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nyheder2019december17

Zero-carbon ships on horizon under fuel levy plan

Climate groups say 10-year ICS plan not urgent enough to cut carbon from 'dirty' sector Shipping companies would have to pay a small levy on every tonne of fuel they use under proposals aimed at developing zero-carbon vessels within 10 years, transforming the high-carbon global shipping business. Ships running on hydrogen or ammonia as fuel are thought to be technically possible, but more researc

5min

Dogs process numerical quantities in similar brain region as humans, study finds

Dogs spontaneously process basic numerical quantities, using a distinct part of their brains that corresponds closely to number-responsive neural regions in humans, finds a study at Emory University.

26min

The Atlantic Politics Daily: Only 300-Plus Days to Go Before Election Day

It's Tuesday, December 17. In today's newsletter: Counting from the eve of an impeachment vote, 322 days until Election Day. Plus, David Graham on the fiction of two Trumps. * « TODAY IN POLITICS » (FILIP BJORKMAN / SHUTTERSTOCK / ARSH RAZIUDDIN / THE ATLANTIC ) The Long Countdown On the eve of impeachment and before the final Democratic debate of 2019, Washington punditry has been anxious to spe

35min

There is no 'I' in team — or is there?

There is no 'I' in 'team — as the saying goes. But new research suggests it is important for individuals to feel personal ownership towards a team project in order to be more creative.The study, led by Dr. Ieva Martinaityte of the University of East Anglia (UEA)'s Norwich Business School, suggests that this also drives each team member to invest more time and effort into the project.

6min

Genetic test could aid quest to reveal causes of rare diseases

The causes of rare diseases could be uncovered using an approach created to identify genetic mutations that trigger a muscle-wasting condition, a study suggests.

6min

Focus on teenage anxiety may aid early identification of those at risk of eating disorders

Teenage girls who experience clinical levels of anxiety could be at greater risk of eating disorders, according to associations identified in a study completed by researchers at the University of Bristol with UCL.

6min

Air quality tests need simplifying to help reduce dangerous emissions

New methods of testing and simulating air quality should be considered in order to help policy makers have a more accurate understanding of how emissions affect air pollution levels, new research suggests.

6min

A more comprehensive view of the Denisovan 3-rooted lower second molar from Xiahe [Letters (Online Only)]

Bailey et al. (1) describe a lower second molar with 3 roots in a Denisovan hemimandible dated 160,000 ka. The presence of a third root is stated to occur in <3.5% of non-Asians and in up to 40% of Asians and some New World populations. From this, they conclude the…

6min

Reply to Scott et al: A closer look at the 3-rooted lower second molar of an archaic human from Xiahe [Letters (Online Only)]

Scott et al. (1) take issue with our claim (2) that the presence of a 3-rooted lower molar (3RLM) in the Xiahe mandible (3) provides a morphological link between Denisovans and recent Asians. Below we address their main points:1)Scott et al. (1) claim that our assessment is based on the…

6min

Urban heating and canopy cover need to be considered as matters of environmental justice [Letters (Online Only)]

Ziter et al. (1) make a significant contribution to the understanding of temperature anomalies in a city of the northern United States. Their most important finding is that positive temperature anomalies were reduced most strongly in areas with canopy cover >40%. The authors call for increasing urban canopy cover, especially…

6min

Reply to Drescher: Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to understand and implement climate-resilient strategies in cities [Letters (Online Only)]

We appreciate Drescher's perspective (1), which elaborates on several points made in our initial paper (2) and underscores the need for additional research on how trees can be used to mitigate urban heat. We note in our paper that optimizing cooling with a limited number of trees can be achieved…

6min

Hypoxia induces a time- and tissue-specific response that elicits intertissue circadian clock misalignment [Systems Biology]

The occurrence and sequelae of disorders that lead to hypoxic spells such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) exhibit daily variance. This prompted us to examine the interaction between the hypoxic response and the circadian clock in vivo. We found that the global transcriptional response…

6min

A bacterial surface layer protein exploits multistep crystallization for rapid self-assembly [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Surface layers (S-layers) are crystalline protein coats surrounding microbial cells. S-layer proteins (SLPs) regulate their extracellular self-assembly by crystallizing when exposed to an environmental trigger. However, molecular mechanisms governing rapid protein crystallization in vivo or in vitro are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Caulobacter crescentus SLP readily crystallizes.

6min

An R2R3 MYB transcription factor confers brown planthopper resistance by regulating the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway in rice [Agricultural Sciences]

Brown planthopper (BPH) is one of the most destructive insects affecting rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a key enzyme involved in plant defense against pathogens, but the role of PAL in insect resistance is still poorly understood. Here we show that expression of the majority of…

6min

Imaging the effect of the circadian light-dark cycle on the glymphatic system in awake rats [Neuroscience]

The glymphatic system functions in the removal of potentially harmful metabolites and proteins from the brain. Dynamic, contrast-enhanced MRI was used in fully awake rats to follow the redistribution of intraventricular contrast agent entrained to the light–dark cycle and its hypothetical relationship to the sleep–waking cycle, blood flow, and brain…

6min

Temperature-independent thermal radiation [Engineering]

Thermal emission is the process by which all objects at nonzero temperatures emit light and is well described by the Planck, Kirchhoff, and Stefan–Boltzmann laws. For most solids, the thermally emitted power increases monotonically with temperature in a one-to-one relationship that enables applications such as infrared imaging and noncontact thermometry….

6min

Kinetics and mechanism of planar nanowire growth [Chemistry]

Surface-guided growth of planar nanowires offers the possibility to control their position, direction, length, and crystallographic orientation and to enable their large-scale integration into practical devices. However, understanding of and control over planar nanowire growth are still limited. Here, we study theoretically and experimentally the growth kinetics of surface-guided planar…

6min

Insights into the mechanism and regulation of the CbbQO-type Rubisco activase, a MoxR AAA+ ATPase [Biochemistry]

The vast majority of biological carbon dioxide fixation relies on the function of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). In most cases the enzyme exhibits a tendency to become inhibited by its substrate RuBP and other sugar phosphates. The inhibition is counteracted by diverse molecular chaperones known as Rubisco activases (Rcas). In…

6min

A dual role for peripheral GDNF signaling in nociception and cardiovascular reflexes in the mouse [Neuroscience]

Group III/IV muscle afferents transduce nociceptive signals and modulate exercise pressor reflexes (EPRs). However, the mechanisms governing afferent responsiveness to dually modulate these processes are not well characterized. We and others have shown that ischemic injury can induce both nociception-related behaviors and exacerbated EPRs in the same mice. This correlated…

6min

Disclinations and disconnections in minerals and metals [Engineering]

A different type of defect, the coherency disclination, is added to disclination types. Disconnections that include disclination content are considered. A criterion is suggested to distinguish disconnections with dislocation content from those with disclination content. Electron microscopy reveals unit disconnections in a low albite grain boundary, defects important in grain…

6min

Assessment of the manganese cluster's oxidation state via photoactivation of photosystem II microcrystals [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Knowledge of the manganese oxidation states of the oxygen-evolving Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II (PSII) is crucial toward understanding the mechanism of biological water oxidation. There is a 4 decade long debate on this topic that historically originates from the observation of a multiline electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal with…

6min

Leaf-derived bacterial communities adapt to the local environment [Commentaries]

Plants host a diverse community of microbes known as the microbiota. A number of studies have used culture-independent sequencing methods to describe the composition of these communities (1–3). While the microbiota originates from the broader environment in which the plant is growing, it is composed of only a subset of…

6min

The intrinsic behavior of lithium fluoride in solid electrolyte interphases on lithium [Applied Physical Sciences]

Lithium is the most attractive anode material for high-energy density rechargeable batteries, but its cycling is plagued by morphological irreversibility and dendrite growth that arise in part from its heterogeneous "native" solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Enriching the SEI with lithium fluoride (LiF) has recently gained popularity to improve Li cyclability….

6min

Scaling the risk landscape drives optimal life-history strategies and the evolution of grazing [Ecology]

Consumers face numerous risks that can be minimized by incorporating different life-history strategies. How much and when a consumer adds to its energetic reserves or invests in reproduction are key behavioral and physiological adaptations that structure communities. Here we develop a theoretical framework that explicitly accounts for stochastic fluctuations of…

6min

Retroconversion of estrogens into androgens by bacteria via a cobalamin-mediated methylation [Applied Biological Sciences]

Steroid estrogens modulate physiology and development of vertebrates. Conversion of C19 androgens into C18 estrogens is thought to be an irreversible reaction. Here, we report a denitrifying Denitratisoma sp. strain DHT3 capable of catabolizing estrogens or androgens anaerobically. Strain DHT3 genome contains a polycistronic gene cluster, emtABCD, differentially transcribed under…

6min

Studying human attention on the Internet [Commentaries]

"On the Internet, nobody knows you're a dog" is the caption of a famous cartoon from the early years of the Internet. In the 1990s, this was meant as a light-hearted poke at the emerging medium. Today, this cartoon seems a prescient glimpse of a dystopian future, of an Internet…

6min

Mangroves Protect Coastal Economic Activity from Hurricanes [Sustainability Science]

This paper evaluates whether mangroves can mitigate the impact of hurricanes on economic activity. The paper assembles a regionwide panel dataset that measures local economic activity using nightlights, potential hurricane damages using a detailed wind field model, and mangrove protection by mapping the width of mangrove forests on the path…

6min

High-density chemical cross-linking for modeling protein interactions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Detailed mechanistic understanding of protein complex function is greatly enhanced by insights from its 3-dimensional structure. Traditional methods of protein structure elucidation remain expensive and labor-intensive and require highly purified starting material. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry offers an alternative that has seen increased use, especially in combination wit

6min

Competing stripe and magnetic phases in the cuprates from first principles [Applied Physical Sciences]

Realistic description of competing phases in complex quantum materials has proven extremely challenging. For example, much of the existing density-functional-theory-based first-principles framework fails in the cuprate superconductors. Various many-body approaches involve generic model Hamiltonians and do not account for the interplay between the spin, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom….

6min

How tissue fluidity influences brain tumor progression [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Mechanical properties of biological tissues and, above all, their solid or fluid behavior influence the spread of malignant tumors. While it is known that solid tumors tend to have higher mechanical rigidity, allowing them to aggressively invade and spread in solid surrounding healthy tissue, it is unknown how softer tumors…

6min

Comprehensive analysis of a mouse model of spontaneous uveoretinitis using single-cell RNA sequencing [Immunology and Inflammation]

Autoimmune uveoretinitis is a significant cause of visual loss, and mouse models offer unique opportunities to study its disease mechanisms. Aire−/− mice fail to express self-antigens in the thymus, exhibit reduced central tolerance, and develop a spontaneous, chronic, and progressive uveoretinitis. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), we characterized wild-type and…

6min

Stress-induced modulation of endocannabinoid signaling leads to delayed strengthening of synaptic connectivity in the amygdala [Neuroscience]

Even a brief exposure to severe stress strengthens synaptic connectivity days later in the amygdala, a brain area implicated in the affective symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the synaptic signaling mechanisms during stress that eventually culminate in its delayed impact on the amygdala. Hence, we…

6min

FBXW7-mediated stability regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 in melanoma formation [Medical Sciences]

In this study, we provide critical evidence that STAT2 stability regulation plays an essential role in melanoma cell proliferation and colony growth. We found that the interaction of FBXW7 and STAT2 induced STAT2 destabilization via a ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation pathway. Notably, GSK3β-mediated STAT2 phosphorylation facilitated STAT2–FBXW7 interactions via the DNA…

6min

Optimizing Brownian escape rates by potential shaping [Physics]

Brownian escape is key to a wealth of physico-chemical processes, including polymer folding and information storage. The frequency of thermally activated energy barrier crossings is assumed to generally decrease exponentially with increasing barrier height. Here, we show experimentally that higher, fine-tuned barrier profiles result in significantly enhanced escape rates, in…

6min

Affinity maturation in a human humoral response to influenza hemagglutinin [Immunology and Inflammation]

Affinity maturation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is a conserved and crucial component of the adaptive immune response. BCR lineages, inferred from paired heavy- and light-chain sequences of rearranged Ig genes from multiple descendants of the same naive B cell precursor (the lineages' unmutated common ancestor, "UCA"), make…

6min

Reversible phosphorylation of Rpn1 regulates 26S proteasome assembly and function [Biochemistry]

The fundamental importance of the 26S proteasome in health and disease suggests that its function must be finely controlled, and yet our knowledge about proteasome regulation remains limited. Posttranslational modifications, especially phosphorylation, of proteasome subunits have been shown to impact proteasome function through different mechanisms, although the vast majority of…

6min

Divergent evolutionary trajectories of influenza B viruses underlie their contemporaneous epidemic activity [Microbiology]

Influenza B viruses have circulated in humans for over 80 y, causing a significant disease burden. Two antigenically distinct lineages ("B/Victoria/2/87-like" and "B/Yamagata/16/88-like," termed Victoria and Yamagata) emerged in the 1970s and have cocirculated since 2001. Since 2015 both lineages have shown unusually high levels of epidemic activity, the reasons…

6min

Retroviruses drive the rapid evolution of mammalian APOBEC3 genes [Microbiology]

APOBEC3 (A3) genes are members of the AID/APOBEC gene family that are found exclusively in mammals. A3 genes encode antiviral proteins that restrict the replication of retroviruses by inducing G-to-A mutations in their genomes and have undergone extensive amplification and diversification during mammalian evolution. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are sequences derived…

6min

Anticipating critical transitions in epithelial-hybrid-mesenchymal cell-fate determination [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

In the vicinity of a tipping point, critical transitions occur when small changes in an input condition cause sudden, large, and often irreversible changes in the state of a system. Many natural systems ranging from ecosystems to molecular biosystems are known to exhibit critical transitions in their response to stochastic…

6min

In situ self-assembling Au-DNA complexes for targeted cancer bioimaging and inhibition [Chemistry]

Cancer remains one of the most challenging diseases to treat. For accurate cancer diagnosis and targeted therapy, it is important to assess the localization of the affected area of cancers. The general approaches for cancer diagnostics include pathological assessments and imaging. However, these methods only generally assess the tumor area….

6min

Evidence for the stability of ultrahydrous stishovite in Earth's lower mantle [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The distribution and transportation of water in Earth's interior depends on the stability of water-bearing phases. The transition zone in Earth's mantle is generally accepted as an important potential water reservoir because its main constituents, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, can incorporate weight percent levels of H2O in their structures at mantle…

6min

Elastic avalanches reveal marginal behavior in amorphous solids [Applied Physical Sciences]

Mechanical deformation of amorphous solids can be described as consisting of an elastic part in which the stress increases linearly with strain, up to a yield point at which the solid either fractures or starts deforming plastically. It is well established, however, that the apparent linearity of stress with strain…

6min

Descending projections from the substantia nigra pars reticulata differentially control seizures [Neuroscience]

Three decades of studies have shown that inhibition of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) attenuates seizures, yet the circuits mediating this effect remain obscure. SNpr projects to the deep and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), but the contributions of these projections are…

7min

Genetically barcoded SIV reveals the emergence of escape mutations in multiple viral lineages during immune escape [Evolution]

The rapidity of replication coupled with a high mutation rate enables HIV to evade selective pressures imposed by host immune responses. Investigating the ability of HIV to escape different selection forces has generally relied on population-level measures, such as the time to detectable escape mutations in plasma and the rate…

7min

Position-theta-phase model of hippocampal place cell activity applied to quantification of running speed modulation of firing rate [Neuroscience]

Spiking activity of place cells in the hippocampus encodes the animal's position as it moves through an environment. Within a cell's place field, both the firing rate and the phase of spiking in the local theta oscillation contain spatial information. We propose a position–theta-phase (PTP) model that captures the simultaneous…

7min

Neutralization of IL-1{alpha} ameliorates Crohn's disease-like ileitis by functional alterations of the gut microbiome [Immunology and Inflammation]

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic and progressive inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that are attributed to dysregulated interactions between the gut microbiome and the intestinal mucosa-associated immune system. There are limited studies investigating the role of either IL-1α or IL-1β in mouse models of colitis, and no clinical trials…

7min

Inhibition of ULK1 and Beclin1 by an {alpha}-herpesvirus Akt-like Ser/Thr kinase limits autophagy to stimulate virus replication [Microbiology]

Autophagy is a powerful host defense that restricts herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) pathogenesis in neurons. As a countermeasure, the viral ICP34.5 polypeptide, which is exclusively encoded by HSV, antagonizes autophagy in part through binding Beclin1. However, whether autophagy is a cell-type–specific antiviral defense or broadly restricts HSV-1 reproduction in nonneuronal…

7min

Microbial chemolithotrophy mediates oxidative weathering of granitic bedrock [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The flux of solutes from the chemical weathering of the continental crust supplies a steady supply of essential nutrients necessary for the maintenance of Earth's biosphere. Promotion of weathering by microorganisms is a well-documented phenomenon and is most often attributed to heterotrophic microbial metabolism for the purposes of nutrient acquisition….

7min

Provincial and sector-level material footprints in China [Sustainability Science]

High-income countries often outsource material demands to poorer countries along with the associated environmental damage. This phenomenon can also occur within (large) countries, such as China, which was responsible for 24 to 30% of the global material footprint (MF) between 2007 and 2010. Understanding the distribution and development of China's…

7min

Geographically divergent evolutionary and ecological legacies shape mammal biodiversity in the global tropics and subtropics [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Studies of the factors governing global patterns of biodiversity are key to predicting community responses to ongoing and future abiotic and biotic changes. Although most research has focused on present-day climate, a growing body of evidence indicates that modern ecological communities may be significantly shaped by paleoclimatic change and past…

7min

Sources of off-target expression from recombinase-dependent AAV vectors and mitigation with cross-over insensitive ATG-out vectors [Neuroscience]

In combination with transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre or Flp recombinases in defined cell types, recombinase-dependent adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become the tool of choice for localized cell-type-targeted gene expression. Unfortunately, applications of this technique when expressing highly sensitive transgenes are impeded by off-target, or "leak" expression, from recombinase-dependen

7min

Epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity and differential response to therapies in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma [Medical Sciences]

Transcriptional profiling has defined pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) into distinct subtypes with the majority being classical epithelial (E) or quasi-mesenchymal (QM). Despite clear differences in clinical behavior, growing evidence indicates these subtypes exist on a continuum with features of both subtypes present and suggestive of interconverting cell states. Here, we…

7min

Corazonin signaling integrates energy homeostasis and lunar phase to regulate aspects of growth and sexual maturation in Platynereis [Developmental Biology]

The molecular mechanisms by which animals integrate external stimuli with internal energy balance to regulate major developmental and reproductive events still remain enigmatic. We investigated this aspect in the marine bristleworm, Platynereis dumerilii, a species where sexual maturation is tightly regulated by both metabolic state and lunar cycle. Our specific…

7min

Deep learning predicts path-dependent plasticity [Engineering]

Plasticity theory aims at describing the yield loci and work hardening of a material under general deformation states. Most of its complexity arises from the nontrivial dependence of the yield loci on the complete strain history of a material and its microstructure. This motivated 3 ingenious simplifications that underpinned a…

7min

The antimicrobial peptide ZY4 combats multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii infection [Biochemistry]

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa raises fears of untreatable infections and poses the greatest health threats. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are regarded as the most ideal solution to this menace. In this study, a set of peptides was designed based on our previously reported peptide cathelicidin-BF-15, and…

7min

Satellite observations reveal extreme methane leakage from a natural gas well blowout [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Methane emissions due to accidents in the oil and natural gas sector are very challenging to monitor, and hence are seldom considered in emission inventories and reporting. One of the main reasons is the lack of measurements during such events. Here we report the detection of large methane emissions from…

7min

Mechanics unlocks the morphogenetic puzzle of interlocking bivalved shells [Evolution]

Brachiopods and mollusks are 2 shell-bearing phyla that diverged from a common shell-less ancestor more than 540 million years ago. Brachiopods and bivalve mollusks have also convergently evolved a bivalved shell that displays an apparently mundane, yet striking feature from a developmental point of view: When the shell is closed,…

7min

Photoreceptor disc membranes are formed through an Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodium-like mechanism [Neuroscience]

The light-sensitive outer segment of the vertebrate photoreceptor is a highly modified primary cilium filled with disc-shaped membranes that provide a vast surface for efficient photon capture. The formation of each disc is initiated by a ciliary membrane evagination driven by an unknown molecular mechanism reportedly requiring actin polymerization. Since…

7min

Enteroendocrine and tuft cells support Lgr5 stem cells on Paneth cell depletion [Cell Biology]

Cycling intestinal Lgr5+ stem cells are intermingled with their terminally differentiated Paneth cell daughters at crypt bottoms. Paneth cells provide multiple secreted (e.g., Wnt, EGF) as well as surface-bound (Notch ligand) niche signals. Here we show that ablation of Paneth cells in mice, using a diphtheria toxin receptor gene inserted…

7min

Renewable electricity storage using electrolysis [Chemistry]

Electrolysis converts electrical energy into chemical energy by storing electrons in the form of stable chemical bonds. The chemical energy can be used as a fuel or converted back to electricity when needed. Water electrolysis to hydrogen and oxygen is a well-established technology, whereas fundamental advances in CO2 electrolysis are…

