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nyheder2019december13

'Robotic Blacksmithing': A Technology That Could Revive US Manufacturing

Although it may not be obvious, there's a close link between manufacturing technology and innovation. Elon Musk often talks of the "machines that build the machines" as being the real enabler in both his space and automotive businesses. Using less-expensive, more scalable processes allows Space X to launch missions on budgets and with speed that would be unthinkable using NASA's old-school manufa

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Energimærkning af software: Udviklere mangler sprog til at tale om energiforbrug

Det er alt for uigennemskueligt hvor meget energi forskellige it-systemer bruger. Nu vil danske forskere udvikle et energimærke til software.

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X marks the spot: NASA selects site for asteroid sample collection

After a year scoping out asteroid Bennu's boulder-scattered surface, the team leading NASA's first asteroid sample return mission has officially selected a sample collection site.

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Calling radio amateurs: Help find OPS-SAT!

Calling all radio amateurs! ESA is challenging anyone with amateur radio equipment to catch the first signals from OPS-SAT, ESA's brand new space software laboratory.

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Research proves effects of company mergers on prices

Assistant Professor Umut Güler of Koç University College of Administrative Sciences and Economics and his colleagues (Kanishka Misra, Rady School of Management, University of California, San Diego and Vishal Singh, Stern School of Business, New York University) proved in their latest paper published in the journal Marketing Science that the welfare effects of company mergers can be different for v

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Researchers estimate the mass of the Milky Way to be 890 billion times that of our sun

An international team of researchers has used sophisticated models to calculate the mass of the Milky Way. They have written a paper describing their efforts and results, and have posted it on the arXiv preprint server.

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Scientists develop a way to increase winter wheat yield by 46-60%

Agricultural chemists from RUDN University have developed a new way to deal with cleavers, a weed that is the main enemy of winter wheat crops. They found a combination of herbicides that, as the experiments have shown, increases the yield of winter wheat by 46-60 percent. The results are published in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science.

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Finding a killer electron hot spot in Earth's Van Allen radiation belts

A collaboration between researchers in Japan, the U.S., and Russia has found a hot spot in Earth's radiation belt where killer electrons, which can cause serious anomalies in satellites, form. The finding, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, could help scientists more accurately forecast when these killer (relativistic) electrons will form.

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Merck and Its Ransomware Problems in Court

Well, this story is not specifically about the drug industry, although anything that shuts Merck down for two weeks, costs them around a billion dollars, and disrupts the US drug supply chain certainly has some relevance to it (!) I'm talking about the 2017 NotPetya ransomware attack. Merck was one of the high-profile corporate victims (along with FedEx and the shipping company Maersk, just for s

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Here's What 2019 Scientific Discovery Taught Us About Our Human Origins

Six studies rocked the anthropological world from a new branch of the human family to a face only an Australopithecus could love

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Scientists develop a way to increase winter wheat yield by 46-60%

Agricultural chemists from RUDN University have developed a new way to deal with cleavers, a weed that is the main enemy of winter wheat crops. They found a combination of herbicides that, as the experiments have shown, increases the yield of winter wheat by 46-60 percent. The results are published in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science.

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Tiny quantum sensors watch materials transform under pressure

Scientists have converted diamonds' atomic flaws into atomic sensors that could lead to a new generation of smart materials.

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Why Bernie Sanders Is No Jeremy Corbyn

Even though the polls always suggested the likelihood of Jeremy Corbyn's defeat in yesterday's British elections, his continued presence as the head of the Labour Party filled me with a great sense of foreboding. The local press excavated from Corbyn's not-so-distant past videos that revealed him to be, at best, indifferent to anti-Semitism: as he vouched for the moral character of an imam who ha

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You did what with my donation? When donors feel betrayed by charities

When people learn that a charitable contribution they earmarked for a specific project was used for another cause, they feel betrayed — and often punish the charity, new research from Washington State University indicates.

