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nyheder2019december26

Stanford Researchers Have an Exciting Plan to Tackle The Climate Emergency Worldwide

"There's really no downside to making this transition."

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Gift Wrapping Is Effective Future Trash

Research suggests people value gifts more when they have to unwrap them. But how do we avoid all the wasted paper? Christopher Intagliata reports.

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Gift Wrapping Is Effective Future Trash

Research suggests people value gifts more when they have to unwrap them. But how do we avoid all the wasted paper? Christopher Intagliata reports. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Israeli Archaeological Dig Uncovers 9,000-year-old Mega City

#19 in our top science stories of 2019.

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Climate change: Migrant species do well in warm and wet UK in 2019

The National Trust says it's been a good year for migrant butterflies but not for water voles.

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The Most Massive T. rex Ever Found Was Also the Most Elderly

#20 in our top science stories of 2019.

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Is 'super coral' the key to saving the world's reefs?

Scientists in the Seychelles have started the world's first large scale coral reef restoration project.

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A.I. Is Making it Easier to Kill (You). Here's How. | NYT

submitted by /u/JimTheSatisfactory [link] [comments]

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Lab Grown Meat 2019 Year in Review and Look Ahead to 2020

submitted by /u/almundane [link] [comments]

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The Atlantic Politics Daily: What We Learned This Year

It's Monday, December 23. In today's newsletter: What we learned in the year that was. Plus, a most under-appreciated American right. * « TODAY IN POLITICS » It's a truism in the tumult of the Trump presidency that our collective sense of time has gone haywire. The House impeachment vote was two weeks ago . With all of the brain-frying news of 2019, here's a taste of what we learned in this very

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Next-level cocktail books for aspiring bartenders and mixologists

Make better drinks at home. (K U via Unsplash/) The art of mixology combines flavors, scents, aesthetics, and science for truly incredible drinks—and you don't have to be a professional bartender to appreciate it. Go all-in on advanced equipment, or just start adding bitters and garnishes to your everyday cocktails (ideally served in the right glasses). These cocktail-making books will give you t

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In a Year of Notable Deaths, a World of Women Who Shattered Ceilings

Their breakthroughs were in law, science, music and business, and, like the more famous who died this year, they left indelible legacies.

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300 million year old atmospheric dust

Dust plays a crucial role in the life and health of our planet. In our modern world, dust-borne nutrients traveling in great dust storms from the Saharan Desert fertilize the soil in the Amazon Rainforest and feed photosynthetic organisms like algae in the Atlantic Ocean. In turn, it is those organisms that breathe in carbon dioxide and expel oxygen.

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Fewer fats over the festive season may be the perfect formula for men's fertility

A diet low in fat and high in egg whites could be the key to boosting male fertility according to a new pilot study.

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Plant-rich diet protects mice against foodborne infection

Mice fed a plant-rich diet are less susceptible to gastrointestinal (GI) infection from a pathogen such as the one currently under investigation for a widespread E. coli outbreak tied to romaine lettuce, UT Southwestern researchers report.

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New nano-barrier for composites could strengthen spacecraft payloads

Researchers developed a robust multi-layered nano-barrier for ultra-lightweight and stable carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) that could be used to build high precision instrument structures for future space missions.

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How to tell if a brain is awake

A team was able to demonstrate, using rats, that the EEG doesn't always track with being awake. Their study raises questions about what it means to be conscious.

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Capturing CO2 from trucks and reducing their emissions by 90%

Researchers have patented a new concept that could cut trucks' CO2 emissions by almost 90%. It involves capturing CO2 within the exhaust system, converting it into a liquid and storing it on the vehicle. The liquid CO2 would then be delivered to a service station and where it will be turned back into fuel using renewable energy.

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Gazing into crystal balls to advance understanding of crystal formation

Researchers conducted simulations considering and neglecting hydrodynamic interactions to determine whether or not these interactions cause the large discrepancy observed between experimental and calculated nucleation rates for hard-sphere colloidal systems, which are used to model crystallization. The team obtained similar nucleation rates from both simulations, clarifying that hydrodynamic inter

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Let PopSci's best builds be your first 2020 projects

Ah yes, we love the smell of a new drawer organizer. (John Kennedy/) Give a DIYer some free time, and we're going to make something out of it. We love getting our hands dirty and creating something of our own, whether it serves a practical purpose or is just plain fun. So if you're looking for a project or two to kick off the new year with, take a gander below at our five favorite buildable proje

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In a Year of Notable Deaths, aWorld of Women Who Shattered Ceilings

Their breakthroughs were in law, science, music and business, and, like the more famous who died this year, they left indelible legacies.

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Notable Deaths in 2019: A World of Women Who Shattered Ceilings

Their breakthroughs were in law, science, music and business, and, like the more famous who died this year, they left indelible legacies.

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FEFU scientists participate in development of ceramic materials that are IR-transparent

Scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) teamed up with colleagues from Institute of Chemistry (FEB RAS), Institute for Single Crystals (Ukraine), and Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to develop Y2O3?MgO nanocomposite ceramics with uniform distribution of two phases, microhardness over 11 GPa, and average grain size of 250 nm. It capable of transmitting ove

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How to tell if a brain is awake

A team was able to demonstrate, using rats, that the EEG doesn't always track with being awake. Their study raises questions about what it means to be conscious.

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Gazing into crystal balls to advance understanding of crystal formation

Researchers conducted simulations considering and neglecting hydrodynamic interactions to determine whether or not these interactions cause the large discrepancy observed between experimental and calculated nucleation rates for hard-sphere colloidal systems, which are used to model crystallization. The team obtained similar nucleation rates from both simulations, clarifying that hydrodynamic inter

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Europe's Mars lander passes parachute test

Previous problems appear to have been ironed out in craft's essential landing equipment Ground tests designed to validate the deployment of the parachutes that will be used on the European Space Agency's (ESA) Mars lander next year have started well at Nasa's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. ESA's ExoMars 2020 mission consists of the UK-built Rosalind Franklin rover, which

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Our highest-flying stories of 2019

A US Air Force Thunderbirds F-16 over Georgia in October, 2019. (US Air Force / Airman Kendra Ransum /) It was a disastrous year for commercial aviation. The crash of Flight 302 in Ethiopia in March claimed 157 lives; it followed the Lion Air disaster, which killed 189 people the year before. Both crashes were in Boeing 737 Max aircraft, and in both cases, investigators, regulators, and the airpl

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Fiji braces for Cyclone Sarai

Tropical Cyclone Sarai was bearing down off the coast of Fiji on Friday, with the archipelago's disaster agency warning some residents to move to higher ground ahead of possible flooding.

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Report links recommended physical activity levels to lower risk of seven cancers

A pooled analysis of nine prospective studies involving more than 750,000 adults finds that recommended amounts of leisure-time physical activity were linked to a lower risk for seven cancers, with several cancer types having a 'dose/response' relationship.

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We really don't know when Betelgeuse is going to explode

why do stars pulsate? (there's a lot of reasons: let's focus only on stars like Betelgeuse) picture a beating heart. that pulsation is similar to the star's regular pulsations; it periodically expands and contracts, *literally* getting bigger and smaller. — Sarafina Nance (@starstrickenSF) December 23, 2019

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Brain tumor organoids may be key to time-sensitive treatments for glioblastomas

Lab-grown brain organoids developed from a patient's own glioblastoma, the most aggressive and common form of brain cancer, may hold the answers on how to best treat it. A new study showed how glioblastoma organoids could serve as effective models to rapidly test personalized treatment strategies.

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In vivo imaging of CREB dynamics: Coupling sensory experience to activity

Scientists have designed and developed novel biosensors that allow the simultaneous study of both sensory evoked neuronal activity and transcription factor dynamics.

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Finally, machine learning interprets gene regulation clearly

A new brand of artificial neural network has solved an interpretability problem that has frustrated biologists. With it, scientists may solve mysteries about gene regulation and drug discovery.

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Proton therapy lowers risk of side effects in cancer compared to traditional radiation

Proton therapy leads to significantly lower risk of side effects severe enough to lead to unplanned hospitalizations for cancer patients when compared with traditional radiation, while cure rates between the two groups are almost identical.

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Paving the way for spintronic RAMs: A deeper look into a powerful spin phenomenon

Scientists explore a new material combination that sets the stage for magnetic random access memories, which rely on spin — an intrinsic property of electrons — and could outperform current storage devices. Their breakthrough presents a novel strategy to exploit spin-related phenomena in topological materials, which could spur several advances in the field of spin electronics. Moreover, this stu

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'Ring of Fire' Eclipse Dazzles Asia and Middle East

An annular solar eclipse, in which the moon covers the sun's center, leaving a ring of light around it, was visible on Thursday. "You can actually see the solar system in motion," an astronomer said.

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Brain-like functions emerging in a metallic nanowire network

An international joint research team succeeded in fabricating a neuromorphic network composed of numerous metallic nanowires. Using this network, the team was able to generate electrical characteristics similar to those associated with higher order brain functions unique to humans, such as memorization, learning, forgetting, becoming alert and returning to calm. The team then clarified the mechani

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Development of ultrathin durable membrane for efficient oil and water separation

Researchers have succeeded in developing an ultrathin membrane with a fouling-resistant silica surface treatment for high performance separation of oil from water. Furthermore, this membrane was shown to be versatile; it was able to separate water from a wide variety of different oily substances.

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Brain-like functions emerging in a metallic nanowire network

An international joint research team succeeded in fabricating a neuromorphic network composed of numerous metallic nanowires. Using this network, the team was able to generate electrical characteristics similar to those associated with higher order brain functions unique to humans, such as memorization, learning, forgetting, becoming alert and returning to calm. The team then clarified the mechani

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Mosquitoes can sense toxins through their legs

Researchers have identified a completely new mechanism by which mosquitoes that carry malaria are becoming resistant to insecticide.

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Why Exercise is the Real Miracle Drug

Forget laughter — exercise is far and away the best medicine.

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Intermittent fasting: Live 'fast,' live longer?

For many people, the New Year is a time to adopt new habits as a renewed commitment to personal health. Newly enthusiastic fitness buffs pack into gyms and grocery stores are filled with shoppers eager to try out new diets.

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Seeing the new Star Wars? Be careful what you wish for

How much you enjoy the new Star Wars movie will depend a lot on your expectations going in, a new study suggests. Researchers surveyed 441 people before and after they saw the last episode in the popular franchise, Star Wars VIII: The Last Jedi, released in 2017. They wanted to see how audiences' expectations affected their actual enjoyment of the movie.

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A molecular map of the brain's decision-making area

Researchers have come one step closer toward understanding how the part of our brain that is central for decision-making and the development of addiction is organized on a molecular level. In mouse models and with methods used for mapping cell types and brain tissue, the researchers were able to visualize the organization of different opioid-islands in striatum. Their spatiomolecular map may furth

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Jane Fonda On Climate Change And Civil Disobedience (Rebroadcast)

The Hollywood icon trades the red carpet for the Capitol steps. (Image credit: Rick Diamond/Getty Images for GCAPP)

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Mouse pups born from eggs derived from the granulosa cells that surround oocytes

By introducing a chemical cocktail to granulosa cells, researchers induced the cells to transform into functional oocytes in mice. Once fertilized, these oocytes were then successfully able to produce healthy offspring, showing no differences from naturally bred mice.

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Why isn't there a vaccine for staph?

A study may help explain why previous attempts to develop a staph vaccine have failed, while also suggesting a new approach to vaccine design that focuses on activating an untapped set of immune cells, as well as inoculating against staph in utero or within the first few days after birth.

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New technology allows control of gene therapy doses

Scientists have developed a special molecular switch that could be embedded into gene therapies to allow doctors to control dosing. The feat offers gene therapy designers what may be the first viable technique for adjusting the activity levels of their therapeutic genes.

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How cells relieve DNA replication stress

Scientists revealed that ATAD5 actively deals with replication stress, in addition to its known function to prevent such stressful situations. Though ATAD5 has been known as a tumor suppressor by maintaining genomic stability and suppressing tumorigenesis, it has been unclear whether the replication regulatory protein is also involved in the replication stress response.

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"Magic" Angle Graphene is Back… With an Even Bigger Twist

submitted by /u/Memetic1 [link] [comments]

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2019 EurekAlert! Trending Release List the most international ever

The EurekAlert! 2019 Trending Release List is the most geographically diverse to date, with more than half of the top 10 from outside the United States.