7min

Programmable active kirigami metasheets with more freedom of actuation [Engineering]

Kirigami (cutting and/or folding) offers a promising strategy to reconfigure metamaterials. Conventionally, kirigami metamaterials are often composed of passive cut unit cells to be reconfigured under mechanical forces. The constituent stimuli-responsive materials in active kirigami metamaterials instead will enable potential mechanical properties and functionality, arising from the active control

7min

Evoked potentials as a biomarker of remyelination [Neuroscience]

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common cause of neurologic disease in young adults that is primarily treated with disease-modifying therapies which target the immune and inflammatory responses. Promotion of remyelination has opened a new therapeutic avenue, but how best to determine efficacy of remyelinating drugs remains unresolved. Although prolongation and…

7min

Receding ice drove parallel expansions in Southern Ocean penguins [Evolution]

Climate shifts are key drivers of ecosystem change. Despite the critical importance of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean for global climate, the extent of climate-driven ecological change in this region remains controversial. In particular, the biological effects of changing sea ice conditions are poorly understood. We hypothesize that rapid postglacial…

7min

Ly49R activation receptor drives self-MHC-educated NK cell immunity against cytomegalovirus infection [Immunology and Inflammation]

Natural killer (NK) cells mediate vital control of cancer and viral infection. They rely on MHC class I (MHC I)-specific self-receptors to identify and lyse diseased cells without harming self-MHC I-bearing host cells. NK cells bearing inhibitory self-receptors for host MHC I also undergo education, referred to as licensing, which…

7min

Correction for Duckworth et al., Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success [Corrections]

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Correction for "Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success," by Angela L. Duckworth, Abigail Quirk, Robert Gallop, Rick H. Hoyle, Dennis R. Kelly, and Michael D. Matthews, which was first published November 4, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1910510116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 23499–23504). The authors note the following:…

7min

The emergence of classical BSE from atypical/Nor98 scrapie [Medical Sciences]

Atypical/Nor98 scrapie (AS) is a prion disease of small ruminants. Currently there are no efficient measures to control this form of prion disease, and, importantly, the zoonotic potential and the risk that AS might represent for other farmed animal species remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the capacity…

7min

Peripheral (not central) corneal epithelia contribute to the closure of an annular debridement injury [Cell Biology]

Corneal epithelia have limited self-renewal and therefore reparative capacity. They are continuously replaced by transient amplifying cells which spawn from stem cells and migrate from the periphery. Because this view has recently been challenged, our goal was to resolve the conflict by giving mice annular injuries in different locations within…

7min

Perineuronal nets protect long-term memory by limiting activity-dependent inhibition from parvalbumin interneurons [Neuroscience]

Perineuronal nets (PNNs), a complex of extracellular matrix molecules that mostly surround GABAergic neurons in various brain regions, play a critical role in synaptic plasticity. The function and cellular mechanisms of PNNs in memory consolidation and reconsolidation processes are still not well understood. We hypothesized that PNNs protect long-term memory…

7min

The role of translationally controlled tumor protein in proliferation of Drosophila intestinal stem cells [Cell Biology]

Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein functioning in multiple cellular processes, ranging from growth to immune responses. To explore the role of TCTP in tissue maintenance and regeneration, we employed the adult Drosophila midgut, where multiple signaling pathways interact to precisely regulate stem cell division for…

7min

Mechanism for antigenic peptide selection by endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is an intracellular enzyme that optimizes the peptide cargo of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) molecules and regulates adaptive immunity. It has unusual substrate selectivity for length and sequence, resulting in poorly understood effects on the cellular immunopeptidome. To understand substrate selection by ERAP1, we…

7min

Precise timing is ubiquitous, consistent, and coordinated across a comprehensive, spike-resolved flight motor program [Neuroscience]

Sequences of action potentials, or spikes, carry information in the number of spikes and their timing. Spike timing codes are critical in many sensory systems, but there is now growing evidence that millisecond-scale changes in timing also carry information in motor brain regions, descending decision-making circuits, and individual motor units….

7min

Human activities have opposing effects on distributions of narrow-ranged and widespread plant species in China [Ecology]

Human activities have shaped large-scale distributions of many species, driving both range contractions and expansions. Species differ naturally in range size, with small-range species concentrated in particular geographic areas and potentially deviating ecologically from widespread species. Hence, species' responses to human activities may be influenced by their geographic range sizes,…

7min

Characterization of splice-altering mutations in inherited predisposition to cancer [Medical Sciences]

Mutations responsible for inherited disease may act by disrupting normal transcriptional splicing. Such mutations can be difficult to detect, and their effects difficult to characterize, because many lie deep within exons or introns where they may alter splice enhancers or silencers or introduce new splice acceptors or donors. Multiple mutation-specific…

7min

In Memoriam: Lelio Orci, 1937-2019 [Retrospectives]

On October 22, 2019, the international community of cell biologists lost one of its most eminent members, an exceptional scientist whose consummate mastery of cell membrane morphology contributed fundamental insights to our understanding of the microanatomy and function of the endocrine pancreas, as well as the molecular mechanisms of protein…

7min

SIRT5 stabilizes mitochondrial glutaminase and supports breast cancer tumorigenesis [Cell Biology]

The mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase (GLS) is frequently up-regulated during tumorigenesis and is being evaluated as a target for cancer therapy. GLS catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate, which then supplies diverse metabolic pathways with carbon and/or nitrogen. Here, we report that SIRT5, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent lysine deacylase, plays a…

7min

Virus-virus interactions impact the population dynamics of influenza and the common cold [Population Biology]

The human respiratory tract hosts a diverse community of cocirculating viruses that are responsible for acute respiratory infections. This shared niche provides the opportunity for virus–virus interactions which have the potential to affect individual infection risks and in turn influence dynamics of infection at population scales. However, quantitative evidence for…

7min

Performance-advantaged ether diesel bioblendstock production by a priori design [Engineering]

Lignocellulosic biomass offers a renewable carbon source which can be anaerobically digested to produce short-chain carboxylic acids. Here, we assess fuel properties of oxygenates accessible from catalytic upgrading of these acids a priori for their potential to serve as diesel bioblendstocks. Ethers derived from C2 and C4 carboxylic acids are…

7min

Correction for Kumra et al., Fibulin-4 exerts a dual role in LTBP-4L-mediated matrix assembly and function [Corrections]

BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for "Fibulin-4 exerts a dual role in LTBP-4L–mediated matrix assembly and function," by Heena Kumra, Valentin Nelea, Hana Hakami, Amelie Pagliuzza, Jelena Djokic, Jiongci Xu, Hiromi Yanagisawa, and Dieter P. Reinhardt, which was first published September 23, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1901048116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 20428–20437). The authors…

7min

A tumorigenic index for quantitative analysis of liver cancer initiation and progression [Medical Sciences]

Primary liver cancer develops from multifactorial etiologies, resulting in extensive genomic heterogeneity. To probe the common mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis, we interrogated temporal gene expression profiles in a group of mouse models with hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and, consequently, tumorigenesis. Instead of anticipated progressive changes, we observed a sudden molecular swi

7min

A social-ecological analysis of the global agrifood system [Sustainability Science]

Eradicating world hunger—the aim of Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG2)—requires a social–ecological approach to agrifood systems. However, previous work has mostly focused on one or the other. Here, we apply such a holistic approach to depicting the global food panorama through a quantitative multivariate assessment of 43 indicators of food…

7min

Sixteen years of social and ecological dynamics reveal challenges and opportunities for adaptive management in sustaining the commons [Sustainability Science]

Efforts to confront the challenges of environmental change and uncertainty include attempts to adaptively manage social–ecological systems. However, critical questions remain about whether adaptive management can lead to sustainable outcomes for both ecosystems and society. Here, we make a contribution to these efforts by presenting a 16-y analysis of ecological…

7min

Resurgence of an apex marine predator and the decline in prey body size [Ecology]

In light of recent recoveries of marine mammal populations worldwide and heightened concern about their impacts on marine food webs and global fisheries, it has become increasingly important to understand the potential impacts of large marine mammal predators on prey populations and their life-history traits. In coastal waters of the…

7min

A formula for the value of a stochastic game [Economic Sciences]

In 1953, Lloyd Shapley defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that competitive stochastic games have a discounted value. In 1982, Jean-François Mertens and Abraham Neyman proved that competitive stochastic games admit a robust solution concept,…

7min

Reactivation of critical period plasticity in adult auditory cortex through chemogenetic silencing of parvalbumin-positive interneurons [Neuroscience]

Sensory experience during early developmental critical periods (CPs) has profound and long-lasting effects on cortical sensory processing perduring well into adulthood. Although recent evidence has shown that reducing cortical inhibition during adulthood reinstates CP plasticity, the precise cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that chemogenetic inactivation of…

7min

Social media-predicted personality traits and values can help match people to their ideal jobs [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Work is thought to be more enjoyable and beneficial to individuals and society when there is congruence between one's personality and one's occupation. We provide large-scale evidence that occupations have distinctive psychological profiles, which can successfully be predicted from linguistic information unobtrusively collected through social media. Based on 128,279 Twitter…

7min

Oxytocin regulates body composition [Medical Sciences]

The primitive neurohypophyseal nonapeptide oxytocin (OXT) has established functions in parturition, lactation, appetite, and social behavior. We have shown that OXT has direct actions on the mammalian skeleton, stimulating bone formation by osteoblasts and modulating the genesis and function of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. We deleted OXT receptors (OXTRs) selectively in osteoblasts…

7min

Correction for de la Cuesta et al., Oil and aid revenue produce equal demands for accountability as taxes in Ghana and Uganda [Corrections]

POLITICAL SCIENCES Correction for "Oil and aid revenue produce equal demands for accountability as taxes in Ghana and Uganda," by Brandon de la Cuesta, Helen V. Milner, Daniel L. Nielson, and Stephen F. Knack, which was first published August 21, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1903134116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 17717–17722). The…

7min

Dog brains have a knack for numbers, much like ours

Study finds evidence of "the approximate number system" in canines

10min

Chimps create 'rock music' by throwing stones at trees

Apes pick best sounding trees, possibly as a way to communicate

10min

Meerkat mobs do 'war dance' to protect territory

Meerkat clans perform a 'war dance' to frighten opponents and protect their territory, according to a new UCL and University of Cambridge study.

27min

Dogs process numerical quantities in similar brain region as humans, study finds

Dogs spontaneously process basic numerical quantities, using a distinct part of their brains that corresponds closely to number-responsive neural regions in humans, finds a study at Emory University.

27min

Meerkat mobs do 'war dance' to protect territory

Meerkat clans perform a 'war dance' to frighten opponents and protect their territory, according to a new UCL and University of Cambridge study.

27min

The Lancet: Drug could help reduce frequency of seizures for children with Dravet Syndrome, a severe treatment-resistant epilepsy, compared with placebo

Children with Dravet Syndrome given fenfluramine experienced a greater reduction in convulsive seizures, compared to patients given a placebo for a 14-week treatment period, according to a randomised controlled trial published in The Lancet.

43min

Significant safety issues for kids on long term ventilation at home

There are significant safety issues for children who receive long term mechanical assistance with breathing at home (ventilation), finds an analysis of officially reported safety incidents associated with provision, and published online in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

43min

Caring for a grandchild linked to lower risk of loneliness and social isolation

Caring for a grandchild may be linked to a lower risk of loneliness and social isolation, suggests research published in the online journal BMJ Open.

43min

RIP Jerome L. Singer, "The Father of Daydreaming" (1924-2019)

A seminal psychologist who explored the positive, creative, and productive aspects of daydreaming has passed away at the age of 95. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

44min

52min

Earth's Largest Scientific Structure, a WhatsApp Flaw, and More News

Catch up on the most important news from today in two minutes or less.

1h

A Coal Baron Funded Climate Denial as His Company Spiraled Into Bankruptcy

Robert E. Murray, the former chairman of Murray Energy, gave nearly $1 million to climate denial groups and other organizations seeking to undo environmental regulations.

1h

In ancient Scottish tree rings, a cautionary tale on climate, politics and survival

Using old tree rings and archival documents, historians and climate scientists have detailed an extreme cold period in Scotland in the 1690s that caused immense suffering. It may have lessons for Brexit-era politics.

1h

As fires rage across Australia, fears grow for rare species

Plants and animals with small ranges and few individuals at high risk

1h

Is it possible to have too many trees?

Recent research indicates that dense forests in the Sierra Nevada drain billions of gallons of water from the watershed each year. Unusually dense tree stands degrade the vitality of the land, plants, animals, and even the trees. Experts recommend managing forest restoration through controlled fires and the thinning of small, fire-prone trees. None Many people view trees as an unassailable good.

1h

Mänskligt dna hittat i 5 700 år gammalt tuggummi

Forskare på Köpenhamns universitet har lyckats ta fram mänskligt dna ur ett 5 700 år gammalt tuggummi av kåda, skriver universitetet i ett pressmeddelande. Med vägledning av det har man kunnat återskapa hur flickan som tuggade på kådan såg ut.

2h

A Year After the Midterm Elections, Where Are They Now?

Political newcomers to federal and state legislatures with STEM backgrounds are bringing evidence to drafting laws, yet getting bills passed remains elusive.

2h

Check Out the "Cybunker," a Post-Apocalyptic Cybertruck Garage

Cybunker New York-based research and design company Lars Buro's "Cybunker" is a "hi-tech depot" or "off-grid residence" for you and your Tesla Cybertruck, according to the company's website . It's designed to withstand the toughest environments — whether you want to live in the middle of LA or the surface of Mars. While only renders of the futuristic shelter exist so far, Lars Buro reassured CNET

2h

Eastern States Introduce a Plan to Cap Tailpipe Pollution

Twelve states and the District of Columbia released a draft plan for an ambitious cap-and-trade program to curb planet-warming emissions on the region's roads.

2h

'Warm glow' drives more charity than altruism

Nudging potential donors to charity toward the "warm glow" of philanthropy can be more effective than emphasizing the importance of helping others, according to new research. Studying a charitable program in Alaska, the new working paper found that people who received postcards appealing to their sense of self were more likely to donate than those who received messages appealing to pure altruism.

2h

How did Saturn Get Its Rings?

Astronomers have learned a lot about Saturn's rings since Galileo discovered the ringed planet, but there's still plenty of mysteries to still be solved.

2h

Shifting the balance of growth vs. defense boosts crop yield

Researchers found that a specific gene in maize balances both growth of the plant and its immunity. Understanding this interaction will be key to developing higher-yield crops.

2h

Outdoor saunas that'll turn your house into a spa-like estate

The best part of a sports club but it's in your backyard. (DepositPhotos/) Imagine finishing an intense run and slipping into your own personal sauna. You savor a quiet moment alone, listening to your heartbeat slow back to its normal rhythm. You're a bit smug knowing your sauna may help with muscle soreness . It's incredibly peaceful, and after a few minutes, you're ready to take on the rest of

2h

Rescuers free entangled humpback whale off California coast

A rescue team helped free a young humpback whale that was tangled in fishing gear south of San Francisco days after a fisherman first spotted it, a conservation group said Tuesday.

2h

Rescuers free entangled humpback whale off California coast

A rescue team helped free a young humpback whale that was tangled in fishing gear south of San Francisco days after a fisherman first spotted it, a conservation group said Tuesday.

2h

Scientists discover how proteins form crystals that tile a microbe's shell

Many microbes wear beautifully patterned crystalline shells, which protect them from a harsh world and can even help them reel in food. Studies at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have revealed this food-reeling process and shown how shells assemble themselves from protein building blocks.

2h

Skin cancer mystery revealed in yin and yang protein

It starts off small, just a skin blemish. The most common moles stay just that way—harmless clusters of skin cells called melanocytes, which give us pigment. In rare cases, what begins as a mole can turn into melanoma, the most serious type of human skin cancer because it can spread throughout the body.

2h

Boeing to halt production of the 737 as FAA continues review

Boeing has decided to halt the production of the 737 Max after the FAA announced that its review of the plane will extend into 2020. After two recent and deadly crashes, the FAA has grounded all 737-model planes. The news spells financial trouble for Boeing, especially since another one of its major planes — the 787 Dreamliner — has been receiving significant quality complaints. None Next month,

2h

Skin cancer mystery revealed in yin and yang protein

It starts off small, just a skin blemish. The most common moles stay just that way—harmless clusters of skin cells called melanocytes, which give us pigment. In rare cases, what begins as a mole can turn into melanoma, the most serious type of human skin cancer because it can spread throughout the body.

2h

High-def mapping of moisture in the soil

Soil moisture is easy to see when your favorite Little Leaguer slides into second base the day after a big summer storm. The mud splattered on that little hustler's uniform tells the story.

2h

The gift guide to send that parent who insists on buying you bad undies

Underwear for everyone. (TomboyX /) For some reason, every year your mom, dad, aunt, grandma, whoever insists on getting you that six-pack of cheap white underwear that you end up using when the washer's broken. You're an adult … don't they trust you to know how to take care of your own undercarriage? Maybe it's just a thing family members feel like they have to do. After all, they'll never let

2h

Plantwatch: What is that wildflower? And why don't we know?

Few can identify our common plants amid a lack of education and more focus on animals and birds on natural history shows How many people know our common wildflowers? The charity Plantlife commissioned a poll by YouGov two years ago to find out if people could identify wildflowers and discovered a shocking lack of knowledge. Most could not identify, or mis-identified, the common dog-violet, one of

2h

An Angry Letter Reveals the Fiction of the Two Trumps

For most of the impeachment inquiry, President Donald Trump has passed on opportunities to mount a formal defense of his conduct. Initially, the White House complained that House Democrats were not affording him chances to defend himself. Once they did, he eschewed them, declining to participate in House Judiciary hearings, and refusing to allow testimony from witnesses who (his allies claimed) m

2h

Cyberattack Aims to Cause Seizures in Twitter Users With Epilepsy

Our bodies use electrical signals to send information from cell to cell. An unexpected surge in that electrical activity, though, can cause a seizure — and while not every seizure is the same, they can cause convulsions, difficulty breathing, loss of consciousness, or even death . Epilepsy is a disease characterized by repeated seizures. It affects approximately 3.5 million people in the United S

2h

'Locally grown' broccoli looks, tastes better to consumers

In tests, consumers in upstate New York were willing to pay more for broccoli grown in New York when they knew where it came from, Cornell University researchers found.

3h

Millions with swallowing problems could be helped through new wearable device

A wearable monitoring device to make treatments easier and more affordable for the millions of people with swallowing disorders is about to be released into the market.

3h

Bah Humbug

Edinburgh psychologists announce in Nature Communications genes for being rich. A Christmas Carol.

3h

How we can protect truth in the age of misinformation | Sinan Aral

Fake news can sway elections, tank economies and sow discord in everyday life. Data scientist Sinan Aral demystifies how and why it spreads so quickly — citing one of the largest studies on misinformation — and identifies five strategies to help us unweave the tangled web between true and false.

3h

New Oral Polio Vaccine to Bypass Key Clinical Trials

Health officials are rushing a genetically engineered product into the field to counter uncontained outbreaks of vaccine-derived polio.

3h

Scammers Are Selling Dumpster-Dived Food on Amazon

Salvage Yard After reports spread that people were selling food that they reclaimed from the trash over Amazon, a team of Wall Street Journal reporters set out to get to the bottom of the story. It turns out it's actually pretty easy to do. The reporters were able to list a (sealed) jar of lemon curd that they found in the trash outside a Trader Joe's store approved for sale through Amazon Prime

3h

Newly discovered retinal structure may enhance vision for some birds

A newly discovered retinal structure in the eyes of certain kinds of songbirds might help the animals find and track insect prey more easily.

3h

Federal Toxmap Shutters, Raising the Ire of Pollution Researchers

The loss of the federal pollution tracker, supporters say, will inhibit public access to data on environmental hazards — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

3h

3h

What makes Christmas movies so popular

If you are one of those people who will settle in this evening with a hot cup of apple cider to watch a holiday movie, you are not alone. Holiday movies have become firmly embedded in Americans' winter celebrations. The New York Times reports a massive increase in new holiday movies this year. Disney, Netflix, Lifetime and Hallmark are now in direct competition for viewers' attention, with both n

3h

New ice river detected at Arctic glacier adds to rising seas

Geologists, examining the desolate Vavilov ice cap on the northern fringe of Siberia in the Arctic Circle, have for the first time observed rapid ice loss from an improbable new river of ice, according to new research.

3h

Scientists discover how proteins form crystals that tile a microbe's shell

Many microbes wear beautifully patterned crystalline shells, which protect them from a harsh world and can even help them reel in food. Now scientists have zoomed in on the very first step in microbial shell-building: nucleation, where squiggly proteins crystallize into sturdy building blocks. What they found helps explain how the shells assemble themselves so quickly.

3h

High-def mapping of moisture in the soil

Combining data from satellite-based sensors with data science tools and machine learning methods, researchers have developed a new, higher-resolution way of mapping soil moisture predictions, even in areas where no data have been available.

