetic radiation. The finding is reported in a paper published November 21 on arXiv.

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15 Passive-Aggressive Gift Ideas for Your Terrible Roommate

If you're obligated to give a gift, you might as well send a thinly-veiled message along with it.

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Click, click, cook: Online grocery shopping leaves 'food deserts' behind

A Yale University analysis found that most people in 'food deserts' in 8 states would increase their access to healthy, nutritious food if they purchase groceries online and had the food delivered as part of the federal government's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).

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Genomic gymnastics help sorghum plant survive drought

A new study provides the first detailed look at how the sorghum plant exercises exquisite control over its genome — switching some genes on and some genes off at the first sign of water scarcity, and again when water returns — to survive when its surroundings turn harsh and arid.

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Amazon Is Now Letting Anyone Run Programs on Its Quantum Computer

Quantum Cloud Amazon just announced Braket, a new cloud computing service that gives developers and researchers a way to tinker with quantum circuits. According to an Amazon news release , users will be able to build out their own quantum circuits and applications and test them on Amazon's machine. Amazon didn't actually build a quantum computer — instead, it partnered with other organizations th

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The Betrayal of Volodymyr Zelensky

Last May, in the weeks leading up to his presidential inauguration, Volodymyr Zelensky learned that a man named Rudy Giuliani wanted to meet with him. The name was only distantly familiar. But the former mayor of New York City was the personal attorney of the president of the United States, and he apparently wanted to make the case that certain investigations deserved the full attention of the ne

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It's Time to Shift Tactics on Alzheimer's Disease

After a string of drug failures, researchers are looking beyond amyloid as a target — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Harbor porpoise calves exposed to neurotoxic PCBs in mothers' milk

Harbour porpoise calves around the UK are carrying a more neurotoxic cocktail of PCBs than their mothers, as females unknowingly detoxify themselves by transferring the chemicals while feeding their young, new research reveals today.

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Drone images show Greenland ice sheet becoming more unstable as it fractures

The world's second-largest ice sheet, and the single largest contributor to global sea-level rise, is potentially becoming unstable because of fractures developing in response to faster ice flow and more meltwater forming on its surface.

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Reflecting on photos helps young cancer survivors regain confidence

Young cancer survivors face unique medical and psychosocial challenges that can hinder their ability to move on mentally and socially, even years after their final treatment. Lingering feelings of isolation and loss can contribute to a lack of confidence and self-efficacy, or the sense that they will be able to handle whatever arises in the future. But new research suggests survivors who retell th

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Tiny woodlands are more important than previously thought

Small woodlands in farmland have more benefits for humans per area, compared to large forests according to a new study. The small woodlands, sometimes even smaller than a football field, can easily go unnoticed in agricultural landscapes. Yet, these small forest remnants can store more carbon in the topsoil layer, are more suitable for hunting activities and host fewer ticks than large forests.

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A trick for taming terahertz transmissions

Researchers have invented a wireless communication receiver that can operate in the terahertz frequency band. By increasing the sensitivity 10,000-fold, they achieved the fastest Researchers invent a new receiver for terahertz-frequency radiation — by implementing coherent detection, they achieve record transmission rates — this work may lead to much faster wireless data speeds using less power.

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When reefs die, parrotfish thrive

In contrast to most other species, reef-dwelling parrotfish populations boom in the wake of severe coral bleaching. The surprise finding came when researchers looked at fish populations in severely bleached areas of two reefs — the Great Barrier Reef in the western Pacific and the Chagos Archipelago in the Indian Ocean.

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Hunting elephants is really bad for termites

When hunting in African rainforests reduces populations of elephants and other large herbivores, the abundance of termites drops, a new study shows. The extent to which declines of large mammals like elephants, buffaloes, and gorillas in hunted areas of an African forest were linked to changes in the population of the tiny-but-important insects surprised researchers. The study, published in Biolo

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Hällmålningar ger svar om tidigt resande

Arkeologen Bettina Schultz Pålsson forskar vid Göteborgs universitet i ett utbyte från Tyskland med Marie Curie-stipendium. Hon arbetade med en jämförande studie om så kallad megalitisk konst, konst som skapats med stora stenar, i Europa. Undersökningarna av hällmålningarna på Tumlehed på Hisingen i Göteborg, var tänkt att testa nya metoder för att lyfta fram bleknade motiv från hällmålningar. – D

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Rian Johnson Turned the Whodunit on Its Head

Any fears one might have about the impending demise of cinema can be assuaged by a meeting with the director Rian Johnson. For one, there's his passion and clarity in speaking about his new film, Knives Out. The murder mystery, starring Daniel Craig, debuted in theaters over Thanksgiving weekend, making a healthy $41.7 million in its first five days. And then there was the way Johnson's eyes lit

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What's driving erosion worldwide?

ETH Zurich researchers are reexamining the causes of soil erosion around the world—and have found that countries themselves have a surprisingly strong influence on their soil. This country effect was previously undetected.

