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nyheder2019januar02

Det offentlige har svært ved at få hul på ML: Kræver andet mindset

Potentialet er stort, men erfaringerne er få, når det handler om at bruge machine learning i det offentlige.

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Fik du det hele med? 10 mest læste blogs på Version2 i 2018

Version2 er beriget af dygtige og kloge bloggere. Herunder finder du listen over de mest læste i det forgangne år.

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Rumsonde er for første gang landet på Månens bagside

Kinesisk rumsonde er landet på den side af Månen, der vender væk fra Jorden.

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Legislative Alchemy 2018: Acupuncturists seek practice expansion and competition elimination

Acupuncturists want to expand their scope of practice far beyond sticking needles in people. Too many states are allowing them to treat pretty much anything with unproven and potentially dangerous remedies.

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Could gulls' wings inspire smarter airplane design?

Flexing a single elbow joint enables gulls to adapt their wing shape to gusty conditions, according to new University of British Columbia (UBC) research–a relatively simple mechanism that could inspire improved aircraft design.

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Can a video game-based 'digital medicine' help children with autism and co-occurring ADHD?

Researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) evaluated a digital medicine tool designed as an investigational treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring attention/deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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Extraordinary treefrog discovered in the Andes of Ecuador

A dazzling new species of treefrog was discovered at a remote tabletop mountain in the Ecuadorian Andes. The new species has an extraordinary characteristic, the presence of claw-like appendages at the base of the thumbs. The new species is described in the open-access journal ZooKeys by a team of scientists from Catholic University of Ecuador.

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The Far Side of the Moon: What China and the World Hope to Find

The side of the moon we never see from Earth contains secrets about our solar system’s early days, and it could help astronomers see the universe more clearly.

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Kun biler med støttehjul kan køre i Musk-tunnel

Elon Musk har inviteret de første journalister på tur i sin underjordiske tunnel til biler. Men kun hurtige og delvist førerløse elbiler med støttehjul har adgang.

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Facebook Users Value the Service More Than Investors Do

Users of the social network said they'd require payment of more than $1,000 to quit the platform for one year. Christopher Intagliata reports. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Chang'e 4 landing: China probe makes historic touchdown on far side of the moon

Lander and rover will explore the South Pole-Aitken basin for the first time A Chinese spacecraft has become the first ever to land on the far side of the moon, according to state-run media, in a giant leap for human space exploration. The China National Space Administration (CNSA) landed the robotic probe Chang’e 4 in the unexplored South Pole-Aitken basin, the largest, oldest, deepest, crater o

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New Horizons beams home close-ups of Ultima Thule – video

Nasa’s New Horizons spacecraft has beamed home its first close-up images of Ultima Thule , a lump of rock the shape of an unfinished snowman that lies 4bn miles away on the edge of the solar system. The excited scientists of the New Horizons team led by principal investigator Alan Stern discuss their findings so far. 'We could not be happier,' he said. Continue reading…

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Anak Krakatau volcano: Satellites get clear view of collapse

New images of Anak Krakatau, which erupted last month and caused a deadly tsunami, are revealed.

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‘New Chapter’ in Space Exploration as China Reaches Far Side of the Moon

It was China’s second moon landing, and the first spacecraft to touch down on the side of the moon that always faces away from Earth.

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Physicists uncover new competing state of matter in superconducting material

A team of experimentalists discovered a remarkably long-lived new state of matter in an iron pnictide superconductor, which reveals a laser-induced formation of collective behaviors that compete with superconductivity.

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Study sheds light on the function of a long-mysterious PCSK9 mutation

High LDL a leading risk factor for heart disease. Many cholesterol medications lower LDL, some of them by targeting the protein PCSK9. Scientists now report on an investigation into why experiments on PCSK9 give different results in a test tube and in liver cells. What they found may explain how a mutation in PCSK9 that has long puzzled scientists leads to heart disease.

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Medicare's bundled payment experiment for joint replacements shows moderate savings

Medicare's randomized trial of a new bundled payment model for hip and knee replacement surgeries led to $812 in savings per procedure, or a 3.1 percent reduction in costs, when compared with traditional means of paying for care, according to new research.

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The Silver Lining in Apple’s Very Bad iPhone News

Turns out people are upgrading their iPhones less frequently. That’s not good for Apple’s revenue—but it's great for everyone else.

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The FCC Faces the Government Shutdown: What You Need to Know

The FCC has remained open while much of the government is shut down. That changes Thursday.

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Poverty, lack of health insurance among female health care workers

A new study finds that low wages and poor benefits leave many female health care workers living below the poverty line.

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Metabolic syndrome patients need more vitamin C to break cycle of antioxidant depletion

A higher intake of vitamin C is crucial for metabolic syndrome patients trying to halt a potentially deadly cycle of antioxidant disruption and health-related problems, a researcher says.

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Climate change: LED lights making dent in UK energy demand

Energy efficiency is more important in the battle against climate change than wind and solar power, research shows

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The Atlantic Daily: New Horizons

What We’re Following New Names: The Washington State governor and Democrat Jay Inslee also has his eye on a run for U.S. president in 2020, with a single-minded focus on the threat of climate change and its radiating impacts on the environment and national security. The relatively obscure entrant tries to give his pitch to Edward-Isaac Dovere. In the foreign-policy space, meet the new (acting) se

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Birth doesn’t protect against breast cancer right away

Younger women who have recently had a child may have a higher risk of breast cancer than their peers of the same age who do not have children, according to new research. The findings, which appear in the Annals of Internal Medicine , may seem contrary to conventional wisdom that childbirth is protective against breast cancer. Researchers say childbirth still does become protective, but it can tak

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UK scientists test breathalyser for detecting early cancers

Major study at Addenbrooke’s hospital could lead to cancer detectors in GPs’ surgeries A breathalyser test that could revolutionise cancer diagnosis is being tested in the UK. The Breath Biopsy device is designed to detect cancer hallmarks in molecules exhaled by patients. Scientists hope it will lead to a simpler, cheaper method of spotting cancers early. The breathalyser has the potential to sa

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A Trump County Confronts the Administration Amid a Rash of Child Cancers

Parents in Indiana are demanding the clean-up of a toxic site and questioning environmental rollbacks that could prevent future chemical disasters like the one they face.

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NASA Unveils Image of the Most Distant Object Ever Visited

NASA scientists revealed images of Ultima Thule, an object 4 billion miles from the sun. Pictures of the so-called contact binary were captured by the New Horizons mission on Jan. 1.

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To reproduce, new rice plant clones itself

Plant biologists have discovered a way to make crop plants replicate through seeds as clones. The discovery, which plant breeders and geneticists have long sought, could make it easier to propagate high-yielding, disease-resistant, or climate-tolerant crops and make them available to the world’s farmers. Since the 1920s, many crops have been grown from hybrid seeds created by crossing two varieti

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Tesla's $7,500 Tax Credit Goes Poof, but Buyers May Benefit

To offset the phase-out of a federal tax credit, Tesla cut the price of its cars by $2,000—which might be better for some buyers.

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Radiation doses from CT scans should be more consistent, say experts

Large differences in radiation doses used for CT scans are mainly due to how the scanners are used by medical staff rather than differences in the patients scanned or the machines used, finds a study in The BMJ today.

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No compelling evidence for health benefits of non-sugar sweeteners

There is no compelling evidence to indicate important health benefits of non-sugar sweeteners, and potential harms cannot be ruled out, suggests a review of published studies in The BMJ today.

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Five Ways to Look at Apple’s Surprise Bad News

In an ugly New Year’s surprise Wednesday afternoon, Apple announced unexpectedly that it was cutting its first-quarter revenue guidance from $91.5 billion to $84 billion. The move is highly unusual. Apple reportedly last revised a projection like this in 2002. CEO Tim Cook sent a letter to investors that attempted to explain what had changed so much over the past 60 days. An economic slowdown in

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Like your grandparents, monarch butterflies are now wintering in Florida

Science Understanding where the insects travel will help biologists better track their overall population levels. A new study out today in the journal Animal Migration contradicts prevailing wisdom about where at least some migratory monarchs go in the winter—and what they do when…

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A Close Look at the Most Distant Object NASA Has Ever Explored

The most distant object that NASA has ever investigated up close, 2014 MU69, orbits near the edge of the solar system, well beyond Pluto. Because of the desolate conditions out there, it’s remained virtually unchanged since the beginning of the solar system. Less than five years ago, astronomers didn’t even know it existed. Now they know what it looks like, thanks to images captured by a passing

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The Atlantic Politics & Policy Daily: Starting the Year With 2020 Vision

What We’re Following Today Welcome to 2019. The government is in its 12th day of the partial shutdown, on the eve of the 116th Congress, and already scrambling with the beginnings of the 2020 presidential cycle. Here’s what we’ve been keeping an eye on: They’re Running: Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren announced she’s entering the 2020 presidential race , and The Atlantic ’s Edward-Isaac Do

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Child deaths from opioids rising, say Yale researchers

In the mist of all the news on the opioid epidemic, details of how children are affected can be buried. A new report from Yale shows us the scope of the problem, and little we are doing about it. While the study is grim, it does show us that progress is possible and offers a few solutions. The United States is in the middle of one of the worst drug crises on record. In 2017 alone, 72,000 adults d

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Mexican experts discover first temple of god depicted as skinned human corpse

Two skull-like stone carvings and a stone trunk depicting the Flayed Lord were found during excavation in Puebla state Mexican experts say they have found the first temple of the Flayed Lord, a pre-Hispanic fertility god depicted as a skinned human corpse. Related: Conquistadors sacrificed and eaten by Aztec-era people, archaeologists say Continue reading…

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Trilobites: It’s Cold Outside, but Earth Is at Its Closest Approach to the Sun

Our planet’s elliptical orbit doesn’t affect winter or summer temperatures. But some astronomers wonder whether it’s a factor in why life survives.