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A cis-element within the ARF locus mediates repression of p16INK4A expression via long-range chromatin interactions [Cell Biology]

Loss of function of CDKN2A/B, also known as INK4/ARF [encoding p16INK4A, p15INK4B, and p14ARF (mouse p19Arf)], confers susceptibility to cancers, whereas its up-regulation during organismal aging provokes cellular senescence and tissue degenerative disorders. To better understand the transcriptional regulation of p16INK4A, a CRISPR screen targeting open, noncoding chromatin regions adjacent…

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Resurgence of an apex marine predator and the decline in prey body size [Ecology]

In light of recent recoveries of marine mammal populations worldwide and heightened concern about their impacts on marine food webs and global fisheries, it has become increasingly important to understand the potential impacts of large marine mammal predators on prey populations and their life-history traits. In coastal waters of the…

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Parent-of-origin differences in DNA methylation of X chromosome genes in T lymphocytes [Immunology and Inflammation]

Many autoimmune diseases are more frequent in females than in males in humans and their mouse models, and sex differences in immune responses have been shown. Despite extensive studies of sex hormones, mechanisms underlying these sex differences remain unclear. Here, we focused on sex chromosomes using the "four core genotypes"…

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Activation-induced cell death of self-reactive regulatory T cells drives autoimmunity [Immunology and Inflammation]

Activation of self-reactive T cells is a major driver to autoimmunity and is suppressed by mechanisms of regulation. In a humanized model of autoimmune thyroiditis, we investigated the mechanism underlying break of tolerance. Here, we found that a human TCR specific for the self-antigen thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is positively selected…

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Extensive subclonal mutational diversity in human colorectal cancer and its significance [Medical Sciences]

Human colorectal cancers (CRCs) contain both clonal and subclonal mutations. Clonal driver mutations are positively selected, present in most cells, and drive malignant progression. Subclonal mutations are randomly dispersed throughout the genome, providing a vast reservoir of mutant cells that can expand, repopulate the tumor, and result in the rapid…

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A tumorigenic index for quantitative analysis of liver cancer initiation and progression [Medical Sciences]

Primary liver cancer develops from multifactorial etiologies, resulting in extensive genomic heterogeneity. To probe the common mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis, we interrogated temporal gene expression profiles in a group of mouse models with hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and, consequently, tumorigenesis. Instead of anticipated progressive changes, we observed a sudden molecular swi

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Precise timing is ubiquitous, consistent, and coordinated across a comprehensive, spike-resolved flight motor program [Neuroscience]

Sequences of action potentials, or spikes, carry information in the number of spikes and their timing. Spike timing codes are critical in many sensory systems, but there is now growing evidence that millisecond-scale changes in timing also carry information in motor brain regions, descending decision-making circuits, and individual motor units….

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Individual structural features constrain the mouse functional connectome [Neuroscience]

Whole brain dynamics intuitively depend upon the internal wiring of the brain; but to which extent the individual structural connectome constrains the corresponding functional connectome is unknown, even though its importance is uncontested. After acquiring structural data from individual mice, we virtualized their brain networks and simulated in silico functional…

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Ventral hippocampus interacts with prelimbic cortex during inhibition of threat response via learned safety in both mice and humans [Neuroscience]

Heightened fear and inefficient safety learning are key features of fear and anxiety disorders. Evidence-based interventions for anxiety disorders, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, primarily rely on mechanisms of fear extinction. However, up to 50% of clinically anxious individuals do not respond to current evidence-based treatment, suggesting a critical need…

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A systematic capsid evolution approach performed in vivo for the design of AAV vectors with tailored properties and tropism [Neuroscience]

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid modification enables the generation of recombinant vectors with tailored properties and tropism. Most approaches to date depend on random screening, enrichment, and serendipity. The approach explored here, called BRAVE (barcoded rational AAV vector evolution), enables efficient selection of engineered capsid structures on a large scale using…

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Perineuronal nets protect long-term memory by limiting activity-dependent inhibition from parvalbumin interneurons [Neuroscience]

Perineuronal nets (PNNs), a complex of extracellular matrix molecules that mostly surround GABAergic neurons in various brain regions, play a critical role in synaptic plasticity. The function and cellular mechanisms of PNNs in memory consolidation and reconsolidation processes are still not well understood. We hypothesized that PNNs protect long-term memory…

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Evoked potentials as a biomarker of remyelination [Neuroscience]

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common cause of neurologic disease in young adults that is primarily treated with disease-modifying therapies which target the immune and inflammatory responses. Promotion of remyelination has opened a new therapeutic avenue, but how best to determine efficacy of remyelinating drugs remains unresolved. Although prolongation and…

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Descending projections from the substantia nigra pars reticulata differentially control seizures [Neuroscience]

Three decades of studies have shown that inhibition of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) attenuates seizures, yet the circuits mediating this effect remain obscure. SNpr projects to the deep and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), but the contributions of these projections are…

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Transcriptomic analysis of field-droughted sorghum from seedling to maturity reveals biotic and metabolic responses [Plant Biology]

Drought is the most important environmental stress limiting crop yields. The C4 cereal sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a critical food, forage, and emerging bioenergy crop that is notably drought-tolerant. We conducted a large-scale field experiment, imposing preflowering and postflowering drought stress on 2 genotypes of sorghum across a…

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Cryptochrome 2 competes with COP1 substrates to repress COP1 ubiquitin ligase activity during Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis [Plant Biology]

In plants, the cryptochrome photoreceptors suppress the activity of the COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase to initiate photomorphogenesis in blue light. Both CRY1 and CRY2 interact with the COP1/SPA complex in a blue light-dependent manner. The mechanisms underlying the inhibition of COP1 activity through direct interactions with photoactivated CRYs are not fully…

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Virus-virus interactions impact the population dynamics of influenza and the common cold [Population Biology]

The human respiratory tract hosts a diverse community of cocirculating viruses that are responsible for acute respiratory infections. This shared niche provides the opportunity for virus–virus interactions which have the potential to affect individual infection risks and in turn influence dynamics of infection at population scales. However, quantitative evidence for…

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Mechanism for antigenic peptide selection by endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is an intracellular enzyme that optimizes the peptide cargo of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) molecules and regulates adaptive immunity. It has unusual substrate selectivity for length and sequence, resulting in poorly understood effects on the cellular immunopeptidome. To understand substrate selection by ERAP1, we…

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Loss of p57KIP2 expression confers resistance to contact inhibition in human androgenetic trophoblast stem cells [Cell Biology]

A complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is androgenetic in origin and characterized by enhanced trophoblastic proliferation and the absence of fetal tissue. In 15 to 20% of cases, CHMs are followed by malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasms including choriocarcinoma. Aberrant genomic imprinting may be responsible for trophoblast hypertrophy in CHMs, but the…

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Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus by a dual-responsive fluorescent EBNA1-targeting agent with Zn2+-chelating function [Cell Biology]

Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) plays a vital role in the maintenance of the viral genome and is the only viral protein expressed in nearly all forms of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) latency and EBV-associated diseases, including numerous cancer types. To our knowledge, no specific agent against EBV genes or proteins…

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SIRT5 stabilizes mitochondrial glutaminase and supports breast cancer tumorigenesis [Cell Biology]

The mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase (GLS) is frequently up-regulated during tumorigenesis and is being evaluated as a target for cancer therapy. GLS catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate, which then supplies diverse metabolic pathways with carbon and/or nitrogen. Here, we report that SIRT5, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent lysine deacylase, plays a…

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Peripheral (not central) corneal epithelia contribute to the closure of an annular debridement injury [Cell Biology]

Corneal epithelia have limited self-renewal and therefore reparative capacity. They are continuously replaced by transient amplifying cells which spawn from stem cells and migrate from the periphery. Because this view has recently been challenged, our goal was to resolve the conflict by giving mice annular injuries in different locations within…

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Deep learning for inferring gene relationships from single-cell expression data [Computer Sciences]

Several methods were developed to mine gene–gene relationships from expression data. Examples include correlation and mutual information methods for coexpression analysis, clustering and undirected graphical models for functional assignments, and directed graphical models for pathway reconstruction. Using an encoding for gene expression data, followed by deep neural networks analysis, we…

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Toward a metabolic theory of life history [Ecology]

The life histories of animals reflect the allocation of metabolic energy to traits that determine fitness and the pace of living. Here, we extend metabolic theories to address how demography and mass–energy balance constrain allocation of biomass to survival, growth, and reproduction over a life cycle of one generation. We…

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Modeling active sensing reveals echo detection even in large groups of bats [Ecology]

Active sensing animals perceive their surroundings by emitting probes of energy and analyzing how the environment modulates these probes. However, the probes of conspecifics can jam active sensing, which should cause problems for groups of active sensing animals. This problem was termed the cocktail party nightmare for echolocating bats: as…

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Postreproductive killer whale grandmothers improve the survival of their grandoffspring [Ecology]

Understanding why females of some mammalian species cease ovulation prior to the end of life is a long-standing interdisciplinary and evolutionary challenge. In humans and some species of toothed whales, females can live for decades after stopping reproduction. This unusual life history trait is thought to have evolved, in part,…

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Human activities have opposing effects on distributions of narrow-ranged and widespread plant species in China [Ecology]

Human activities have shaped large-scale distributions of many species, driving both range contractions and expansions. Species differ naturally in range size, with small-range species concentrated in particular geographic areas and potentially deviating ecologically from widespread species. Hence, species' responses to human activities may be influenced by their geographic range sizes,…

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Receding ice drove parallel expansions in Southern Ocean penguins [Evolution]

Climate shifts are key drivers of ecosystem change. Despite the critical importance of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean for global climate, the extent of climate-driven ecological change in this region remains controversial. In particular, the biological effects of changing sea ice conditions are poorly understood. We hypothesize that rapid postglacial…

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Gene- and tissue-level interactions in normal gastrointestinal development and Hirschsprung disease [Genetics]

The development of the gut from endodermal tissue to an organ with multiple distinct structures and functions occurs over a prolonged time during embryonic days E10.5–E14.5 in the mouse. During this process, one major event is innervation of the gut by enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to establish the enteric…

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Neutralization of IL-1{alpha} ameliorates Crohn's disease-like ileitis by functional alterations of the gut microbiome [Immunology and Inflammation]

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic and progressive inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that are attributed to dysregulated interactions between the gut microbiome and the intestinal mucosa-associated immune system. There are limited studies investigating the role of either IL-1α or IL-1β in mouse models of colitis, and no clinical trials…

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T cell receptor specificity drives accumulation of a reparative population of regulatory T cells within acutely injured skeletal muscle [Immunology and Inflammation]

Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play important roles in controlling both homeostatic processes and immune responses at the tissue and organismal levels. For example, Tregs promote muscle regeneration in acute or chronic injury models by direct effects on local muscle progenitor cells, as well as on infiltrating inflammatory cells. Muscle…

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Comprehensive analysis of a mouse model of spontaneous uveoretinitis using single-cell RNA sequencing [Immunology and Inflammation]

Autoimmune uveoretinitis is a significant cause of visual loss, and mouse models offer unique opportunities to study its disease mechanisms. Aire−/− mice fail to express self-antigens in the thymus, exhibit reduced central tolerance, and develop a spontaneous, chronic, and progressive uveoretinitis. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), we characterized wild-type and…

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Affinity maturation in a human humoral response to influenza hemagglutinin [Immunology and Inflammation]

Affinity maturation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is a conserved and crucial component of the adaptive immune response. BCR lineages, inferred from paired heavy- and light-chain sequences of rearranged Ig genes from multiple descendants of the same naive B cell precursor (the lineages' unmutated common ancestor, "UCA"), make…

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Intermittent rolling is a defect of the extravasation cascade caused by Myosin1e-deficiency in neutrophils [Immunology and Inflammation]

Neutrophil extravasation is a migratory event in response to inflammation that depends on cytoskeletal dynamics regulated by myosins. Myosin-1e (Myo1e) is a long-tailed class-I myosin that has not yet been studied in the context of neutrophil–endothelial interactions and neutrophil extravasation. Intravital microscopy of TNFα-inflamed cremaster muscles in Myo1e-deficient mice revealed…

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Evolutionary transition from degenerate to nonredundant cytokine signaling networks supporting intrathymic T cell development [Immunology and Inflammation]

In mammals, T cell development critically depends on the IL-7 cytokine signaling pathway. Here we describe the identification of the zebrafish ortholog of mammalian IL-7 based on chromosomal localization, deduced protein sequence, and expression patterns. To examine the biological role of il7 in teleosts, we generated an il7 allele lacking…

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Ly49R activation receptor drives self-MHC-educated NK cell immunity against cytomegalovirus infection [Immunology and Inflammation]

Natural killer (NK) cells mediate vital control of cancer and viral infection. They rely on MHC class I (MHC I)-specific self-receptors to identify and lyse diseased cells without harming self-MHC I-bearing host cells. NK cells bearing inhibitory self-receptors for host MHC I also undergo education, referred to as licensing, which…

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Characterization of splice-altering mutations in inherited predisposition to cancer [Medical Sciences]

Mutations responsible for inherited disease may act by disrupting normal transcriptional splicing. Such mutations can be difficult to detect, and their effects difficult to characterize, because many lie deep within exons or introns where they may alter splice enhancers or silencers or introduce new splice acceptors or donors. Multiple mutation-specific…

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Oxytocin regulates body composition [Medical Sciences]

The primitive neurohypophyseal nonapeptide oxytocin (OXT) has established functions in parturition, lactation, appetite, and social behavior. We have shown that OXT has direct actions on the mammalian skeleton, stimulating bone formation by osteoblasts and modulating the genesis and function of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. We deleted OXT receptors (OXTRs) selectively in osteoblasts…

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IgGs from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and diabetes target CaV{alpha}2{delta}1 subunits impairing islet cell function and survival [Medical Sciences]

Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often show hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the causal link between ALS and T2DM has remained a mystery. We now demonstrate that 60% of ALS patients with T2DM (ALS-T2DM) have sera that exaggerated K+-induced increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i)…

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FOXA1 upregulation promotes enhancer and transcriptional reprogramming in endocrine-resistant breast cancer [Medical Sciences]

Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) is a pioneer factor that facilitates chromatin binding and function of lineage-specific and oncogenic transcription factors. Hyperactive FOXA1 signaling due to gene amplification or overexpression has been reported in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) endocrine-resistant metastatic breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which FOXA1 up-regulation promotes these..