3h

Special issue of Educational Researcher examines the nature and consequences of null findings

A new special issue of AERA's peer reviewed journal Educational Researcher, titled 'Randomized Controlled Trials Meet the Real World: The Nature and Consequences of Null Findings,' focuses on important questions raised by the prevalence of null findings — the absence of expected or measurable results — particularly in randomized control trials. In the issue, leading researchers address what it m

3h

New metrics needed to evaluate and combat HIV epidemics in the US

A new peer-reviewed commentary published in the January issue of the American Journal of Public Health argues for new metrics to evaluate the public health response to HIV in the United States.

3h

There's an ancient starburst in the heart of the Milky Way

Researchers pointed the VLT toward the constellation Sagittarius in order to capture this image of the center of the galaxy. (ESO/Nogueras-Lara et al./) By peering into the center of the Milky Way, astronomers have revealed new evidence of how stars in our galaxy were born—and it seems like things went down much more dramatically than we thought. Researchers used the European Southern Observatory

3h

Fine-tuning thermoelectric materials for cheaper renewable energy

Researchers have developed new thermoelectric materials, which could provide a low-cost option for converting heat energy into electricity.

3h

Physics of Living Systems: How cells muster and march out

Many of the cell types in our bodies are constantly on the move. Physicists have developed a mathematical model that describes, for the first time, how single-cell migration can coalesce into coordinated movements of cohorts of cells.

4h

New way to make biomedical devices from silk yields better products with tunable qualities

Researchers have developed a novel, significantly more efficient fabrication method for silk that allows them to heat and mold the material into solid forms for a wide range of applications, including medical devices. The physical properties of the end products can be 'tuned' for specific needs, and can be functionally modified with bioactive molecules, such as antibiotics and enzymes. The thermal

4h

Trump Won't Just Violate the Rules Again—He's Already Doing It

Faced with impeachment, previous presidents have sought to lower tensions. Finding himself in the same situation the past few weeks, Donald Trump has instead opted for confrontation and defiance. Tomorrow, Trump will be impeached by the House for abusing his power in the pursuit of information in Ukraine damaging to a political rival, in a scheme executed largely by his personal attorney, Rudy Gi

4h

Stroke drug boosts stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury in rats

In a new study, rats with spinal cord injuries experienced a three-fold increase in motor activity when treated with neural progenitor cells that had been pre-conditioned with a modified form of tPA, a drug commonly used to treat non-hemorrhagic stroke.

4h

Large study links sustained weight loss to reduced breast cancer risk

A large new study finds that women who lost weight after age 50 and kept it off had a lower risk of breast cancer than women whose weight remained stable, helping answer a vexing question in cancer prevention.

4h

Physics of Living Systems: How cells muster and march out

Many of the cell types in our bodies are constantly on the move. Physicists have developed a mathematical model that describes, for the first time, how single-cell migration can coalesce into coordinated movements of cohorts of cells.

4h

These video games can help mature gamers unwind — and increase their gray matter

More than 164 million Americans play video games on their phones, computers, or gaming consoles. An entire fifth of American gamers are over the age of 50. Results of studies suggest games can improve memory and reduce signs of aging. None According to a 2019 report by the Entertainment Software Association (ESA), more than 164 million adults play video games and three-quarters of all American ho

4h

Scientists Are Working on Spray-On Solar Panels

Spray Tan A team of researchers at the University of Central Florida say their new AI's work on a special liquid called "perovskite" could one day be used to create spray-on solar cells. The so-called "perovskite solar cells" (PSCs) can turn sunlight into energy, just like regular silicon-based solar panels. Scientists came up with the idea over a decade ago — but until now, they've struggled to

4h

Screen could offer better safety tests for new chemicals

Using specialized liver cells, MIT researchers have created a new test that can quickly detect potentially cancer-causing DNA damage.

4h

Skin cancer mystery revealed in yin and yang protein

Scientists used supercomputers to find a mechanism that activates cell mutations found in about 50 percent of melanomas. An October 2019 Science study determined the structure and activation mechanism of the protein complex B-Raf linked to melanoma. XSEDE allocations on Stampede2 of TACC and Bridges at Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center modeled the B-Raf protein and other proteins in the pathway lin

4h

Another Tesla Crash, Another Investigation Into Autopilot

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) said it will investigate the 12th Tesla car crash where Autopilot, its semi-autonomous driver-assist, may have been involved. This one took place Dec. 7 in Norwalk, Connecticut. A 2018 Tesla Model 3 driving Interstate 95 rear-ended a parked police car early Saturday. There were no injuries to the occupants of either car, including a dog i

4h

How to tell if your digital addiction is ruining your life

The fear that digital distractions are ruining our lives and friendships is widespread . To be sure, digital addiction is real . Consider the 2,600 times we touch our phones every day, our panic when we temporarily misplace a device , the experience of " phantom vibration syndrome " and how merely seeing a message alert can be as distracting as checking the message itself . This can have real con

4h

4h

What Ancient 'Chewing Gum' Can Tell Us About Life 5,700 Years Ago

Scientists say that for the first time, they've managed to extract an entire ancient human genome from anything other than human bones or teeth. It told them a lot about the person chewing the gum. (Image credit: Theis Jensen/Nature Communications)

4h

Unusual glacier flow could be first-ever look at ice stream formation

Scientists have captured the birth of a high-speed ice feature for the first time on top of a Russian glacier.

4h

Sexual harassment may be reduced at fun work events, study finds

The office holiday party loses its luster in light of new study findings from researchers at Penn State and Ohio State demonstrating that incidences of unwanted sexual attention are increased at these and other "fun" work events. This sexual harassment may be reduced, however, when these events are held during normal office hours, when attendance is optional and when employees are allowed to bring

4h

Scientists correlate photon pairs of different colors generated in separate buildings

Particles can sometimes act like waves, and photons (particles of light) are no exception. Just as waves create an interference pattern, like ripples on a pond, so do photons. Physicists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and their colleagues have achieved a major new feat—creating a bizarre "quantum" interference between two photons of markedly different colors, origin

4h

Why Goldman Sachs Is Fighting Climate Change—And the UN Isn't

So let's say you have one (1) global economy. It currently generates most of its energy by burning carbon-based fuels, which is fine, but then it disposes the resulting carbon-dioxide pollution in the air, wreaking all sorts of general havoc too extensive to recount here, which is not as fine. Naturally you might want to ween your economy off carbon fuels. But how to do it? For the last quarter c

4h

Effects of natural gas assessed in study of shale gas boom in Appalachian basin

A new study estimated the cumulative effects of the shale gas boom in the Appalachian basin in the early 2000s on air quality, climate change, and employment. The study found that effects on air quality and employment followed the boom-and-bust cycle, but effects on climate change will likely persist for generations to come. The study, which also considered how to compensate for these effects, pro

4h

A Full Genome From 5,700-Year-Old 'Chewing Gum' Gives Insights Into Prehistoric Lives

Recovered from an ancient settlement, this hardened chunk of tree bark carries the DNA of the person who chewed it — and evidence of her meals.

4h

Men Promote Scientific Findings More Effusively than Women Do

Male researchers are more likely to describe their work in publications using positive superlatives than their female colleagues are, a habit tied to more citations.

4h

Would you risk your kids' lives on a coin-flip flight?

The climate crisis concretely means facing many implicit hard-love tests. Who, or what, do you love (or hold sacred)? Really love. Love enough to sacrifice to protect? Or do you choose to protect your children, or your cherished way of life, only if it's cheap and easy, and if it doesn't interfere too much with your lifestyle? "The bigger your carbon footprint, the bigger your moral duty." None I

4h

Effects of natural gas assessed in study of shale gas boom in Appalachian basin

A new study estimated the cumulative effects of the shale gas boom in the Appalachian basin in the early 2000s on air quality, climate change, and employment. The study found that effects on air quality and employment followed the boom-and-bust cycle, but effects on climate change will likely persist for generations to come. The study, which also considered how to compensate for these effects, pro

4h

New way to make biomedical devices from silk yields better products with tunable qualities

Researchers have developed a novel, significantly more efficient fabrication method for silk that allows them to heat and mold the material into solid forms for a wide range of applications, including medical devices. The physical properties of the end products can be 'tuned' for specific needs, and can be functionally modified with bioactive molecules, such as antibiotics and enzymes. The thermal

4h

Zooming in on brain circuits allows researchers to stop seizure activity

A team of neuroscientists have found, in animal models, that they can 'switch off' epileptic seizures. The findings provide the first evidence that while different types of seizures start in varied areas of the brain, they all can be controlled by targeting a very small set of neurons in the brain or their tendril-like neuronal axons.

4h

Researchers uncover defective sperm epigenome that leads to male infertility

One out of eight couples has trouble conceiving, with a quarter of those cases caused by unexplained male infertility. Research has linked that to defective sperm that fail to 'evict' proteins called histones from DNA during development. However, the mechanisms behind that eviction and where this is happening has remained unclear. Now, researchers show, using newer genome-wide DNA sequencing tools

4h

Degraded soils mean tropical forests may never fully recover from logging

Continually logging and re-growing tropical forests to supply timber is reducing the levels of vital nutrients in the soil, which may limit future forest growth and recovery, a new study suggests. This raises concerns about the long-term sustainability of logging in the tropics.

4h

Would a deep-Earth water cycle change our understanding of planetary evolution?

Every school child learns about the water cycle — evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and collection. But what if there were a deep Earth component of this process happening on geologic timescales that makes our planet ideal for sustaining life as we know it?

4h

November 2019 was 2nd hottest on record for the planet

November 2019 was the second-hottest November for the planet in the 140-year global climate record, according to scientists at NOAA.

4h

NASA Alum Upgrades Glitter Stink Bomb for "Porch Pirates"

Not Cool Every day, "porch pirates" steal an estimated 1.7 million packages . And as former NASA engineer Mark Rober learned in the summer of 2018, even with footage of the theft, police often can't track down the jerks responsible. That's why, in December 2018, Rober used his engineering know-how to rig a package so that, if stolen from his porch, it would not only blast the thief with glitter a

4h

New ice river detected at Arctic glacier adds to rising seas

Geologists, examining the desolate Vavilov ice cap on the northern fringe of Siberia in the Arctic Circle, have for the first time observed rapid ice loss from an improbable new river of ice, according to new research in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

4h

Sexual harassment may be reduced at fun work events, study finds

The office holiday party loses its luster in light of new study findings from researchers at Penn State and Ohio State demonstrating that incidences of unwanted sexual attention are increased at these and other "fun" work events. This sexual harassment may be reduced, however, when these events are held during normal office hours, when attendance is optional and when employees are allowed to bring

4h

Unusual glacier flow could be first-ever look at ice stream formation (video available)

Scientists have captured the birth of a high-speed ice feature for the first time on top of a Russian glacier. In a remote archipelago of the Russian Arctic, Vavilov Ice Cap had been moving at a glacial pace for decades. Then, in 2013, it suddenly started spewing ice into the sea, flowing in what scientists call a glacial surge. But a new study suggests this surge has now become something entirely

4h

Sinuses bothering you? Use those nasal sprays regularly

Many chronic rhinosinusitis patients worry about overuse of antibiotics. A University of Cincinnati researcher says appropriate use of nasal saline and corticosteroid sprays can curtail their fears.

4h

In some children with autism, 'social' and 'visual' neural circuits don't quite connect

Researchers combined eye gaze research with brain scans to discover that in a common subtype of autism, in which ASD toddlers prefer images of geometric shapes over those of children playing, brain areas responsible for vision and attention are not controlled by social brain networks, and so social stimuli are ignored.

4h

Novel genetic signature that can predict some kinds of breast cancer is identified

The research, published in the journal PLOS Genetics, combined a study of the genes involved in retinopathy, as a model of angiogenesis, with analysis of transcriptomic gene expression profiles from public breast cancer databases.

4h

Daily briefing: The best science images of the year

Nature, Published online: 17 December 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03889-3 Stunning images from the year in science, the world's largest neutrino detector is a go and the US government is to fund gun-violence research for the first time in more than 20 years.

4h

Study: Just Three Years of Vaping Increases Lung Disease Risk

A first-of-its-kind health study has yielded bad news for e-cigarette users — and even worse news for those who both vape and smoke conventional cigarettes. On Monday, a team from the University of California, San Francisco, published the results of the first long-term study focused on the relationship between e-cigarettes and respiratory illness in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine . F

4h

Google Reportedly Fires Fifth Worker For Organizing Unionization

Number Five Google reportedly fired another employee for attempting to organize the company's workforce Kathryn Spiers, who worked on platform security at Google, was investigated, placed on leave, and then fired for distributing information about labor issues through one of the company's internal communication channels, according to CNET . That makes Spiers the fifth employee that Google recentl

4h

Fatty meal interrupts gut's communication with the body, but why?

Gut cells that normally tell the brain and the rest of the body what's going on after a meal shut down completely for a few hours after a high-fat meal, a team of researchers discovered in zebrafish. Enteroendocrine cells normally produce at least 15 different hormones to send signals to the rest of the body. The finding could be a clue to insulin resistance that leads to Type 2 diabetes.

4h

Ancient 'chewing gum' yields insights into people and bacteria of the past

Researchers have succeeded in extracting a complete human genome from a thousands-of-years old 'chewing gum.' According to the researchers, it is a new untapped source of ancient DNA.

4h

A new gene therapy strategy, courtesy of nature

Scientists have developed a new gene-therapy technique by transforming human cells into mass producers of tiny nano-sized particles full of genetic material that has the potential to reverse disease processes.

4h

The effect of taking antidepressants during pregnancy

Exposure to antidepressants during pregnancy and the first weeks of life can alter sensory processing well into adulthood, according to research in mice.

4h

How mysterious circular DNA causes cancer in children

Why do children develop cancer? An international team of researchers, led by Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, now reveal that mysterious rings of DNA known as extrachromosomal circular DNA can contribute to cancer development in children. Producing the first detailed map of circular DNA, the scientists have shed new unanticipated insi

4h

Blue light may not be as disruptive to our sleep patterns as originally thought

Contrary to common belief, blue light may not be as disruptive to our sleep patterns as originally thought — according to scientists. According to the team, using dim, cooler, lights in the evening and bright warmer lights in the day may be more beneficial to our health.

4h

Ancient 'gum' reveals 5,000-year-old DNA

Researchers have extracted a complete ancient human genome from birch pitch, a 5,700-year-old type of ancient "chewing gum," found during excavations on Lolland, Denmark. The researchers believe it marks the first time that anyone has extracted an entire ancient human genome from anything other than human bones. "It is amazing to have gotten a complete ancient human genome from anything other tha

5h

A new playbook for interference

The interference between two photons could connect distant quantum processors, enabling an internet-like quantum computer network.

5h

Suboptimal diet and cardiometabolic disease healthcare costs in the US

Approximately $50 billion dollars of the annual healthcare cost of cardiometabolic disease in the US population could be associated with poor diet, according to a research article published this week in the open access journal PLOS Medicine.

5h

Healthy diet could save $50 billion in health care costs

Investigators analyzed the impact of 10 dietary factors — including consumption of fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, processed meats and more — and estimated the annual CMD costs of suboptimal diet habits.

5h

Acute leukemia patients treated with common therapy have increased risk for heart failure

Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are treated with anthracyclines are at a heightened risk of heart failure — most often within one year of exposure to the chemotherapy treatment, according to a new study led by researchers at Penn Medicine. To help identify a patient's risk for heart failure following the treatment, researchers developed a risk

5h

Social determinants of health are linked to gun homicide rates

Gun homicide rates in the US are associated with several social determinants of health, including income inequality, government welfare spending, trust in institutions, and social mobility, according to a new study published Dec. 17 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Daniel Kim from Northeastern University in Boston, Massachussetts.

5h

Paper art inspires robots that go from 2D to 3D

Kirigami-inspired techniques have allowed researchers to design thin sheets of material that automatically reconfigure into new two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional structures in response to environmental stimuli. The researchers created a variety of robotic devices as a proof of concept for the approach. Kirigami is an art form in which a single piece of paper is cut and folded to create

5h

Visual neurons don't work the way scientists thought

A new survey of the activity of nearly 60,000 neurons in the mouse visual system reveals how far we have to go to understand how the brain computes. The analysis reveals that more than 90% of neurons in the visual cortex, the part of the brain that process our visual world, don't work the way scientists thought — and it's not yet clear how they do work.

5h

Birds' seasonal migrations shift earlier as climate changes

In what the authors believe is one of the first studies to examine climate change impact on the timing of bird migration on a continental scale, researchers report that spring migrants were likely to pass certain stops earlier now than they would have 20 years ago. Also, temperature and migration timing were closely aligned, with the greatest changes in migration timing occurring in the regions wa

5h

Home hospital reduces costs, improves care

The results of the investigators' randomized controlled trial with more patients strengthens the evidence, showing that home hospital care reduced cost, utilization, and readmissions while increasing physical activity compared with usual hospital care.

5h

Research yields potential bioblendstock for diesel fuel

The NREL scientists, along with colleagues at Yale University, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are part of the Department of Energy's Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines (Co-Optima) initiative. Co-Optima's research focuses on improving fuel economy and vehicle performance while also reducing emissions.

5h

Researchers provide new insights on the photoconversion mechanism of phytochromes

Light provides the energy that plants and other photosynthetic organisms need to grow, which ultimately yields the metabolites that feed all other organisms on the planet. Plants also rely on light cues for developing their photosynthetic machinery and to sync their life cycles around daily and seasonal rhythms.

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Millions of Birds Are Migrating Earlier Because of Warming

Weather radar data shows that many North American species are shifting their spring migration by two days each decade — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

5h

It's Beginning to Look a Lot Like Christmas

With barely more than a week left until Christmas, lighted displays, colorful markets, and Santa's helpers are out in force. From Europe to the Americas and Asia, gathered here as an early gift is a collection of holiday cheer and light wrapped up in 28 photographs.

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Researchers provide new insights on the photoconversion mechanism of phytochromes

Light provides the energy that plants and other photosynthetic organisms need to grow, which ultimately yields the metabolites that feed all other organisms on the planet. Plants also rely on light cues for developing their photosynthetic machinery and to sync their life cycles around daily and seasonal rhythms.

5h

Solving the challenges of long duration space flight with 3-D printing

The International Space Station has continuously been home to astronauts for more than nineteen years. Astronauts conduct scientific research using dozens of special facilities aboard the space station, which also provides them with a place to eat, sleep, relax and exercise. To make all of this possible requires sending more than 7,000 pounds of spare parts to the station annually. Another 29,000

5h

Gun Homicide Linked to Poor Social Mobility

An epidemiologist explores the social and economic roots of the 13,060 firearm-related deaths in 48 states in 2015 — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

5h

Gun Homicide Linked to Poor Social Mobility

An epidemiologist explores the social and economic roots of the 13,060 firearm-related deaths in 48 states in 2015 — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

5h

The Secret Plan to Force Out Nixon

In January 1974, House Minority Leader John Jacobs Rhodes posed a surprising question to Barber Conable, the fourth-ranking House Republican. He wanted to know what Conable thought "of the possibility of contingency plans in the event that it was disclosed that Richard Nixon in fact was personally involved in the cover up of Watergate affairs to the extent that he was in fact impeachable." Rhodes

5h

Study: US takes 'low road' to growth with adverse impact on wellbeing, future prosperity

The U.S. economy may be expanding, but it's taking the low road to growth that undermines wellbeing and may cause economic challenges in the future, according a new study published online in the Cambridge Journal of Economics that centers on the way different countries have responded to the growth of women in the labor force.

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Camouflage made of quantum material could hide you from infrared cameras

Infrared cameras detect people and other objects by the heat they emit. Now, researchers have discovered the uncanny ability of a material to hide a target by masking its telltale heat properties.

5h

Scientists seeking cause of huge freshwater mussel die-off

On a recent late fall afternoon at Kyles Ford, the white branches of sycamore trees overhung the banks of the Clinch River, leaves slowly turning yellow. Green walnuts covered the ground. The shallow water ran fast and cold over the rocky bottom, but it was littered with the white shells of dead mussels.

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And then there was light

New research from Washington University in St. Louis provides insight into how proteins called phytochromes sense light and contribute to how plants grow. Biologists used sophisticated techniques to structurally define the sequence of events that support the transition between light- and dark-adapted states.

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Study: US takes 'low road' to growth with adverse impact on wellbeing, future prosperity

Some countries — including the United States — take the low road to economic growth, where growing numbers of women in the workforce may stimulate the economy, but inadequate child care overburdens them, compromises their economic contribution, and threatens the quality of the future labor force, once poorly socialized children reach adulthood. Gender egalitarian high road countries have higher

5h

First US study shows strong results for procedure to treat knee pain from OA

Ari Isaacson, M.D., director of clinical research in the UNC School of Medicine's department of radiology, led a pilot study to investigate the effectiveness of using genicular artery embolization for long-term treatment of knee pain caused by osteoarthritis.

5h

How vulnerable is your car to cyberattacks?

New research from Michigan State University is the first to apply criminal justice theory to smart vehicles, revealing cracks in the current system leading to potential cyber risks.

5h

Changes in the immune system explain why belly fat is bad for thinking

Iowa State researchers have found for the first time that less muscle and more body fat may affect how flexible our thinking gets as we become older, and changes in parts of the immune system could be responsible.

5h

NREL, Co-Optima research yields potential bioblendstock for diesel fuel

The NREL scientists, along with colleagues at Yale University, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are part of the Department of Energy's Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines (Co-Optima) initiative. Co-Optima's research focuses on improving fuel economy and vehicle performance while also reducing emissions.