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Where Doulas Calm Nerves and Bridge Cultures During Childbirth

In Sweden, midwives deliver babies. But doula culture interpreters act as bridges between midwives and immigrant women.

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New Horizons shows Ultima Thule looks like a snowman, or maybe BB-8

Ultima Thule’s snowmanlike shape shows the New Horizons target was probably two space rocks that got stuck together.

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The math problem that could change the world: Does P = NP?

The Millennium Prize Problems are a set of seven unsolved mathematical problems laid out by the Clay Mathematical Institute, each with a $1 million prize for those who solve them. One of these problems asks whether P = NP . Put simply, this asks whether computationally hard problems actually contain hidden, computationally easy solutions. This, however, is a major simplification. Proving that P d

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Start the year by turning off your phone notifications

Technology Tell your phone to shut up and use it on your terms. Tell your phone to shut up and use it your own way.

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Medicare's bundled payment experiment for joint replacements shows moderate savings

Medicare's randomized trial of a new bundled payment model for hip and knee replacement surgeries led to $812 in savings per procedure, or a 3.1 percent reduction in costs, when compared with traditional means of paying for care, according to new research from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Harvard Medical School.

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NASA's New Horizons mission reveals entirely new kind of world

Scientists from NASA's New Horizons mission released the first detailed images of the most distant object ever explored — the Kuiper Belt object nicknamed Ultima Thule. Its remarkable appearance, unlike anything we've seen before, illuminates the processes that built the planets four and a half billion years ago.

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Monthly Stats for Eyewire: December 2018

Happy New Year! Let’s close out 2018 with the last stats of the month. We finished 20 cells in December, a little lower than usual, but we assume Eyewirers were spending some quality time with their families over the holidays, and picking out gifts for their Eyewire Secret Santas . We also finished our marathon in record time – 2 hours and 23 minutes! Even the Grimch couldn’t stop Eyewirers from

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Short men are indirectly aggressive toward taller men, study finds

A recent study examined the Napoleon complex through economic games. The results showed that shorter men are more likely than taller men to keep a disproportionate amount of resources for themselves, but only when the other player can't retaliate. The study suggests that the Napoleon complex is most likely to manifest in situations where the shorter man has all the power. None In the early 19th c

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Study sheds light on the function of a long-mysterious PCSK9 mutation

High LDL a leading risk factor for heart disease. Many cholesterol medications lower LDL, some of them by targeting the protein PCSK9. In the January issue of the Journal of Lipid Research, scientists at the University of California, San Francisco, report on an investigation into why experiments on PCSK9 give different results in a test tube and in liver cells. What they found may explain how a mu

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Metabolic syndrome patients need more vitamin C to break cycle of antioxidant depletion

A higher intake of vitamin C is crucial for metabolic syndrome patients trying to halt a potentially deadly cycle of antioxidant disruption and health-related problems, an Oregon State University researcher says.

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Listeria Right Now™ AOAC-certified for additional surfaces

Neogen’s one-hour Listeria Right Now™ environmental pathogen detection system has been certified by the AOAC for use with samples on three additional surfaces.

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Images Reveal A 'Snowman' At The Frigid Outer Reaches Of Our Solar System

Scientists say Ultima Thule, a newly explored world out beyond Pluto, is a relic from our solar system's earliest days. (Image credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute)

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An ant colony has memories that its individual members don’t have

Like a brain, an ant colony operates without central control. Each is a set of interacting individuals, either neurons or ants, using simple chemical interactions that in the aggregate generate their behaviour. People use their brains to remember. Can ant colonies do that? This question leads to another question: what is memory? None For people, memory is the capacity to recall something that hap

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Meta-analysis highlights important challenges in cognitive processing for adults with ASD

New study results contribute to understanding of patterns of cognitive functioning in adults with autism and highlight the importance of a broader approach when studying cognition.

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15-years of satellite imagery shows snow's comings and goings

Winter snows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains create the snowpacks that serve as a primary water source for the western U.S. Due to rising average temperatures, snowpacks in the Great Basin appear to be transitioning from seasonal (predictable amount and melt rate), to "ephemeral," (short-lived, less predictable). Ephemeral snow has been poorly tracked and understood.

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Global-scale evaluation of role of soil minerals in carbon storage

One answer to our greenhouse gas challenges may be right under our feet: Soil scientists have found that minerals in soil can hold on to a significant amount of carbon pulled from the atmosphere. It's a mechanism that could potentially be exploited as the world tries to shift its carbon economy.

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Controlling neurons with light — but without wires or batteries

In optogenetics, scientists use light to turn groups of neurons in the brain on or off. New research demonstrates a new optogenetics method that eliminates the need for bulky optical fibers, gives researchers more precise control of the light's intensity, and allows for stimulating multiple areas of the brain simultaneously.

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Physicists uncover new competing state of matter in superconducting material

A team of experimentalists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory and theoreticians at University of Alabama Birmingham discovered a remarkably long-lived new state of matter in an iron pnictide superconductor, which reveals a laser-induced formation of collective behaviors that compete with superconductivity.

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Study details poverty, lack of health insurance among female health care workers

A study carried out by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania finds that low wages and poor benefits leave many female health care workers living below the poverty line.

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'Ripped' Woman with Massive Forearms Is the Oldest Known Human Burial in Lower Central America

Archaeologists have uncovered the oldest known human burial in lower Central America: the skeletal remains of a mysterious woman who lived 5,900 years ago in what is now Nicaragua, a new study finds.

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A 'pacemaker' for North African climate

Researchers have analyzed dust deposited off the coast of west Africa over the last 240,000 years, and found that the Sahara, and North Africa in general, has swung between wet and dry climates every 20,000 years.

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AI predicts cancer patients' symptoms

Doctors could get a head start treating cancer thanks to new AI that is able to predict symptoms and their severity throughout the course of a patient's treatment.

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NBA teams that come from behind don't garner more overtime wins

Teams that come from behind do not have a greater chance of winning in overtime, according to a new study debunking theories of how psychological momentum in sports and in life lead to success.

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Risk of developing depression and anxiety is higher in those with cerebral palsy

Adults with cerebral palsy have a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety than their peers without the condition, a new study reports.

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New mouse model reminiscent of Leigh syndrome sheds light on mechanisms of neurodegeneration

Researchers have identified a new role for PARL, a protein that has been linked to Parkinson's disease. They report that mice lacking PARL display specific problems in the nervous system reminiscent of Leigh syndrome instead.

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Telemedicine may increase patient satisfaction with medical care

A recent study suggests telemedicine may improve patients' satisfaction with their postoperative care as well as their quality of life. Their results have been accepted for publication in The Annals of Vascular Surgery.

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Ultima Thule is a snowman-shaped rock covered in weird ice

The New Horizons spacecraft just flew past a distant rock called MU69 or Ultima Thule that looks like a snowman – and it may have exotic ices on its surface

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Some perfectly healthy people can’t remember their own lives

Psychologists in Canada think they've identified an entirely new memory syndrome in healthy people characterised by a specific inability to re-live their past. This may sound like a form of amnesia, but the three individuals currently described have no history of brain damage or illness and have experienced no known recent psychological trauma or disturbance. In light of the recent discovery that

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TK

TK

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Det er en snemand! Nasa-forskere jubler over billede fra Solsystemets yderste kant

Rumsonden New Horizons har sendt sit første skarpe billede af objektet Ultima Thule i yderkanten af vores solsystem.

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Living a stronger and longer life: What scientists are learning from worms

Research has uncovered a cause of declining motor function and increased frailty in tiny aging worms — and a way to slow it down.

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For first time, researchers can measure insecticide on surface of mosquito nets

Insecticide-infused mosquito netting is in widespread use around the world to limit the spread of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria. Researchers have now come up with a technique that measures how much insecticide is found on the surface of these nets — paving the way for efforts to determine how long the nets are effective.

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'A way cool way to be': Study offers new insights into children with autism

In the first study of its kind, a team of researchers was able to perform functional MRIs of a group of children with autism whose IQs averaged 54. The scans offer a glimpse into what's happening in their brains.

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To head off late-life depression, check your hearing

A new study of elderly Hispanics found that hearing loss increased the risk of depression symptoms.