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Epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity and differential response to therapies in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma [Medical Sciences]

Transcriptional profiling has defined pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) into distinct subtypes with the majority being classical epithelial (E) or quasi-mesenchymal (QM). Despite clear differences in clinical behavior, growing evidence indicates these subtypes exist on a continuum with features of both subtypes present and suggestive of interconverting cell states. Here, we…

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CRISPR/Cas9-based targeted genome editing for correction of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa using iPS cells [Medical Sciences]

Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe inherited skin disorder caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene encoding type VII collagen (C7). The spectrum of severity depends on the type of mutation in the COL7A1 gene. C7 is the major constituent of anchoring fibrils (AFs) at the basement membrane…

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The emergence of classical BSE from atypical/Nor98 scrapie [Medical Sciences]

Atypical/Nor98 scrapie (AS) is a prion disease of small ruminants. Currently there are no efficient measures to control this form of prion disease, and, importantly, the zoonotic potential and the risk that AS might represent for other farmed animal species remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the capacity…

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Evolution of resistance in vitro reveals mechanisms of artemisinin activity in Toxoplasma gondii [Microbiology]

Artemisinins are effective against a variety of parasites and provide the first line of treatment for malaria. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms for artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, including mutations in Kelch13 that are associated with delayed clearance in some clinical isolates, although other mechanisms are likely involved. To…

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Extracellular electron transfer powers flavinylated extracellular reductases in Gram-positive bacteria [Microbiology]

Mineral-respiring bacteria use a process called extracellular electron transfer to route their respiratory electron transport chain to insoluble electron acceptors on the exterior of the cell. We recently characterized a flavin-based extracellular electron transfer system that is present in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, as well as many other Gram-positive…

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Cross-genotype protection of live-attenuated vaccine candidate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in a ferret model [Microbiology]

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne virus classified within the Banyangvirus genus. SFTS disease has been reported throughout East Asia since 2009 and is characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia and has a 12 to 30% case fatality rate. Due to the recent…

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Antitumor astins originate from the fungal endophyte Cyanodermella asteris living within the medicinal plant Aster tataricus [Microbiology]

Medicinal plants are a prolific source of natural products with remarkable chemical and biological properties, many of which have considerable remedial benefits. Numerous medicinal plants are suffering from wildcrafting, and thus biotechnological production processes of their natural products are urgently needed. The plant Aster tataricus is widely used in traditional…

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A population shift between two heritable cell types of the pathogen Candida albicans is based both on switching and selective proliferation [Microbiology]

Differentiated cell types often retain their characteristics through many rounds of cell division. A simple example is found in Candida albicans, a member of the human microbiota and also the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans; here, two distinct cell types (white and opaque) exist, and each one retains its…

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Antimicrobial sensing coupled with cell membrane remodeling mediates antibiotic resistance and virulence in Enterococcus faecalis [Microbiology]

Bacteria have developed several evolutionary strategies to protect their cell membranes (CMs) from the attack of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the innate immune system, including remodeling of phospholipid content and localization. Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, an opportunistic human pathogen, evolves resistance to the lipopeptide daptomycin and AMPs by…

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Viral neutralization by antibody-imposed physical disruption [Microbiology]

In adaptive immunity, organisms produce neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to eliminate invading pathogens. Here, we explored whether viral neutralization could be attained through the physical disruption of a virus upon nAb binding. We report the neutralization mechanism of a potent nAb 8C11 against the hepatitis E virus (HEV), a nonenveloped positive-sense…

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Inhibition of ULK1 and Beclin1 by an {alpha}-herpesvirus Akt-like Ser/Thr kinase limits autophagy to stimulate virus replication [Microbiology]

Autophagy is a powerful host defense that restricts herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) pathogenesis in neurons. As a countermeasure, the viral ICP34.5 polypeptide, which is exclusively encoded by HSV, antagonizes autophagy in part through binding Beclin1. However, whether autophagy is a cell-type–specific antiviral defense or broadly restricts HSV-1 reproduction in nonneuronal…

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Molecular profiling of single neurons of known identity in two ganglia from the crab Cancer borealis [Neuroscience]

Understanding circuit organization depends on identification of cell types. Recent advances in transcriptional profiling methods have enabled classification of cell types by their gene expression. While exceptionally powerful and high throughput, the ground-truth validation of these methods is difficult: If cell type is unknown, how does one assess whether a…

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The network architecture of rat intrinsic interbrain (diencephalic) macroconnections [Neuroscience]

The endbrain and interbrain form 2 great vertebrate forebrain divisions, and the interbrain is subdivided into the hypothalamus ventrally and thalamus dorsally. General organizing principles of intrainterbrain axonal circuitry were examined here at the level of gray matter regions using network analysis tools in a mammal with the most complete…

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Sources of off-target expression from recombinase-dependent AAV vectors and mitigation with cross-over insensitive ATG-out vectors [Neuroscience]

In combination with transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre or Flp recombinases in defined cell types, recombinase-dependent adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become the tool of choice for localized cell-type-targeted gene expression. Unfortunately, applications of this technique when expressing highly sensitive transgenes are impeded by off-target, or "leak" expression, from recombinase-dependen

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Synaptic control of spinal GRPR+ neurons by local and long-range inhibitory inputs [Neuroscience]

Spinal gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-expressing (GRPR+) neurons play an essential role in itch signal processing. However, the circuit mechanisms underlying the modulation of spinal GRPR+ neurons by direct local and long-range inhibitory inputs remain elusive. Using viral tracing and electrophysiological approaches, we dissected the neural circuits underlying the inhibitory control of…

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Second-order cues to figure motion enable object detection during prey capture by praying mantises [Neuroscience]

Detecting motion is essential for animals to perform a wide variety of functions. In order to do so, animals could exploit motion cues, including both first-order cues—such as luminance correlation over time—and second-order cues, by correlating higher-order visual statistics. Since first-order motion cues are typically sufficient for motion detection, it…

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5-HT2A receptor activation normalizes stress-induced dysregulation of GABAergic signaling in the ventral tegmental area [Neuroscience]

Stress is known to alter GABAergic signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and this inhibitory plasticity is associated with increased alcohol self-administration. In humans, serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonists can treat stress- and alcohol-related disorders, but the neural substrates are ill-defined. Thus, we reasoned that 5-HT2AR pharmacotherapies may ameliorate…

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Position-theta-phase model of hippocampal place cell activity applied to quantification of running speed modulation of firing rate [Neuroscience]

Spiking activity of place cells in the hippocampus encodes the animal's position as it moves through an environment. Within a cell's place field, both the firing rate and the phase of spiking in the local theta oscillation contain spatial information. We propose a position–theta-phase (PTP) model that captures the simultaneous…

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Photoreceptor disc membranes are formed through an Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodium-like mechanism [Neuroscience]

The light-sensitive outer segment of the vertebrate photoreceptor is a highly modified primary cilium filled with disc-shaped membranes that provide a vast surface for efficient photon capture. The formation of each disc is initiated by a ciliary membrane evagination driven by an unknown molecular mechanism reportedly requiring actin polymerization. Since…

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SUMO1 modification of PKD2 channels regulates arterial contractility [Physiology]

PKD2 (polycystin-2, TRPP1) channels are expressed in a wide variety of cell types and can regulate functions, including cell division and contraction. Whether posttranslational modification of PKD2 modifies channel properties is unclear. Similarly uncertain are signaling mechanisms that regulate PKD2 channels in arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes). Here, by studying…

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A noncanonical vacuolar sugar transferase required for biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense compounds in oat [Plant Biology]

Plants produce an array of natural products with important ecological functions. These compounds are often decorated with oligosaccharide groups that influence bioactivity, but the biosynthesis of such sugar chains is not well understood. Triterpene glycosides (saponins) are a large family of plant natural products that determine important agronomic traits, as…

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The {gamma}-tubulin complex protein GCP6 is crucial for spindle morphogenesis but not essential for microtubule reorganization in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

γ-Tubulin typically forms a ring-shaped complex with 5 related γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCP2 to GCP6), and this γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) serves as a template for microtubule (MT) nucleation in plants and animals. While the γTuRC takes part in MT nucleation in most eukaryotes, in fungi such events take place…

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Correction for Kumra et al., Fibulin-4 exerts a dual role in LTBP-4L-mediated matrix assembly and function [Correction]

BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for "Fibulin-4 exerts a dual role in LTBP-4L–mediated matrix assembly and function," by Heena Kumra, Valentin Nelea, Hana Hakami, Amelie Pagliuzza, Jelena Djokic, Jiongci Xu, Hiromi Yanagisawa, and Dieter P. Reinhardt, which was first published September 23, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1901048116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 20428–20437). The authors…

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Correction for Fan et al., Abscisic acid regulation of guard-cell K+ and anion channels in G{beta}- and RGS-deficient Arabidopsis lines [Correction]

PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for "Abscisic acid regulation of guard-cell K+ and anion channels in Gβ- and RGS-deficient Arabidopsis lines," by Liu-Min Fan, Wei Zhang, Jin-Gui Chen, J. Philip Taylor, Alan M. Jones, and Sarah M. Assmann, which was first published June 9, 2008; 10.1073/pnas.0800980105 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105,…

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Correction for de la Cuesta et al., Oil and aid revenue produce equal demands for accountability as taxes in Ghana and Uganda [Correction]

POLITICAL SCIENCES Correction for "Oil and aid revenue produce equal demands for accountability as taxes in Ghana and Uganda," by Brandon de la Cuesta, Helen V. Milner, Daniel L. Nielson, and Stephen F. Knack, which was first published August 21, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1903134116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 17717–17722). The…

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Correction for Duckworth et al., Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success [Correction]

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Correction for "Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success," by Angela L. Duckworth, Abigail Quirk, Robert Gallop, Rick H. Hoyle, Dennis R. Kelly, and Michael D. Matthews, which was first published November 4, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1910510116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 23499–23504). The authors note the following:…

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Acknowledgment of Guest Editors, 2019 [Reviewer Acknowledgment]

PNAS would like to thank all the individuals who dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal by serving as guest editors in 2019. Their generous contribution is deeply appreciated. A Nicholas L. Abbott Junichi Abe Alessio Accardi Thomas P. Ackerman David J. Adams Ralph Adolphs J. M. Adovasio…

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers, 2019 [Reviewer Acknowledgment]

PNAS would like to thank all the individuals who dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal by serving as reviewers in 2019. Their generous contribution is deeply appreciated. A Mu A Rolf Aalto Duur K. Aanen Maria Abascal Adam R. Abate Cory Abate-Shen Abul K. Abbas Jon Abbatt…

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Gene-edited stem cells help treat skin disorder in mice Gene editing and stem cell technology treat skin disorder in mice. Image courtesy of iStock/Meletios Verras. The integrity of human skin is partly ensured by type VII collagen, a protein found in anchoring fibrils in the skin's basement membrane zone. Mutations…

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Ca2+/CaM interaction with voltage-gated Na+ channels [Biological Sciences]

Gardill et al. (1) describe a crystal structure for a complex of Ca2+-loaded calmodulin (CaM) and the cardiac NaV1.5 Na+ channel intracellular C terminus (C-terminal domain [CTD]) (Protein Data Bank [PDB]: 6MUD). They found, as we reported (2) with ternary complexes (PDB: 4JQ0 and 4JPZ) of NaVCTD, Ca2+-CaM, and the…

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Reply to Pitt and Lee: Occupancies of Ca2+ in complexes of calmodulin with voltage-gated sodium channels [Biological Sciences]

In PNAS, we describe a crystal structure of Ca2+-loaded calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) in complex with the C-terminal region (CT) of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5 (1). We contrasted our findings with those of Wang et al. (2) for the following reasons: The title and abstract had suggested a structure of Ca2+/CaM…

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Urban heating and canopy cover need to be considered as matters of environmental justice [Biological Sciences]

Ziter et al. (1) make a significant contribution to the understanding of temperature anomalies in a city of the northern United States. Their most important finding is that positive temperature anomalies were reduced most strongly in areas with canopy cover >40%. The authors call for increasing urban canopy cover, especially…

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Reply to Drescher: Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to understand and implement climate-resilient strategies in cities [Biological Sciences]

We appreciate Drescher's perspective (1), which elaborates on several points made in our initial paper (2) and underscores the need for additional research on how trees can be used to mitigate urban heat. We note in our paper that optimizing cooling with a limited number of trees can be achieved…

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Profile of Dennis L. Kasper [Profiles]

"I was working on the microbiome before it was called the microbiome," says Harvard microbiologist and immunobiologist Dennis L. Kasper, who for over 4 decades has delineated the central role of the mammalian microbiota in immune system development, maturation, and regulation. His achievements, including identification of immunomodulatory molecules from the…

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Toward treatment and cure of epidermolysis bullosa [Medical Sciences]

Heritable forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a heterogeneous group of skin fragility disorders, manifest with blistering and erosions with high degree of morbidity (1–3). The phenotypic spectrum is highly variable, and in the most severe cases the patients die within the early postnatal period or within a few months of…

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Microbial chemolithotrophy mediates oxidative weathering of granitic bedrock [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The flux of solutes from the chemical weathering of the continental crust supplies a steady supply of essential nutrients necessary for the maintenance of Earth's biosphere. Promotion of weathering by microorganisms is a well-documented phenomenon and is most often attributed to heterotrophic microbial metabolism for the purposes of nutrient acquisition….