5h

Applying physics principle yields grim prediction on hurricane destruction in an era

Global warming could well lead to hurricanes more powerful than meteorologists currently forecast. A physicist noticed that one of the principles of physics — phase transition — did not appear in the scientific literature of meteorology. Using 60 years of published data, he demonstrated that the destructive power of tropical hurricanes increased linearly and rapidly as water temperature increase

5h

Long-acting contraception has proven highly effective but is restricted by some hospitals

Long-acting reversible contraceptives like intrauterine implants have greatly reduced unintended pregnancies and abortions, but government protections allowing religious hospitals to restrict care are limiting access to health care consumers, according to an expert at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

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Ancient 'chewing gum' yields insights into people and bacteria of the past

Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have succeeded in extracting a complete human genome from a thousands-of-years old 'chewing gum.' According to the researchers, it is a new untapped source of ancient DNA.

5h

RIT and IAR observe pulsars for the first time from South America

A team from RIT and the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR) upgraded two radio telescopes in Argentina that lay dormant for 15 years in order to study pulsars, rapidly rotating neutron stars with intense magnetic fields that emit notably in radio wavelengths. The project is outlined in a new paper published in Astronomy and Astrophysics.

5h

Fatty meal interrupts gut's communication with the body, but why?

Gut cells that normally tell the brain and the rest of the body what's going on after a meal shut down completely for a few hours after a high-fat meal, a team of Duke University researchers discovered in zebrafish. Enteroendocrine cells normally produce at least 15 different hormones to send signals to the rest of the body. The finding could be a clue to insulin resistance that leads to Type 2 di

5h

Disruption of glycine receptors to study embryonic development and brain function

Researchers from Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, University of Toyama, Yamagata University, Cairo University, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences and Setsunan University joined forces to further study glycine receptors, particularly glycine receptor alpha-4 (Glra4), during development. In a recent publication in the Journal Reproduction, they demonstrated that Glra4 is not

5h

New animal model shows effective treatment for latent tuberculosis

A major goal of tuberculosis (TB) research is to find a way to treat people with the latent (or inactive) form of the disease to keep them from developing symptomatic TB. A breakthrough study using a new animal model developed for this purpose showed a combination of two classes of antibiotics can wipe out this hidden threat.

5h

Developing a technique to study past Martian climate

Joanna Clark , a University of Houston doctoral student has received a $285,000 grant from NASA to develop a technique that could one day be used to better understand past climate conditions on Mars.

5h

Dense breast notifications are having little impact

Dense Breast Notifications (DBNs) are having little impact.

5h

Poor sight causes people to overstep the mark

People with vision impairment are more cautious when stepping over obstacles when walking – but increase their risk of falls, according to a new study published in the journal Scientific Reports.

5h

Parasitic plant shuts down its victim's genes

The parasite dodder, an agricultural pest found on every continent, sends genetic material into its host to shut down host defense genes, researchers report. The researchers found dodder targets evolutionarily conserved host genes and sends many slightly different versions of its genetic weaponry to ensure effectiveness, restricting the host's ability to respond. Instead of making its own energy

5h

Scientists seeking cause of huge freshwater mussel die-off

On a recent late fall afternoon at Kyles Ford, the white branches of sycamore trees overhung the banks of the Clinch River, leaves slowly turning yellow. Green walnuts covered the ground. The shallow water ran fast and cold over the rocky bottom, but it was littered with the white shells of dead mussels.

5h

In breakthrough method of creating solar material, NREL scientists prove the impossible really isn't

Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) achieved a technological breakthrough for solar cells previously thought impossible.

5h

Blue mushroom dye used to develop new fluorescent tool for cell biologists

A new fluorescent tool for detecting reactive oxygen species based on a chemical found in mushrooms has been developed by scientists at the University of Bath.

5h

A modest proposal for hunting sea otters

A northern sea otter in Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. (Lisa Hupp, USFWS/) This story originally featured on Field & Stream Phil Doherty doesn't think sea otters are cute. Sure, he can see why tourists might get a kick out of watching the fuzzy critters reclining in waves with clams on their bellies, fixing to chow down. But to Doherty, co-director of the Southeast Alaska Regional Dive Fisherie

5h

Comfortable, practical strollers for parents and their kids

The only way to stroll. (Micael Widell via Unsplash/) A stroller is really like a giant purse for transporting (and shielding) your little one. But it can also tout high-tech features that will make your life easier, even during that little walk in the park. Here are our top picks for the most practical strollers for every lifestyle. From the city streets to the back seat. (Amazon/) Spotted aroun

5h

Effects of natural gas assessed in study of shale gas boom in Appalachian basin

Natural gas has become the largest fuel source for generating electricity in the United States, accounting for a third of production and consumption of energy. However, the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of natural gas have not been considered comprehensively. A new study estimated the cumulative effects of the shale gas boom in the Appalachian basin in the early 2000s on air quality, cli

5h

The world's coral reefs are dying. Scientists in the Bahamas are searching for a chance for their survival

Wetsuit still zipped up to his neck from an earlier dive, Ross Cunning stands amid dozens of chunks of coral in the saltwater live well on board the Coral Reef II, the research vessel owned by his employer, Chicago's Shedd Aquarium.

5h

Male Life Scientists More Likely to Frame Their Work as "Excellent"

Female researchers used positive words like "novel" or "unique" less frequently than male ones in clinical research studies — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

5h

Watch the First Commercial Self-Flying Helicopter Take Off

Rysing to the Skys Urban flight company Skyryse just showed off what it calls the "world's most intelligent helicopter" — a modified helicopter that can fly itself. In a video uploaded by the company, you can watch the FAA-approved helicopter take off all by itself with a safety pilot in the cockpit to make sure nothing goes wrong. Rather than representing an entirely different take on the flying

6h

Strange "Cocoons" Surround These Young Galaxies

Carbon, Carbon Everywhere Today, our universe is rife with carbon — it's in the stars, planets, plants, and people — but when the Big Bang happened, there wasn't a carbon molecule in sight. It wasn't until stars began achieving nuclear fusion, in fact, that the element sprang into being . Astronomers have long wondered how that carbon subsequently spread throughout the universe — and newly discov

6h

Climate change legislation, media coverage drives oil companies' ad spending, study finds

Major oil corporations tend to spend the most money on advertising and promotional campaigns at moments when they face negative media coverage and/or the threat of increased federal regulation, a new study finds.

6h

California coastal waters rising in acidity at alarming rate, study finds

Waters off the California coast are acidifying twice as fast as the global average, scientists found, threatening major fisheries and sounding the alarm that the ocean can absorb only so much more of the world's carbon emissions.

6h

First study on human-grade dog food says whole, fresh food is highly digestible

Pet owners are increasingly treating their "fur-babies" like members of the family. In response, some pet food companies are developing diets that more closely resemble human food, incorporating human-grade meat and vegetable ingredients that pass USDA quality inspections. Until now, little research had been done on these foods. A new study from the University of Illinois shows these diets are not

6h

First study on human-grade dog food says whole, fresh food is highly digestible

Pet owners are increasingly treating their "fur-babies" like members of the family. In response, some pet food companies are developing diets that more closely resemble human food, incorporating human-grade meat and vegetable ingredients that pass USDA quality inspections. Until now, little research had been done on these foods. A new study from the University of Illinois shows these diets are not

6h

In mice, a high-fat, high-sugar diet remodels the microbiome and endocannabinoid system

Weight gain and diet have long been known to shuffle the population of gut microbes. More recently, studies have also connected weight gain and diet to changes in the intestinal endocannabinoid system (eCB), a complex network of metabolites and receptors that help regulate appetite and metabolism, among other chores. A new study in mSystems, an open-access journal of the American Society for Micro

6h

In breakthrough method of creating solar material, NREL scientists prove the impossible really isn't

Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) achieved a technological breakthrough for solar cells previously thought impossible.

6h

Blue mushroom dye used to develop new fluorescent tool for cell biologists

A new fluorescent tool for detecting reactive oxygen species based on a chemical found in mushrooms has been developed by scientists at the University of Bath.

6h

Multiple sclerosis: New standards required for planning clinical trials

.The patient perspective needs more consideration.

6h

New discovery about harmful particles: 'A fundamental shortcoming in air pollution models'

Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered a surprising phenomenon in a process by which certain gas molecules produce harmful particles. The impact of this phenomenon is likely to increase in urban areas as pollution decreases. This knowledge can serve to help politicians adopt better measures to combat air pollution and contribute to improve climate models.

6h

Hundreds of thousands of people select names for exoplanet systems

On 17 December 2019 the names of 112 sets of exoplanets and host stars named in the IAU100 NameExoWorlds campaigns were announced at a press conference in Paris (France). Within the framework of the International Astronomical Union's 100th anniversary commemorations (IAU100) in 2019, 112 countries organised national campaigns that stimulated the direct participation of over 780 000 people worldwid

6h

Archaeologists find Bronze Age tombs lined with gold

Archaeologists have discovered two Bronze Age tombs containing a trove of engraved jewelry and artifacts that promise to unlock secrets about life in ancient Greece.

6h

Distant Milky Way-like galaxies reveal star formation history of the universe

Thousands of galaxies are visible in this radio image of an area in the Southern Sky, made with the MeerKAT telescope. The numerous faint dots are distant galaxies like our own Milky Way, that have never been observed in radio light before.

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6h

NASA's SDO sees new kind of magnetic explosion on sun

NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed a new type of magnetic explosion, the likes of which have never seen before.

6h

Interest in presidential eating habits may affect the public's food choices

A recent study by a Penn State researcher examined how President Donald Trump's reported fondness for fast food may affect the public's perception of fast food and the likelihood, based on their media habits, one might purchase some.

6h

Moffitt researchers develop more efficient approach to create mouse models

Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have developed a new platform for creating genetically engineered mice to study melanoma that is significantly faster than a normal mouse model approach.

6h

Researchers create functional mini-liver by 3D bioprinting

Technique developed at Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center, funded by FAPESP and hosted by the University of São Paulo, produced hepatic tissue in the laboratory in only 90 days and could become an alternative to organ transplantation in future.

6h

Mass General team detects Alzheimer's early using electronic health records

A team of scientists has developed a software-based method of scanning electronic health records to estimate the risk that a person will receive a dementia diagnosis.

6h

Effects of natural gas assessed in study of shale gas boom in Appalachian basin

A new study estimated the cumulative effects of the shale gas boom in the Appalachian basin in the early 2000s on air quality, climate change, and employment. The study found that effects on air quality and employment followed the boom-and-bust cycle, but effects on climate change will likely persist for generations to come. The study, which also considered how to compensate for these effects, pro

6h

First study on human-grade dog food says whole, fresh food is highly digestible

some pet food companies are developing diets that more closely resemble human food, incorporating human-grade meat and vegetable ingredients that pass USDA quality inspections. Until now, little research had been done on these foods. A new study from the University of Illinois shows these diets are not only highly palatable, they are more digestible than originally estimated.

6h

Genomic insights: How female butterflies alter investment in attractiveness vs. fecundity

Tradeoffs have been a major focus of evolutionary biologists trying to understand phenotypic diversity, yet almost nothing is known about the mechanistic basis of tradeoffs. An international team of researchers has characterized one such mechanism, finding that a transposable element insertion is associated with the switch between alternative life history strategies.

6h

Climate change legislation, media coverage drives oil companies' ad spending, study finds

An analysis led by an Institute at Brown for Environment and Society visiting professor found that oil companies ramp up advertising campaigns when they face negative media coverage or new regulations.

6h

Spending Bill Boosts US Science Budgets, Unlocks Gun Research

The legislative package for 2020 allots $25 million for gun-violence research, which has been on hold for more than two decades.

6h

NASA Releases New Image of Interstellar Visitor

Closer Look NASA just shared the best picture yet of 2I/Borisov, the second-ever interstellar object that we've spotted entering our solar system. 2I/Borisov was first identified in August. Since then it's moved closer to Earth, meaning NASA's been able to get an increasingly-clear view of it, according to The Independent . With the clearest image yet, NASA learned that earlier measurements of th

6h

Cellular redox sensor HSCARG negatively regulates the translesion synthesis pathway and exacerbates mammary tumorigenesis [Biochemistry]

The translesion synthesis (TLS) pathway is a double-edged sword in terms of genome integrity. Deficiency in TLS leads to generation of DNA double strand break (DSB) during replication stress, while excessive activation of the TLS pathway increases the risk of point mutation. Here we demonstrate that HSCARG, a cellular redox…

6h

Mix-and-inject XFEL crystallography reveals gated conformational dynamics during enzyme catalysis [Biochemistry]

How changes in enzyme structure and dynamics facilitate passage along the reaction coordinate is a fundamental unanswered question. Here, we use time-resolved mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC) at an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), ambient-temperature X-ray crystallography, computer simulations, and enzyme kinetics to characterize how covalent catalysis modulates isocyanide hydratase (

6h

The conical shape of DIM lipids promotes Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of macrophages [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Phthiocerol dimycocerosate (DIM) is a major virulence factor of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). While this lipid promotes the entry of Mtb into macrophages, which occurs via phagocytosis, its molecular mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we combined biophysical, cell biology, and modeling approaches to reveal the molecular mechanism of…

6h

Mechanisms of noncanonical binding dynamics in multivalent protein-protein interactions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Protein multivalency can provide increased affinity and specificity relative to monovalent counterparts, but these emergent biochemical properties and their mechanistic underpinnings are difficult to predict as a function of the biophysical properties of the multivalent binding partners. Here, we present a mathematical model that accurately simulates binding kinetics and equilibria…

6h

QTY code designed thermostable and water-soluble chimeric chemokine receptors with tunable ligand affinity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Chemokine receptors are of great interest as they play a critical role in many immunological and pathological processes. The ability to study chemokine receptors in aqueous solution without detergent would be significant because natural receptors require detergents to become soluble. We previously reported using the QTY code to design detergent-free…

6h

WNT/RYK signaling restricts goblet cell differentiation during lung development and repair [Developmental Biology]

Goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion are observed in many pulmonary diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. However, the regulation of goblet cell differentiation remains unclear. Here, we identify a regulator of this process in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen for modulators of postnatal lung development;…

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Solenodon genome reveals convergent evolution of venom in eulipotyphlan mammals [Evolution]

Venom systems are key adaptations that have evolved throughout the tree of life and typically facilitate predation or defense. Despite venoms being model systems for studying a variety of evolutionary and physiological processes, many taxonomic groups remain understudied, including venomous mammals. Within the order Eulipotyphla, multiple shrew species and solenodons…

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Sleep-wake-driven and circadian contributions to daily rhythms in gene expression and chromatin accessibility in the murine cortex [Genetics]

The timing and duration of sleep results from the interaction between a homeostatic sleep–wake-driven process and a periodic circadian process, and involves changes in gene regulation and expression. Unraveling the contributions of both processes and their interaction to transcriptional and epigenomic regulatory dynamics requires sampling over time under conditions of…

6h

The I{kappa}B-protein BCL-3 controls Toll-like receptor-induced MAPK activity by promoting TPL-2 degradation in the nucleus [Immunology and Inflammation]

Proinflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are dependent on the activation of the NF-ĸB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which coordinate the transcription and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. We demonstrate that BCL-3, a nuclear IĸB protein that regulates NF-ĸB, also controls TLR-induced MAPK activity by regulating the stability…

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Critical role for TRIM28 and HP1{beta}/{gamma} in the epigenetic control of T cell metabolic reprograming and effector differentiation [Immunology and Inflammation]

Naive CD4+ T lymphocytes differentiate into different effector types, including helper and regulatory cells (Th and Treg, respectively). Heritable gene expression programs that define these effector types are established during differentiation, but little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms that install and maintain these programs. Here, we use mice defective…

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B cell receptor ligation induces display of V-region peptides on MHC class II molecules to T cells [Immunology and Inflammation]

The B cell receptors (BCRs) for antigen express variable (V) regions that are enormously diverse, thus serving as markers on individual B cells. V region-derived idiotypic (Id) peptides can be displayed as pId:MHCII complexes on B cells for recognition by CD4+ T cells. It is not known if naive B…

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Smad7 in intestinal CD4+ T cells determines autoimmunity in a spontaneous model of multiple sclerosis [Immunology and Inflammation]

Environmental triggers acting at the intestinal barrier are thought to contribute to the initiation of autoimmune disorders. The transforming growth factor beta inhibitor Smad7 determines the phenotype of CD4+ T cells. We hypothesized that Smad7 in intestinal CD4+ T cells controls initiation of opticospinal encephalomyelitis (OSE), a murine model of…

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MAIT Cells Are Major Contributors to the Cytokine Response in Group A Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome [Microbiology]

Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a rapidly progressing, life-threatening, systemic reaction to invasive infection caused by group A streptococci (GAS). GAS superantigens are key mediators of STSS through their potent activation of T cells leading to a cytokine storm and consequently vascular leakage, shock, and multiorgan failure. Mucosal-associated invariant…

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Targeting liver aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 prevents heavy but not moderate alcohol drinking [Neuroscience]

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a key enzyme for detoxification the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde, is recognized as a promising therapeutic target to treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Disulfiram, a potent ALDH2 inhibitor, is an approved drug for the treatment of AUD but has clinical limitations due to its side effects. This…

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Endogenous retroviruses are associated with hippocampus-based memory impairment [Neuroscience]

Retrotransposons compose a staggering 40% of the mammalian genome. Among them, endogenous retroviruses (ERV) represent sequences that closely resemble the proviruses created from exogenous retroviral infection. ERVs make up 8 to 10% of human and mouse genomes and range from evolutionarily ancient sequences to recent acquisitions. Studies in Drosophila have…

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Characterization of the activity, aggregation, and toxicity of heterodimers of WT and ALS-associated mutant Sod1 [Neuroscience]

Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) have been reported in both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we investigated the behavior of heteromeric combinations of wild-type (WT) and mutant Sod1 proteins A4V, L38V, G93A, and G93C in human cells. We showed that both WT and mutant…

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The influence of the global electric power system on terrestrial biodiversity [Sustainability Science]

Given its total contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, the global electric power sector will be required to undergo a fundamental transformation over the next decades to limit anthropogenic climate change to below 2 °C. Implications for biodiversity of projected structural changes in the global electric power sector are rarely considered…

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Molecular basis for allosteric regulation of the type 2 ryanodine receptor channel gating by key modulators [Biochemistry]

The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is responsible for releasing Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes, subsequently leading to muscle contraction. Here, we report 4 cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of porcine RyR2 bound to distinct modulators that, together with our published structures, provide mechanistic insight into RyR2 regulation. Ca2+…

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Methylofuran is a prosthetic group of the formyltransferase/hydrolase complex and shuttles one-carbon units between two active sites [Biochemistry]

Methylotrophy, the ability of microorganisms to grow on reduced one-carbon substrates such as methane or methanol, is a feature of various bacterial species. The prevailing oxidation pathway depends on tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) and methylofuran (MYFR), an analog of methanofuran from methanogenic archaea. Formyltransferase/hydrolase complex (Fhc) generates formate from formyl-H4MPT in two…

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A gatekeeping function of the replicative polymerase controls pathway choice in the resolution of lesion-stalled replisomes [Biochemistry]

DNA lesions stall the replisome and proper resolution of these obstructions is critical for genome stability. Replisomes can directly replicate past a lesion by error-prone translesion synthesis. Alternatively, replisomes can reprime DNA synthesis downstream of the lesion, creating a single-stranded DNA gap that is repaired primarily in an error-free, homology-directed…

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Molecular determinants of chaperone interactions on MHC-I for folding and antigen repertoire selection [Biochemistry]

The interplay between a highly polymorphic set of MHC-I alleles and molecular chaperones shapes the repertoire of peptide antigens displayed on the cell surface for T cell surveillance. Here, we demonstrate that the molecular chaperone TAP-binding protein related (TAPBPR) associates with a broad range of partially folded MHC-I species inside…

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Efficient nonenzymatic cyclization and domain shuffling drive pyrrolopyrazine diversity from truncated variants of a fungal NRPS [Biochemistry]

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) generate the core peptide scaffolds of many natural products. These include small cyclic dipeptides such as the insect feeding deterrent peramine, which is a pyrrolopyrazine (PPZ) produced by grass-endophytic Epichloë fungi. Biosynthesis of peramine is catalyzed by the 2-module NRPS, PpzA-1, which has a C-terminal reductase…

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Energetic dependencies dictate folding mechanism in a complex protein [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Large proteins with multiple domains are thought to fold cotranslationally to minimize interdomain misfolding. Once folded, domains interact with each other through the formation of extensive interfaces that are important for protein stability and function. However, multidomain protein folding and the energetics of domain interactions remain poorly understood. In elongation…

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Mammalian germ cells are determined after PGC colonization of the nascent gonad [Developmental Biology]

Mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) are induced in the embryonic epiblast, before migrating to the nascent gonads. In fish, frogs, and birds, the germline segregates even earlier, through the action of maternally inherited germ plasm. Across vertebrates, migrating PGCs retain a broad developmental potential, regardless of whether they were induced…

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Palmitoylation of BMPR1a regulates neural stem cell fate [Developmental Biology]

Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neurons and glial cells throughout embryonic and postnatal brain development. The role of S-palmitoylation (also referred to as S-acylation), a reversible posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, in regulating the fate and activity of NSCs remains largely unknown. We used an unbiased screening approach to identify…