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Danske elever er blevet ringere til naturfag

Den internationale PISA-undersøgelser registrerer det laveste niveau nogensinde for danske elevers færdigheder inden for naturfag.

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Rapid test to diagnose asthma

Asthma is one of the most common respiratory diseases worldwide, affecting more than 235 million patients. It is often more difficult to diagnose in children than in adults. An early diagnosis is especially important for children as to prevent severe attacks of the disease. A team of researchers at the Fraunhofer Research Institution for Marine Biotechnology and Cell Technology EMB has joined forc

11h

An ecofriendly method for curbing crop pests

Moths and other winged insects, and particularly their larva, can become a problem for farmers, often causing major damage to crops. Pesticides help alleviate the problem, but they have also been strongly criticized. Pheromones offer a sustainable alternative, albeit an expensive one. A new manufacturing technique is designed to reduce the costs of pheromones and make them competitive. In the EU p

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Food fights: How history shapes what we eat–and why

Everybody eats. But what people eat, and what drives our decisions about food, vary tremendously.

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Flerspråkig matematikklass ökar förståelsen för matte

Att kunna prata om matematik på flera olika språk stärker förståelsen för matte. Det visar Ulrika Ryan i en avhandling vid Malmö universitet. Hon har också sett hur hjälpsamhet och konkurrensförhållanden uppstår när eleverna möts i skolmatematiken. Allt fler elever talar flera språk och har inte ett specifikt modersmål. Vad händer i ett matematikklassrum när svenska, tvåspråkiga och flerspråkiga

11h

Små skogar viktigare än vi trott

De små skogarna, ibland mindre än en fotbollsplan, kan lätt gå obemärkt förbi i jordbrukslandskapet. Ändå kan dessa små skogsrester lagra mer kol i marken, passa bättre för jakt och innehåller färre fästingar än stora. Små skogar i jordbruksmark har fler fördelar för människor per ytenhet jämfört med stora skogar, enligt en ny studie. – Värdet av dessa små skogar har tidigare inte undersökts, tro

11h

An ecofriendly method for curbing crop pests

Moths and other winged insects, and particularly their larva, can become a problem for farmers, often causing major damage to crops. Pesticides help alleviate the problem, but they have also been strongly criticized. Pheromones offer a sustainable alternative, albeit an expensive one. A new manufacturing technique is designed to reduce the costs of pheromones and make them competitive. In the EU p

11h

Time to stop commercial distortion of healthcare evidence and practice, experts urge

It's time to stop the endemic financial entanglement with industry that is distorting the production and use of healthcare evidence, causing harm to individuals and waste for health systems, argue an influential group of international experts in The BMJ today.

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Computer-generated antibiotics, biosensor Band-Aids, and the quest to beat antibiotic resistance

Imagine if a computer could learn from molecules found in nature and use an algorithm to generate new ones. Then imagine those molecules could get printed and tested in a lab against some of the nastiest, most dangerous bacteria out there—bacteria quickly becoming resistant to our current antibiotic options.

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Pregnant women have a higher risk of delivering early on unseasonably hot days

About a quarter of children in the United States are born two to three weeks before their due date, which qualifies them as "early term." Pregnancies typically last 40 weeks, so you might think that being born two to three weeks early wouldn't matter. But, children born just two or three weeks early are at slightly higher risks of respiratory problems, like asthma, later in childhood. About one in

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Image: Exoplanet satellite encapsulated

At Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, ESA's Characterising Exoplanet Satellite, Cheops, is being encapsulated into the flight adapter of the Soyuz-Fregat rocket that will lift it into space on 17 December.

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Scientists analyze handwriting with lasers to evaluate mental states

Scientists at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) along with international colleagues have studied the biomechanics of hand movements when writing and drawing and developed a unique method to evaluate the individual properties of writing speed and pencil pressure. The research results were published in the journal Laser Physics Letters.

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Computer-generated antibiotics, biosensor Band-Aids, and the quest to beat antibiotic resistance

Imagine if a computer could learn from molecules found in nature and use an algorithm to generate new ones. Then imagine those molecules could get printed and tested in a lab against some of the nastiest, most dangerous bacteria out there—bacteria quickly becoming resistant to our current antibiotic options.

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Illuminating the path for super-resolution imaging with improved rhodamine dyes

In recent years, there has been a rapid evolution of advanced fluorescence imaging techniques such as single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) that allows for unprecedented resolution beyond the Abbe diffraction limit of the optical microscope.

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The direct observation of van der Waals stacking-dependent interlayer magnetism

Materials scientists aim to control the crystal structure of a solid—in a powerful approach to manipulate their fundamental properties. Researchers can achieve this control in van der Waals (vDW) materials by modifying the stacking order through rotation and translation between the vDW layers. In a recent study published in Science, Weijong Chen and a research team in the interdisciplinary departm

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US national parks face 'crisis' over invasive animals

More than half of US national parks are threatened by invasive animals, like pythons and feral pigs.