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Performance-advantaged ether diesel bioblendstock production by a priori design [Engineering]

Lignocellulosic biomass offers a renewable carbon source which can be anaerobically digested to produce short-chain carboxylic acids. Here, we assess fuel properties of oxygenates accessible from catalytic upgrading of these acids a priori for their potential to serve as diesel bioblendstocks. Ethers derived from C2 and C4 carboxylic acids are…

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A formula for the value of a stochastic game [Economic Sciences]

In 1953, Lloyd Shapley defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that competitive stochastic games have a discounted value. In 1982, Jean-François Mertens and Abraham Neyman proved that competitive stochastic games admit a robust solution concept,…

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Approaching infinite affinity through engineering of peptide-protein interaction [Biochemistry]

Much of life's complexity depends upon contacts between proteins with precise affinity and specificity. The successful application of engineered proteins often depends on high-stability binding to their target. In recent years, various approaches have enabled proteins to form irreversible covalent interactions with protein targets. However, the rate of such reactions…

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On the possible origin of protein homochirality, structure, and biochemical function [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Living systems have chiral molecules, e.g., native proteins that almost entirely contain L-amino acids. How protein homochirality emerged from a background of equal numbers of L and D amino acids is among many questions about life's origin. The origin of homochirality and its implications are explored in computer simulations examining…

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From basic brain research to treating human brain disorders [Introductions]

The human brain is the most complex entity we know. Disorders of the human brain are embedded in this complexity. Potential advances in treating these disorders result from the growing understanding of this complex organization. The brains of monkeys have some important similarities to the human brain in structure and…

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Contributions of nonhuman primate research to understanding the consequences of human brain injury during development [Colloquium Papers]

In this introductory review we first present a theoretical framework as well as a clinical perspective regarding the effects of early brain injury on the development of cognitive and behavioral functions in humans. Next, we highlight the contributions that nonhuman primate research make toward identifying some of the variables that…

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Sono-optogenetics facilitated by a circulation-delivered rechargeable light source for minimally invasive optogenetics [Applied Physical Sciences]

Optogenetics, which uses visible light to control the cells genetically modified with light-gated ion channels, is a powerful tool for precise deconstruction of neural circuitry with neuron-subtype specificity. However, due to limited tissue penetration of visible light, invasive craniotomy and intracranial implantation of tethered optical fibers are usually required for…

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Autonomous bioluminescence imaging of single mammalian cells with the bacterial bioluminescence system [Applied Physical Sciences]

Bioluminescence-based imaging of living cells has become an important tool in biological and medical research. However, many bioluminescence imaging applications are limited by the requirement of an externally provided luciferin substrate and the low bioluminescence signal which restricts the sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution. The bacterial bioluminescence system is fully genetically…

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Molybdate pumping into the molybdenum storage protein via an ATP-powered piercing mechanism [Biochemistry]

The molybdenum storage protein (MoSto) deposits large amounts of molybdenum as polyoxomolybdate clusters in a heterohexameric (αβ)3 cage-like protein complex under ATP consumption. Here, we suggest a unique mechanism for the ATP-powered molybdate pumping process based on X-ray crystallography, cryoelectron microscopy, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and mutational studies of MoSto..

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Combining conservation and species-specific differences to determine how human telomerase binds telomeres [Biochemistry]

Telomerase catalyzes telomeric DNA synthesis at chromosome ends to allow for continued cell division. The telomeric protein TPP1 is essential for enhancing the processivity of telomerase and recruiting the enzyme to telomeres. The telomerase interaction surface on human TPP1 has been mapped to 2 regions of the N-terminal oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide-binding (OB)…

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The antimicrobial peptide ZY4 combats multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii infection [Biochemistry]

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa raises fears of untreatable infections and poses the greatest health threats. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are regarded as the most ideal solution to this menace. In this study, a set of peptides was designed based on our previously reported peptide cathelicidin-BF-15, and…

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Anticipating critical transitions in epithelial-hybrid-mesenchymal cell-fate determination [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

In the vicinity of a tipping point, critical transitions occur when small changes in an input condition cause sudden, large, and often irreversible changes in the state of a system. Many natural systems ranging from ecosystems to molecular biosystems are known to exhibit critical transitions in their response to stochastic…

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Supercoiling DNA optically [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Cellular DNA is regularly subject to torsional stress during genomic processes, such as transcription and replication, resulting in a range of supercoiled DNA structures. For this reason, methods to prepare and study supercoiled DNA at the single-molecule level are widely used, including magnetic, angular-optical, micropipette, and magneto-optical tweezers. However, it…

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Defining the remarkable structural malleability of a bacterial surface protein Rib domain implicated in infection [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Streptococcus groups A and B cause serious infections, including early onset sepsis and meningitis in newborns. Rib domain-containing surface proteins are found associated with invasive strains and elicit protective immunity in animal models. Yet, despite their apparent importance in infection, the structure of the Rib domain was previously unknown. Structures…

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Valproic acid interactions with the NavMs voltage-gated sodium channel [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant drug that is also used to treat migraines and bipolar disorder. Its proposed biological targets include human voltage-gated sodium channels, among other membrane proteins. We used the prokaryotic NavMs sodium channel, which has been shown to be a good exemplar for drug binding to…

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Increased stiffness and flow resistance of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal in glaucomatous human eyes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The cause of the elevated outflow resistance and consequent ocular hypertension characteristic of glaucoma is unknown. To investigate possible causes for this flow resistance, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) with 10-µm spherical tips to probe the stiffness of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal as a function of distance…

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Microtubule binding kinetics of membrane-bound kinesin-1 predicts high motor copy numbers on intracellular cargo [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Bidirectional vesicle transport along microtubules is necessary for cell viability and function, particularly in neurons. When multiple motors are attached to a vesicle, the distance a vesicle travels before dissociating is determined by the race between detachment of the bound motors and attachment of the unbound motors. Motor detachment rate…

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Pancreatic cancer organoids recapitulate disease and allow personalized drug screening [Cell Biology]

We report the derivation of 30 patient-derived organoid lines (PDOs) from tumors arising in the pancreas and distal bile duct. PDOs recapitulate tumor histology and contain genetic alterations typical of pancreatic cancer. In vitro testing of a panel of 76 therapeutic agents revealed sensitivities currently not exploited in the clinic,…

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The role of translationally controlled tumor protein in proliferation of Drosophila intestinal stem cells [Cell Biology]

Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein functioning in multiple cellular processes, ranging from growth to immune responses. To explore the role of TCTP in tissue maintenance and regeneration, we employed the adult Drosophila midgut, where multiple signaling pathways interact to precisely regulate stem cell division for…

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Enteroendocrine and tuft cells support Lgr5 stem cells on Paneth cell depletion [Cell Biology]

Cycling intestinal Lgr5+ stem cells are intermingled with their terminally differentiated Paneth cell daughters at crypt bottoms. Paneth cells provide multiple secreted (e.g., Wnt, EGF) as well as surface-bound (Notch ligand) niche signals. Here we show that ablation of Paneth cells in mice, using a diphtheria toxin receptor gene inserted…

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Steering CO2 electroreduction toward ethanol production by a surface-bound Ru polypyridyl carbene catalyst on N-doped porous carbon [Chemistry]

Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to multicarbon products is a significant challenge, especially for molecular complexes. We report here CO2 reduction to multicarbon products based on a Ru(II) polypyridyl carbene complex that is immobilized on an N-doped porous carbon (RuPC/NPC) electrode. The catalyst utilizes the synergistic effects of the Ru(II) polypyridyl…

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Nanoscale spectroscopic origins of photoinduced tip-sample force in the midinfrared [Chemistry]

When light illuminates the junction formed between a sharp metal tip and a sample, different mechanisms can contribute to the measured photoinduced force simultaneously. Of particular interest are the instantaneous force between the induced dipoles in the tip and in the sample, and the force related to thermal heating of…

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Triple junction kinematics accounts for the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake rupture complexity [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The 2016, moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8, Kaikoura earthquake generated the most complex surface ruptures ever observed. Although likely linked with kinematic changes in central New Zealand, the driving mechanisms of such complexity remain unclear. Here, we propose an interpretation accounting for the most puzzling aspects of the 2016 rupture. We…

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Satellite observations reveal extreme methane leakage from a natural gas well blowout [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Methane emissions due to accidents in the oil and natural gas sector are very challenging to monitor, and hence are seldom considered in emission inventories and reporting. One of the main reasons is the lack of measurements during such events. Here we report the detection of large methane emissions from…

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Disappearance of the last tropical glaciers in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (Papua, Indonesia) appears imminent [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The glaciers near Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia, the highest peak between the Himalayas and the Andes, are the last remaining tropical glaciers in the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Here, we report the recent, rapid retreat of the glaciers near Puncak Jaya by quantifying the loss of ice coverage…

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Anisotropic diffusion creep in postperovskite provides a new model for deformation at the core-mantle boundary [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The lowermost portion of Earth's mantle (D″) above the core−mantle boundary shows anomalous seismic features, such as strong seismic anisotropy, related to the properties of the main mineral MgSiO3 postperovskite. But, after over a decade of investigations, the seismic observations still cannot be explained simply by flow models which assume…

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Opinion: Why green "climate gentrification" threatens poor and vulnerable populations [Economic Sciences]

Cities in the Global North are increasingly adopting green interventions meant to enhance their climate resilience capacity. Plans include Philadelphia, PA's Growing Stronger, Boston, MA's Resilient Boston Harbor (Fig. 1), Malmö, Sweden's Green and Blue Infrastructure Plan, and Barcelona, Spain's Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plan. Such plans and interventions mark…

2d

Temperature-independent thermal radiation [Engineering]

Thermal emission is the process by which all objects at nonzero temperatures emit light and is well described by the Planck, Kirchhoff, and Stefan–Boltzmann laws. For most solids, the thermally emitted power increases monotonically with temperature in a one-to-one relationship that enables applications such as infrared imaging and noncontact thermometry….

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Programmable active kirigami metasheets with more freedom of actuation [Engineering]

Kirigami (cutting and/or folding) offers a promising strategy to reconfigure metamaterials. Conventionally, kirigami metamaterials are often composed of passive cut unit cells to be reconfigured under mechanical forces. The constituent stimuli-responsive materials in active kirigami metamaterials instead will enable potential mechanical properties and functionality, arising from the active control

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Deep learning predicts path-dependent plasticity [Engineering]

Plasticity theory aims at describing the yield loci and work hardening of a material under general deformation states. Most of its complexity arises from the nontrivial dependence of the yield loci on the complete strain history of a material and its microstructure. This motivated 3 ingenious simplifications that underpinned a…

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Climate variability reduces employment in New England fisheries [Environmental Sciences]

Climate change is already affecting fish productivity and distributions worldwide, yet its impact on fishing labor has not been examined. Here I directly link large-scale climate variability with fishery employment by studying the effects of sea-surface pressure changes in the North Atlantic region, whose waters are among the world's fastest…

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Persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties of liquid crystal monomers and their detection in indoor residential dust [Environmental Sciences]

Liquid crystal monomers (LCMs) are used widely in liquid crystal displays (LCDs), which are dramatically changing the world due to the provision of convenient communication. However, there are essentially no published reports on the fate and/or effects of LCMs in the environment. Of 362 currently produced LCMs, 87 were identified…

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Symbionts exploit complex signaling to educate the immune system [Immunology and Inflammation]

The mammalian immune system is tolerized to trillions of microbes residing on bodily surfaces and can discriminate between symbionts and pathogens despite their having related microbial structures. Mechanisms of innate immune activation and the subsequent signaling pathways used by symbionts to communicate with the adaptive immune system are poorly understood….

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Alzheimer's disease: A clinical perspective and future nonhuman primate research opportunities [Colloquium Paper (free online)]

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is the sixth leading cause of death and the most common cause of dementia worldwide. Over the last few decades, significant advancements have been made in our understanding of AD by investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying amyloid-β and tau pathology. Despite…

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Cerebral cortical folding, parcellation, and connectivity in humans, nonhuman primates, and mice [Colloquium Paper]

Advances in neuroimaging and neuroanatomy have yielded major insights concerning fundamental principles of cortical organization and evolution, thus speaking to how well different species serve as models for human brain function in health and disease. Here, we focus on cortical folding, parcellation, and connectivity in mice, marmosets, macaques, and humans….