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Migrating bison engineer the green wave [Ecology]

Newly emerging plants provide the best forage for herbivores. To exploit this fleeting resource, migrating herbivores align their movements to surf the wave of spring green-up. With new technology to track migrating animals, the Green Wave Hypothesis has steadily gained empirical support across a diversity of migratory taxa. This hypothesis…

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Unveiling dimensions of stability in complex ecological networks [Ecology]

Understanding the stability of ecological communities is a matter of increasing importance in the context of global environmental change. Yet it has proved to be a challenging task. Different metrics are used to assess the stability of ecological systems, and the choice of one metric over another may result in…

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Divergent trophic responses of sympatric penguin species to historic anthropogenic exploitation and recent climate change [Ecology]

The Southern Ocean is in an era of significant change. Historic overharvesting of marine mammals and recent climatic warming have cascading impacts on resource availability and, in turn, ecosystem structure and function. We examined trophic responses of sympatric chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) penguins to nearly 100 y…

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Fungal aerobiota are not affected by time nor environment over a 13-y time series at the Mauna Loa Observatory [Ecology]

Fungi are ubiquitous and often abundant components of virtually all ecosystems on Earth, serving a diversity of functions. While there is clear evidence that fungal-mediated processes can influence environmental conditions, and in turn select for specific fungi, it is less clear how fungi respond to environmental fluxes over relatively long…

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Development of an autonomous and bifunctional quorum-sensing circuit for metabolic flux control in engineered Escherichia coli [Engineering]

Metabolic engineering seeks to reprogram microbial cells to efficiently and sustainably produce value-added compounds. Since chemical production can be at odds with the cell's natural objectives, strategies have been developed to balance conflicting goals. For example, dynamic regulation modulates gene expression to favor biomass and metabolite accumulation at low cell…

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Optimizing photoswitchable MEK [Engineering]

Optogenetic approaches are transforming quantitative studies of cell-signaling systems. A recently developed photoswitchable mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) enzyme (psMEK) short-circuits the highly conserved Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK)-signaling cascade at the most proximal step of effector kinase activation. However, since this optogenetic tool relies on phosphory

6h

Treg-inducing microparticles promote donor-specific tolerance in experimental vascularized composite allotransplantation [Engineering]

For individuals who sustain devastating composite tissue loss, vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA; e.g., hand and face transplantation) has the potential to restore appearance and function of the damaged tissues. As with solid organ transplantation, however, rejection must be controlled by multidrug systemic immunosuppression with substantial side effects. As an alternative…

6h

Engineering geometrical 3-dimensional untethered in vitro neural tissue mimic [Engineering]

Formation of tissue models in 3 dimensions is more effective in recapitulating structure and function compared to their 2-dimensional (2D) counterparts. Formation of 3D engineered tissue to control shape and size can have important implications in biomedical research and in engineering applications such as biological soft robotics. While neural spheroids…

6h

The impact of rising CO2 and acclimation on the response of US forests to global warming [Environmental Sciences]

The response of forests to climate change depends in part on whether the photosynthetic benefit from increased atmospheric CO2 (∆Ca = future minus historic CO2) compensates for increased physiological stresses from higher temperature (∆T). We predicted the outcome of these competing responses by using optimization theory and a mechanistic model…

6h

Functional genetic validation of key genes conferring insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae [Genetics]

Resistance in Anopheles gambiae to members of all 4 major classes (pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates) of public health insecticides limits effective control of malaria transmission in Africa. Increase in expression of detoxifying enzymes has been associated with insecticide resistance, but their direct functional validation in An. gambiae is still…

6h

Homeobox protein Hhex negatively regulates Treg cells by inhibiting Foxp3 expression and function [Immunology and Inflammation]

Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis, but the suppressive function of Treg cells can be an obstacle in the treatment of cancer and chronic infectious diseases. Here, we identified the homeobox protein Hhex as a negative regulator of Treg cells. The expression of Hhex…

6h

Anti-CD20 therapy depletes activated myelin-specific CD8+ T cells in multiple sclerosis [Immunology and Inflammation]

CD8+ T cells are believed to play an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS), yet their role in MS pathogenesis remains poorly defined. Although myelin proteins are considered potential autoantigenic targets, prior studies of myelin-reactive CD8+ T cells in MS have relied on in vitro stimulation, thereby limiting accurate measurement…

6h

Alcohol shifts gut microbial networks and ameliorates a murine model of neuroinflammation in a sex-specific pattern [Immunology and Inflammation]

Alcohol is a widely consumed dietary component by patients with autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases, but current evidence on the effects of alcohol in these conditions is confounding. Epidemiological studies suggest moderate consumption of alcohol may be protective in some autoimmune diseases; however, this correlation has not been directly investigated. Here, we…

6h

Cross-talk between iNKT cells and CD8 T cells in the spleen requires the IL-4/CCL17 axis for the generation of short-lived effector cells [Immunology and Inflammation]

Mounting an effective immune response relies critically on the coordinated interactions between adaptive and innate compartments. How and where immune cells from these different compartments interact is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the cross-talk between invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) and CD8+ T cells in the spleen,…

6h

An absence of lamin B1 in migrating neurons causes nuclear membrane ruptures and cell death [Medical Sciences]

Deficiencies in either lamin B1 or lamin B2 cause both defective migration of cortical neurons in the developing brain and reduced neuronal survival. The neuronal migration abnormality is explained by a weakened nuclear lamina that interferes with nucleokinesis, a nuclear translocation process required for neuronal migration. In contrast, the explanation…

6h

Fbxw7 is a driver of uterine carcinosarcoma by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition [Medical Sciences]

Uterine carcinosarcoma is an aggressive variant of endometrial carcinoma characterized by unusual histologic features including discrete malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components (carcinoma and sarcoma). Recent studies have confirmed a monoclonal origin, and comprehensive genomic characterizations have identified mutations such as Tp53 and Pten. However, the biological origins and specific c

6h

Combined HIV-1 sequence and integration site analysis informs viral dynamics and allows reconstruction of replicating viral ancestors [Microbiology]

Understanding HIV-1 persistence despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) is of paramount importance. Both single-genome sequencing (SGS) and integration site analysis (ISA) provide useful information regarding the structure of persistent HIV DNA populations; however, until recently, there was no way to link integration sites to their cognate proviral sequences. Here, we used…

6h

Metatranscriptomic reconstruction reveals RNA viruses with the potential to shape carbon cycling in soil [Microbiology]

Viruses impact nearly all organisms on Earth, with ripples of influence in agriculture, health, and biogeochemical processes. However, very little is known about RNA viruses in an environmental context, and even less is known about their diversity and ecology in soil, 1 of the most complex microbial systems. Here, we…

6h

Division of labor in honey bee gut microbiota for plant polysaccharide digestion [Microbiology]

Bees acquire carbohydrates from nectar and lipids; and amino acids from pollen, which also contains polysaccharides including cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. These potential energy sources could be degraded and fermented through microbial enzymatic activity, resulting in short chain fatty acids available to hosts. However, the contributions of individual microbiota members…

6h

Structure and function of an unusual flavodoxin from the domain Archaea [Microbiology]

Flavodoxins, electron transfer proteins essential for diverse metabolisms in microbes from the domain Bacteria, are extensively characterized. Remarkably, although genomic annotations of flavodoxins are widespread in microbes from the domain Archaea, none have been isolated and characterized. Herein is described the structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of an unusual flavodox

6h

Otogelin, otogelin-like, and stereocilin form links connecting outer hair cell stereocilia to each other and the tectorial membrane [Neuroscience]

The function of outer hair cells (OHCs), the mechanical actuators of the cochlea, involves the anchoring of their tallest stereocilia in the tectorial membrane (TM), an acellular structure overlying the sensory epithelium. Otogelin and otogelin-like are TM proteins related to secreted epithelial mucins. Defects in either cause the DFNB18B and…

6h

Brain-wide genetic mapping identifies the indusium griseum as a prenatal target of pharmacologically unrelated psychostimulants [Neuroscience]

Psychostimulant use is an ever-increasing socioeconomic burden, including a dramatic rise during pregnancy. Nevertheless, brain-wide effects of psychostimulant exposure are incompletely understood. Here, we performed Fos-CreERT2–based activity mapping, correlated for pregnant mouse dams and their fetuses with amphetamine, nicotine, and caffeine applied acutely during midgestation. While light-shee

6h

{beta}2* nAChRs on VTA dopamine and GABA neurons separately mediate nicotine aversion and reward [Neuroscience]

Evidence shows that the neurotransmitter dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of nicotine and other drugs of abuse, while nondopaminergic neural substrates mediate the negative motivational effects. β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are necessary and sufficient for the experience of both nicotine reward and aversion in an intra-VTA (ventral tegmental area)…

6h

Crystal structure of the M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor [Pharmacology]

The human M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) has recently emerged as an exciting therapeutic target for treating a range of disorders, including drug addiction. However, a lack of structural information for this receptor subtype has limited further drug development and validation. Here we report a high-resolution crystal structure of the…

6h

TRPA1 modulation by piperidine carboxamides suggests an evolutionarily conserved binding site and gating mechanism [Pharmacology]

The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel functions as an irritant sensor and is a therapeutic target for treating pain, itch, and respiratory diseases. As a ligand-gated channel, TRPA1 can be activated by electrophilic compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) through covalent modification or activated by noncovalent agonists through…

6h

Burrowing dynamics of aquatic worms in soft sediments [Physics]

We investigate the dynamics of Lumbriculus variegatus in water-saturated sediment beds to understand limbless locomotion in the benthic zone found at the bottom of lakes and oceans. These slender aquatic worms are observed to perform elongation–contraction and transverse undulatory strokes in both water-saturated sediments and water. Greater drag anisotropy in…

6h

Polarized PtdIns(4,5)P2 distribution mediated by a voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) regulates sperm motility [Physiology]

The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) is a unique protein that shows voltage-dependent phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. Here we report that VSP is activated in mice sperm flagellum and generates a unique subcellular distribution pattern of PtdIns(4,5)P2. Sperm from VSP−/− mice show more Ca2+ influx upon capacitation than VSP+/− mice and abnormal circular…

6h

A critical role for microglia in maintaining vascular integrity in the hypoxic spinal cord [Physiology]

Hypoxic preconditioning reduces disease severity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), in part by enhancing the barrier properties of spinal cord blood vessels. Because other studies have shown that similar levels of hypoxia transiently increase permeability of central nervous system (CNS) blood vessels, the goal of this study…

6h

Corpora amylacea act as containers that remove waste products from the brain [Physiology]

Corpora amylacea (CA) in the human brain are granular bodies formed by polyglucosan aggregates that amass waste products of different origins. They are generated by astrocytes, mainly during aging and neurodegenerative conditions, and are located predominantly in periventricular and subpial regions. This study shows that CA are released from these…

6h

BBX4, a phyB-interacting and modulated regulator, directly interacts with PIF3 to fine tune red light-mediated photomorphogenesis [Plant Biology]

Phytochrome B (phyB) absorbs red light signals and subsequently initiates a set of molecular events in plant cells to promote photomorphogenesis. Here we show that phyB directly interacts with B-BOX CONTAINING PROTEIN 4 (BBX4), a positive regulator of red light signaling, and positively controls its abundance in red light. BBX4…

6h

Glutathionylation primes soluble glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase for late collapse into insoluble aggregates [Plant Biology]

Protein aggregation is a complex physiological process, primarily determined by stress-related factors revealing the hidden aggregation propensity of proteins that otherwise are fully soluble. Here we report a mechanism by which glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGAPC1) is primed to form insoluble aggregates by the glutathionylation of its catalytic…

6h

Insect-damaged Arabidopsis moves like wounded Mimosa pudica [Plant Biology]

Slow wave potentials (SWPs) are damage-induced electrical signals which, based on experiments in which organs are burned, have been linked to rapid increases in leaf or stem thickness. The possibility that pressure surges in injured xylem underlie these events has been evoked frequently. We sought evidence for insect feeding-induced positive…

6h

Young children spontaneously recreate core properties of language in a new modality [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

How the world's 6,000+ natural languages have arisen is mostly unknown. Yet, new sign languages have emerged recently among deaf people brought together in a community, offering insights into the dynamics of language evolution. However, documenting the emergence of these languages has mostly consisted of studying the end product; the…

6h

The association between serotonin transporter availability and the neural correlates of fear bradycardia [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Susceptibility to stress-related psychopathology is associated with reduced expression of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), particularly in combination with stress exposure. Aberrant physiological and neuronal responses to threat may underlie this increased vulnerability. Here, implementing a cross-species approach, we investigated the association between 5-HTT expression and the neural correlate

6h

Correction for Green et al., Linking global drivers of agricultural trade to on-the-ground impacts on biodiversity [Correction]

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for "Linking global drivers of agricultural trade to on-the-ground impacts on biodiversity," by Jonathan M. H. Green, Simon A. Croft, América P. Durán, Andrew P. Balmford, Neil D. Burgess, Steve Fick, Toby A. Gardner, Javier Godar, Clément Suavet, Malika Virah-Sawmy, Lucy E. Young, and Christopher…

6h

Correction for Johansson et al., An open challenge to advance probabilistic forecasting for dengue epidemics [Correction]

MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for "An open challenge to advance probabilistic forecasting for dengue epidemics," by Michael A. Johansson, Karyn M. Apfeldorf, Scott Dobson, Jason Devita, Anna L. Buczak, Benjamin Baugher, Linda J. Moniz, Thomas Bagley, Steven M. Babin, Erhan Guven, Teresa K. Yamana, Jeffrey Shaman, Terry Moschou, Nick Lothian, Aaron…

6h

Correction for Khan et al., Global selective sweep of a highly inbred genome of the cattle parasite Neospora caninum [Correction]

MICROBIOLOGY Correction for "Global selective sweep of a highly inbred genome of the cattle parasite Neospora caninum," by Asis Khan, Ayako Wendy Fujita, Nadine Randle, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Jahangheer S. Shaik, Kui Shen, Andrew J. Oler, Mariam Quinones, Sarah M. Latham, Bartholomew D. Akanmori, Sarah Cleaveland, Elizabeth A. Innes, Una Ryan,…

6h

Correction for Wang et al., Spatiotemporal activation of the C/EBP{beta}/{delta}-secretase axis regulates the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease [Correction]

NEUROSCIENCE Correction for "Spatiotemporal activation of the C/EBPβ/δ-secretase axis regulates the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease," by Hualong Wang, Xia Liu, Shengdi Chen, and Keqiang Ye, which was first published December 10, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1815915115 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, E12427–E12434). The authors note that their competing interests statement was omitted…

6h

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Bison engineer forage green-up Bison migrate and graze in Yellowstone National Park. Image courtesy of the US National Park Service. The Green Wave Hypothesis states that migrating herbivores follow the progression of young vegetation greening up from low to high altitudes or latitudes, given that young vegetation provides superior forage….

6h

Joint statement on EPA proposed rule and public availability of data (2019) [Editorials]

Eighteen months after articulating our concerns (1) regarding the 2018 "Strengthening Transparency in Regulatory Science" rule proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2), we have become more concerned in response to recent media coverage and a 13 November hearing on the role of science in decision-making at the EPA….

6h

Divergent contributions of autistic traits to social psychological knowledge [Social Sciences]

We examined Gollwitzer et al.'s (1) study on autism and better social psychological knowledge with interest, given its large samples and open dataset. We commend the authors for raising the bar for autism research, which is typically underpowered and rarely draws on social psychology. Notably, their research follows recent investigations…

6h

Reply to Taylor et al.: Acknowledging the multidimensionality of autism when predicting social psychological skill [Social Sciences]

We agree with Taylor et al. (1) that there is value in examining the link between autism and social psychological skill (SPS) in terms of the subdimensions of autism. However, we note that even if autism has a multidimensional structure, the overall relationship we observed between autism and SPS remains…

6h

Behavior is the ultimate arbiter: An alternative explanation for the inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on the ovulatory homolog model of orgasm in rabbits [Biological Sciences]

Pavlicev et al. (1) offer an experimental test of the ovulatory homolog model of female orgasm in rabbits. While we appreciate the importance of designing animal models of such elusive phenomena, there are several issues we would like to address. Pavlicev et al. tested whether a daily dose of the…

6h

Reply to Quintana et al.: Behavior is an unlikely mediator of fluoxetine effects on ovulation in rabbits [Biological Sciences]

In a Letter in PNAS, Quintana et al. (1) raise 2 issues with respect to our paper on the ovulatory homolog model of female orgasm (2). One is about the statistical analysis, and the second is about biological interpretation. We address both issues below. Statistical Issues In their Letter, Quintana…

6h

Mycobacterium tuberculosis enters macrophages with aid from a bacterial lipid [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

In the paper titled "The conical shape of DIM lipids promotes Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of macrophages" in PNAS, Augenstreich et al. (1) report on molecular mechanisms underlying the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria (Mtb) expressing phthiocerol dimycocerosate (DIM), a well-known constituent in the cell wall of Mtb (2–4). A critical…

6h

Quelling germ cell pluripotency on the genital ridge [Developmental Biology]

The most critical step of mammalian embryogenesis in securing the future of the species comes just days after fertilization, and immediately after implantation into the uterine wall. At this time, a small subset of epiblast cells receives an inductive signal from neighboring extraembryonic tissue, the germ lineage is specified, and…

6h

Unraveling the T-B tangle in anti-CD20 multiple sclerosis therapy [Immunology and Inflammation]

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory T cell-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) (1). It is characterized by focal demyelination and axonal loss leading to a range of symptoms including decline in motor function and sense perception (2). In PNAS, Sabatino et al. (3) further shed light on…

6h

Evolutionary dynamics with game transitions [Applied Mathematics]

The environment has a strong influence on a population's evolutionary dynamics. Driven by both intrinsic and external factors, the environment is subject to continual change in nature. To capture an ever-changing environment, we consider a model of evolutionary dynamics with game transitions, where individuals' behaviors together with the games that…

6h

Shaping the zebrafish myotome by intertissue friction and active stress [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Organ formation is an inherently biophysical process, requiring large-scale tissue deformations. Yet, understanding how complex organ shape emerges during development remains a major challenge. During zebrafish embryogenesis, large muscle segments, called myotomes, acquire a characteristic chevron morphology, which is believed to aid swimming. Myotome shape can be altered by perturbing…

6h

Replicator degrees of freedom allow publication of misleading failures to replicate [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

In recent years, the field of psychology has begun to conduct replication tests on a large scale. Here, we show that "replicator degrees of freedom" make it far too easy to obtain and publish false-negative replication results, even while appearing to adhere to strict methodological standards. Specifically, using data from…

6h

The Justinianic Plague: An inconsequential pandemic? [Social Sciences]

Existing mortality estimates assert that the Justinianic Plague (circa 541 to 750 CE) caused tens of millions of deaths throughout the Mediterranean world and Europe, helping to end antiquity and start the Middle Ages. In this article, we argue that this paradigm does not fit the evidence. We examine a…

6h

Bubble pinch-off in turbulence [Applied Physical Sciences]

Although bubble pinch-off is an archetype of a dynamical system evolving toward a singularity, it has always been described in idealized theoretical and experimental conditions. Here, we consider bubble pinch-off in a turbulent flow representative of natural conditions in the presence of strong and random perturbations, combining laboratory experiments, numerical…

6h

Solidification and superlubricity with molecular alkane films [Applied Physical Sciences]

Hydrocarbon films confined between smooth mica surfaces have long provided an experimental playground for model studies of structure and dynamics of confined liquids. However, fundamental questions regarding the phase behavior and shear properties in this simple system remain unsolved. With ultrasensitive resolution in film thickness and shear stress, and control…

6h

Confinement of surface spinners in liquid metamaterials [Applied Physical Sciences]

We show that rotating particles at the liquid–gas interface can be efficiently manipulated using the surface-wave analogue of optical lattices. Two orthogonal standing waves generate surface flows of counter-rotating half-wavelength unit cells, the liquid interface metamaterial, whose geometry is controlled by the wave phase shift. Here we demonstrate that by…

6h

Probing transient excited states of the bacterial cell division regulator MinE by relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Bacterial MinD and MinE form a standing oscillatory wave which positions the cell division inhibitor MinC, that binds MinD, everywhere on the membrane except at the midpoint of the cell, ensuring midcell positioning of the cytokinetic septum. During this process MinE undergoes fold switching as it interacts with different partners….