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First close-ups of Ultima Thule reveal it resembles dark red snowman

Images of rock on the edge of the solar system were taken on the most distant flyby in history Nasa’s New Horizons spacecraft has beamed home its first close-up images of Ultima Thule, a lump of rock the shape of an unfinished snowman that lies 4 billion miles away on the edge of the solar system. Taken as the probe sped past the body in the early hours of New Year’s Day , the pictures reveal a d

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Self-powered microfluidic sheet that wraps, flaps and creeps

Researchers for the first time apply catalytic chemical reactions to 2D sheets to generate flows that transform these sheets into mobile, 3D objects.

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Is habitat restoration actually killing plants in the California wildlands?

New work shows for the first time just how widespread and deadly the threat of pathogens from restoration nurseries may be to natural forests. The team surveyed five native plant nurseries in Northern California and found that four harbored exotic, or non-native, Phytophthora pathogens. New management techniques, coupled with new methods for detecting pathogens, can help these nurseries limit the

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Sex differences identified in deadly brain tumors

More males get, and die of, the deadly brain cancer glioblastoma than females. A team of researchers has identified distinct molecular signatures of glioblastoma in men and women that help explain disparities in patients' response to treatment and survival. The research suggests that tailoring treatments to men and women with glioblastoma based on the molecular subtypes of their tumors may improve

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How economic theory and the Netflix Prize could make research funding more efficient

Scientists have used the economic theory of contests to illustrate how the competitive grant-application system has made the pursuit of research funding inefficient and unsustainable — and that alternative methods, such as a partial lottery to award grants, could relieve pressure on professors and free up time for research.

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How to better reach men for HIV testing: A randomized trial on incentives for self-testing

Providing pregnant women with HIV self-testing kits to pass along to their male partners can boost the partners' rate of HIV testing and entry into care, according to a new research.

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How 'vacuum decay' could end the universe

Eventually, the universe will end. We've come up with several possibilities, but none are as striking as vacuum decay. Should vacuum decay occur, a change in the energy level of the Higgs field would cause a "bubble" of broken physics to expand throughout the universe at the speed of light. We don't know for sure if this scenario is likely or even possible, but understanding it can help broaden o

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NASA: Icy object past Pluto looks like reddish snowman

A NASA spacecraft 4 billion miles from Earth yielded its first close-up pictures Wednesday of the most distant celestial object ever explored, depicting what looks like a reddish snowman.

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Team uses 15-years of satellite imagery to study snow's comings and goings

Winter snows are accumulating in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, creating the snowpacks that serve as a primary source of water for the western U.S.

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Researchers conduct first-ever global-scale evaluation of the role of soil minerals in carbon storage

One answer to our greenhouse gas challenges may be right under our feet: Soil scientists Oliver Chadwick of UC Santa Barbara and Marc Kramer of Washington State University have found that minerals in soil can hold on to a significant amount of carbon pulled from the atmosphere. It's a mechanism that could potentially be exploited as the world tries to shift its carbon economy.

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An Australian Man Screamed So Loud at a Spider That the Cops Showed Up

Sometimes spiders scare people so much that the cops have to deal with it.

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China's war on particulate air pollution is causing more severe ozone pollution

In China, the rapid reduction of the pollutant PM 2.5 dramatically altered the chemistry of the atmosphere, leading to an increase in harmful ground-level ozone pollution, especially in large cities.

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Mystery of Yemen cholera epidemic solved

The most likely source of the cholera epidemic in Yemen has been discovered by scientists. Through the use of genomic sequencing, scientists estimate the strain of cholera causing the current outbreak in Yemen — the worst cholera outbreak in recorded history — came from Eastern Africa and entered Yemen with the migration of people in and out of the region. Genomics can enable researchers to esti

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From playing cards to tectonic plates, layered materials pushed to the brink

Looking deeper into the internal behavior of layered solids and formations — from graphene sheets, to wood laminates, to geological formations — researchers are gaining a better understanding of a buckling phenomenon that occurs within the layers of the materials as they are put under pressure.

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Genes that drive male-female brain differences, timing of puberty

Researchers have discovered a group of genes in roundworms that control the onset of puberty and induce sex differences in neural structures that raise new questions of whether differences in male and female behavior are hardwired in our brains.

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Two possible new ways to treat silent seizures in children

A recent study characterizes silent seizures in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome and identifies a new brain area that could be targeted to stop them.

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Genetic mutation responsible for tuberculosis vulnerability

Scientists discovered a genetic variant that greatly increases a person's likelihood of developing tuberculosis. Their research elucidates how this mutation affects the immune system, and points to a possible treatment for people with the disease.

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Genesis 2.0 Is a Beautifully Shot, Cautionary Tale About Biotechnology

The documentary weaves together a hunt for mammoth tusks in the Arctic with scenes from the front lines of synthetic biology.

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What makes popcorn pop?

Science Hint: It’s a powerful combo of steam and heat. Accompanied by the sound of a mini-explosion as they make their transformation, the kernels expand up to 50 times their size, making them fluffy and chewable, with…

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Controlling neurons with light — but without wires or batteries

In optogenetics, scientists use light to turn groups of neurons in the brain on or off. New research published in Nature Electronics demonstrates a new optogenetics method that eliminates the need for bulky optical fibers, gives researchers more precise control of the light's intensity, and allows for stimulating multiple areas of the brain simultaneously.

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Storage wars

One answer to our greenhouse gas challenges may be right under our feet: Soil scientists Oliver Chadwick of UC Santa Barbara and Marc Kramer of Washington State University have found that minerals in soil can hold on to a significant amount of carbon pulled from the atmosphere. It's a mechanism that could potentially be exploited as the world tries to shift its carbon economy.

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University of Nevada, Reno uses 15 years of satellite imagery to study snow's comings and goings

Winter snows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains create the snowpacks that serve as a primary water source for the western US. Due to rising average temperatures, snowpacks in the Great Basin appear to be transitioning from seasonal (predictable amount and melt rate), to 'ephemeral,' (short-lived, less predictable). Ephemeral snow has been poorly tracked and understood. Research by a former University

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Meta-analysis highlights important challenges in cognitive processing for adults with ASD

Seaver Autism Center study results contribute to understanding of patterns of cognitive functioning in adults with autism and highlight the importance of a broader approach when studying cognition.

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To Get Mental Health Help For A Child, Desperate Parents Relinquish Custody

Doctors told Toni and Jim Hoy their young son needed intensive, specialized care away from home — institutional services that cost at least $100,000 a year. Insurance wouldn't cover the cost. (Image credit: Christine Herman/Illinois Public Media)

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Drinkable cocktail stymies Alzheimer’s disease at its start

Researchers have identified a drinkable cocktail of designer molecules that interferes with a crucial first step of Alzheimer’s disease and even restores memories in mice. The binding of amyloid beta peptides to prion proteins triggers a cascade of devastating events in the progression of Alzheimer’s—accumulation of plaques, a destructive immune system response, and synapse damage. “We wanted to

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Scientists Have Been Studying Cancers in a Very Strange Way for Decades

In 1959, an American physician named Harry Eagle mixed up one of the most pivotal cocktails in medical history—a red blend of sugar, salts, vitamins, and amino acids that allowed scientists to efficiently grow the cells of humans and other animals in laboratory beakers. This red elixir, known as Eagle’s minimal essential medium (EMEM), became a bedrock of biological research. Sixty years later, t

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Engineers, zoologists reveal how gulls 'wing morph' for stable soaring

Aviation experts and zoologists have provided new insights into how gulls configure their wing shape — known as wing morphing — to stabilize their flight. The findings could be used to design more efficient flying vehicles, including soaring drones for farming or environmental monitoring.

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Study shows the Sahara swung between lush and desert conditions every 20,000 years, in sync with monsoon activity

The Sahara desert is one of the harshest, most inhospitable places on the planet, covering much of North Africa in some 3.6 million square miles of rock and windswept dunes. But it wasn't always so desolate and parched. Primitive rock paintings and fossils excavated from the region suggest that the Sahara was once a relatively verdant oasis, where human settlements and a diversity of plants and an

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A 'pacemaker' for North African climate

Researchers at MIT have analyzed dust deposited off the coast of west Africa over the last 240,000 years, and found that the Sahara, and North Africa in general, has swung between wet and dry climates every 20,000 years.

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A quarter of all Holocaust victims were murdered during only three months

The majority of deaths during the single largest murder campaign of the Holocaust, called Operation Reinhard, occurred during a single three-month period, a new study reveals. Not only does this study indicate that the murder rate during Operation Reinhard has previously been greatly underestimated, it also provides new insights into the profound efficiency of Nazi death camps and the systematic m

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Scavenging molecule provides long-term protection against nerve agents in rodents

For the first time, scientists have created a scavenging molecule that provides long-lasting preventative protection against toxic nerve agents in rodents.

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Living a stronger and longer life: What U-M scientists are learning from worms

Research from the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute has uncovered a cause of declining motor function and increased frailty in tiny aging worms — and a way to slow it down.