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Finding a killer electron hot spot in Earth's Van Allen radiation belts

JAXA and NASA satellite observations show where killer electrons are generated in the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth.

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Neural network for elderly care could save millions

A deep neural network model helps predict healthcare visits by elderly people, with the potential to save millions

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Rectal microbes influence effectiveness of HIV vaccine

Microbes living in the rectum could make a difference to the effectiveness of experimental HIV vaccines, according to researchers at UC Davis.

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Breakthrough in Zika virus vaccine

Researchers from the University of Adelaide have made significant advances in developing a novel vaccine against Zika virus, which could potentially lead to global elimination of the disease.

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A tortoise never forgets: Scientists show tortoises are elephants of the reptile world

Described as "living rocks", giant land tortoises are lumbering beasts with a reputation for being sluggish in both speed and brainpower. But new research carried out by scientists from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) suggests we have greatly underestimated the intelligence of these creatures, who can not only be trained but also have amazing powers of long-term recall.

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Julkalendern − nu även för vuxna

Den första svenska adventskalendern kom 1934 och skulle samla in pengar till flickscoutrörelsen. Idag vänder sig många julkalendrar till vuxna som vill belöna sig med konsumtionsvaror i form av till exempel parfymer eller extra lyxiga bitar av choklad. − När jag var barn på 1970-talet var jag lycklig om jag fick en julkalender med glitter, det var lyx det. Jag minns ett år när jag och mina syskon

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"Prioritera återvinning av kväve"

Vid prioritering av återvinning från avlopp betonas ofta att fosfor är nödvändigt för allt liv och att det snart kommer att ta slut (Peak phosphorus). Det finns skäl att ifrågasätta denna ensidiga betoning på fosfor, enligt en ny studie . Det är i stället kväve som bör ha hösta prioritet, menar SLU-forskaren Håkan Jönsson. Fosfor har länge starkt prioriterats vad gäller återvinning från avlopp oc

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Here's what you need to know about impeachment

On Tuesday, December 10, 2019, House Democrats issued articles of impeachment of President Donald Trump—focusing on abuse of power and obstruction of Congress. A vote in Congress on these articles is expected to follow soon. The matter, if adopted, will then go to the US Senate. Here, David Sklansky , a professor of law at Stanford University, discusses the articles of impeachment and next steps

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Philadelphia soda tax falls flat

If Philadelphia's soda tax is any indication, local soda taxes don't work as well as policymakers intend, a new study suggests. Several US cities have enacted soda taxes to raise revenue and fight obesity. Berkeley, California, was the first, but Philadelphia was the first big city to adopt one in January 2017. The city uses the tax revenue to fund schools and improve parks, recreation centers, a

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Here's what we know about the next Xbox console coming in 2020

Last night, Microsoft announced some official details about the new Xbox that will debut next year. It's called the Xbox One Series X —seriously, that's what it's called—and it's the next step in the computing power war the company is waging with Sony. We don't have all of the details about Series X just yet—we'll gradually learn all about it before it hits the market by holiday of 2020. We do kn

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A long, hard look underground is required to reach net zero, say experts

Advances and investment in geothermal energy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) are "critical" to moving the UK toward its target, according to a new report published in Petroleum Geoscience.

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Congratulations to the Winners of the Best Illusion of the Year Contest!

These mind tricks will make you reconsider what is real — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Canadian tundra formerly covered in rich forest: Ancient plant fossil record shows

Canada's northernmost islands, Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg islands in Nunavut, were home to a vibrant, temperate forest 56 million years ago, according to fossil research.

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Tiny quantum sensors watch materials transform under pressure

Scientists have converted diamonds' atomic flaws into atomic sensors that could lead to a new generation of smart materials.

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Breast cancer cells swallow a 'free lunch' of dietary fat particles from the bloodstream

A research team has previously shown that fatty particles from the bloodstream may boost the growth of breast cancer cells. They now show that through an unexpected mechanism not previously described in cancer cells, the fat particles bind to the breast cancer cell surface and are then taken into the cell, providing a large supply of fuel that drives proliferation of the cancer cells.