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Translational implications of the anatomical nonequivalence of functionally equivalent cholinergic circuit motifs [Colloquium Paper]

Biomedical research is at a critical juncture, with an aging population increasingly beset by chronic illness and prominent failures to translate research from "bench to bedside." These challenges emerge on a background of increasing "silo-ing" of experiments (and experimenters)—many investigators produce and consume research conducted in 1, perhaps 2, species—and…

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Attention can be subdivided into neurobiological components corresponding to distinct behavioral effects [Colloquium Paper]

Attention is a common but highly complex term associated with a large number of distinct behavioral and perceptual phenomena. In the brain, attention-related changes in neuronal activity are observed in widespread structures. The many distinct behavioral and neuronal phenomena related to attention suggest that it might be subdivided into components…

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Primate optogenetics: Progress and prognosis [Colloquium Paper]

Monkeys are a premier model organism for neuroscience research. Activity in the central nervous systems of monkeys can be recorded and manipulated while they perform complex perceptual, motor, or cognitive tasks. Conventional techniques for manipulating neural activity in monkeys are too coarse to address many of the outstanding questions in…

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Nonhuman primate models of hippocampal development and dysfunction [Colloquium Paper]

Nonhuman primates provide highly valuable animal models that have significantly advanced our understanding of numerous behavioral and biological phenomena in humans. Here, we reviewed a series of developmental neuropsychological studies that informed us on the timing of development of the hippocampus and of hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions in primates. Data indicate…

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Understanding the development of amblyopia using macaque monkey models [Colloquium Paper]

Amblyopia is a sensory developmental disorder affecting as many as 4% of children around the world. While clinically identified as a reduction in visual acuity and disrupted binocular function, amblyopia affects many low- and high-level perceptual abilities. Research with nonhuman primate models has provided much needed insight into the natural…

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Alzheimer's-like pathology in aging rhesus macaques: Unique opportunity to study the etiology and treatment of Alzheimer's disease [Colloquium Paper]

Although mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have provided tremendous breakthroughs, the etiology of later onset AD remains unknown. In particular, tau pathology in the association cortex is poorly replicated in mouse models. Aging rhesus monkeys naturally develop cognitive deficits, amyloid plaques, and the same qualitative pattern and sequence of…

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Oligomeric A{beta} in the monkey brain impacts synaptic integrity and induces accelerated cortical aging [Colloquium Paper]

As the average age of the population continues to rise, the number of individuals affected with age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased and is projected to cost more than $290 billion in the United States in 2019. Despite significant investment in research over the last decades, there…

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Experiments in macaque monkeys provide critical insights into age-associated changes in cognitive and sensory function [Colloquium Paper]

The use of animal models in brain aging research has led to numerous fundamental insights into the neurobiological processes that underlie changes in brain function associated with normative aging. Macaque monkeys have become the predominant nonhuman primate model system in brain aging research due to their striking similarities to humans…

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The neurology clinic needs monkey research [Colloquium Paper]

This report discusses how a number of currently incurable diseases might be treated by advances developed as the result of current ongoing research on monkeys. The diseases discussed include Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, peripheral neuropathy, and stroke. Finally, the report discusses the devastating effect the animal…

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Understanding Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation: Role of monkey models [Colloquium Paper]

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder affecting over 10 million people worldwide. In the 1930s and 1940s there was little understanding regarding what caused PD or how to treat it. In a desperate attempt to improve patients' lives different regions of the neuraxis were ablated. Morbidity and…

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Distributed processing of movement signaling [Colloquium Paper]

Basic neurophysiological research with monkeys has shown how neurons in the motor cortex have firing rates tuned to movement direction. This original finding would have been difficult to uncover without the use of a behaving primate paradigm in which subjects grasped a handle and moved purposefully to targets in different…

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From thought to action: The brain-machine interface in posterior parietal cortex [Colloquium Paper]

A dramatic example of translational monkey research is the development of neural prosthetics for assisting paralyzed patients. A neuroprosthesis consists of implanted electrodes that can record the intended movement of a paralyzed part of the body, a computer algorithm that decodes the intended movement, and an assistive device such as…

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The primate model for understanding and restoring vision [Colloquium Paper]

Retinal degenerative diseases caused by photoreceptor cell death are major causes of irreversible vision loss. As only primates have a macula, the nonhuman primate (NHP) models have a crucial role not only in revealing biological mechanisms underlying high-acuity vision but also in the development of therapies. Successful translation of basic…

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From bed to bench side: Reverse translation to optimize neuromodulation for mood disorders [Colloquium Paper]

The advent of neuroimaging has provided foundational insights into the neural basis of psychiatric conditions, such as major depression. Across countless studies, dysfunction has been localized to distinct parts of the limbic system. Specific knowledge about affected locations has led to the development of circuit modulation therapies to correct dysfunction,…

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Why we need nonhuman primates to study the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the regulation of threat- and reward-elicited responses [Colloquium Paper]

The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is consistently implicated in the cognitive and emotional symptoms of many psychiatric disorders, but the causal mechanisms of its involvement remain unknown. In part, this is because of the poor characterization of the disorders and their symptoms, and the focus of experimental studies in animals…

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The contribution of nonhuman primate research to the understanding of emotion and cognition and its clinical relevance [Colloquium Paper]

Psychiatric disorders are often conceptualized as arising from dysfunctional interactions between neural systems mediating cognitive and emotional processes. Mechanistic insights into these interactions have been lacking in part because most work in emotions has occurred in rodents, often without concurrent manipulations of cognitive variables. Nonhuman primate (NHP) model systems provide…

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Multiple neuronal circuits for variable obȷect-action choices based on short- and long-term memories [Colloquium Paper]

At each time in our life, we choose one or few behaviors, while suppressing many other behaviors. This is the basic mechanism in the basal ganglia, which is done by tonic inhibition and selective disinhibition. Dysfunctions of the basal ganglia then cause 2 types of disorders (difficulty in initiating necessary…

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The mind-body problem: Circuits that link the cerebral cortex to the adrenal medulla [Colloquium Paper]

Which regions of the cerebral cortex are the origin of descending commands that influence internal organs? We used transneuronal transport of rabies virus in monkeys and rats to identify regions of cerebral cortex that have multisynaptic connections with a major sympathetic effector, the adrenal medulla. In rats, we also examined…

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Reactivation of critical period plasticity in adult auditory cortex through chemogenetic silencing of parvalbumin-positive interneurons [Neuroscience]

Sensory experience during early developmental critical periods (CPs) has profound and long-lasting effects on cortical sensory processing perduring well into adulthood. Although recent evidence has shown that reducing cortical inhibition during adulthood reinstates CP plasticity, the precise cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that chemogenetic inactivation of…

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Universal Fermi-surface anisotropy renormalization for interacting Dirac fermions with long-range interactions [Physics]

Recent experimental [I. Jo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 016402 (2017)] and numerical [M. Ippoliti, S. D. Geraedts, R. N. Bhatt, Phys. Rev. B 95, 201104 (2017)] evidence suggests an intriguing universal relationship between the Fermi surface anisotropy of the noninteracting parent 2-dimensional (2D) electron gas and the strongly…

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Social media-predicted personality traits and values can help match people to their ideal jobs [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Work is thought to be more enjoyable and beneficial to individuals and society when there is congruence between one's personality and one's occupation. We provide large-scale evidence that occupations have distinctive psychological profiles, which can successfully be predicted from linguistic information unobtrusively collected through social media. Based on 128,279 Twitter…

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Provincial and sector-level material footprints in China [Sustainability Science]

High-income countries often outsource material demands to poorer countries along with the associated environmental damage. This phenomenon can also occur within (large) countries, such as China, which was responsible for 24 to 30% of the global material footprint (MF) between 2007 and 2010. Understanding the distribution and development of China's…

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Sixteen years of social and ecological dynamics reveal challenges and opportunities for adaptive management in sustaining the commons [Sustainability Science]

Efforts to confront the challenges of environmental change and uncertainty include attempts to adaptively manage social–ecological systems. However, critical questions remain about whether adaptive management can lead to sustainable outcomes for both ecosystems and society. Here, we make a contribution to these efforts by presenting a 16-y analysis of ecological…

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A social-ecological analysis of the global agrifood system [Sustainability Science]

Eradicating world hunger—the aim of Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG2)—requires a social–ecological approach to agrifood systems. However, previous work has mostly focused on one or the other. Here, we apply such a holistic approach to depicting the global food panorama through a quantitative multivariate assessment of 43 indicators of food…

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Rescue of tomato spotted wilt virus entirely from complementary DNA clones [Microbiology]

Negative-stranded/ambisense RNA viruses (NSVs) include not only dangerous pathogens of medical importance but also serious plant pathogens of agronomic importance. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most important plant NSVs, infecting more than 1,000 plant species, and poses major threats to global food security. The segmented negative-stranded/ambisense…

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Energy conservation involving 2 respiratory circuits [Microbiology]

Chemiosmosis and substrate-level phosphorylation are the 2 mechanisms employed to form the biological energy currency adenosine triphosphate (ATP). During chemiosmosis, a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient is harnessed by a rotary ATP synthase to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate to ATP. In microorganisms, this ion gradient is usually composed of H+, but it…

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Human bloodsucking parasite in service of materials science [Commentaries]

Trypanosoma is a genus of single-cell eukaryote organisms—parasites living in the bloodstream (or sometimes inside cells) of humans or other mammals and causing a number of serious diseases (such as Leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis [sleeping sickness], American trypanosomiasis [Chagas disease], and others). In most cases, they are transmitted by blood-feeding invertebrates,…

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Uncovering the functional residues of Arabidopsis isoprenoid biosynthesis enzyme HDS [Biochemistry]

The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is responsible for producing isoprenoids, metabolites with essential functions in the bacterial kingdom and plastid-bearing organisms including plants and Apicomplexa. Additionally, the MEP-pathway intermediate methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP) serves as a plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signal. A suppressor screen of the high MEcPP accumulating m

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Determinants governing T cell receptor {alpha}/{beta}-chain pairing in repertoire formation of identical twins [Immunology and Inflammation]

The T cell repertoire in each individual includes T cell receptors (TCRs) of enormous sequence diversity through the pairing of diverse TCR α- and β-chains, each generated by somatic recombination of paralogous gene segments. Whether the TCR repertoire contributes to susceptibility to infectious or autoimmune diseases in concert with disease-associated…

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Spatiotemporal regulation of NADP(H) phosphatase Nocturnin and its role in oxidative stress response [Biochemistry]

An intimate link exists between circadian clocks and metabolism with nearly every metabolic pathway in the mammalian liver under circadian control. Circadian regulation of metabolism is largely driven by rhythmic transcriptional activation of clock-controlled genes. Among these output genes, Nocturnin (Noct) has one of the highest amplitude rhythms at the…

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Internal fluid pressure influences muscle contractile force [Physiology]

Fluid fills intracellular, extracellular, and capillary spaces within muscle. During normal physiological activity, intramuscular fluid pressures develop as muscle exerts a portion of its developed force internally. These pressures, typically ranging between 10 and 250 mmHg, are rarely considered in mechanical models of muscle but have the potential to affect…

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Quantifying the flux as the driving force for nonequilibrium dynamics and thermodynamics in non-Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics [Physics]

The driving force for active physical and biological systems is determined by both the underlying landscape and nonequilibrium curl flux. While landscape can be experimentally quantified from the histograms of the collected real-time trajectories of the observables, quantifying the experimental flux remains challenging. In this work, we studied the single-molecule…

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High-yield monolayer graphene grids for near-atomic resolution cryoelectron microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has become one of the most powerful techniques to reveal the atomic structures and working mechanisms of biological macromolecules. New designs of the cryo-EM grids—aimed at preserving thin, uniform vitrified ice and improving protein adsorption—have been considered a promising approach to achieving higher resolution with the…

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Mouse genetics reveals Barttin as a genetic modifier of Joubert syndrome [Genetics]

Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity and the lack of sufficiently large patient cohorts pose a significant challenge to understanding genetic associations in rare disease. Here we identify Bsnd (alias Barttin) as a genetic modifier of cystic kidney disease in Joubert syndrome, using a Cep290-deficient mouse model to recapitulate the phenotypic variability…

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Multivalent interaction of ESCO2 with the replication machinery is required for sister chromatid cohesion in vertebrates [Cell Biology]

The tethering together of sister chromatids by the cohesin complex ensures their accurate alignment and segregation during cell division. In vertebrates, sister chromatid cohesion requires the activity of the ESCO2 acetyltransferase, which modifies the Smc3 subunit of cohesin. It was shown recently that ESCO2 promotes cohesion through interaction with the…

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The Mycobacterium marinum ESX-1 system mediates phagosomal permeabilization and type I interferon production via separable mechanisms [Microbiology]