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Sex differences identified in deadly brain tumors

More males get, and die of, the deadly brain cancer glioblastoma than females. A team of researchers led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified distinct molecular signatures of glioblastoma in men and women that help explain disparities in patients' response to treatment and survival. The research suggests that tailoring treatments to men and women with glioblastom

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How economic theory and the Netflix Prize could make research funding more efficient

In a paper published Jan. 2 in PLOS Biology, two scientists at the University of Washington and North Carolina State University use the economic theory of contests to illustrate how the competitive grant-application system has made the pursuit of research funding inefficient and unsustainable — and that alternative methods, such as a partial lottery to award grants, could relieve pressure on prof

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How to better reach men for HIV testing — a randomized trial on incentives for self-testing

Providing pregnant women with HIV self-testing kits to pass along to their male partners can boost the partners' rate of HIV testing and entry into care, according to a research article published this week in PLOS Medicine by Augustine Choko of the Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Clinical Research Program, Malawi, and London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, and colleagues.

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Is habitat restoration actually killing plants in the California wildlands?

In 2014, plant biologists with the California Department of Agriculture reported an alarming discovery: native wildflowers and herbs, grown in nurseries and then planted in ecological restoration sites around California, were infected with Phytophthora tentaculata, a deadly exotic plant pathogen that causes root and stem rot.

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Researchers develop self-powered microfluidic sheet that wraps, flaps and creeps

The "magic carpet" featured in tales from "One Thousand and One Nights" to Disney's "Aladdin" captures the imagination not only because it can fly, but because it can also wave, flap, and alter its shape to serve its riders. With that inspiration, and the assistance of catalytic chemical reactions in solutions, a team from the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering has designed a

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Nasa's New Horizons: 'Snowman' shape of distant Ultima Thule revealedNew Horizons Ultima Thule

The first detailed picture from Tuesday's historic flyby in the outer Solar System is released.

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How Monet’s paintings ‘trick’ our eyes

Claude Monet used a very limited color palette in his Waterloo Bridge series, but could still evoke a wide range of ambiances. New research shows how. During three trips to London at the turn of the 20th century, Monet painted more than 40 versions of a single scene: the Waterloo Bridge over the Thames River. Monet’s main subject was not the bridge itself, however, so much as the landscape and at

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The secret life of your brain – How predictions rule your world (Video)

submitted by /u/BrainsandBehavior [link] [comments]

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How economic theory and the Netflix Prize could make research funding more efficient

As scientific funding becomes increasingly scarce, professors in STEM fields spend more time in their offices writing grant applications: by one estimate, as much as one-fifth of their research time. That takes time and energy away from teaching students, training young researchers and making discoveries that boost our collective knowledge and well-being.

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Team links 261 genes to blindness and vision problems

Researchers have discovered hundreds of new genes linked to blindness and other vision disorders in a screen of mouse strains. Many of these genes are likely important in human eye vision and the results could help identify new causes of hereditary blindness in patients. “This is extremely valuable for people with hereditary eye disease,” says Ala Moshiri, associate professor of ophthalmology and

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Warming seas linked to bluefin tuna surge in UK waters

Increased sightings of bluefin tuna off the UK are linked to the warming effect of a long term ocean current.

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BMC Biology Shares Rejected Papers' Peer Reviews with Other Journals

The journal's "portable peer review" seeks to save time for editors and researchers.

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China's war on particulate air pollution is causing more severe ozone pollution

In China, the rapid reduction of the pollutant PM 2.5 dramatically altered the chemistry of the atmosphere, leading to an increase in harmful ground-level ozone pollution, especially in large cities.

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The Murmurations of Starlings

When starlings flock together, wheeling and darting through the sky in tight, fluid formations, we call it a murmuration. These murmurations can range from small groups of a few hundred starlings in a small ball to undulating seas of millions of birds that might block out the sun. I thought today would be a good day to take a few moments and appreciate the simple beauty of murmurations, captured

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Snowman-like Photo of Ultima Thule Sent Home by NASA’s New Horizons SpacecraftNew Horizons Ultima Thule

At a Wednesday news conference, scientists will announce some of the results from the flyby of the most distant object ever visited.

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Critic’s Notebook: Are Animals Getting Better at Acting?

Naturalistic pet performers, in movies like “Can You Ever Forgive Me?” and “Widows,” are making Toto look like a hack.

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Is habitat restoration actually killing plants in the California wildlands?

New work by a University of California, Berkeley team shows for the first time just how widespread and deadly the threat of pathogens from restoration nurseries may be to natural forests. The team surveyed five native plant nurseries in Northern California and found that four harbored exotic, or non-native, Phytophthora pathogens. New management techniques, coupled with new methods for detecting p

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A catalytic flying carpet

Pitt researchers for the first time apply catalytic chemical reactions to 2D sheets to generate flows that transform these sheets into mobile, 3D objects.

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Structural and thermodynamic limits of layer thickness in 2D halide perovskites [Chemistry]

In the fast-evolving field of halide perovskite semiconductors, the 2D perovskites (A′)2(A)n−1MnX3n+1 [where A = Cs+, CH3NH3+, HC(NH2)2+; A′ = ammonium cation acting as spacer; M = Ge2+, Sn2+, Pb2+; and X = Cl−, Br−, I−] have recently made a critical entry. The n value defines the thickness of the…

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Brain-inspired automated visual object discovery and detection [Engineering]

Despite significant recent progress, machine vision systems lag considerably behind their biological counterparts in performance, scalability, and robustness. A distinctive hallmark of the brain is its ability to automatically discover and model objects, at multiscale resolutions, from repeated exposures to unlabeled contextual data and then to be able to robustly…

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Newcomb-Benford law and the detection of frauds in international trade [Statistics]

The contrast of fraud in international trade is a crucial task of modern economic regulations. We develop statistical tools for the detection of frauds in customs declarations that rely on the Newcomb–Benford law for significant digits. Our first contribution is to show the features, in the context of a European…

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Estimation of emigration, return migration, and transit migration between all pairs of countries [Social Sciences]

We propose a method for estimating migration flows between all pairs of countries that allows for decomposition of migration into emigration, return, and transit components. Current state-of-the-art estimates of bilateral migration flows rely on the assumption that the number of global migrants is as small as possible. We relax this…

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Bax inhibitor 1 is a {gamma}-secretase-independent presenilin-binding protein [Biochemistry]

Presenilin is the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, a four-component intramembrane protease responsible for the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Over 200 Alzheimer’s disease-related mutations have been identified in presenilin 1 (PS1) and PS2. Here, we report that Bax-inhibitor 1 (BI1), an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein, stably associates with PS1. BI1…

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Toward understanding cancer stem cell heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) formation are two paramount processes driving tumor progression, therapy resistance, and cancer metastasis. Recent experiments show that cells with varying EMT and CSC phenotypes are spatially segregated in the primary tumor. The underlying mechanisms generating such spatiotemporal dynamics in the tumor…

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Cooperative subunit dynamics modulate p97 function [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

p97 is an essential hexameric AAA+ ATPase involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Mutations in the enzyme are implicated in the etiology of an autosomal dominant neurological disease in which patients are heterozygous with respect to p97 alleles, containing one copy each of WT and disease-causing mutant genes,…

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Data-driven supervised learning of a viral protease specificity landscape from deep sequencing and molecular simulations [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Biophysical interactions between proteins and peptides are key determinants of molecular recognition specificity landscapes. However, an understanding of how molecular structure and residue-level energetics at protein−peptide interfaces shape these landscapes remains elusive. We combine information from yeast-based library screening, next-generation sequencing, and structure-based modeling in a su

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Anthropogenic habitat alteration leads to rapid loss of adaptive variation and restoration potential in wild salmon populations [Environmental Sciences]

Phenotypic variation is critical for the long-term persistence of species and populations. Anthropogenic activities have caused substantial shifts and reductions in phenotypic variation across diverse taxa, but the underlying mechanism(s) (i.e., phenotypic plasticity and/or genetic evolution) and long-term consequences (e.g., ability to recover phenotypic variation) are unclear. Here we investigat

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AMP-activated protein kinase activation and NADPH oxidase inhibition by inorganic nitrate and nitrite prevent liver steatosis [Medical Sciences]

Advanced age and unhealthy dietary habits contribute to the increasing incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. These metabolic disorders, which are often accompanied by oxidative stress and compromised nitric oxide (NO) signaling, increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular complications and development of fatty liver disease. Here, we investigated the…

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Structural determinants driving homoserine lactone ligand selection in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR quorum-sensing receptor [Microbiology]

Quorum sensing is a cell–cell communication process that bacteria use to orchestrate group behaviors. Quorum sensing is mediated by signal molecules called autoinducers. Autoinducers are often structurally similar, raising questions concerning how bacteria distinguish among them. Here, we use the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR quorum-sensing receptor to explore signal discrimination. The…

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Dorsal striatal dopamine D1 receptor availability predicts an instrumental bias in action learning [Neuroscience]

Learning to act to obtain reward and inhibit to avoid punishment is easier compared with learning the opposite contingencies. This coupling of action and valence is often thought of as a Pavlovian bias, although recent research has shown it may also emerge through instrumental mechanisms. We measured this learning bias…