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Largest study of its kind reveals that many psychiatric disorders arise from common genes

In the largest-ever study of its kind researchers identified more than 100 genetic variants that affect the risk for more than one mental health condition.

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The limits of ocean heavyweights: Prey curb whales' gigantic size

Scientists collected data from hundreds of feeding whales, allowing them to determine how much energy species of different sizes invest to capture their prey and which of these species reap the greatest rewards for their efforts. Their findings reveal that body size in all whales is limited by the availability of their prey, but only filter-feeding whales have evolved a feeding strategy that drive

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Transformative change can save humans and nature

Human impacts on life on Earth are unprecedented, requiring transformative action to address root economic, social and technological causes.

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Scientists map a planet's global wind patterns for the first time, and it's not Earth

A new article documents the global wind patterns on any planet for the first time. Remote repogramming of the MAVEN spacecraft and its NGIMS instrument enabled the data collection. The results reveal seasonal stability in circulation patterns on Mars, but high short-term volatility in wind direction and speed. The data also allow researchers to infer the topography below based on waves created by

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Unique polymer fibers: Light, strong, and tough

Strong and tough yet as light as a feather – materials with this exceptional combination of properties are urgently needed in many industrial sectors and in medicine, as well as being of great interest for scientific research. A research team has developed polymer fibers with precisely these properties.

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The mathematics of prey detection in spider orb-webs

Spider webs are one of nature's most fascinating manifestations. Many spiders extrude proteinaceous silk to weave sticky webs that ensnare unsuspecting prey who venture into their threads. Despite their elasticity, these webs possess incredible tensile strength. Researchers present a theoretical mechanical model to study the inverse problem of source identification and localize a prey in a spider

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Combining science and design to measure our exposure to light

Daylight plays an essential role in sleep, alertness and hormone regulation. Scientists are now developing a wearable sensor that measures how much light an individual is exposed to along with the spectral resolution of that light.

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Turing pattern explains coffee farm ants, leopard spots

The distributions of Azteca ants follow the same pattern as leopard spots and other patterns in nature, research finds. After two decades of analyzing the rise, spread, and collapse of the ant colonies in a coffee farm in Mexico, researchers now prove that the ant distributions follow the pattern that bears the name of chemist Alan Turing, who first described it in 1952, that is said to explain l

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High-tech method for uniquely targeted gene therapy developed

Neuroscientists at Lund University in Sweden have developed a new technology that engineers the shell of a virus to deliver gene therapy to the exact cell type in the body that needs to be treated. The researchers believe that the new technology can be likened to dramatically accelerating evolution from millions of years to weeks.

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Finding a non-invasive way to predict effectiveness of cancer therapy

Researchers have taken a critical step toward developing a non-invasive nuclear medicine technique that can predict the effectiveness of therapy for cancerous tumors, allowing for personalized, precision treatment. The study is featured in the December issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

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Freestanding microwire-array enables flexible solar window

Transparent solar cells (TSC) are emerging device that combines the benefits of visible transparency and electricity generation. One of the prospective applications of such devices is their integration into windows or electronics, requiring colour-neutrality and flexibility. Scientist in Korea developed a new-concepted TSC consisting of freestanding Si microwire-arrays and transparent polymer matr

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Salmon lose diversity in managed rivers, reducing resilience to environmental change

The manipulation of rivers in California is jeopardizing the resilience of native Chinook salmon. It compresses their migration timing to the point that they crowd their habitats. They may miss the best window for entering the ocean and growing into adults, new research shows.

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Perinatal exposure to flame retardant alters epigenome, predisposing metabolic disease

A UMass Amherst study showed that environmentally relevant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), a brominated flame retardant, through the umbilical cord and breast milk permanently changed liver metabolism in rats.