6h

Method to extract multiple states in F1-ATPase rotation experiments from jump distributions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

A method is proposed for analyzing fast (10 μs) single-molecule rotation trajectories in F1 adenosinetriphosphatase (F1-ATPase). This method is based on the distribution of jumps in the rotation angle that occur in the transitions during the steps between subsequent catalytic dwells. The method is complementary to the "stalling" technique devised…

6h

Mechanical stress compromises multicomponent efflux complexes in bacteria [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Physical forces have a profound effect on growth, morphology, locomotion, and survival of organisms. At the level of individual cells, the role of mechanical forces is well recognized in eukaryotic physiology, but much less is known about prokaryotic organisms. Recent findings suggest an effect of physical forces on bacterial shape,…

6h

Supraglacial lake drainage at a fast-flowing Greenlandic outlet glacier [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Supraglacial lake drainage events influence Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics on hourly to interannual timescales. However, direct observations are rare, and, to date, no in situ studies exist from fast-flowing sectors of the ice sheet. Here, we present observations of a rapid lake drainage event at Store Glacier, west Greenland, in…

6h

Subglacial meltwater supported aerobic marine habitats during Snowball Earth [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The Earth's most severe ice ages interrupted a crucial interval in eukaryotic evolution with widespread ice coverage during the Cryogenian Period (720 to 635 Ma). Aerobic eukaryotes must have survived the "Snowball Earth" glaciations, requiring the persistence of oxygenated marine habitats, yet evidence for these environments is lacking. We examine…

6h

Inland water bodies in China: Features discovered in the long-term satellite data [Ecology]

Water bodies (WBs), such as lakes, ponds, and impoundments, provide essential ecosystem services for human society, yet their characteristics and changes over large areas remain elusive. Here we used unprecedented data layers derived from all Landsat images available between 1984 and 2015 to understand the overall characteristics and changes of…

6h

Linking energy loss in soft adhesion to surface roughness [Engineering]

A mechanistic understanding of adhesion in soft materials is critical in the fields of transportation (tires, gaskets, and seals), biomaterials, microcontact printing, and soft robotics. Measurements have long demonstrated that the apparent work of adhesion coming into contact is consistently lower than the intrinsic work of adhesion for the materials,…

6h

A bioinspired approach to engineer seed microenvironment to boost germination and mitigate soil salinity [Engineering]

Human population growth, soil degradation, and agrochemical misuse are significant challenges that agriculture must face in the upcoming decades as it pertains to global food production. Seed enhancement technologies will play a pivotal role in supporting food security by enabling germination of seeds in degraded environments, reducing seed germination time,…

6h

Core Concept: Albedo is a simple concept that plays complicated roles in climate and astronomy [Environmental Sciences]

Dark objects left out in the sun get warm. Lighter-colored objects, not so much. On a planetary scale, this simple, familiar phenomenon—associated with a characteristic called albedo—drives weather and climate. On a regional scale, it can influence the melting of sea ice and glaciers. Open ocean and ice exhibit a…

6h

Tracking emissions in the US electricity system [Environmental Sciences]

Understanding electricity consumption and production patterns is a necessary first step toward reducing the health and climate impacts of associated emissions. In this work, the economic input–output model is adapted to track emissions flows through electric grids and quantify the pollution embodied in electricity production, exchanges, and, ultimately, consumption for…

6h

Repurposing dichloroacetate for the treatment of women with endometriosis [Medical Sciences]

Endometriosis is a chronic pain condition affecting ∼176 million women worldwide. It is defined by the presence of endometrium-like tissue (lesions) outside the uterus, most commonly on the pelvic peritoneum. There is no cure for endometriosis. All endometriosis drug approvals to date have been contraceptive, limiting their use in women…

6h

Epstein-Barr virus EBER1 and murine gammaherpesvirus TMER4 share conserved in vivo function to promote B cell egress and dissemination [Microbiology]

The oncogenic gammaherpesviruses, including human Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, γHV68, MuHV-4) establish life-long latency in circulating B cells. The precise determinants that mediate in vivo gammaherpesvirus latency and tumorigenesis remain unclear. The EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) are among the first noncoding

6h

Optical waveguiding by atomic entanglement in multilevel atom arrays [Physics]

The optical properties of subwavelength arrays of atoms or other quantum emitters have attracted significant interest recently. For example, the strong constructive or destructive interference of emitted light enables arrays to function as nearly perfect mirrors, support topological edge states, and allow for exponentially better quantum memories. In these proposals,…

6h

Intermolecular coupling and fluxional behavior of hydrogen in phase IV [Physics]

We performed Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements of hydrogen at 295 K up to 280 GPa at an IR synchrotron facility of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). To reach the highest pressure, hydrogen was loaded into toroidal diamond anvils with 30-μm central culet. The intermolecular coupling has been…

6h

Determination and evaluation of the nonadditivity in wetting of molecularly heterogeneous surfaces [Physics]

The interface between water and folded proteins is very complex. Proteins have "patchy" solvent-accessible areas composed of domains of varying hydrophobicity. The textbook understanding is that these domains contribute additively to interfacial properties (Cassie's equation, CE). An ever-growing number of modeling papers question the validity of CE at molecular length…

6h

Magnetoelastoresistance in WTe2: Exploring electronic structure and extremely large magnetoresistance under strain [Physics]

Strain describes the deformation of a material as a result of applied stress. It has been widely employed to probe transport properties of materials, ranging from semiconductors to correlated materials. In order to understand, and eventually control, transport behavior under strain, it is important to quantify the effects of strain…

6h

Pressure-induced topological phase transition in noncentrosymmetric elemental tellurium [Physics]

Recent progress in understanding the electronic band topology and emergent topological properties encourage us to reconsider the band structure of well-known materials including elemental substances. Controlling such a band topology by external field is of particular interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints. Here we report possible signatures of the…

6h

Metabolite-mediated TOR signaling regulates the circadian clock in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

Circadian clocks usually run with a period close to 24 h, but are also plastic and can be entrained by external environmental conditions and internal physiological cues. Two key nutrient metabolites, glucose and vitamin B3 (nicotinamide), can influence the circadian period in both mammals and plants; however, the underlying molecular…

6h

Heritability of education rises with intergenerational mobility [Social Sciences]

Intergenerational education mobility—how strongly educational attainment persists from parent to child—is commonly used to indicate societies' degree of openness or equality of opportunity (1, 2). A limitation of this literature is that it often is silent on the channels of transmission. Yet, we may view genetic transmission differently from other…

6h

Learning stable and predictive structures in kinetic systems [Systems Biology]

Learning kinetic systems from data is one of the core challenges in many fields. Identifying stable models is essential for the generalization capabilities of data-driven inference. We introduce a computationally efficient framework, called CausalKinetiX, that identifies structure from discrete time, noisy observations, generated from heterogeneous experiments. The algorithm assumes the…

6h

Universal phase behaviors of intracellular lipid droplets [Systems Biology]

Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic microscale organelles involved in energy homeostasis and handling of cellular lipids and proteins. The core structure is mainly composed of two kinds of neutral lipids, triglycerides and cholesteryl esters, which are coated by a phospholipid monolayer and proteins. Despite the liquid crystalline nature of cholesteryl esters,…

6h

Archaeologists find Bronze Age tombs lined with gold

Archaeologists with the University of Cincinnati have discovered two Bronze Age tombs containing a trove of engraved jewelry and artifacts that promise to unlock secrets about life in ancient Greece.

6h

Large carnivores and zoos—essential for biodiversity conservation marketing

Large carnivores (e.g. bears, big cats, wolves and elephant seals) and zoos should be utilised as powerful catalysts for public engagement with nature and pro-environmental behaviour, suggests a paper published in the scholarly open-access journal Nature Conservation by an international multidisciplinary team, led by Dr. Adriana Consorte-McCrea, Canterbury Christ Church University, UK.

6h

Large carnivores and zoos—essential for biodiversity conservation marketing

Large carnivores (e.g. bears, big cats, wolves and elephant seals) and zoos should be utilised as powerful catalysts for public engagement with nature and pro-environmental behaviour, suggests a paper published in the scholarly open-access journal Nature Conservation by an international multidisciplinary team, led by Dr. Adriana Consorte-McCrea, Canterbury Christ Church University, UK.

6h

'Unusual' stone artifact found in North Carolina likely dates from 3,000 to 1,000 BC

Nearly 50 years after a mysterious spear-shaped stone was found 30 miles east of Charlotte, N.C., archaeologists have a theory that likely dates the "unusual artifact" to between 3,000 and 1,000 BC.

6h

2019 Will Close Out the Warmest Decade on Record for Planet Earth

Last month was the second warmest November on record, assuring that 2019 will come in as second warmest year.

6h

Editorial: The world needed a bang from the Madrid climate meeting. It got a whimper instead

An international meeting in Madrid that was supposed to finalize rules arising from the groundbreaking 2015 Paris agreement on climate change went into extra time over the weekend—two days longer than scheduled, in fact. But the delegates may as well have gone home early, given how disappointingly little was accomplished.

6h

Study identifies way for employers to retain casual workers

Job enrichment may be an important tool for retaining seasonal frontline staff, according to a new University of Waterloo study.

6h

In ancient Scottish tree rings, a cautionary tale on climate, politics and survival

Using old tree rings and archival documents, historians and climate scientists have detailed an extreme cold period in Scotland in the 1690s that caused immense suffering. It may have lessons for Brexit-era politics.

6h

Distant Milky Way-like galaxies reveal star formation history of the universe

Thousands of galaxies are visible in this radio image of an area in the Southern Sky, made with the MeerKAT telescope. The numerous faint dots are distant galaxies like our own Milky Way, that have never been observed in radio light before.

6h

Plant-eating insects disrupt ecosystems and contribute to climate change

A new study from Lund University in Sweden shows that plant-eating insects affect forest ecosystems considerably more than previously thought. Among other things, the insects are a factor in the leaching of nutrients from soil and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. The researchers also establish that the temperature may rise as a result of an increase in the amount of plant-eating insects in s

6h

How immune cells switch to attack mode

Macrophages have 2 faces: In healthy tissue, they perform important tasks and support their environment. However during an infection, they stop this work and hunt down the pathogens instead. Upon coming into contact with bacteria they change their metabolism drastically within minutes. This is shown by a new study under the leadership of the University of Bonn, which has now been published in the

6h

Carbon cocoons surround growing galaxies far beyond previous beliefs

Researchers have discovered gigantic clouds of gaseous carbon spanning more than a radius of 30,000 light-years around young galaxies using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. This is the first confirmation that carbon atoms produced inside of stars in the early Universe have spread beyond galaxies. No theoretical studies have predicted such huge carbon cocoons around

6h

Possible strategy for cancer treatment found in nuclear transport proteins

The nuclear import of proteins befalls through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and normally requires specific transport proteins. A type of a nuclear transport protein plays a key role in the proliferation and resistance to treatment of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells, report researchers at Kanazawa University. The results suggest that targeting specific nuclear transport systems may lead to

6h

Scientists reveal the neural basis of confirmation bias

An international research team comprising neuroscientists at Virginia Tech and the University of London revealed brain mechanisms and functional regions that underlie confirmation bias — a phenomenon where people strongly favor information that reinforces their existing opinions over contradictory ones.

6h

How cells get moving

Researchers identify proteins essential to the motility structure of the archaea.

6h

Archaeologists find Bronze Age tombs lined with gold

Archaeologists with the University of Cincinnati have discovered two Bronze Age tombs containing a trove of engraved jewelry and artifacts that promise to unlock secrets about life in ancient Greece.

6h

Large carnivores and zoos — essential for biodiversity conservation marketing

Large carnivores: bears, big cats, wolves and elephant seals, and zoos should be utilised as powerful catalysts for public engagement with nature and pro-environmental behaviour, suggests a paper published in the scholarly open-access journal Nature Conservation. The international multidisciplinary research team highlights the wide-reaching influence of the institutions visited by over 700 million

6h

Simple test could prevent fluoride-related disease

Synthetic biologists developed a simple, inexpensive new test that can detect dangerous levels of fluoride in drinking water.

7h

Donkeys are natural heat lovers and prefer Bethlehem to Britain

We might associate donkeys with Christmas, but new research from the University of Portsmouth shows the animals are keener on hotter periods of the year. Donkeys, it seems, love sun and warmth. That's the finding of the first study to examine the conditions under which healthy (non-working) donkeys and mules seek shelter in hot, dry climates.

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Differentiating amino acids

Researchers develop the foundation for direct sequencing of individual proteins.

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Galaxy gathering brings warmth

As the holiday season approaches, people in the northern hemisphere will gather indoors to stay warm. In keeping with the season, astronomers have studied two groups of galaxies that are rushing together and producing their own warmth.

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Want to spend less time on your phone? There's an app for that.

We dare you to flip the phone and check your notifications. (David Nield/) Your smartphone is a window into an endless supply of games, movies, thought-provoking articles, social media posts , music, literature, art, and everything else you can find on the web or through an app. It's no wonder we're now checking our phones more than 50 times a day . The sheer amount of time we spend with our devi

7h

Surfing on quantum waves: Protein folding revisited

Two physicists from the University of Luxembourg have now unambiguously shown that quantum-mechanical wavelike interactions are indeed crucial even at the scale of natural biological processes.

7h

Newly discovered protein gives signal for virus infection

Viruses have been part of animals and humans for eons. When viruses invade a cell, they can infiltrate the nucleus with their genome and become part of the genome of the infected organism. Viruses transfer their genes between various organisms, as well as between tissues containing well-differentiated cells inside a living creature. But how they uncoat their well-packed genes and release them to c

7h

Turning light energy into heat to fight disease

An emerging technology involving tiny particles that absorb light and turn it into localized heat sources shows great promise in several fields, including medicine. For example, photothermal therapy, a new type of cancer treatment, involves aiming infrared laser light onto nanoparticles near the treatment site.

7h

Newly discovered protein gives signal for virus infection

Viruses have been part of animals and humans for eons. When viruses invade a cell, they can infiltrate the nucleus with their genome and become part of the genome of the infected organism. Viruses transfer their genes between various organisms, as well as between tissues containing well-differentiated cells inside a living creature. But how they uncoat their well-packed genes and release them to c

7h

A sorting technology that isolates cells with high purity and viability

Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is a modern cell analysis technique for quantitative detection of physiological, biochemical, immunological, and molecular biological traits of cells—it can further separate a specific subset of cell populations from complex biological samples. Though current commercial FACS has quite an accurate cell sorting capability, it still suffers some inherent lim

7h

Trump's protectionism raises unemployment: study

The protectionist policy of US President Donald Trump is criticized on all sides around the world, but seems to suit the Americans, who see this economic model as protecting their interests. Could they be wrong? A study by researchers of the University of Geneva (UNIGE) quantifies the effects of Donald Trump's protectionist policies on unemployment and welfare in Organisation for Economic Co-opera

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Light therapy device helps improve some symptoms of dementia

Daytime exposure to bright lights may improve a person's quality of sleep, and could reduce depressive symptoms and agitation associated with dementia

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Pigeons and woolly hats now have exoplanets named after them

More than 100 exoplanets and the stars they orbit have just been officially named by a public vote. The names reference woolly hats, bush pigeons, coffee and van Gogh

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A New Way of Looking at To Kill a Mockingbird

The first line of Aaron Sorkin's stage adaptation of To Kill a Mockingbird is one of quiet confusion. "Something didn't make sense," Scout Finch tells the audience of the tale that's about to unfold. Sorkin's dramatization of Harper Lee's novel, which opened on Broadway last December, is an unexpectedly probing work that refuses to let an American classic go unchallenged. Instead, it stages two t

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Why Your Brain Needs Exercise

The evolutionary history of humans explains why physical activity is important for brain health — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Human Genome Recovered From 5,700-Year-Old Chewing Gum

The piece of Birch tar, found in Denmark, also contained the mouth microbes of its ancient chewer, as well as remnants of food to reveal what she ate

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Is the Amazon on a Road to Ruin?

Brazil's plan to develop a lonesome track in the heart of the rainforest poses a threat the whole world may someday have to overcome

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Wearable improves life for people with swallowing disorders

A wearable monitoring device can make treatments easier and more affordable for the millions of people with swallowing disorders. "We want to provide a reliable, patient-friendly and affordable way to treat the millions of people with swallowing disorders," says Georgia A. Malandraki, an associate professor of speech, language, and hearing sciences in Purdue University's College of Health and Hum

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Did it keep its flavour? Stone-age 'chewing-gum' yields human DNA

Danish scientists have managed to extract a complete human DNA sample from a piece of birch pitch more than 5,000 years old, used as a kind of chewing gum, a study revealed Tuesday.

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Stjärna och planet döpta efter Harry Martinson-verk

I år fick Sverige ansvar för att namnge en stjärna, och en planet som kretsar runt den, i ett annat solsystem. Nu har båda namngivits – med inspiration från den Nobelprisvinnande svenske diktaren Harry Martinson.

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It's time to bring in women: Climate conferences are male, pale and stale

The COP25 climate meeting in Madrid concluded over the weekend. As in past meetings, the talks failed to make much progress on international climate action. And again, the views and needs of women were largely ignored.

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Simple test could prevent fluoride-related disease

Synthetic biologists developed a simple, inexpensive new test that can detect dangerous levels of fluoride in drinking water.

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Ancient events are still impacting mammals worldwide

In the first study of its kind, researchers have discovered that events from 20,000 years ago or more are still impacting the diversity and distribution of mammal species worldwide.

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Five smart trash cans that make your garbage way nicer

Why have a trash can that's anything less than fabulous? (Amazon/) Your garbage is gross. To avoid handling it and having to think about it for longer than you need to, get your hands on one of these smart trash cans equipped with motion sensors and/or odor-absorbing filters. They come in easy-to-clean, elegant finishes, and have small, subtle features that make the chore of taking out the garbag

7h

This Stunning New Image Captures Two Galaxies in Mid-Collision

This galaxy pair has already collided at least once. Red clumps show where a past collision has encouraged new stars to form.

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Mercury's volcanic activity may point to Earth-like worlds

Looking for evidence of volcanic activity might be a great place to start to narrow down the search for Earth-like planets in a vast universe, researchers report. While the technology we have right now can't tell if volcanic activity is happening on distant worlds, data from planets in our inner solar system might give us a way to identify volcanically active worlds based on other features or cha

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Unveiling a new map that reveals the hidden personalities of jobs

It's been long been believed that different personalities align better with different jobs. Large-scale evidence now exists of the distinctive personality profiles that occur across occupations and how, using social media, they can be matched to an individual for the near-perfect fit.

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Consider marine life when implementing offshore renewable power

With countries such as Iceland, Costa Rica, New Zealand, and Norway adopting green energy practices, renewable energy now accounts for a third of the world's power. As this trend continues, more and more countries are looking to offshore energy sources to produce this renewable energy. In an Opinion publishing December 17 in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution, researchers identify situati

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Researchers uncover genetic mystery of infertility in fruit flies

Researchers have discovered a novel parasitic gene in fruit flies that is responsible for destroying the eggs in the ovaries of their daughters.

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Agricultural parasite avoids evolutionary arms race, shuts down genes of host plants

A parasitic plant has found a way to circumvent an evolutionary arms race with the host plants from which it steals nutrients, allowing the parasite to thrive on a variety of agriculturally important plants. The parasite dodder, an agricultural pest found on every continent, sends genetic material into its host to shut down host defense genes.

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Instagram's virtual features have real relationship benefits

Young adults say that Instagram helps them develop friendships in real life, especially those who are more hesitant to try new experiences, according to a recent study by Washington State University researchers.

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Seasonal forecasts challenged by Pacific Ocean warming

CSIRO research has found global warming will make it more difficult to predict multi-year global climate variations, a consequence of changes to long-term climate variability patterns in the Pacific Ocean.

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Review of Chinese atmospheric science research over the past 70 years: Climate and climate change

Over the past 70 years since the foundation of the People's Republic of China, Chinese scientists have made great contributions to various fields in the research of atmospheric sciences, which attracted worldwide attention. In the field of climate and climate change, we have witnessed multiple remarkable achievements by Chinese scientists.

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How cells get moving

Archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes are what biologists call the three domains of life. Of these three, archaea form an important link within the evolutionary theory. They are the direct ancestors of eukaryotes, but resemble bacteria in structure and organization. Archaea can colonize hot sulphur springs or extremely saline lakes, but can also be found in the ocean or in the human intestine and on th

7h

Majestic Auroras Sweep the Martian Sky Almost Every Day

Light Show Just like the Northern Lights here on Earth, Mars gets lit up by gigantic auroras, caused by solar winds mixing with the atmosphere. New research shows that the most common type of aurora on Mars is a proton aurora, according to ScienceAlert , meaning they're only visible using ultraviolet goggles. The ultraviolet light also been linked to water loss, according to research, meaning tha

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Nature's 10: Ten people who mattered in science in 2019

Nature, Published online: 17 December 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03749-0 Picks include a quantum pioneer, a co-discoverer of Ebola and a bioethicist-turned-activist.

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Researchers uncover genetic mystery of infertility in fruit flies

Researchers have discovered a novel parasitic gene in fruit flies that is responsible for destroying the eggs in the ovaries of their daughters.

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Agricultural parasite avoids evolutionary arms race, shuts down genes of host plants

A parasitic plant has found a way to circumvent an evolutionary arms race with the host plants from which it steals nutrients, allowing the parasite to thrive on a variety of agriculturally important plants. The parasite dodder, an agricultural pest found on every continent, sends genetic material into its host to shut down host defense genes.