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PARL deficiency in mouse causes Complex III defects, coenzyme Q depletion, and Leigh-like syndrome [Neuroscience]

The mitochondrial intramembrane rhomboid protease PARL has been implicated in diverse functions in vitro, but its physiological role in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that Parl ablation in mouse causes a necrotizing encephalomyelopathy similar to Leigh syndrome, a mitochondrial disease characterized by disrupted energy production. Mice with conditional PARL…

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Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MGE cell grafting after status epilepticus attenuates chronic epilepsy and comorbidities via synaptic integration [Neuroscience]

Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-like interneuron precursors derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are ideal for developing patient-specific cell therapy in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, their efficacy for alleviating spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) or cognitive, memory, and mood impairments has never been tested in models of TLE. Through…

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MITO-Tag Mice enable rapid isolation and multimodal profiling of mitochondria from specific cell types in vivo [Physiology]

Mitochondria are metabolic organelles that are essential for mammalian life, but the dynamics of mitochondrial metabolism within mammalian tissues in vivo remains incompletely understood. While whole-tissue metabolite profiling has been useful for studying metabolism in vivo, such an approach lacks resolution at the cellular and subcellular level. In vivo methods…

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F-box protein RAE1 regulates the stability of the aluminum-resistance transcription factor STOP1 in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major factor limiting crop production on acid soils, which represent over 30% of the world’s arable land. Some plants have evolved mechanisms to detoxify Al. Arabidopsis, for example, secretes malate via the AtALMT1 transporter to chelate and detoxify Al. The C2H2-type transcription factor STOP1 plays…

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Switch between critical percolation modes in city traffic dynamics [Applied Physical Sciences]

Percolation transition is widely observed in networks ranging from biology to engineering. While much attention has been paid to network topologies, studies rarely focus on critical percolation phenomena driven by network dynamics. Using extensive real data, we study the critical percolation properties in city traffic dynamics. Our results suggest that…

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Self-organized shape dynamics of active surfaces [Applied Physical Sciences]

Mechanochemical processes in thin biological structures, such as the cellular cortex or epithelial sheets, play a key role during the morphogenesis of cells and tissues. In particular, they are responsible for the dynamical organization of active stresses that lead to flows and deformations of the material. Consequently, advective transport redistributes…

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In crystallo thermodynamic analysis of conformational change of the topaquinone cofactor in bacterial copper amine oxidase [Biochemistry]

In the catalytic reaction of copper amine oxidase, the protein-derived redox cofactor topaquinone (TPQ) is reduced by an amine substrate to an aminoresorcinol form (TPQamr), which is in equilibrium with a semiquinone radical (TPQsq). The transition from TPQamr to TPQsq is an endothermic process, accompanied by a significant conformational change…

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Catalytic activation of glycosyl phosphates for stereoselective coupling reactions [Chemistry]

Glycosyl phosphates are shown to be activated to stereospecific nucleophilic substitution reactions by precisely tailored bis-thiourea catalysts. Enhanced reactivity and scope is observed with phosphate relative to chloride leaving groups. Stronger binding (Km) to the H-bond donor and enhanced reactivity of the complex (kcat) enables efficient catalysis with broad functional…

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Catalyst discovery through megalibraries of nanomaterials [Chemistry]

The nanomaterial landscape is so vast that a high-throughput combinatorial approach is required to understand structure–function relationships. To address this challenge, an approach for the synthesis and screening of megalibraries of unique nanoscale features (>10,000,000) with tailorable location, size, and composition has been developed. Polymer pen lithography, a parallel lithographic…

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Evidence for genuine hydrogen bonding in gold(I) complexes [Chemistry]

The ability of gold to act as proton acceptor and participate in hydrogen bonding remains an open question. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of cationic gold(I) complexes featuring ditopic phosphine-ammonium (P,NH+) ligands. In addition to the presence of short Au∙∙∙H contacts in the solid state, the presence of…

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Spatially resolved metabolomics to discover tumor-associated metabolic alterations [Chemistry]

Characterization of tumor metabolism with spatial information contributes to our understanding of complex cancer metabolic reprogramming, facilitating the discovery of potential metabolic vulnerabilities that might be targeted for tumor therapy. However, given the metabolic variability and flexibility of tumors, it is still challenging to characterize global metabolic alterations in heterogeneous.

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Precise timing of abrupt increase in dust activity in the Middle East coincident with 4.2 ka social change [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The extent to which climate change causes significant societal disruption remains controversial. An important example is the decline of the Akkadian Empire in northern Mesopotamia ∼4.2 ka, for which the existence of a coincident climate event is still uncertain. Here we present an Iranian stalagmite record spanning 5.2 ka to…

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Magnesium stable isotopes support the lunar magma ocean cumulate remelting model for mare basalts [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

We report high-precision Mg isotopic analyses of different types of lunar samples including two pristine Mg-suite rocks (72415 and 76535), basalts, anorthosites, breccias, mineral separates, and lunar meteorites. The Mg isotopic composition of the dunite 72415 (δ25Mg = −0.140 ± 0.010‰, δ26Mg = −0.291 ± 0.018‰), the most Mg-rich and…

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Diversity partitioning in Phanerozoic benthic marine communities [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Biotic interactions such as competition, predation, and niche construction are fundamental drivers of biodiversity at the local scale, yet their long-term effect during earth history remains controversial. To test their role and explore potential limits to biodiversity, we determine within-habitat (alpha), between-habitat (beta), and overall (gamma) diversity of benthic marine…

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Holographic acoustic tweezers [Engineering]

Acoustic tweezers use sound radiation forces to manipulate matter without contact. They provide unique characteristics compared with the more established optical tweezers, such as higher trapping forces per unit input power and the ability to manipulate objects from the micrometer to the centimeter scale. They also enable the trapping of…

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Single degree of freedom everting ring linkages with nonorientable topology [Engineering]

Linkages are assemblies of rigid bodies connected through joints. They serve as the basis for force- and movement-managing devices ranging from ordinary pliers to high-precision robotic arms. Aside from planar mechanisms, like the well-known four-bar linkage, only a few linkages with a single internal degree of freedom—meaning that they can…

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Each of 3,323 metabolic innovations in the evolution of E. coli arose through the horizontal transfer of a single DNA segment [Evolution]

Even closely related prokaryotes often show an astounding diversity in their ability to grow in different nutritional environments. It has been hypothesized that complex metabolic adaptations—those requiring the independent acquisition of multiple new genes—can evolve via selectively neutral intermediates. However, it is unclear whether this neutral exploration of phenotype space…

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Polysaccharide structure dictates mechanism of adaptive immune response to glycoconjugate vaccines [Immunology and Inflammation]

Glycoconjugate vaccines are among the most effective interventions for preventing several serious infectious diseases. Covalent linkage of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide to a carrier protein provides CD4+ T cells with epitopes that facilitate a memory response to the polysaccharide. Classically, the mechanism responsible for antigen processing was thought to be…

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Cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor promotes endothelial permeability, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis [Immunology and Inflammation]

Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) are proinflammatory mediators that enhance vascular permeability through distinct receptors (CysLTRs). We found that CysLT2R regulates angiogenesis in isolated mouse endothelial cells (ECs) and in Matrigel implants in WT mice and enhances EC contraction and permeability via the Rho-dependent myosin light chain 2 and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin…

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p47 licenses activation of the immune deficiency pathway in the tick Ixodes scapularis [Immunology and Inflammation]

The E3 ubiquitin ligase X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) acts as a molecular rheostat for the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway of the tick Ixodes scapularis. How XIAP activates the IMD pathway in response to microbial infection remains ill defined. Here, we identified the XIAP enzymatic substrate p47 as a positive…

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TP53INP1 deficiency maintains murine B lymphopoiesis in aged bone marrow through redox-controlled IL-7R/STAT5 signaling [Medical Sciences]

Bone marrow (BM) produces all blood and immune cells deriving from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The decrease of immune cell production during aging is one of the features of immunosenescence. The impact of redox dysregulation in BM aging is still poorly understood. Here we use TP53INP1-deficient (KO) mice endowed with…

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Dengue type 1 viruses circulating in humans are highly infectious and poorly neutralized by human antibodies [Microbiology]

The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes are mosquito-borne flaviviruses of humans. The interactions between DENVs and the human host that lead to asymptomatic, mild, or severe disease are poorly understood, in part, because laboratory models are poor surrogates for human DENV disease. Virologists are interested in how the properties of…

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Dietary sugar silences a colonization factor in a mammalian gut symbiont [Microbiology]

The composition of the gut microbiota is largely determined by environmental factors including the host diet. Dietary components are believed to influence the composition of the gut microbiota by serving as nutrients to a subset of microbes, thereby favoring their expansion. However, we now report that dietary fructose and glucose,…

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Disparate impact on CD4 T cell count by two distinct HIV-1 phylogenetic clusters from the same clade [Microbiology]