Following mycobacterial entry into macrophages the ESX-1 type VII secretion system promotes phagosomal permeabilization and type I IFN production, key features of tuberculosis pathogenesis. The current model states that the secreted substrate ESAT-6 is required for membrane permeabilization and that a subsequent passive leakage of extracellular bacterial DNA into the…

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The circadian clock protein REVERB{alpha} inhibits pulmonary fibrosis development [Medical Sciences]

Pulmonary inflammatory responses lie under circadian control; however, the importance of circadian mechanisms in the underlying fibrotic phenotype is not understood. Here, we identify a striking change to these mechanisms resulting in a gain of amplitude and lack of synchrony within pulmonary fibrotic tissue. These changes result from an infiltration…

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Substrate selectivity by the exonuclease Rrp6p [Biochemistry]

The exoribonuclease Rrp6p is critical for RNA decay in the nucleus. While Rrp6p acts on a large range of diverse substrates, it does not indiscriminately degrade all RNAs. How Rrp6p accomplishes this task is not understood. Here, we measure Rrp6p–RNA binding and degradation kinetics in vitro at single-nucleotide resolution and…

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CCR2 inhibition reduces tumor myeloid cells and unmasks a checkpoint inhibitor effect to slow progression of resistant murine gliomas [Medical Sciences]

Immunotherapy directed at the PD-L1/PD-1 axis has produced treatment advances in various human cancers. Unfortunately, progress has not extended to glioblastoma (GBM), with phase III clinical trials assessing anti-PD-1 monotherapy failing to show efficacy in newly diagnosed and recurrent tumors. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a subset of immunosuppressive myeloid derived…

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The functionally relevant site for paxilline inhibition of BK channels [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The tremorgenic fungal alkaloid paxilline (PAX) is a commonly used specific inhibitor of the large-conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-dependent BK-type K+ channel. PAX inhibits BK channels by selective interaction with closed states. BK inhibition by PAX is best characterized by the idea that PAX gains access to the channel through the…

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Kappa-on-Heavy (KoH) bodies are a distinct class of fully-human antibody-like therapeutic agents with antigen-binding properties [Applied Biological Sciences]

We describe a Kappa-on-Heavy (KoH) mouse that produces a class of highly diverse, fully human, antibody-like agents. This mouse was made by replacing the germline variable sequences of both the Ig heavy-chain (IgH) and Ig kappa (IgK) loci with the human IgK germline variable sequences, producing antibody-like molecules with an…

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Multielemental single-atom-thick A layers in nanolaminated V2(Sn, A) C (A = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn) for tailoring magnetic properties [Applied Physical Sciences]

Tailoring of individual single–atom-thick layers in nanolaminated materials offers atomic-level control over material properties. Nonetheless, multielement alloying in individual atomic layers in nanolaminates is largely unexplored. Here, we report 15 inherently nanolaminated V2(AxSn1-x)C (A = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and combinations thereof, with x ∼ 1/3) MAX phases synthesized by…

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The frequency of cortical microstimulation shapes artificial touch [Engineering]

Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the somatosensory cortex evokes vivid tactile sensations and can be used to convey sensory feedback from brain-controlled bionic hands. Changes in ICMS frequency lead to changes in the resulting sensation, but the discriminability of frequency has only been investigated over a narrow range of low frequencies….

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Does repeat synthesis in materials chemistry obey a power law? [Chemistry]

Finding examples where experimental measurements have been repeated is a powerful strategy for assessing reproducibility of scientific data. Here, we collect quantitative data to assess how often synthesis of a newly reported material is repeated in the scientific literature. We present a simple power-law model for the frequency of repeat…

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High-performance anode for all-solid-state Li batteries is made of Si nanoparticles

A new study reveals that, in solid electrolytes, a Si anode composed only of commercial Si nanoparticles prepared by spray deposition — the method is a cost-effective, atmospheric technique – exhibits excellent electrode performance, which has previously been observed only for film electrodes prepared by evaporation processes. This new result therefore suggests that a low-cost and large-scale pro

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Untangling links between nitrogen oxides and airborne sulfates helps tackle hazy air pollution

A research team has unveiled a first-in-kind study of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and its role in the rise and fall of airborne sulfates in hazy air pollution, offering policymakers new insights into ways to tackle smoggy weather.

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'Tweezer clock' may help tell time more precisely

A new optical atomic clock makes ultra-precise time measurements.

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Powder, not gas: A safer, more effective way to create a star on Earth

Scientists have found that sprinkling a type of powder into fusion plasma could aid in harnessing the ultra-hot gas within a tokamak facility to produce heat to create electricity without producing greenhouse gases or long-term radioactive waste.

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'Lost crops' could have fed as many as maize

Grown together, newly examined 'lost crops' could have produced enough seed to feed as many indigenous people as traditionally grown maize, according to new research.

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2D materials: Arrangement of atoms measured in silicene

Silicene consists of a single layer of silicon atoms. In contrast to the ultra-flat material graphene, which is made of carbon, silicene shows surface irregularities that influence its electronic properties. Now, physicists have been able to precisely determine this corrugated structure. Their method is also suitable for analyzing other two-dimensional materials.

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Chimpanzees more likely to share tools, teach skills when task is complex

A new study finds that chimpanzees that use a multi-step process and complex tools to gather termites are more likely to share tools with novices. The study helps illuminate chimpanzees' capacity for prosocial — or helping — behavior, a quality that has been recognized for its potential role in the evolution of human cultural abilities.

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For restricted eaters, a place at the table but not the meal

People with restricted diets — due to allergies, health issues or religious or cultural norms — are more likely to feel lonely when they can't share in what others are eating, new research shows.

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Baidu has a new trick for teaching AI the meaning of language

Inspired by a difference between Chinese and English, it shows how AI research benefits from diversity.

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In vivo imaging of CREB dynamics: Coupling sensory experience to activity

In a recently published study in Neuron, Scientists in the Yasuda Lab at the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience (MPFI) have designed and developed novel biosensors that allow the simultaneous study of both sensory evoked neuronal activity and transcription factor dynamics.

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California's stricter vaccine exemption policy and improved vaccination rates

California's elimination, in 2016, of non-medical vaccine exemptions from school entry requirements was associated with an estimated increase in vaccination coverage at state and county levels, according to a new study.

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Study finds connection between cardiac blood test before surgery and adverse outcomes

The VISION study looked at whether levels of a cardiac blood test, NT-proBNP, measured before surgery can predict cardiac and vascular complications. Higher levels of NT-proBNP, which can be caused by various anomalies in the cardiac muscle, such as stress, inflammation or overstretch, can help identify which patients are at greatest risk of cardiac complications after surgery. The study included

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A Book That Honors a Complicated Figure

Pick your Larkin. There's more than one. Do you want the minor-league mystic, sitting on a train somewhere and blinking at the void through his thick-framed specs? "What will survive of us is love." That guy? "One of the best-known and best-loved poets of the English-speaking world," according to the jacket of his Collected Poems . Perhaps you want the witty English celibate (not that he was actu

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Facts are misremembered to fit personal biases, study finds

If you're looking for who's responsible for all the misinformation out there, you might want to take a peek in the mirror.

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Thin films could make solar panels better and cheaper

Thin films made from barium zirconium sulfide have special electronic and optical properties that theorists predicted, researchers report. The films combine exceptionally strong light absorption with good charge transport—two qualities that make them ideal for applications such as photovoltaics and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In solar panels, for example, experimental results suggest that bariu

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How a 50-Foot-Long Humpback Whale Sneaks Up on Prey

The schools of fish they hunt don't realize the whales are a threat until it's too late.

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Jeg er en kæmpe taste-nørd: Her er fire grunde til, at du også fortjener mere end et lorte-tastatur

Du tilbringer tusindvis af timer med dit tastatur. Så har du overvejet at finde et, der passer til dit behov?

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Does the weight of a storage device increase after storing data?

submitted by /u/bijaya12 [link] [comments]

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Hydrogen-powered semi-trucks saving businesses money: Nikola CEO

submitted by /u/bluefirecorp [link] [comments]

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Photos: Christmas Around the World

One last look at this year's holiday festivities, featuring images of both secular and holy celebrations from China, Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan, England, India, Japan, the U.S., and many other places.

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Do Our Bodies Have Weight 'Set Points' They Always Revert To?

There's some evidence of set points, but they don't determine your fate.

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Eco-friendly wallets to keep your cards and cash organized

Wallets made of recycled materials. (Amazon/) When you're in a long line waiting for your turn with a bunch of other cranky people, a good wallet is essential. For everyone's benefit, you want to be able to find the right card or bills, make your transaction, and get out of there as quickly as possible. Mobile payments, vendor apps, and the decline of cash have lessened the amount of space you ne

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5 nutrients that can boost your mood

Though winter may bring you down, the food you eat can play a significant role in how you feel emotionally, dietitians say. If you tend to turn to food for comfort, Catherine Nay and Megan Brown, registered dietitians with Michigan Medicine's Weight Management and Obesity Program, explain there may be ways to harness the mood-boosting powers from within the foods you eat and beverages you drink t

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Futurism's Top Ten Most-Discussed, Shared, and Socialed Stories of 2019

SO, SO MUCH. In 2019 — just one year! — alone, we saw the meteoric rise of gene-editing with CRISPR and major breakthroughs like Google finally achieving quantum supremacy. And that was just two of the more than 3,000 stories Futurism published this year. There are, of course, the stories that were read the most, and the stories that mattered to the staff of Futurism the most. But there's a third

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A Field Guide for the Entire 21st Century

I'm not a particular fan of birds, but I like the eastern goldfinch. I know one fact about it. At some point in elementary school, probably during a 20-minute "nature walk" on an overgrown farm near home, a counselor-type adult instructed about a dozen of us: "The eastern goldfinch is the state bird of New Jersey." I don't think an eastern goldfinch was even there that day, but it stuck nonethele

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A Serious Conversation With the Man Who Made Cats

Tom Hooper is very tired. It's understandable—for the past few months, the Oscar-winning director of films such as The King's Speech and Les Misérables has been working around the clock on Cats , a visual-effects-laden adaptation of Andrew Lloyd Webber's hit musical. In attempting to translate Webber's somewhat abstract show, itself based on a collection of T. S. Eliot poetry, Hooper leaned on cu

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Archaeologists Are Unearthing the Stories of the Past Faster Than Ever Before

Recent research helps reveal the origins of humans, determine what ancient people ate and monitor historical sites from the sky

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How Disinformation Hacks Your Brain

The digital age has heightened our vulnerability to falsehood, but recognizing such weaknesses can help guard against them — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Bringing New Voices into the Sciences

The U.S. still has a long way to go with respect to diversity, equity and inclusion — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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How Disinformation Hacks Your Brain

The digital age has heightened our vulnerability to falsehood, but recognizing such weaknesses can help guard against them — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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How astronomers weigh the universe (and everything in it)

There's a lot of stuff out there, and today's researchers are continuing the time-honored tradition of trying to measure it all. (Pixabay/) With a long enough lever and a place to stand, Archimedes knew he could move the Earth. Similarly, weighing massive objects like planets and stars on a balance scale as one might with a pound of salmon is conceivable only in theory, but a quick search of Wiki

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Photos of the Year

From bubbling plants to endangered whales, here are some amazing images from The Scientist in 2019.

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2 new vaccine strategies may outsmart staph bacteria

New research in mice may explain why previous attempts to develop a staph vaccine have failed, while also suggesting a new approach to vaccine design. This approach focuses on activating an untapped set of immune cells, as well as immunizing against staph in utero or within the first few days after birth. Staph bacteria, the leading cause of potentially dangerous skin infections, are most feared

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How Disinformation Hacks Your Brain

The digital age has heightened our vulnerability to falsehood, but recognizing such weaknesses can help guard against them — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Bringing New Voices into the Sciences

The U.S. still has a long way to go with respect to diversity, equity and inclusion — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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West Coast fishery rebounds in rare conservation 'home run'

A rare environmental success story is unfolding in waters off the U.S. West Coast.

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West Coast fishery rebounds in rare conservation 'home run'

A rare environmental success story is unfolding in waters off the U.S. West Coast.

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NASA satellite tracks tropical storm Phanfone into the South China Sea

Tropical Storm Phanfone brought typhoon-force winds and heavy rains across sections of the Philippines on Christmas Eve and Christmas day. Phanfone is known as Ursula in the Philippines. Now the storm has moved into the South China Sea and NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of the tropical cyclone.

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U.S. tests ways to sweep space clean of radiation after nuclear attack

Beams of radio waves used to knock satellite-killing particles into Earth's atmosphere

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'Ring of fire' solar eclipse seen on Boxing Day – video

People gathered across parts of Asia and the Middle East to watch a rare annular solar eclipse, also known as a ring of fire. The phenomenon, when the moon covers the centre of the sun, giving the appearance of a shining ring, was first visible above Saudi Arabia, travelling towards southern India, over northern Sri Lanka and ending up above the Pacific Ocean Rare 'ring of fire' solar eclipse – i

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The brain can combine natural and artificial vision to help treat common form of blindness

Researchers report the discovery of evidence indicating that the brain knows how to integrate natural and artificial vision, while maintaining processing information that is important for vision. The results have implications for better restoration of sight in AMD patients implanted with retinal prosthetic devices and support the hypothesis that prosthetic and natural vision can be integrated in t

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Proton therapy lowers risk of side effects in cancer compared to traditional radiation

Proton therapy leads to significantly lower risk of side effects severe enough to lead to unplanned hospitalizations for cancer patients when compared with traditional radiation, while cure rates between the two groups are almost identical.