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How cells get moving

Archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes are what biologists call the three domains of life. Of these three, archaea form an important link within the evolutionary theory. They are the direct ancestors of eukaryotes, but resemble bacteria in structure and organization. Archaea can colonize hot sulphur springs or extremely saline lakes, but can also be found in the ocean or in the human intestine and on th

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Researchers develop the foundation for direct sequencing of individual proteins

A large part of the work inside cells is done by proteins acting as enzymes, transporters, channels, motors, supporting pillars and signaling devices. Proteins are three-dimensionally folded chains of diverse amino acids in a genetically encoded sequence. Whereas scientists have already succeeded in obtaining sequence information from single DNA strands, a further major challenge in bioanalytics i

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Boeing to Halt Production of Disaster-Prone 737 MAX Jet

Ground to a Halt On Monday, Boeing announced it will temporarily halt production on its 737 MAX passenger jet starting in January. The decision comes nine months after the company grounded its most popular passenger jet, a move prompted by two deadly crashes in the span of five months — and it could be taken as a sign that the jets won't be returning to the air any time soon. Chugging Along The f

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Researchers develop the foundation for direct sequencing of individual proteins

A large part of the work inside cells is done by proteins acting as enzymes, transporters, channels, motors, supporting pillars and signaling devices. Proteins are three-dimensionally folded chains of diverse amino acids in a genetically encoded sequence. Whereas scientists have already succeeded in obtaining sequence information from single DNA strands, a further major challenge in bioanalytics i

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Newly discovered protein gives signal for virus infection

Researchers at the University of Zurich have discovered a protein that enables adenoviruses to infect human cells. The Mib1 protein gives the virus the signal to uncoat the DNA and release it into the nucleus. Blocking this protein could therefore help people with weakened immune systems to fight dangerous viruses.

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Brain waves in mice change based on memory age

Researchers have discovered signatures in brain activity that allow them to tell old and new memories apart. The team at Japan's RIKEN Center for Brain Science analyzed recordings from mouse brains using a machine-leaning algorithm, which was able to accurately classify memories as recent or remote. They also found robust communication between a frontal brain region and the hippocampus, a link whi

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Research adds new twist to fight against autoimmune diseases

Scientists describe in Nature Immunology an entirely new molecular process in mice that triggers T cell-driven inflammation and causes different auto-immune diseases. In a study published online Dec. 17, say their data have implications for Multiple Sclerosis, Type 1 diabetes and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. It also will help efforts to find better treatments for autoimmune disease, still an urgent

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Turning light energy into heat to fight disease

An emerging technology involving particles that absorb light and turn it into localized heat sources shows great promise in several fields, including medicine. This heating must be carefully controlled however, and the ability to monitor temperature increases is crucial. In APL Photonics, scientists report a method to measure these temperatures using terahertz radiation. The study involved gold na

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Suicide plays smaller role in opioid deaths than thought

Opioid-related suicides account for only 4% of opioid-related deaths, far below previous estimates of 20% to 30%, a new study from Columbia University has found.

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Malaria under arrest: New drug target prevents deadly transmission

Australian researchers have found a new drug target for stopping the spread of malaria, after successfully blocking the world's deadliest malaria parasite — Plasmodium falciparum — from completing the 'transmission stage' of its lifecycle.

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Changes in opioid-related drug overdose deaths in US

Researchers analyzed changes in the proportion of drug overdose deaths involving opioids that were certified as suicide, unintentional or of undetermined intent in this observational study.

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Consider marine life when implementing offshore renewable power

With countries adopting green energy practices, renewable energy now accounts for a third of the world's power. As this trend continues, more countries are looking to offshore energy sources to produce this renewable energy. In an Opinion publishing Dec. 17 in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution, researchers identify situations where green technology such as wind turbines, wave energy conv

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Boeing to Halt 737 MAX Production in January

After months of speculation, Boeing has temporarily shut down production of its 737 MAX. The announcement is expected to have ripple effects across the US economy, even though the company is painting the shutdown as a temporary measure. Boeing announced the move after regulators announced the 737 MAX would not be cleared to return to service this year. Boeing does not intend to furlough or lay of

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28.600 kr. per adresse: Bredbåndspuljen deler ud til 3.585 husstande

Det er blevet markant dyrere at sikre hurtigere bredbånd med statsstøtte i forhold til tidligere år. Bredbåndspuljen fordeler 102,6 millioner kroner på 3.585 adresser, og dermed vokser støtten per adresse med 21 procent.

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Mothers' and babies' brains 'more in tune' when mother is happy

Mothers' and babies' brains can work together as a 'mega-network' by synchronising brain waves when they interact. The level of connectivity of the brain waves varies according to the mum's emotional state: when mothers express more positive emotions their brain becomes much more strongly connected with their baby's brain. This may help the baby to learn and its brain to develop.

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Radiation breaks connections in the brain

One of the potentially life-altering side effects that patients experience after cranial radiotherapy for brain cancer is cognitive impairment. Researchers now believe that they have pinpointed why this occurs and these findings could point the way for new therapies to protect the brain from the damage caused by radiation.

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Robots made from self-folding kirigami materials

Researchers have demonstrated how kirigami-inspired techniques allow them to design thin sheets of material that automatically reconfigure into new two-dimensional (2D) shapes and three-dimensional (3D) structures in response to environmental stimuli. The researchers created a variety of robotic devices as a proof of concept for the approach.

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Resident orcas' appetite likely reason for decline of big Chinook salmon

Large, old Chinook salmon have mostly disappeared from the West Coast. A new study points to the recent rise of resident killer whales, and their insatiable appetite for large Chinook salmon, as the main driver behind the decline of the big fish.

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Neolithic chewing gum helps recreate image of ancient Dane

Analysis of birch tar describes a female hunter-gatherer with dark skin and blue eyes At the dawn of the Neolithic era, a young woman discarded a lump of ancient chewing gum made from birch tar into a shallow, brackish lagoon that drew fishers to the coast of southern Denmark. Nearly 6,000 years later, researchers excavating the site spotted the gum amid pieces of wood and wild animal bone and fr

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The Mystery of the Disappearing Seabird

T he northernmost point of mainland Britain is a piece of land called Dunnet Head, which sticks off the Scottish coast like a big toe testing the cold waters of the North Sea. Atop cliffs at the tip of the toe sits a squat lighthouse, built in 1831 by Robert Stevenson, the grandfather of the author Robert Louis Stevenson. The lighthouse is popular with shutterbugs, but none is here on this early-

8h

Japan Will Build the World's Largest Neutrino Detector

Cabinet greenlights $600-million Hyper-Kamiokande experiment, which scientists hope will bring revolutionary discoveries — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Research team uses crossbows and drones to collect bacteria from whales

As we drew closer to the massive humpback whale, I became painfully aware how small our inflatable motorboat actually was. I also realized I'd been unconsciously holding my breath and that conversation in the boat, aside from commands from our spotter, had long since faded. The whale scientist next to me raised a crossbow and I heard a soft click as the dart released and crossed the final 20 yards

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Research team uses crossbows and drones to collect bacteria from whales

As we drew closer to the massive humpback whale, I became painfully aware how small our inflatable motorboat actually was. I also realized I'd been unconsciously holding my breath and that conversation in the boat, aside from commands from our spotter, had long since faded. The whale scientist next to me raised a crossbow and I heard a soft click as the dart released and crossed the final 20 yards

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What a 5,700-Year-Old Wad of Chewed Gum Reveals About Ancient People and Their Bacteria

Scientists dig into the diet, health and history of Danish hunter-gatherers in a new study.

8h

Why do other people's embarrassing acts make us cringe?

The word "cringey" evokes feelings of embarrassment or awkwardness, but there is a similar term that goes by another name, one with a bit more psychological clout: vicarious embarrassment. Democratic presidential primary candidate Pete Buttigieg's name has been popping across Twitter the last few weeks. Not because he's pulled ahead of some challengers in early primary states, but because his sup

8h

Africa Unveils Massive Alien-Hunting Antenna Network

Pick It Up Thousands of engineers have been hard at work on a gigantic intergovernmental radio telescope network called the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will be so large that it will span eight countries in Africa. The first handful of dishes have already been constructed, Wired reports , and when completed, the array will scan the skies for radio signals — including signs of alien life —

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What a 5,700-Year-Old Piece of Gum Reveals About Its Chewer

From a wad of pitch less than an inch long, researchers have painted a detailed portrait of an ancient human—and added another layer to the story of human evolution.

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Ancient "Chewing Gum" Reveals a 5,700-Year-Old Microbiome

Archaeologists reconstructed a Neolithic woman's complete genome and oral microbiome from a piece of birch tar she chewed — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Moves like a marsupial, climbs like a primate

The koala is built for life in the trees.

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The Congo is deep, as well as long

And it's a great place to study convergent evolution.

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Logged tropical forests may never fully recover

Study reveals impact on soil nutrients.

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India's snakebite regime found wanting

Too many antivenoms are not fit for purpose, study shows.

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Self-cleaning surface repels bugs, researchers say

Microscopic wrinkles exclude all external molecules.

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Lola found in ancient chewing gum

Genetics researchers sequence DNA from birch pitch.

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DNA from Stone Age woman obtained 6,000 years on

Ancient DNA extracted from a tooth print in ancient "chewing gum" reveals new clues about our ancestors.

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Your body was forged in the spectacular death of stars | Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz

We are all connected by the spectacular birth, death and rebirth of stars, says astrophysicist Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz. Journey through the cosmic history of the universe as Ramirez-Ruiz explains how supernovas forged the elements of life to create everything from the air you breathe to the very atoms that make you.

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Nearly 6000-year-old chewing gum reveals life of ancient girl

Made of birch pitch, the gum was found at an archaeological site in Denmark

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8 biggest AI trends of 2020, according to experts

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Psychedelics Were Already Having a Good Year. Then Andrew Yang Tweeted

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AI puts final notes on Beethoven's Tenth Symphony

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5.700 år gammelt tyggegummi afslører: 'Dansk' stenalder-kvinde havde mørk hud og blå øjne

Ny DNA-metode gør det muligt at få flere detaljer om fortidsmennesker end nogensinde før.

8h

In ancient Scottish tree rings, a cautionary tale on climate, politics and survival

Using old tree rings and archival documents, historians and climate scientists have detailed an extreme cold period in Scotland in the 1690s that caused immense suffering. It decimated agriculture, killed as much as 15 percent of the population and sparked a fatal attempt to establish a Scottish colony in southern Panama. The researchers say the episode—shown in their study to have been during the

8h

Plant-eating insects disrupt ecosystems and contribute to climate change

A new study from Lund University in Sweden shows that plant-eating insects affect forest ecosystems considerably more than previously thought. Among other things, the insects are a factor in the leaching of nutrients from soil and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. The researchers also establish that the temperature may rise as a result of an increase in the amount of plant-eating insects in s

8h

Aussie icon has the koalafications of both marsupials and primates

Spread across the globe, from Central and South America to Japan, non-human primates have a toehold that almost spans the tropics, but they never made it to Australia. Christofer Clemente, from the University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia, explains that a marsupial got to grips with life in the trees instead. Equipped with two thumbs on their grasping hands, koalas (Phascolarctos cinerus) rarel

8h

Study identifies way for employers to retain casual workers

Job enrichment may be an important tool for retaining seasonal frontline staff, according to a new University of Waterloo study.

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Hydrology of undrained peatlands is often affected by drainage of surrounding areas

Finnish peatlands are under a bigger pressure from land use than has generally been realised. More than half of the peatland area has been drained, and most of the remaining undrained peatlands are bordered by drained areas.

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Ancient "Chewing Gum" Reveals a 5,700-Year-Old Microbiome

Archaeologists reconstructed a Neolithic woman's complete genome and oral microbiome from a piece of birch tar she chewed — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

8h

Plant-eating insects disrupt ecosystems and contribute to climate change

A new study from Lund University in Sweden shows that plant-eating insects affect forest ecosystems considerably more than previously thought. Among other things, the insects are a factor in the leaching of nutrients from soil and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. The researchers also establish that the temperature may rise as a result of an increase in the amount of plant-eating insects in s

8h

Aussie icon has the koalafications of both marsupials and primates

Spread across the globe, from Central and South America to Japan, non-human primates have a toehold that almost spans the tropics, but they never made it to Australia. Christofer Clemente, from the University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia, explains that a marsupial got to grips with life in the trees instead. Equipped with two thumbs on their grasping hands, koalas (Phascolarctos cinerus) rarel

8h

Cancer research: molecular machinery critical for cell's ability to move identified

Two specific proteins take apart the cell's actin filaments at one end and return the building blocks to the other end for a new round of polymerisation. The structure of this machinery driving cell motility may open new opportunities for developing therapeutics to inhibit cell migration in cancer.

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This slime mold Santa beard is one giant cell

This slime Santa beard is a myxomycete, a single giant cell with multiple nuclei that lives in dark damp places and likes to feed off bacteria and fungi and things that have started to decay. "Slime molds are weird and wonderful in the world of science, there around a thousand species, some tiny and some a few meters across coming in all different colors from yellow to bright pink or red," says I

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AI kan avslöja risk för bröstcancer

Svenska kvinnor mellan 40 och 74 år kallas till mammografiundersökning vartannat år och kvinnornas bilder granskas av två oberoende radiologer. Trots ett väl utvecklat screeningprogram med hög närvaro kan det dyka upp cancer mellan kvinnans screeningtillfällen, så kallade intervallcancrar. Dessa är ofta mer avancerade och kopplade till en ökad dödlighet.

8h

No Dark Energy? No Chance, Cosmologists Contend

Dark energy, mysterious as it sounds, has become part of the furniture in cosmology. The evidence that this repulsive energy infuses space has stacked up since 1998. That was the year astronomers first discovered that the expansion of the universe has been speeding up over time, with dark energy acting as the accelerator. As space expands, new space arises, and with it more of this repulsive ener

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Confronting child trafficking

Child trafficking is pervasive. It is often perceived as a problem that only exists in other countries, but it is a significant issue in the United States.

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Hundreds of Chinese citizens told me what they thought about the controversial social credit system

The Chinese social credit system has been given an unequivocally negative reception by the media in the west. Set to be rolled out nationwide in 2020, the system has even been described by one journalist as China's "most ambitious project in social engineering since the Cultural Revolution."

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Wildfire residue may contribute to climate change

Wildfires leave behind large swathes of blackened earth when they raze a landscape. That charred material contains a host of molecules that could continue to release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere days and weeks after the fire has gone out, according to new research.

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Researcher: Why holidays with family can be full of conflict

Family gatherings over the holidays can be full of conflict for a variety of reasons, whether it's disagreements over religion and politics, arguments with in-laws or the recent loss of a family member.

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The Rise and Fall of an All-Star Crew of Jewel Thieves

In March 2019 , the retired police detective Mike Crowley met me in the lobby of a hotel near the Miami Dolphins' stadium. Crowley, a 71-year-old Vietnam vet, was wearing shorts, a white undershirt, and a camouflage baseball hat that said MARINE in block caps. Over the course of three hours, he sipped a single rum and Coke. Four years earlier, Crowley said, he'd noticed a pattern in a string of j

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'Compass' matches people's and job's personality traits

The hidden personality dimensions of different jobs could be the key to matching a person and their ideal occupation, according to new research. The findings point to the benefit of not only identifying the skills and experience in a particular industry, but also being aware of personality traits and values that characterize jobs—and how they align with your own. It's long been believed that diff

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Hard as a rock? Maybe not, say bacteria that help form soil

Scientists show how bacteria can degrade solid bedrock, jump-starting a long process of alteration that creates the mineral portion of soil.

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Blue pigment discoverer makes key design advance for future durable, vivid pigments

A chemistry researcher who made history a decade ago with the accidental discovery of the first new blue inorganic pigment in more than two centuries is again pushing forward the science of color.

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New methods promise to speed up development of new plant varieties

Researchers developed new methods that will make it significantly faster to produce gene-edited plants.

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New 'netherworldly' freshwater fish named for Thai conservation visionary

Garra surinbinnani looks like a stout, brown minnow with the face of a boxer who's gone one too many rounds. The species makes its home in the fast-flowing, rocky streams of Western Thailand, a region that its namesake, the late conservationist Surin Binnan, devoted himself to protecting.

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Heat or eat? How one energy conservation strategy may hurt vulnerable populations

Any economic and conservation benefits associated with time-of-use electricity billing could be achieved at the expense of some of the most vulnerable citizens in our society: people with disabilities and the elderly, new research suggests.

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Limiting the loss of nature

With only about half of Earth's terrestrial surface remaining as natural vegetation, a team has proposed an international goal to halt its continued loss. The team examined how a global goal of 'no net loss' of natural ecosystems could work, where some nations seek net increases in over-depleted natural vegetation, while recognizing that for others, limited further losses of ecosystems might be un

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ESO telescope images stunning central region of Milky Way, finds ancient star burst

ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has observed the central part of the Milky Way with spectacular resolution and uncovered new details about the history of star birth in our galaxy. Thanks to the new observations, astronomers have found evidence for a dramatic event in the life of the Milky Way: a burst of star formation so intense that it resulted in over a 100,000 supernova explosions.

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Strength of conviction won't help to persuade when people disagree

If you disagree with someone, it might not make any difference how certain they say they are, as during disagreement your brain's sensitivity to the strength of people's beliefs is reduced, finds a study led by UCL and City, University of London and published in Nature Neuroscience.

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Applying physics principle to meteorology yields grim prediction on hurricane destruction in an era of global warming

Global warming could lead to hurricanes even more powerful than meteorologists currently forecast. That warning came from a physicist researching the behavior of tropical cyclones who noticed that one of the principles of physics— phase transition—did not appear in the scientific literature of meteorology.

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SDO sees new kind of magnetic explosion on sun

NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed a magnetic explosion the likes of which have never been seen before. In the scorching upper reaches of the Sun's atmosphere, a prominence—a large loop of material launched by an eruption on the solar surface—started falling back to the surface of the Sun. But before it could make it, the prominence ran into a snarl of magnetic field lines, sparking a

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Ultrathin gold nanoribbons with unique hexagonal crystal phase shows 'liquid-like' behaviour

A recent study led by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has discovered that the ultrathin gold nanoribbons with unique hexagonal (4H type) crystal phase shows "liquid-like" behaviour under heating, but its hexagonal crystalline structure remains stable. This provides insight into the thermal stability of this new type of metallic nanomaterials and facilitates the development of practical applic

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Moths and perhaps other animals rely on precise timing of neural spikes

Extracting nectar from flowers that may be dancing in the wind requires precise, millisecond timing between the brain and muscles.

8h

Donkeys are natural heat lovers and prefer Bethlehem to Britain

We might associate donkeys with Christmas, but new research from the University of Portsmouth shows the animals are keener on hotter periods of the year.

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Sygehusdirektør: Svindelen har stået på i flere år

En tidligere ansat på Sygehus Lillebælt er mistænkt for igennem flere år at have svindlet med hospitalets midler for op til 1,5 mio. kr, siger sygehusdirektør, der ikke vil sige, om samme svindel kan ske på andre sygehuse.

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Zebrafish 'avatars' can help decide who should receive radiotherapy treatment

To date, there is no method for clearly determining whether radiotherapy will be an effective treatment for individual cancer patients. This is a significant problem as patients may be unnecessarily subjected to potentially severe side effects. A new assay offers a promising solution with rapid, personalized radiotherapy compatibility testing, using zebrafish as avatars.

8h

Mothers' and babies' brains 'more in tune' when mother is happy

Mothers' and babies' brains can work together as a 'mega-network' by synchronising brain waves when they interact. The level of connectivity of the brain waves varies according to the mum's emotional state: when mothers express more positive emotions their brain becomes much more strongly connected with their baby's brain. This may help the baby to learn and its brain to develop.

8h

HIIT timing matters for increasing fitness

High intensity interval training (HIIT) is only effective for improving fitness when performed at 60-second intervals, according to new research from Liverpool John Moores University, presented today (Tuesday Dec. 17) at The Physiological Society early career conference, Future Physiology 2019: Translating Cellular Mechanisms into Lifelong Health Strategies.

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Moths and perhaps other animals rely on precise timing of neural spikes

Extracting nectar from flowers that may be dancing in the wind requires precise, millisecond timing between the brain and muscles.

8h

Donkeys are natural heat lovers and prefer Bethlehem to Britain

We might associate donkeys with Christmas, but new research from the University of Portsmouth shows the animals are keener on hotter periods of the year.

8h

Nature-derived peptides as molecular tools to study cellular signaling

A group of researchers of the Institute of Pharmacology at the Medical University of Vienna in collaboration with the University of Vienna and different institutions in Australia, has shown that a certain peptide hormone derived from a mite activates selectively a specific secondary messenger molecule on the human vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R). This is all the more astonishing since drugs normally

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Climate change could make RSV respiratory infection outbreaks less severe, more common

Researchers studied annual outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in one of the first examinations of how climate change could affect diseases transmitted directly from person to person. They found that while outbreaks of RSV could become generally less severe, infections may become more common, which could leave people more vulnerable to the virus over the long term, particularly children

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New heat model may help electronic devices last longer

A team of engineers has found that the model currently used to predict heat loss in a common semiconductor material does not apply in all situations. By testing the thermal properties of gallium nitride semiconductors fabricated using four popular methods, the team discovered that some techniques produce materials that perform better than others. This new understanding can help chip manufacturers

8h

Southern white rhinos are threatened by incest and habitat fragmentation

The fragmentation of natural habitats by fences and human settlements is threatening the survival of the white rhinoceros. It prevents dispersal from the family group and leads to mating among close relatives. Additionally female rhinoceros favor individual males for mating over others and sire several offspring with the same partner over consecutive breeding periods. The results come from the lar

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Laser-based prototype probes cold atom dynamics

Physicists presented an innovative prototype for a new industrial laser system. Their design paves the way for the development of cold atom inertial sensors in space.