HIV-1 evolved into various genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in the global epidemic. The same subtype or CRF is usually considered to have similar phenotype. Being one of the world’s major CRFs, CRF01_AE infection was reported to associate with higher prevalence of CXCR4 (X4) viruses and faster CD4…

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Epigenetic editing by CRISPR/dCas9 in Plasmodium falciparum [Microbiology]

Genetic manipulation remains a major obstacle for understanding the functional genomics of the deadliest malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Although the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated protein 9) system has been successfully applied to introduce permanent changes in the parasite genome, its use is still limited. Here we show…

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Plasma kallikrein modulates immune cell trafficking during neuroinflammation via PAR2 and bradykinin release [Neuroscience]

Blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption and transendothelial trafficking of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS) are pathophysiological hallmarks of neuroinflammatory disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that the kallikrein-kinin and coagulation system might participate in this process. Here, we identify plasma kallikrein (KK) as a specific direct…

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Activity-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling is required for the antidepressant actions of (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine [Pharmacology]

Ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, produces rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. (2R,6R)-Hydroxynorketamine [(2R,6R)-HNK], a metabolite of ketamine, is reported to produce rapid antidepressant effects in rodent models without the side effects of ketamine. Importantly, (2R,6R)-HNK does not block NMDA rece

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Repeat variants for the SbMATE transporter protect sorghum roots from aluminum toxicity by transcriptional interplay in cis and trans [Plant Biology]

Acidic soils, where aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major agricultural constraint, are globally widespread and are prevalent in developing countries. In sorghum, the root citrate transporter SbMATE confers Al tolerance by protecting root apices from toxic Al3+, but can exhibit reduced expression when introgressed into different lines. We show that…

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Implicit model of other people’s visual attention as an invisible, force-carrying beam proȷecting from the eyes [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

As a part of social cognition, people automatically construct rich models of other people’s vision. Here we show that when people judge the mechanical forces acting on an object, their judgments are biased by another person gazing at the object. The bias is consistent with an implicit perception that gaze…

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Decline in climate resilience of European wheat [Sustainability Science]

Food security relies on the resilience of staple food crops to climatic variability and extremes, but the climate resilience of European wheat is unknown. A diversity of responses to disturbance is considered a key determinant of resilience. The capacity of a sole crop genotype to perform well under climatic variability…

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Small-scale urban agriculture results in high yields but requires judicious management of inputs to achieve sustainability [Sustainability Science]

A major challenge of the 21st century is to produce more food for a growing population without increasing humanity’s agricultural footprint. Urban food production may help to solve this challenge; however, little research has examined the productivity of urban farming systems. We investigated inputs and produce yields over a 1-y…

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Correction for Girard et al., Interdependent and separable functions of Caenorhabditis elegans MRN-C complex members couple formation and repair of meiotic DSBs [Correction]

GENETICS Correction for “Interdependent and separable functions of Caenorhabditis elegans MRN-C complex members couple formation and repair of meiotic DSBs,” by Chloe Girard, Baptiste Roelens, Karl A. Zawadzki, and Anne M. Villeneuve, which was first published April 23, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1719029115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E4443–E4452). The authors wish to…

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Correction for Smith et al., Stem cell-derived clade F AAVs mediate high-efficiency homologous recombination-based genome editing [Correction]

MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Stem cell-derived clade F AAVs mediate high-efficiency homologous recombination-based genome editing,” by Laura J. Smith, Jason Wright, Gabriella Clark, Taihra Ul-Hasan, Xiangyang Jin, Abigail Fong, Manasa Chandra, Thia St Martin, Hillard Rubin, David Knowlton, Jeff L. Ellsworth, Yuman Fong, Kamehameha K. Wong Jr., and Saswati Chatterjee,…

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Correction for Namouchi et al., Integrative approach using Yersinia pestis genomes to revisit the historical landscape of plague during the Medieval Period [Correction]

MICROBIOLOGY Correction for “Integrative approach using Yersinia pestis genomes to revisit the historical landscape of plague during the Medieval Period,” by Amine Namouchi, Meriam Guellil, Oliver Kersten, Stephanie Hänsch, Claudio Ottoni, Boris V. Schmid, Elsa Pacciani, Luisa Quaglia, Marco Vermunt, Egil L. Bauer, Michael Derrick, Anne Ø. Jensen, Sacha Kacki,…

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Anthropogenic impacts on Chinook salmon Illustration of Chinook salmon. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/A. Hoen and Co. Phenotypic variation enables species to evolve when faced with environmental changes, including climate change. However, human activity, such as dam construction, endangers phenotypic diversity, with homogeneous species being particularly vulnerable. Tasha Thompson, Michael..

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Proportional versus relative size as metrics in human brain evolution [Biological Sciences]

In addressing the question of whether human prefrontal cortex (PFC) is “disproportionately larger in humans compared with nonhuman primates” in their article in PNAS, Donahue et al. (1) gloss over the distinction between proportional and relative size. Agreeing with previous work (2–4), they show that PFC occupies a larger proportion…

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Reply to Barton and Montgomery: A case for preferential prefrontal cortical expansion [Biological Sciences]

In our article (1), we focus on prefrontal cortex (PFC) to (i) arrive at a surface-based delineation of PFC using modern architectonic and functional criteria; (ii) determine its absolute size in humans, macaques, and chimpanzees in terms of gray and white matter volumes analyzed using structural MRI data from many…

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Newcomb-Benford law helps customs officers to detect fraud in international trade [Statistics]

The leading digit of a number represents its nonzero leftmost digit. For example, the leading digits of 19 and 0.072 are 1 and 7, respectively. The Newcomb–Benford law (NBL) was originally discovered in the late 19th century (1, 2) as an anecdotal pattern emerging in such seemingly disparate datasets as…

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On the mechanisms of conjugate vaccines [Immunology and Inflammation]

During the last three decades, the development and commercialization of conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), pneumococcus, and serogroups C, A, W, and Y of meningococcus contributed to the virtual elimination of bacterial meningitis caused by the bacteria included in the vaccines and to the prevention of diseases…

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Insights from direct studies on human dengue infections [Microbiology]

Biologic Functions of Human Antibodies A close look at dengue viremia in humans resulted in a discovery that has rocked the dengue world. In PNAS, Raut et al. (1) cleverly manipulated viruses recovered from the blood of acute dengue virus type 1 (DENV1) infections and show that this virus differs…

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Probing mitochondrial metabolism in vivo [Physiology]

Mitochondrial metabolism encompasses pathways that generate ATP to drive intracellular unfavorable energetic reactions and produce the building blocks necessary for macromolecule synthesis. In the past two decades, it has become clear that mitochondrial metabolism does not play a passive role as an underlying mechanism of biology, but instead plays a…

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News Feature: The solar cell of the future [Environmental Sciences]

If the latest photovoltaic technologies can team up, they promise to capture the sun’s energy far more effectively than ever before. In principle, the deluge of energy pouring down on us from the sun could meet the world’s power needs many times over. Already, in the United States, the total…

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The Guardian view on spaceflight: the outward urge

Missions like Nasa’s flyby of Ultima Thule, and China’s to place a lander on the far side of the moon, are more than a triumph of technology Some things are almost too extraordinary to comprehend. Take what is almost the smallest and simplest measurement from the New Horizons space probe which has just passed Ultima Thule: it is travelling at 32,000 miles an hour – more than 50 times faster than a

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This is what happens when layered materials are pushed to the brink

By studying the behavior of a deck of cards, and stacks of other materials, like steel and aluminum, scientists at Drexel University are proving the existence of a buckling phenomenon that happens inside layered materials when they are put under pressure. The discovery could shape the way researchers—from structural and mechanical engineers to geologists and seismologists—study the way things defo

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The Real Shutdown Fight Might Only Be Getting Started

Updated on January 2 at 5:19 p.m. ET New year, new Congress, same old shutdown. That’s the state of play in Washington this week. As congressional leaders visited the White House Wednesday afternoon for a meeting with the president, and as an increasing number of government offices are closed, the shutdown is headed for day 13—with no obvious exit. Speaking to reporters after a Cabinet meeting on

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Long term agriculture change impacts stream water quality

A new study examines how the switch to conservation tillage has impacted a southwestern Ohio lake over the past decades. From 1994 to 2014, an unusually long timespan, the researchers measured concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus in streams draining into Acton Lake.

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'Rippling' under pressure

Looking deeper into the internal behavior of layered solids and formations- from graphene sheets, to wood laminates, to geological formations — researchers at Drexel University are gaining a better understanding of a buckling phenomenon that occurs within the layers of the materials as they are put under pressure.