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High BMI may improve cancer survival

Above average or high BMI — often linked to cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular and other diseases — may in some cases improve the chance of survival among certain cancers, new research from Flinders University indicates. Focusing on clinical trials of atezolizumab, a common immunotherapy treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the Australian cancer researchers found improved responsiven

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Brain tumor organoids may be key to time-sensitive treatments for glioblastomas

Lab-grown brain organoids developed from a patient's own glioblastoma, the most aggressive and common form of brain cancer, may hold the answers on how to best treat it. A new study in Cell from researchers at Penn Medicine showed how glioblastoma organoids could serve as effective models to rapidly test personalized treatment strategies.

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Imaging to examine brain architecture association with mood, attentional symptoms

Researchers looked at whether certain patterns of connectivity between specific regions of the brain in children at age 7 (measured by magnetic resonance imaging) were associated with later development of symptoms related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and major depressive disorder.

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Eye changes from spaceflight compared to simulated weightlessness

Some astronauts who fly long missions to the International Space Station experience eye changes. This study investigated whether the eye changes from the traditional spaceflight analog (an experience on earth meant to mimic spaceflight) of simulated weightlessness from 30 days of bed rest with head tilted down were similar to those experienced by astronauts during spaceflight.

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The Guardian view on car culture: change is coming | Editorial

Over the holiday period the Guardian's leader column examines the challenges of the future by fathoming out the present. Today we look at the changing shape of car culture Lewis Hamilton's recent declaration of support for climate action attracted derision as well as plaudits. "I like fuel. Can I say that? I don't like electric stuff," was the deliberately provocative response from a fellow Formul

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'Ring Of Fire' Eclipse Sweeps Across Skies In Middle East And Southeast Asia

Instead of the sun's full disk of fire, or a crescent of light, viewers in areas of complete annularity saw a fiery halo around the moon. (Image credit: Louis Kwok/AFP via Getty Images)

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5 Ways to Stop Corporations From Ruining the Future of Work

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Effective hair products for your everyday routine

Take care of your hair. (Tore F via Unsplash/) There is an overwhelming number of hair products to try. There's shampoo, no-poo, conditioner, leave-in conditioner, gel, and countless other goops to try. Then there's the technology; the difference between a bad blow dryer and a good one is quite literally the difference between smooth, healthy-looking tresses and a tangle that requires a hat you c

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Does intermittent fasting live up to the hype?

Current scientific evidence supports claims made for intermittent fasting, according to a new review. Coauthor Mark Mattson, a professor of neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine who has studied the health impact of intermittent fasting for 25 years, and adopted it himself about 20 years ago, writes that "intermittent fasting could be part of a healthy lifestyle." Mattson

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Is It Ever Too Late to Start Being Healthy?

An early start makes it easier to form good health habits, but we can become healthy at any age.

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Eight ways an evergreen tree could save your life

This article originally featured on Outdoor Life . The idea of cutting down a tree, bringing it indoors and festooning it with decorations may seem pretty random when you stop to think about it. There's a lot of meaning behind the practice, though, and we have some 16th-century Germans to thank for bringing the Christmas tree to America. They took an ancient heathen tradition and made it their ow

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NASA satellite tracks tropical storm Phanfone into the South China Sea

Tropical Storm Phanfone brought typhoon-force winds and heavy rains across sections of the Philippines on Christmas Eve and Christmas day. Phanfone is known as Ursula in the Philippines. Now the storm has moved into the South China Sea and NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of the tropical cyclone.

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Astronauts "Can't Wait" to Try out Starliner Despite ISS Failure

Eager Astronauts On Friday, Boeing's Starliner launched for the first time, but due to an error with the spacecraft's onboard timing system, what was supposed to be an eight-day-long mission — complete with a stop by the International Space Station — would ultimately end after just two days, and without ever visiting the ISS. That failure hasn't seemed to sour astronauts on the spacecraft, though

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Our Top Ten Stories of 2019

From a 16-million-year-old tree to Confederate soldiers' diaries, voracious snakes and England's warrior king, these were the most-read stories of 2019

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Unspeakably soft duvet covers that bring personality to your bedroom

Stay warm. (Rhema Kallianpur via U/) Duvet covers are a pain to put on, but so much easier to clean than a down comforter. They're also an easy way to add color to your space or give your bedroom a polished, finished look. Some are soft enough to use without a sheet underneath. Here are a few of our recommendations. A warm, soft, comforting duvet cover. (Amazon/) Brooklinen makes distinctively so

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Russia's physical culture scene

Although a growing number of Russians now exercise regularly, the overall figure remains low — only one-fourth of working women and less than one-third of working men are physically active. Are Russians just lazy or are gym memberships too expensive for them? What can stimulate people to adopt a more active lifestyle, and is Russia up to international standards in this regard? Find the answers in

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Transcendental Meditation prevents abnormal enlargement of the heart, reduces chronic heart failure

A randomized controlled study recently published in the Hypertension issue of Ethnicity & Disease found the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique helps prevent abnormal enlargement of the heart compared to health education (HE) controls. Also known as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), it can lead to chronic heart failure and death. It is twice as prevalent among African Americans. LVH and CVD

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World's oldest forest found in New York state​

The world's oldest forest fossils were located in an abandoned quarry near Cairo, New York. Research of site specimens suggests that the forebearers to modern plants evolved much earlier than expected. The findings help scientists better understand how trees advanced life's evolutionary trajectory to land during a critical period. None As card-carrying members of the universe's exclusive Terrestr

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Finally, machine learning interprets gene regulation clearly

In this age of "big data," artificial intelligence (AI) has become a valuable ally for scientists. Machine learning algorithms, for instance, are helping biologists make sense of the dizzying number of molecular signals that control how genes function. But as new algorithms are developed to analyze even more data, they also become more complex and more difficult to interpret. Quantitative biologis

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NASA-NOAA satellite finds development of Tropical Cyclone Sarai

Imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite showed that a tropical low-pressure area has consolidated and organized in the Southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji.

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Finally, machine learning interprets gene regulation clearly

In this age of "big data," artificial intelligence (AI) has become a valuable ally for scientists. Machine learning algorithms, for instance, are helping biologists make sense of the dizzying number of molecular signals that control how genes function. But as new algorithms are developed to analyze even more data, they also become more complex and more difficult to interpret. Quantitative biologis

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Thermometers to get you through cold and flu season

Keep track of your temperature. (Amazon/) The minute you feel those chills and aches you'll want to whip out the thermometer to find out if you're feverish. After all, a fever could mean the flu, or that you're contagious. Thermometers have always been a handy health gadget, but they've also gone through major upgrades since we were kids. We've compiled a list of our favorites so that you can kee

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Simple fitness trackers to help you reach your goals and track your progress

Keep track of your exercise. (Curtis MacNewton via Unsplash/) Fitness trackers are lightweight wearable devices that keep track of your step count, activity level, heart rate, sleep patterns, and more. Research suggests that while the regular use of fitness trackers doesn't directly correlate to increased health, they do motivate you to exercise and move more. Seeing yourself just a little short

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JFC: The Most WTF Science and Tech Moments of 2019

IN A WORD? 2019 was a mess . From neural networks spitting out images inspired by lab monkeys' nightmares, to dark matter bullets leaving fist-sized holes in the chest cavities of astronauts, this year was filled with the kinds of scientific and technological discoveries that often left us, lacking better poetry, with a single, all-consuming thought: WTF. Note that it's not "WTF?" The difference

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NASA-NOAA satellite finds development of Tropical Cyclone Sarai

Imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite showed that a tropical low-pressure area has consolidated and organized in the Southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji.

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What to expect from the cutting edge of science and tech in 2020

From anti-ageing drugs to self-driving cars and long-lost human ancestors, New Scientist experts reveal what the biggest science stories will be in 2020

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The Hidden Cost of Stroke

It's the number one cause of adult disability in the U.S., yet we generally don't see the toll it takes on patients, their families and their communities — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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EEGs may not be a reliable sign that a brain is 'awake'

Electroencephalograms may not always be a reliable reflection of consciousness, according to new research in rats. Remarkably, scientists are still debating just how to reliably determine whether someone is conscious. This question is of great practical importance when making medical decisions about anesthesia or treating patients in a vegetative state or coma. Currently, researchers rely on vari

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The 24 Absolute Best Movies of the 2010s

From the cloistered college campus of 'The Social Network' to the sands of 'Mad Max: Fury Road,' these are the movies that defined the decade.

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Watch this AI goalie psych out its opponent in the most hilarious way

Artificial intelligence hack involves fooling computers with unpredictable behavior

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The Future of Aviation Will Be Greener and Faster Than Ever Before

While flying cars may someday deliver on the Jetsons-like promise of buzzing around cities in robotic air taxis , the future of commercial aviation is no less tantalizing. Companies large and small are working on cleaning up the skies with electric airplanes, bringing back supersonic travel, and even flirting with the edge of space to transport passengers across the world. Electric Airplanes Read

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Finally, machine learning interprets gene regulation clearly

A new brand of artificial neural network has solved an interpretability problem that has frustrated biologists. With it, scientists may solve mysteries about gene regulation and drug discovery.

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MIT Scientists Can Look at Your Insides From a Distance

Scientists have developed a system of lasers that can probe inside the human body, much like an ultrasound, but from a distance. The system can accurately image what's going on inside a person's body up to a depth of about six centimeters, according to an MIT press release . While that may not seem like much, it's still an important first step in removing physical contact from ultrasound scans, a

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The Hidden Cost of Stroke

It's the number one cause of adult disability in the U.S., yet we generally don't see the toll it takes on patients, their families and their communities — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Political events take an emotional toll on young doctors

Some political events affected the moods of first-year doctors who started their careers in the past few years just as much as the strenuous first weeks of their training had, researchers report. The results come from a real-time, long-term assessment of the moods of young doctors, called interns, in relation to major political and non-political events of the past few years. Major American politi

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The Top Ten Most-Read Futurism Stories of 2019

A WILD RIDE. Those, by and large, are the first words that come to mind looking back on Futurism's 2019 — and all the news that made up these past twelve months. We ran thousands of stories this year. They ranged from investigative projects, to interviews, to the building blocks of our site: Sharp hour-by-hour analysis on the science and technology narratives of the day. These stories shaped (and

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Development of ultrathin durable membrane for efficient oil and water separation

Researchers led by Professor MATSUYAMA Hideto and Professor YOSHIOKA Tomohisa at Kobe University's Research Center for Membrane and Film Technology have succeeded in developing an ultrathin membrane with a fouling-resistant silica surface treatment for high performance separation of oil from water. Furthermore, this membrane was shown to be versatile; it was able to separate water from a wide vari

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Hematopoietic stem cell marker: A key player in the ontogeny of hematopoiesis

A research team led by Osaka University revealed that Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule, a surface marker for hematopoietic stem cells and vascular endothelial cells, played an important role in the ontogeny of hematopoiesis in mice, particularly in the development of adult-type erythropoiesis.

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A better testing method for patients with Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that manifests through symptoms such as tremor, slow movements, limb rigidity and gait and balance problems. As such, nearly all diagnostic testing revolves around how a patient moves and requires the patient to walk for extensive distances and amounts of time. An international team of researchers based in Saudi Arabia and Sweden proposed a new k

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Scientists reveal function of histone variant H2A.Z in DNA replication selection

The research published in Nature on Dec. 25th, 2019, led by Dr. LI Guohong and Dr. ZHU Mingzhao from the Institute of Biophysics, has demonstrated that the histone variant H2A.Z facilitates the licensing and activation of early DNA replication origins. This study describes a novel epigenetic regulation mechanism for DNA replication origin selection and offers a new way of understanding DNA replica

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How can groups apologize sincerely? It's going to cost them

A cross-institutional research collaboration led by Professor OHTSUBO Yohsuke of Kobe University's Graduate School of Humanities has been investigating how group apologies are perceived. Their results revealed that costly apologies are deemed to be more genuine. This was similar to previous findings by Professor Ohtsubo et al. when they looked into apologies from individuals, such as friends or co

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Archaeologists found the burial of Scythian Amazon with a head dress on Don

The burial of the Amazon with a head dress made of precious metal dated back to the second half of the 4th c BC was found by the staff of the Don expedition of IA RAS during the examination of the cemetery Devitsa V of Voronezh Oblast. This is the first found in Middle Don river and well preserved ceremonial headdress of a rich Scythian women, earlier archaeologists found only fragments of such he

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Physicists discover how to safely create star power on Earth

A new study from Princeton physicists successfully uses boron powder to control nuclear reactions in plasma. Creating plasma can lead to an unlimited supply of energy. The new method is cheaper and less dangerous than previous approaches. None Humanity's huge appetite for energy has led scientists to attempt harnessing nuclear fusion , the power inherent to the sun and other stars. Now, a new stu

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Paving the way for spintronic RAMs: A deeper look into a powerful spin phenomenon

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology explore a new material combination that sets the stage for magnetic random access memories, which rely on spin — an intrinsic property of electrons — and could outperform current storage devices. Their breakthrough published in a new study describes a novel strategy to exploit spin-related phenomena in topological materials, which could spur several ad

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East Asia VLBI Network observations of the TeV Gamma-Ray Burst 190114C

An international team led by Prof. Tao An from Shanghai Astronomical Observatory proposed to observe GRB190114C with East-Asia VLBI network just after it was discovered.