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Americans Are Fast to Judge Social Class

Judgments about the way people talk happen quickly and affect hiring decisions — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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It's Now Easy to Shift Facebook Pics to Google (in Europe Anyway)

You can thank the GRPR for the data-moving tool—and pictures are just the beginning.

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Elon Musk to Testify as Diver's Slander Trial Gets Under Way

A trial beginning in Los Angeles is the latest chapter in a saga that began with Musk's plan to use a mini-sub to rescue a trapped soccer team.

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Image of the Day: Penguin Populations

Chinstrap penguins are decreasing in numbers due to a lack of krill, their only food source.

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Americans Are Fast to Judge Social Class

Judgments about the way people talk happen quickly and affect hiring decisions — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Using pathogen-specific viruses to control pathogen outbreaks

Researchers from the Utrecht University, in collaboration with colleagues at the University of York (UK) and the Nanjing Agricultural University (China) have developed a new technology to selectively destroy the pathogen that causes the devastating bacterial wilt disease without side effects on other beneficial microorganisms.

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Using pathogen-specific viruses to control pathogen outbreaks

Researchers from the Utrecht University, in collaboration with colleagues at the University of York (UK) and the Nanjing Agricultural University (China) have developed a new technology to selectively destroy the pathogen that causes the devastating bacterial wilt disease without side effects on other beneficial microorganisms.

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Astronomers propose a novel method of finding atmospheres on rocky worlds

When NASA's James Webb Space Telescope launches in 2021, one of its most anticipated contributions to astronomy will be the study of exoplanets—planets orbiting distant stars. Among the most pressing questions in exoplanet science is: Can a small, rocky exoplanet orbiting close to a red dwarf star hold onto an atmosphere?

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Scientists invent method to create olefins

Olefins are one of those molecule types that most people don't recognize, but which appear everywhere: in bottles, in medicines, in wetsuits and in tires. Now, University of Chicago chemists have discovered an efficient method to make a kind of olefin with four different attachments—used in everything from medicines to new ways to store data.

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Snails have 14,000 teeth – does any animal have more?

The long-running series in which readers answer other readers' questions on subjects ranging from trivial flights of fancy to profound scientific and philosophical concepts The average garden snail has around 14,000 teeth! Is there any animal with more? Who counts them? Ann Williams, Colne, Lancs Continue reading…

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Why don't the speedy Voyager space probes bump into anything?

The long-running series in which readers answer other readers' questions on subjects ranging from trivial flights of fancy to profound scientific and philosophical concepts How is it possible that the Voyager space probes , travelling at 15.4km a second or even faster, manage not to crash into anything on their journeys? Presumably even hitting the slightest space debris at that speed would oblit

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Hiring antibodies as nanotechnology builders

What if we could use antibodies as functional tools for nanotechnology applications? A group of researchers at the University of Rome Tor Vergata started from this simple question, and the results of their research are now published in Nature Communications.

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Anyone esle loves the idea of Terra forming mars

submitted by /u/spacesick8 [link] [comments]

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The 11 most noteworthy health innovations of 2019

The year's most important developments in the world of health. (Ted + Chelsea/) All 100 innovations for Best of What's New 2019, this way. Doctors and researchers spend hours attempting to understand, troubleshoot, and treat maladies. Some diseases are harder to dissect and design medications for, while others are ignored for years. This year's newly approved drugs, treatments, and health gadgets

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2019's most innovative gadgets

The year's most important developments in the world of gadgets. (Ted + Chelsea/) All 100 innovations for Best of What's New 2019, this way. It's easy to get excited about a shiny new device. But this year, some of the most important advances in the gadget world didn't arrive in thoughtfully designed, sustainably sourced packaging. In fact, several of the biggest steps forward enhance the networks

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2019's most impressive automotive innovations

The year's most important developments in the world of automobiles. (Lamborghini/) All 100 innovations for Best of What's New 2019, this way. This year, the biggest automotive advances were all about maximizing efficiency. Whether it's a car that tells other cars about that traffic jam ahead, a diesel engine that combines fuel economy with low emissions, or hybrid and electric vehicles with cleve

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2019's most exciting personal care products

The year's most important developments in the world of personal care. (Ted + Chelsea/) All 100 innovations for Best of What's New 2019, this way. At a time when people are working (and playing) harder than ever before, consumers are hungry for products that make them feel not just good, but better. But the marketing around such spaces—cosmetics, skin- and haircare, fitness, and sexual health, to

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2019's coolest entertainment innovations

The year's most important developments in the world of entertainment. (Ted + Chelsea/) All 100 innovations for Best of What's New 2019, this way. Movies, music, and video games are all about escape—pulling you out of your reality into something, or someplace, extraordinary. This year, technological leaps in everything from game streaming and filmmaking to guitar playing and binge-watching made it

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Polar bear spray-painted with 'T-34' baffles Russia wildlife experts

Footage of a bear inscribed with "T-34" – the name of an iconic Soviet tank – is shared in Russia.

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