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Mystery of Yemen cholera epidemic solved

The most likely source of the cholera epidemic in Yemen has been discovered by scientists. Through the use of genomic sequencing, scientists estimate the strain of cholera causing the current outbreak in Yemen — the worst cholera outbreak in recorded history — came from Eastern Africa and entered Yemen with the migration of people in and out of the region. Genomics can enable researchers to esti

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Tiny, implantable device uses light to treat bladder problems

Neuroscientists and engineers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University in Chicago, have developed a tiny, implantable device that has potential to help people with bladder problems bypass the need for medication or electronic stimulators. The team created a soft, implanta

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Why the "Child of Krakatau" Volcano Is Still Dangerous

The Dec. 22 landslide at the Indonesian volcano led to a predictable tsunami in the area — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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The spell breaks for mentalists’ ‘pseudoscience’

Magicians are under fire for claiming they use neurolinguistic programming to read people’s minds Some psychologists are upset at the deployment of purported scientific techniques in magic tricks, according to the Times. The newspaper cites a study (paywall) co-authored by Gustav Kuhn , a reader in psychology at Goldsmiths, University of London, in which a group of people watched a magic trick. T

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Trump Started 2019 on an Angry, Lonely Note

Americans across the country rang in the new year in the usual way—by kissing their loved ones, partying with friends, watching the Times Square ball drop on television. President Donald Trump, on the other hand, started off 2019 by urging the nation to “JUST CALM DOWN.” This all-caps presidential exhortation, delivered to some 56.8 million Twitter followers and, by extension, the country at larg

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Seagrass saves beaches and money

Seagrass beds are so effective in protecting tropical beaches from erosion, that they can reduce the need for regular, expensive beach nourishments that are used now. Biologists and engineers from the Netherlands and Mexico describe experiments and field observations around the Caribbean Sea.

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Heart cell defect identified as possible cause of heart failure in pregnancy

A new study reveals that one of the possible primary causes of heart failure in pregnant women is a functional heart cell defect. The findings may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

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Computer model shows how to better control MRSA outbreaks

A research team reports on a new method to help health officials control outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, a life-threatening antibiotic-resistant infection often seen in hospitals. The researchers are the first to reveal the invisible dynamics governing the spread of these outbreaks and demonstrate a new, more effective method to prevent their spread.

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Our social judgments reveal a tension between morals and statistics

People make statistically-informed judgments about who is more likely to hold particular professions even though they criticize others for the same behavior.

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Work-family conflict hits home

Researchers have long known that sick children can affect a company's bottom line, as employees are distracted or have to take time off to care for their children. Less is known about the impact a parent's work life has on their children's health. But now researchers have found that children's health is less likely to be negatively affected when their parents feel a sense of control over their wor

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Juno mission captures images of volcanic plumes on Jupiter's moon Io

The Juno spacecraft captured new images of a volcanic plume on Jupiter's moon Io during a December 21 flyby. JunoCam, the Stellar Reference Unit (SRU), the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM), and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVS) observed Io for over an hour, providing a glimpse of the moon's polar regions as well as evidence of an active eruption.

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For first time, researchers can measure insecticide on surface of mosquito nets

Insecticide-infused mosquito netting is in widespread use around the world to limit the spread of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria. Researchers from NC State and the CDC have now come up with a technique that measures how much insecticide is found on the surface of these nets — paving the way for efforts to determine how long the nets are effective.

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AI could make it impossible for artists and novelists to make a living

Copyright protections were originally designed to incentivise creators and allow them to profit from their work, but what happens when the artist is a machine?

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A New Year vow for our leaders? Start taking climate change seriously

Never has there been a more important time for politicians to move beyond paying lip service to the fight against global warming, says Owen Gaffney

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Surrogacy should be a relationship, not a transaction

UK surrogates are speaking out against a move to pay women a fee for carrying someone else's child, says Natalie Smith

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Green light implant relieves urinary incontinence in rats

A device that modulates nerve signals by shining green light on them has been found to restore bladder control in rats that urinate too often

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A new implant uses light to control overactive bladders

Experiments in rats show that a new soft device could help alleviate frequent, sudden urges to urinate.

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The Missed Opportunity of Love Is

In June, the airy romantic drama Love Is joined a slate of original scripted programming at OWN , the television network co-owned by Oprah Winfrey. The series, executive-produced by the husband-and-wife pair Mara Brock Akil and Salim Akil, was billed as a celebration of real-life romance and the journey of sustaining it. Its summertime arrival drew a wealth of excitement from fans of the veteran

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Mitt Romney’s Noisy Arrival in Trump’s Washington

As Mitt Romney prepares to join the U.S. Senate on Thursday, this much at least seems clear: He’s not worried about being friends with Donald Trump. In a sharply critical op-ed published Tuesday night in The Washington Post —notably, one of the president’s least favorite news outlets—Romney took aim at what he considers to be the president’s defective moral character: On balance, his conduct over

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To head off late-life depression, check your hearing

A new study found that age-related hearing loss increased the risk of depression symptoms.

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Psykologer: Vaner er en god ting – men husk at bryde de dårlige

Selvom vi ofte taler om vaner som noget dårligt, er de faktisk sunde for os, mener Sven Brinkmann.

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Feisty hummingbirds prioritize fencing over feeding

Hummingbirds are fierce fighters, but also efficient feeders with tongues and bills well adapted to extracting every bit of nectar from a flower. Why, then, do the males of some tropical species have bizarre hooks, serrations and hard tips that defeat efficient nectar extraction? Using high-speed video, researchers have documented how these males use their weaponized bills to fight rivals for food

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How does the brain learn by talking to itself?

One of the greatest challenges of systems neuroscience is to explain how synaptic connections change to support adaptive behaviours. Neuroscientists have previously showed that synaptic learning mechanisms in the brain's cortex are dependent on feedback from deeper brain regions. They have now precisely deciphered how this feedback gates synaptic strengthening by switching on and off particular in

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Fewer monarch butterflies are reaching their overwintering destination

The monarch butterfly is currently experiencing dire problems with its migration in eastern North America. Fewer and fewer monarchs are successfully reaching their overwintering destinations, and scientists aren't sure why.

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Scientists model Anak Krakatau volcano, tsunami to help prep US for future tsunamis

Last month's eruption of the Anak Krakatau volcano in Indonesia and the deadly tsunami that followed caused two University of Rhode Island scientists to spring to action.

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Hormone makes food smells harder to ignore

The hormone ghrelin makes us more vulnerable to tasty food smells, a situation that encourages overeating and obesity, according to new research. Previous research by Alain Dagher’s lab at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital of McGill University and colleagues demonstrated that ghrelin encourages eating and the production of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is important for reward r

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These 7 Expeditions Could Reveal Some of Earth's Biggest Secrets in 2019

What new mysteries will scientists unravel about Earth in 2019?

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'A way cool way to be': Study offers new insights into children with autism

In the first study of its kind, a team of researchers was able to perform functional MRIs of a group of children with autism whose IQs averaged 54. The scans offer a glimpse into what's happening in their brains.

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Engineering a Biomedical Revolution in China

A permissive regulatory climate and a pragmatic approach have fostered soaring growth — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Destroyer Is a Murder Mystery That Seeks to Upend Your Expectations

This article contains major spoilers for the film Destroyer. Karyn Kusama’s Destroyer , currently in limited release and expanding around the United States in January, at first presents as a rather typical murder mystery. It’s centered on a veteran LAPD detective, Erin Bell (played by Nicole Kidman), who has been hardened by her decades on the force and by some mysterious trauma in her past as an

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Seagrass saves beaches and money

Seagrass beds are so effective in protecting tropical beaches from erosion, that they can reduce the need for regular, expensive beach nourishments that are used now. In a recent article in the journal BioScience, biologists and engineers from The Netherlands and Mexico describe experiments and field observations around the Caribbean Sea. "A foreshore with both healthy seagrass beds as well as cal

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Study identifies genetic mutation responsible for tuberculosis vulnerability

Scientists discovered a genetic variant that greatly increases a person's likelihood of developing tuberculosis. Their research elucidates how this mutation affects the immune system, and points to a possible treatment for people with the disease.

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Seagrass saves beaches and money

Seagrass beds are so effective in protecting tropical beaches from erosion, that they can reduce the need for regular, expensive beach nourishments that are used now. In a recent article in the journal BioScience, biologists and engineers from the Netherlands and Mexico describe experiments and field observations around the Caribbean Sea.

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George Orwell wrote long-lost human rights manifesto

George Orwell not only vocally advocated human rights but also attempted, in the years between writing Animal Farm and 1984 , to found an international body that would defend human rights in the tense aftermath of World War II, according to a recent discovery. Orwell’s partners in this project were also renowned: the philosopher Bertrand Russell and the novelist Arthur Koestler. In his new book,

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Queen's Brian May Releases 'New Horizons' Single to Celebrate Epic Flyby

Only moments before New Horizons flew by the most distant solar system object ever visited, astrophysicist and Queen guitarist Brian May released his new single based on the mission.

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Ultima Thule Looks Like a Bowling Pin in Space in New Horizons Flyby Photo

Ultima Thule, the weird Kuiper Belt object that NASA's New Horizons spacecraft visited in a historic flyby on Jan. 1, 2019, looks like a cosmic bowling pin, scientists say.

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Two possible new ways to treat silent seizures in children

A recent study led at the Gladstone Institutes, and published in the journal Cell Reports, characterizes silent seizures in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome and identifies a new brain area that could be targeted to stop them.

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NIH study implicates hyperactive immune system in aging brain disorders

In a study of fruit flies, NIH scientists suggested that the body's immune system may play a critical role in the damage caused by aging brain disorders.