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Problem drinkers have higher 'benzo' use, UCSF-Kaiser Permanente study shows

Problem drinkers are more likely than teetotalers and moderate drinkers to take benzodiazepines, a class of sedatives that are among the most commonly prescribed drugs — and the most abused. When taken by heavier drinkers, benzodiazepines may heighten the risk for overdoses and accidents as well as exacerbate psychiatric conditions.

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Scientists explain why some molecules spontaneously arrange themselves into five slices of nanoscale pie

Materials formed on vanishingly small scales are being used in medicine, electronics, manufacturing and a host of other applications. But scientists have only scratched the surface of understanding how to control building blocks on the nanoscale, where simple machines the size of a virus operate.

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Children in the ancient Middle East were valued and vulnerable—not unlike children today

The choices that societies make concerning the treatment of children can bring about the greatest of debates and prompt significant political action. Our research teaches us that the question of a how a child should be treated—what value societies place on children—is not only a modern question, but an ancient one.

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Two human teeth became jewelry in Neolithic Turkey

At a prehistoric archaeological site in Turkey, researchers discovered unusual pendants for a necklace or bracelet: two 8,500-year-old human teeth. Researchers have never before documented this practice in the prehistoric Near East, and the rarity of the find suggests that the human teeth were imbued with profound symbolic meaning for the people who wore them. During excavations at the Neolithic

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Forvaltningsekspert om ministeriets fakta-fejl: Stærkt foruroligende

Sundhedsministeriet giver igen forkerte oplysninger om de effektiviseringskrav, som de kommende år rammer de nye sygehuse og resultere i effektiviseringer for 2,4 mia. kr. Det efterlader et indtryk af en ikke saglig sagsbehandling, vurderer forvaltningsretsekspert.

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Knowledge is a process of discovery: How constructivism changed education

Constructivism is an educational philosophy that deems experience as the best way to acquire knowledge.

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Wetlands, crops can mitigate storm damage to coastal cities, study finds

Coastal cities can be spared some wind destruction from intensifying hurricanes or tropical storm systems if they have functional wetland ecosystems and agricultural croplands in the area, according to new computer modeling research led by The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH).

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Combining science and design to measure our exposure to light

Daylight plays an essential role in sleep, alertness and hormone regulation. Scientists are now developing a wearable sensor that measures how much light an individual is exposed to along with the spectral resolution of that light.

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Julkalendern − nu även för vuxna

Den första svenska adventskalendern kom 1934 och skulle samla in pengar till flickscoutrörelsen. Idag vänder sig många julkalendrar till vuxna som vill belöna sig med konsumtionsvaror i form av till exempel parfymer eller extra lyxiga bitar av choklad. − När jag var barn på 1970-talet var jag lycklig om jag fick en julkalender med glitter, det var lyx det. Jag minns ett år när jag och mina syskon

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Kulturell tillhörighet centralt för samhörighet i Västsverige

Färre än hälften av västsvenskarna känner samhörighet med personer från andra kulturer. Det visar den senaste västsvenska SOM-undersökningen som fokuserar på kultur i bred bemärkelse. Frågor om mångkultur polariserar i lägre utsträckning än frågor om ekonomi och miljö. Kulturutflyktsmål i regionen är mindre besökta men mer tillgängliga idag än för tjugo år sedan. Några andra resultat från undersö

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Scientists 'tune in' to proton spin precession

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a non-invasive way to measure the "spin tune" of polarized protons at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)—an important factor for maintaining these spinning particles' alignment.

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Adorable Physics Prof Finally Gets His Viral Moment of Fame

Wholesome A video uploaded on Wednesday by Tidewater Community College sophomore student Erica Church shows her physics professor, David Wright, jovially pull off some amazing science tricks in class, including lying on a bed of nails and jumping around on a pogo stick. A fun detail: he's 69 years old. Y'all need to see this video collage of all the crazy things my Physics Professor did this seme

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Even Hermit Crabs Have Wealth Inequality

The distribution of shells in one population of hermit crabs matched how wealth is shared in some human societies.

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