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Researchers map malaria parasites proliferate in human blood cells

Malaria parasites transform healthy red blood cells into rigid versions of themselves that clump together, hindering the transportation of oxygen. The infectious disease affects more than 200 million people across the world and causes nearly half a million deaths every year, according to the World Health Organization's 2018 report on malaria. Until now, however, researchers did not have a strong u

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Full noncontact laser ultrasound: First human data

Conventional ultrasonography requires contact with the patient's skin with the ultrasound probe for imaging, which causes image variability due to inconsistent probe contact pressure and orientation. Xiang Zhang and Brian Anthony from MIT and colleagues have designed a system that can produce ultrasound image without making contact by using light to generate and detect ultrasound on the skin surfa

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Cytoskeletal proteins play maintenance roles in neurotransmission

Researchers in the Cellular and Molecular Synaptic Function Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have elucidated the roles of cytoskeletal proteins at the giant presynaptic terminal, called the calyx of Held, visualized in rat brainstem slices.

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How I changed my mind about the biology of race | Philip Ball

Angela Saini's book Superior showed me our misconceptions about race and science arise from a habit of the mind It has been common for several years now to assert that science shows the concept of race has no biological basis, and that we must see it instead as a social construct. That case was argued, for example, by Kenan Malik in his 2008 book Strange Fruit , and it is presented, too, in Angel

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Seeing the new Star Wars? Be careful what you wish for

How much you enjoy the new Star Wars movie will depend a lot on your expectations going in, a new study suggests.

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Nintendo Switch Lite Tips: 11 Ways to Get the Most Out of It

Here are a few tips, games, recommendations, and accessories to get you and your Switch Lite all set up and ready to go.

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Swirling Magnetic Fields Hint at Origins of Spiral Galaxy Shapes

The formation of spiral galaxies remains an open question in astronomy, but a new study offers a fresh look into how these structures emerge — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Swirling Magnetic Fields Hint at Origins of Spiral Galaxy Shapes

The formation of spiral galaxies remains an open question in astronomy, but a new study offers a fresh look into how these structures emerge — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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These Rare Exoplanets Have the "Density of Cotton Candy"

Super Puffs In case you needed more evidence that the universe is infinitely baffling , scientists just revealed new information about a bizarre type of exoplanet so light that they have roughly the same density as cotton candy. The ultra-light worlds have been nicknamed "super-puffs" by the scientists analyzing them, according to a European Space Agency press release , invoking their Kirby-esque

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When the Transportation Revolution Hit the Real World

Ten years ago, they promised us self-driving cars. We got a scooter surge, clashes with regulators, and the brutal realities of mobility.

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New Promise for Those Who Suffer from Face Blindness

Improvements are seen after playing a modified version of Guess Who? — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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New Promise for Those Who Suffer from Face Blindness

Improvements are seen after playing a modified version of Guess Who? — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Topforskning: Sort hul løber med prisen som årets største bedrift

PLUS. Det første billede af et sort hul er ifølge det videnskabelige tidsskrift Science årets vigtigste forskningsresultat. Folkets valg var en rekonstruktion af en fjern neandertaler-slægtning.

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Seeing the new Star Wars? Be careful what you wish for

How much you enjoy the new Star Wars movie will depend a lot on your expectations going in, a new study suggests.Researchers surveyed 441 people before and after they saw the last episode in the popular franchise, Star Wars VIII: The Last Jedi, released in 2017. They wanted to see how audiences' expectations affected their actual enjoyment of the movie.

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The Climate Learning Tree – Issue 79: Catalysts

As a paleoclimatologist, I often find myself wondering why more people aren't listening to the warnings, the data, the messages of climate woes—it's not just a storm on the horizon, it's here, knocking on the front door. In fact, it's not even the front door anymore. You are on the roof, waiting for a helicopter to rescue you from your submerged house. The data is clear: The rates of current carb

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The Joy of Cosmic Mediocrity – Issue 79: Catalysts

One of the greatest debates in the long history of astronomy has been that of exceptionalism versus mediocrity—and one of the great satisfactions of modern times has been watching the arguments for mediocrity emerge triumphant. Far more than just a high-minded clash of abstract ideas, this debate has shaped the way we humans evaluate our place in the universe. It has defined, in important ways, h

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Before There Were Stars – Issue 79: Catalysts

The universe is the grandest merger story that there is. Complete with mysterious origins, forces of light and darkness, and chemistry complex enough to make the chemical conglomerate BASF blush, the trip from the first moments after the Big Bang to the formation of the first stars is a story of coming together at length scales spanning many orders of magnitude. To piece together this story, scie

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In Italy, rising anxiety over falling birth rates

submitted by /u/xeneral [link] [comments]

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The Decade Big-Money Email Scams Took Over

In the last few years, the "Nigerian prince" scams have gotten a major upgrade.

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Everything and Nothing Is a Tech Company Now

Money and mania fueled a mad scramble for firms to claim the coveted t-word this decade.

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E. coli Could Produce a Popular Psychedelic for Therapeutic Use

Scientists engineered the bacterium to produce psilocybin — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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E. coli Could Produce a Popular Psychedelic for Therapeutic Use

Scientists engineered the bacterium to produce psilocybin — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Mel Boozer Said What Pete Buttigieg Can't

Mel Boozer grew up in a series of homes without electricity. Graduating second in the 1963 class of Dunbar High, the school of choice for Washington, D.C.'s most high-achieving black students, he won a scholarship to Dartmouth, where he was one of only three African Americans in the freshman class . His roommate, rather than share a room with a person of color, moved out. After completing fieldwo

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What Young Women Need to Know About Little Women

I n some quarters , Greta Gerwig's Little Women —the seventh film adaptation of Louisa May Alcott's novel—was as eagerly anticipated as any gift protruding from under a Christmas tree. I heartily recommend the film, which went into limited release yesterday. I also believe that girls reading the book should receive the kind of disclaimer that the writer Geraldine Brooks said her mother passed dow

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Awakening to a Mass-Supervision Crisis

On a sunny November morning in 2018, Kelly Savage rode in a van to the public parking lot of the Central California Women's Facility, the state prison from which she had just been released. She was clutching her possessions—pictures of her son and daughter, letters from family and friends, $200, and the various knickknacks she had acquired during 23 years of imprisonment. Christy Harper, Savage's

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Looking at Libraries

Continuing the photo essay about public libraries, which showed many examples of children's rooms and adult spaces, this collection shows some of the multitude of activities happening at public libraries. It also includes some of the kinds of collections besides books, and some of the public places where books are available to borrow besides at traditional libraries. Makerspaces are becoming popu

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#7: The colossal problem with universal basic income | Top 10 2019

Big Think's #7 most popular video of 2019 features Douglas Rushkoff, who says universal basic income is a band-aid solution that will not solve wealth inequality. Funneling money to the 99% perpetuates their roles as consumers, pumping money straight back up to the 1% at the top of the pyramid. Rushkoff suggests universal basic assets instead, so that the people at the bottom of the pyramid can o

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How a plagiarized eye image in the NEJM was discovered

The Images in Clinical Medicine section of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is prime real estate for physicians and others wanting to share a compelling picture with their colleagues. But earlier this month, an eye specialist in Michigan saw double when he looked at the Dec. 5, 2019, installment of the feature. Depicted … Continue reading

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The 'ring of fire' eclipse witnessed across Asia

Crowds have gathered to watch the 'once in a lifetime' eclipse in a number of countries.

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In regards to automation, is manual labor the only option for dumb people?

I'm 23 and I've been looking for potential career paths safe from automation, the obvious being stuff that requires intelligence such as engineer, but I'm kind of dumb, at least too stupid for those kind of jobs. I'd say my IQ is around 100 at best which is average, but not really enough to do highly cognitively demanding tasks well enough, I also find math and science to be boring as shit. The o

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Grafik: Her er dronen, der skydes ud af en kanon

En gruppe forskere fra Californien har udtænkt og udviklet en ny type drone, der ligner et projektil – indtil den er i luften og folder vingerne ud.

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Science made astonishing progress. It was also hijacked by those with an axe to grind | Laura Spinney

Attacks and scepticism are on the rise, even as leaps are made in fields from gene editing and AI to interplanetary exploration The 2010s were the decade in which we were reminded that science is just a method, like the rhythm method. And just like the rhythm method, it can be more or less rigorously applied, sabotaged, overrated, underrated and ignored. If you don't treat it with respect, you may

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The Year In Science News

We look at three noteworthy stories from the year in science news: acceptance of climate change, medical therapies to come from a new gene editing tool, and the first image of a black hole. (Image credit: EHT Collaboration)

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The five biggest space failures of 2019

Between NASA and SpaceX, Earth and Mars, there was plenty to groan about in 2019.

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For Latin American Environmentalists, Looming Threats of Violence

In 2018, Latin America was the world's most dangerous region for environmental activists, accounting for more than half of the 164 environmental defenders murdered that year. Foreign mining and energy companies that invest in the region are complicit in — and benefit from — the weak rule of law.

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In an African forest, the enduring mystery of a giant butterfly

Suspended from branches high above the ground, Nicolas Moulin looked through his binoculars over a seemingly endless sea of emerald green.

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In an African forest, the enduring mystery of a giant butterfly

Suspended from branches high above the ground, Nicolas Moulin looked through his binoculars over a seemingly endless sea of emerald green.

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Typhoon Phanfone kills at least 16 in Philippines

A typhoon that swept across remote villages and popular tourist areas of the central Philippines on Christmas day claimed at least 16 lives, authorities said on Thursday.

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'Ring of fire' eclipse wows across Asia

Skywatchers from Saudi Arabia and Oman to India and Singapore were treated to a rare "ring of fire" solar eclipse Thursday.

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Gender norms affect attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women globally

Gay men and lesbian women have often been the targets of prejudice and even violence in society. To better understand what shapes these attitudes and prejudices, Maria Laura Bettinsoli, Alexandra Suppes, and Jamie Napier (all New York University—Abu Dhabi) tested how beliefs about gender norms (expectations of society for how men and women act and look) and people's attitudes towards gay men and w

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Scientists attempt to recreate 'Overview effect' from Earth

Researchers aim to recreate intense emotional experience astronauts reported on seeing Earth from space for the first time The spectacle of Earth suspended in space was so overwhelming for Edgar Mitchell that the Apollo 14 astronaut and sixth man on the moon wanted to grab politicians by the scruff of the neck and drag them into space to witness the view. Such drastic measures may not be necessar

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Meta-analyses overestimate the effect size by a factor of ~3

submitted by /u/kalenkovich [link] [comments]

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Klimaskepsis, big bang og a-kraft: Her er årets største debatter på ing.dk

Klimaskeptikere, et nyt a-kraftværk, global opvarmning og big bang. Det var emner, der fik fyret godt op under debatten på ing.dk i 2019. Her er en top-20 over de artikler, der fik flest debattører til tasterne i det forløbne år.

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Rare 'ring of fire' solar eclipse – in pictures

Annular solar eclipse, in which the moon does not completely cover the sun as it transits across the star's face, was seen from Asia to the Middle East Continue reading…

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Mere fakta, færre skeptikere: 'Mediernes klimadækning er blevet meget bedre'

Medierne skærer ofte klimaskeptikerne væk, og det er godt, vurderer forsker i videnskabsformidling.

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Zombie fingers inside corroded nano-piecrusts

Smut Clyde is back with more fraudulent nanotechnology. This time, he presents the works of Dhanaraj Gopi, who designs fabricated surfaces for surgical implants. In Photoshop, or with a pencil.

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The Race For Quantum Supremacy I VICE on HBO

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Are we on the road to civilisation collapse? – BBC Future

submitted by /u/futuredude [link] [comments]

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Gender norms affect attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women globally

A study of attitudes towards sexual minorities in 23 countries show more negative views towards gay men than lesbian women, but culture creates some variation on who holds the negative attitudes.

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5G is going to screw weather forecasts

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The dream of a global internet is edging towards destruction

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Ötzi's 5.300 Year Spring Beam Defined – Technology

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Biosphere 3, why (not)?

It's been ca. 30 years ago that the experiment of Biosphere 2 failed for a number of reasons. With better knowledge and technology at our disposal, would it be possible to achieve the objectives of Biosphere 2 in a new Biosphere 3? submitted by /u/WikusOnFire [link] [comments]

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The big science and environment stories of 2019

We look back at some of the major stories of the year in science and the environment.

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