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Locust swarms refocus attention on an old enemy

The pests have plagued humans for millennia but recent rains have intensified breeding

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Inside the Republican Case Against Impeachment

President Donald Trump "betrayed the nation by abusing his high office," the House Judiciary Committee declared in a 658-page impeachment report released yesterday. As Democrats tell it, "President Trump solicited the interference of a foreign government, Ukraine, in the 2020 presidential election." He did so by asking Ukraine to announce investigations "that would benefit his reelection, harm th

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Nature-derived peptides as molecular tools to study cellular signaling

A group of researchers of the Institute of Pharmacology at the Medical University of Vienna in collaboration with the University of Vienna and different institutions in Australia, has shown that a certain peptide hormone derived from a mite activates selectively a specific secondary messenger molecule on the human vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R). This is all the more astonishing since drugs normally

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Limiting global warming would relieve populations from wet and dry extremes in China

Limiting global warming to a lower level, such as the 1.5°C Paris Agreement target, would substantially relieve populations from precipitation extremes in China, according to a study recently published in Science Bulletin.

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The TV Show 'Survivor' Can Help Us Understand Impeachment

It has to do with Kurt Gödel, sort of.

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Gastric cancer susceptibility marker discovered

Gastric cancer is often associated with a poor prognosis because it tends to be diagnosed at an advanced stage. To reduce the death rate, it is essential to identify a biomarker enabling early diagnosis of this cancer. In pursuit of this goal, scientists analyzed the mechanisms involved in the development of gastric cancer during infection by the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori. As a result

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Blood lipid profile predicts risk of type 2 diabetes better than obesity

Using lipidomics, a technique that measures the composition of blood lipids at a molecular level, and machine learning, researchers at Lund University in Sweden have identified a blood lipid profile that improves the possibility to assess, several years in advance, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The blood lipid profile can also be linked to a certain diet and degree of physical activity.

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Women who live near green space are less likely to be overweight or obese

Women who live less than 300 metres from green space may be at lower risk of excess weight or obesity. This is the main finding of a study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), a centre supported by 'la Caixa', and published in the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.

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Protein injections in medicine

One day, medical compounds could be introduced into cells with the help of bacterial toxins.

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Taking an X-ray of an atomic bond

A group of researchers led by Drexel University has demonstrated a method that allows scientists to experimentally measure how the chemical bonds of materials are altered when two different materials are linked together. This method provides an atomic layer-by-layer look at the materials' electron configuration, which is the source of traits like conductivity and magnetism.

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AI improves breast cancer risk prediction

A sophisticated type of artificial intelligence (AI) can outperform existing models at predicting which women are at future risk of breast cancer, according to a new study.

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Giant prehistoric caiman had extra hip bone to carry its weight

Purussaurus mirandai could grow to 10m in length and was able to move on land, scientists believe.

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Using math and mechanics to explain how bivalve shells fit together so well

Using math and mechanics, a trio of researchers, two from the University of Oxford, the other the University of Lyon, have learned more about how bivalve shells fit together so well. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Derek Moulton, Alain Goriely and Régis Chirat describe their approach to understanding the interlocking mechanism of bivalve shells.

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Capturing shooting stars over Hawaiʻi

Astronomers now have a new pair of eyes to detect meteors over Hawaiʻi using a state-of-the-art monitoring system installed on the rooftops of existing buildings on Maunakea and Haleakalā. The high-speed video devices are now fully operational and part of an expanding network of identical cameras in the Automated Meteor Observation System (AMOS).

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Biochemists link polyphenols in peach leaves to the antioxidant effect of their extract

Biochemists from RUDN University have determined which substances in peach leaves provide the antioxidant effect of their extract. They investigated the composition of the powders obtained from leaves of several varieties of peach and found that high polyphenol content correlates with antioxidant properties. The results will contribute to production of antioxidants from natural sources. The articl

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Mathematicians propose new design for wireless nanosensory networks

RUDN University mathematicians have developed a new method of collecting data from passive wireless nanosensors. These devices measure the parameters of objects and convert them into a signal. They use microscopic nanoelements and do not have an integral battery pack. Mathematicians have modeled an experiment with gateways, which are made on the basis of unmanned aircraft. It showed that integrati

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Researchers close in on new nonvolatile memory

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, along with their colleagues from Germany and the U.S., have achieved a breakthrough in nonvolatile memory devices. The team came up with a unique method for measuring the electric potential distribution across a ferroelectric capacitor, which could lead to the creation of memory orders of magnitude faster than current flash and solid

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Perfluorerade ämnen och låg födelsevikt hänger samman

Exponering för perfluorerade kemikalier under graviditet kan kopplas till lägre födelsevikt. Det visar den så kallade SELMA-studien som mätt hormonstörande ämnen i blodet hos över 1 500 blivande mammor och deras barn. Perfluorerade ämnen, PFAS, betraktas numera som något av det mest svårnedbrytbara vi har i vår omgivning och det lagras i kroppen hos människor och djur. PFAS, används för att göra

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Congress and climate news spark oil company ads

Major oil corporations tend to spend the most money on advertising and promotional campaigns at moments when they face negative media coverage and/or the threat of increased federal regulation, a new study finds. Robert Brulle, a visiting professor at Brown University, led an analysis concluding that investments in advertising and promotion by major oil companies directly correspond to Congressio

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Women need support for emotions in high-risk pregnancies

Without psychosocial support during high-risk pregnancies, women struggle with their fears while feeling isolated and worried, research finds. About 15% of pregnancies worldwide are high-risk, making premature delivery, low infant birthweight, and other poor outcomes more likely. In the United States, 10% of pregnant women require hospitalization because they have hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclam

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Distant Milky Way-like galaxies reveal star formation history of the universe

Look at this new radio image covered with dots, each of which is a distant galaxy! The brightest spots are galaxies that are powered by supermassive black holes and shine bright in radio light. But what makes this image special are the numerous faint dots filling the sky. These are distant galaxies like our own that have never been observed in radio light before.

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Advanced viral nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy

Researchers at the University of Helsinki have discovered a novel system to generate an artificially enveloped oncolytic adenovirus to direct the immune response against cancer.

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Researchers make world's fastest molecular shuttle

Thanks to a clever chemical design, researchers at the University of Amsterdam's Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences (HIMS) have succeeded in making a very fast molecular machine. The moving parts shift more than one nanometer relative to each other in a record-breaking time of 30 billionths of a second. The results were recently published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

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Researchers identify molecular machinery critical for cell mobility

Researchers have found that two specific proteins take apart actin filaments at one end and return the building blocks to the other end for a new round of polymerization. The structure of this machinery driving cell motility may open new opportunities for developing therapeutics to inhibit cell migration in cancer.

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Rare animals and plants organize in ghettos to survive

Similar to the organization of human cities, animal and plant communities have ghettos or ethnic neighborhoods, where low-abundant species group to enhance their persistence against more competitive species. This unexpected ecological pattern is the conclusion of an international study about biodiversity in competitive environments.

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Even resilient common species are not immune to environmental crisis

A recent study by scientists from the National University of Singapore (NUS) revealed that the current biodiversity crisis may be much broader than widely assumed, and may affect even species thought to be common and tolerant of fragmentation and habitat loss.

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The great Christmas tree debate: Is it better to buy a real tree or a fake one?

It's the holiday season again, and in the midst of making to-do lists and prepping for festive dinners, some people will once again ponder whether it is better for the environment to buy an artificial Christmas tree or to opt for the real thing.

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Researchers identify molecular machinery critical for cell mobility

Researchers have found that two specific proteins take apart actin filaments at one end and return the building blocks to the other end for a new round of polymerization. The structure of this machinery driving cell motility may open new opportunities for developing therapeutics to inhibit cell migration in cancer.

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Rare animals and plants organize in ghettos to survive

Similar to the organization of human cities, animal and plant communities have ghettos or ethnic neighborhoods, where low-abundant species group to enhance their persistence against more competitive species. This unexpected ecological pattern is the conclusion of an international study about biodiversity in competitive environments.

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Even resilient common species are not immune to environmental crisis

A recent study by scientists from the National University of Singapore (NUS) revealed that the current biodiversity crisis may be much broader than widely assumed, and may affect even species thought to be common and tolerant of fragmentation and habitat loss.

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Radiation sends brain into overdrive to clip nerve connections

Radiation exposure triggers an immune response in the brain that severs connections between nerve cells, research in mice shows. One of the potentially life-altering side effects that patients experience after cranial radiotherapy for brain cancer is cognitive impairment. The findings could point the way for new therapies to protect the brain from the damage radiation causes. While the immune sys

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Autism interventions in 'natural settings' may work best

Interventions that parents and caregivers can offer in natural settings—such as during dinner, while playing in the park, or in the classroom—show the greatest promise for children with autism, a new study shows. The interventions are particularly effective for supporting language, social communication, and play development. "Naturalistic developmental behavior interventions (NDBIs) have garnered

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How to make holiday gift-giving ecofriendly—and more meaningful

There's always one on the list—the person who has everything and is notoriously hard to please. That person has likely also received some terrible gimmicky gift, just so that they have something to unwrap.

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A Driver Used so Much Air Freshener His Car Literally Exploded

Unlucky Strike A driver in the United Kingdom is now the poster child for heeding warning labels. On Saturday, his car exploded while he was in it. The reason? According to a tweet from the West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority, the driver had sprayed an "excessive" amount of flammable air freshener in the car — and then lit a cigarette. Smoke Bomb The BBC reported that the driver was sitting

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Gene Therapy for Sickle-Cell Anemia Looks Promising—but It's Riddled with Controversy

Gene therapy is fighting to enter mainstream medicine. With sickle cell disease, the fight is heating up. Roughly two years ago, the FDA made the historic decision to approve the first gene therapy in the US, finally realizing the therapeutic potential of hacking our biological base code after decades of cycles of hope and despair. Other approvals soon followed, including Luxturna to target inher

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Nonlinear fureai: How connectedness can nurture complex dynamics across diverse networks

Scientists at Tokyo Tech have uncovered some new aspects of how connections in networks can influence their behavior over time. Usually, network elements with many connections generate more complex activity than others, but this effect can become inverted if the connections are overly strong. In contrast, in cases such as neurons, which behave in a seemingly random way when by themselves, connecti

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Filtered coffee helps prevent type 2 diabetes, show biomarkers in blood samples

Coffee can help reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes — but only filtered coffee, rather than boiled coffee. New research from Chalmers University of Technology and Umeå University, both in Sweden, show that the choice of preparation method influences the health effects of coffee.

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Even resilient common species are not immune to environmental crisis

A team of researchers from the National University of Singapore has found that the effective population size and genetic diversity of Singapore's Cynopterus brachyotis, believed to remain widely unaffected by urbanisation, has shrunk significantly over the last 90 years – revealing that the current biodiversity crisis may be much broader than widely assumed, affecting even species thought to be co

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Limiting global warming would relieve populations from wet and dry extremes in China

Scientists find that heavy precipitation events would intensify with global warming all over China, affecting all the populations around. Meanwhile, dry extremes would intensify in South China and exert adverse impact on the large population there.

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Compound in green tea plant shows potential for fighting TB, finds NTU-led research team

An antioxidant found in the green tea plant could become key to tackling tuberculosis one day, a team of international scientists led by NTU Singapore has found. Through laboratory investigations, the team led by NTU Prof Gerhard Grüber discovered how the prominent compound, known as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), can inhibit the growth of a tuberculosis-causing bacteria strain. These findings c

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New way to identify and track progression of Huntington's disease

Researchers at the universities of Southampton and Cambridge have developed a new technique to analyse biochemical changes unique to Huntington's disease. The breakthrough has the potential to lead to the improved diagnosis of disease onset and possibly better ways to track the effects of new treatments.

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Tips for keeping your security cameras secure

Security cameras are only as secure as you make them. (Amazon /) Security cameras are great when they do what they're supposed to. For $20—and sometimes even less—you can get a connected camera that lets you keep track of your pets' shenanigans while you're away or bust porch pirates trying to steal your Amazon packages from your front steps. When security cameras go wrong, however, it's horrifyi

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UK insects struggling to find a home make a bee-line for foreign plants

Non-native plants are providing new homes for Britain's insects — some of which are rare on native plants, a new study has found.

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Why People Pretend to Talk as Their Pets

Kathleen began to suspect something was wrong when her stuffed animals started criticizing her. It wasn't unusual for her boyfriend at the time to role-play as the toys, speaking for them in cartoon voices, but a habit that had started as cute and affectionate gradually took a turn. A stuffed turtle, the couple's favorite of the toys, had had a childlike, innocent personality toward the beginning

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Law on image-based sexual abuse and online takedown not fit for purpose

In recent years, the sharing of private sexual images (PSIs), also considered as intimate based sexual abuse (IBSA), has expanded and causes multiple harm to victims, including those who have had images altered and shared online, known as deepfakes.

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Updated World Magnetic Model shows magnetic north pole continuing to push toward Siberia

The team of researchers that maintain the World Magnetic Model (WMM) has updated it and released it a year ahead of schedule due to the speed with which the pole is moving. The newly updated model shows the magnetic north pole moving away from Canada and toward Siberia.

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Slime Santa beard likes hot peppers

A slime Santa beard has been made by Ian Hands-Portman at the University of Warwick using slime molds, a myxomycete which is a single giant cell with multiple nuclei that lives in dark damp places and likes to feed off bacteria and fungi and things that have started to decay.

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'Green Deal' seeks to make Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050

The European Commission launched its much-anticipated "Green Deal" on December 11. The project has been spearheaded by European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen, whose presidential tenure began recently on December 1 2019.

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Climate change: Three ways to market the science to reach the skeptics

Climate change skeptics may be a minority, but they are a sizable one. One in five Americans think that climate change is a myth, or that humans aren't responsible for it. What's more, they're backed up by many in the Middle East and parts of Asia, especially China. They're a vocal minority too – and with the ear of the US president, they are therefore a serious obstacle to collective climate acti

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Avoiding stubble trouble: Agricultural methods for reducing cereal crop waste

When we grow crops a huge amount of energy goes into their production and harvesting. In general, there is also a lot of waste when the wheat is separated from the chaff, so to speak, and stubble trouble is a common problem for wheat and rice and other cereal crops. Now, work on the energy content and potential to do work, exergy, of rice straw suggests that we might have an alternative to simply

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Multidimensional study offers new vision for optical tech

A new design of optical chips enables light to experience multiple dimensions, which could underpin versatile platforms for advanced communications and ultra-fast artificial intelligence technologies.

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Danmark er verdens hurtigst voksende robotnation

PLUS. Danmarks eksport af industrielle robotter var sidste år næsten syv gange større end i 2014. Samtidig er investeringer i robotforskningen på Syddansk Universitet og Aalborg Universitet øget.

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Slime Santa beard likes hot peppers

A slime Santa beard has been made by Ian Hands-Portman at the University of Warwick using slime molds, a myxomycete which is a single giant cell with multiple nuclei that lives in dark damp places and likes to feed off bacteria and fungi and things that have started to decay.

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New tool could help researchers design better cancer vaccines

A computational model could improve the selection of tumor antigens for personalized cancer vaccines that are now in early-stage clinical trials.

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The long tale of a lizard's regrown tail

Curtin University researchers have found that King's skink lizards can re-regenerate their tails, which may help them conserve energy and escape predators, potentially improving their survival and evolutionary fitness.

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New tool could help researchers design better cancer vaccines

A computational model could improve the selection of tumor antigens for personalized cancer vaccines that are now in early-stage clinical trials.

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The long tale of a lizard's regrown tail

Curtin University researchers have found that King's skink lizards can re-regenerate their tails, which may help them conserve energy and escape predators, potentially improving their survival and evolutionary fitness.

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More efficient risk assessment for nanomaterials

Nanotechnology is booming, but risk assessment for these tiny particles is a laborious process that presents significant challenges. To find more efficient test methods, researchers took a closer look at the biological effects.

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Seasonal forecasts challenged by Pacific Ocean warming

Research has found global warming will make it more difficult to predict multi-year global climate variations, a consequence of changes to long-term climate variability patterns in the Pacific Ocean.

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Review of Chinese atmospheric science research over the past 70 years: Climate and climate change

Over the past 70 years since the foundation of the People's Republic of China, Chinese scientists have made great contributions to various fields in the research of atmospheric sciences, which attracted worldwide attention. In the field of climate and climate change, we have witnessed multiple remarkable achievements by Chinese scientists.

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MIPT researchers close in on new nonvolatile memory

Researchers from MIPT, along with their colleagues from Germany and the U.S., have achieved a breakthrough on the way to new types of nonvolatile memory devices. The team came up with a unique method for measuring the electric potential distribution across a ferroelectric capacitor — the device underlying the memory of the future, which would be orders of magnitude faster than the current flash a

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Good aerobic fitness doesn't protect children against type 2 diabetes, staying active does

Good aerobic fitness does not protect children against obesity-induced insulin resistance, which is a key risk factor of type 2 diabetes, a new study from Finland shows. However, more physical activity and less sedentary time were associated with reduced insulin resistance also in obese children.

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Moths and perhaps other animals rely on precise timing of neural spikes

By capturing and analyzing nearly all of the brain signals sent to the wing muscles of hawk moths (Manduca sexta), researchers have shown that precise timing within rapid sequences of neural signal spikes is essential to controlling the flight muscles necessary for the moths to eat.

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Astrophysics and AI may offer key to early dementia diagnosis

Crucial early diagnosis of dementia in general practice could improve thanks to a computer model designed in a collaboration between Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS) and astrophysicists at the University of Sussex.

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SUTD scientists developed a sorting technology that isolates cells with high purity and viability

SUTD researchers developed a sheathless acoustic fluorescence activated cell sorting (aFACS) system by combining elasto-inertial cell focusing and highly focused traveling surface acoustic wave to sort cells with high recovery rate, purity, and cell viability. This novel microfluidic system provides a promising solution for single-cell level detection and isolation in biomedical applications that

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Kronans skepp Samson från 1500-talet hittat i centrala Stockholm

Ett 1500-talsskepp har hittats och undersökts på en innergård strax invid Kungsträdgården i Stockholms city. Skeppet har antagligen övergetts och lämnats i strandkanten, då området öster om Kungsträdgården var mer eller mindre vattenfyllt. Under sommaren har arkeologer undersökt ett skeppsvrak som efter analys av årsringarna i virket kunnat dateras till 1590-tal. Det var ett stort skepp, över 30

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For a greener future, we must accept there's nothing inherently sustainable about going digital

Digital technologies are often put forward as a solution to environmental dilemmas.

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Study unveils new spatiotemporal dynamics of carriers in perovskite thin films

Hybrid organic or inorganic halide perovskites are a unique class of solar cell materials that break some of the material design rules that have been in place for over 30 years. For instance, they can achieve an extraordinarily high performance, despite being rich in defects and disordered on a macroscopic scale.

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Attention United Nations: Don't be fooled by Australia's latest report on the Great Barrier Reef

For some years, Australia has been on notice: the world is watching how we care for the Great Barrier Reef. The iconic natural wonder is the largest living organism on the planet. But its health is deteriorating.

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Russia joins race to make quantum dreams a reality

Nature, Published online: 17 December 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03855-z National initiative aims to develop practical technologies that could mine databases and create ultra-secure communication networks.

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Introducing the January 2020 Issue

Scientific American kicks off its 175th anniversary year — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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The science of gift wrapping explains why sloppy is better

They say appearances can be deceiving. In the case of gift giving, they might be right.

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What do we really know about poverty?

The holidays are a time we focus on those in need and heap scorn on the Scrooges and Mr. Potters who don't. But how well do we understand poverty otherwise—such as who's poor, where they live, and the help that is or isn't available? Are we operating, in some cases, from old or faulty assumptions? U. of I. sociology professor Brian Dill teaches an introductory course on poverty, in both classroom

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Hubble Gets Its Closest Look Yet at Approaching Interstellar Comet

Astronomers have released new photos of comet 2I/Borisov, the second known interstellar visitor to our solar system after 'Oumuamua passed through in 2017. Discovered by amateur astronomer Gennady Borisov, the comet made its closest approach to the Sun on December 8, 2019. NASA has released a pair of photos taken when the comet was approaching the Sun. The first image shows a distant background g

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Study finds Chinese plant biodiversity at risk due to human activity: Narrow-ranged losers, widespread

A research team led by Prof. MA Keping from the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with scientists from the Center for Biodiversity Dynamics in a Changing World (BIOCHANGE) at Aarhus University (Denmark), revealed that narrow-ranged plants in China are more likely to be 'losers', whereas widespread species tend to be 'winners' under the condition of intensive

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Here's a bitter pill to swallow: Artificial sweeteners may be doing more harm than good

A $2.2 billion industry to help people lose weight through artificial sweeteners may be contributing to type 2 diabetes, according to researchers from the University of South Australia.

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Trump's protectionism raises unemployment

The protectionist policy of US President Donald Trump is criticized on all sides around the world, but seems to suit the Americans, who see this economic model as protecting their interests. Could they be wrong? A study by researchers (UNIGE) quantifies the effects of Donald Trump's protectionist policies on unemployment and welfare in OECD countries. Their results show that such policies would ha

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