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Friday report cards line up with child abuse cases

A year-long study finds a correlation between child abuse cases and the dates elementary schools issue report cards—but only when grades come home on a Friday. On Saturdays following report card Fridays, cases of child abuse in Florida were four times higher than other Saturdays. The state’s Department of Children and Families verified the abuse cases. When report cards were issued earlier in the

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5 New Governors to Watch on Climate

From California to Florida, these state leaders could have major influence on U.S. climate policy — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Historical genomes reveal recent changes in genetic health of eastern gorillas

The critically endangered Grauer's gorilla has recently lost genetic diversity and has experienced an increase in harmful mutations, according to researchers who sequenced 11 genomes from eastern gorilla specimens collected up to 100 years ago, and compared these with genomes from present-day individuals.

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Work-family conflict hits home

Researchers have long known that sick children can affect a company's bottom line, as employees are distracted or have to take time off to care for their children. Less is known about the impact a parent's work life has on their children's health. But now researchers have found that children's health is less likely to be negatively affected when their parents feel a sense of control over their wor

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WVU researchers find telemedicine may increase patient satisfaction with medical care

A recent study led by Albeir Mousa, a professor in the West Virginia University School of Medicine, suggests telemedicine may improve patients' satisfaction with their postoperative care as well as their quality of life. Their results have been accepted for publication in The Annals of Vascular Surgery.

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The Case for Scientific Humanism

The case for scientific humanism — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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What Trump’s Draft Deferments Reveal

President Donald Trump’s Vietnam-era draft deferments made headlines again last week when The New York Times reported that, as a favor to Trump’s father, a Queens podiatrist may have written the letter that led to Trump’s I-Y medical deferment . That the story dropped on the same day as Trump made his first visit as commander in chief to American military forces in a conflict zone certainly makes

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MGHfC study details development of functional skills in persons with Down syndrome

A new study from investigators at MassGeneral Hospital for Children and colleagues in the Netherlands provides important answers for expectant parents who learn their child will be born with Down syndrome.

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Our social judgments reveal a tension between morals and statistics

People make statistically-informed judgments about who is more likely to hold particular professions even though they criticize others for the same behavior, according to findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

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Computer model shows how to better control MRSA outbreaks

A research team led by scientists at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health report on a new method to help health officials control outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, a life-threatening antibiotic-resistant infection often seen in hospitals. The researchers are the first to reveal the invisible dynamics governing the spread of these outbreaks and de

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Marijuana can alter DNA in sperm

New research shows that THC affects epigenetics, triggering structural and regulatory changes in the DNA of users’ sperm. As legal access to marijuana continues expanding across the US, more scientists are studying the effects of its active ingredient, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in teens, adults, and pregnant women. The new study suggests men in their child-bearing years should also consider how

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Board independence protects firms from corporate misconduct

The more a company's board is independent from management, the less likely it will become entangled in corporate misconduct, according to new findings, from a meta-analysis of 135 studies, published in The Journal of Management. The site of independence also matters. Independence on the audit committee particularly shelters firms from misconduct, researchers found. At the same time, accepted level

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Fewer monarch butterflies are reaching their overwintering destination

Arguably, one of the world's most famous insects, the monarch butterfly, is currently experiencing dire problems with its migration in eastern North America. Fewer and fewer monarchs are successfully reaching their overwintering destinations, and scientists aren't sure why. Because of this, the need for research on the migration has never been more urgent. New research published in De Gruyter's Op

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Board independence protects firms from corporate misconduct

The more a company's board is independent from management, the less likely it will become entangled in corporate misconduct, according to new findings, from a meta-analysis of 135 studies, published in The Journal of Management. The site of independence also matters. Independence on the audit committee particularly shelters firms from misconduct, researchers found. At the same time, levels of corr

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Painful intercourse in women improved with fibromyalgia drug

Women with chronic pain or discomfort around the vulva showed improved sexual function with an oral nerve pain medication used to treat pain caused by a previous herpes infection as well as fibromyalgia, according to a Rutgers study.

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Heart cell defect identified as possible cause of heart failure in pregnancy

A new Tel Aviv University study reveals that one of the possible primary causes of heart failure in pregnant women is a functional heart cell defect. The findings may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

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Crashing tidal waves may lurk beneath the surface of icy moons

Enceladus and Europa both have liquid oceans under their shells of ice, and they may be full of tidal waves bouncing energy between their cores and surfaces

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Chinese spacecraft to become first to land on far side of moon

Chang’e 4 will explore giant crater, possibly offering more clues as to moon’s formation A Chinese spacecraft could shortly become the first ever to land on the “far side” of the moon, in a milestone for human space exploration. The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is aiming to land the craft in the unexplored South Pole-Aitken basin, the largest, oldest, deepest, crater on the moon’s s

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How Many Manatees Are There? There's an Algorithm for That

Biologists and computers scientists team up to create a census of animal populations — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Fewer monarch butterflies are reaching their overwintering destination

The monarch butterfly is currently experiencing dire problems with its migration in eastern North America. Fewer and fewer monarchs are successfully reaching their overwintering destinations, and scientists aren't sure why. New research published in De Gruyter's Open Access journal Animal Migration, aims to help with this effort.

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The President Who Wants to Break Up His Own Country

SARAJEVO—Few national leaders would call their own country an “impossible state.” Fewer still would actively advocate for it to be broken up. Almost none would risk a decades-old peace accord to do so. And then there is Bosnia’s Milorad Dodik. “I am a Serb … Bosnia is only my place of employment,” Dodik proclaimed just a day after his inauguration as Bosnia’s head of state. A Serb nationalist,

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Long term ag change impacts stream water quality

In the early 1990s, Acton Lake in southwestern Ohio had a muddy problem. Large amounts of sediment from nearby farms were entering the lake's watershed. These sediments traveled through streams draining the landscape and were filling up the lake.

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Trying to quit smoking? New research suggests higher levels of nicotine may help

Allowing smokers to determine their nicotine intake while they are trying to quit is likely to help them kick the habit, according to an early study in 50 people led by Queen Mary University of London.

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Risk of developing depression and anxiety is higher in those with cerebral palsy

Adults with cerebral palsy have a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety than their peers without the condition, a new study in the journal JAMA Neurology reports.

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Fractures in children often indicate abuse

Physical abuse in children often remains undetected. Atypical fractures may indicate such abuse. Everything that doctors should be particularly alert to and aware of in this setting is the subject of an article by Oliver Berthold and colleagues in the current issue of the Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.

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How does the brain learn by talking to itself?

One of the greatest challenges of systems neuroscience is to explain how synaptic connections change to support adaptive behaviours. Neuroscientists at UNIGE previously showed that synaptic learning mechanisms in the brain's cortex are dependent on feedback from deeper brain regions. They have now precisely deciphered how this feedback gates synaptic strengthening by switching on and off particula

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New mouse model reminiscent of Leigh syndrome sheds light on mechanisms of neurodegeneration

Leuven researchers led by professor Bart De Strooper (VIB-KU Leuven) have identified a new role for PARL, a protein that has been linked to Parkinson's disease. In this week's edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, they report that mice lacking PARL display specific problems in the nervous system reminiscent of Leigh syndrome instead.

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Tackling key questions of Ordovician subdivision and correlation in China

A recent new study reviewed and analyzed the criteria and key remaining issues in the subdivision and correlation of the Ordovician System in China and even in the world.

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Opioid poisoning killed 9,000 U.S. kids in 20 years

Opioid poisoning killed close to 9,000 children and teens in the United States over the last two decades—a nearly three-fold increase in mortality rates, a new study shows. The findings illustrate how the opioid epidemic continues to evolve and harm children even as efforts to confront the crisis through treatment and limits on opioid prescribing ramp up. Childproof packaging for drugs like Subox

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Feisty hummingbirds prioritize fencing over feeding

Most hummingbirds have bills and tongues exquisitely designed to slip inside a flower, lap up nectar and squeeze every last drop of precious sugar water from their tongue to fuel their frenetic lifestyle.

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NBA teams that come from behind don't garner more overtime wins

Teams that come from behind do not have a greater chance of winning in overtime, according to Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) researchers in a study published in the Journal of Economic Psychology, debunking theories of how psychological momentum in sports and in life lead to success.

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Natural-based antibiofilm and antimicrobial peptides from microorganisms

New developments in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with antibiofilm properties are rapidly materializing. ABP works by inhibiting antibiotic resistant bacteria in the biofilm through nucleotide signaling molecules.

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Databaseret forudseenhed begrænser dyre sejlture til Ørsteds havvindmøller

Finelektronikken i en havvindmølle skal præstere under vanskelige forhold, og det er dyrt at rette fejl langt ude på havet. Derfor kigger Ørsteds 'data scientists' dybt i bunker af data for at skelne mellem fejl, der skal rettes hurtigt, og dem, der kan vente.

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How to make exercise a regular part of your life

DIY Learn to stop worrying and love working out. You know exercise is great for you. But actually doing it can be a chore. Here’s how to get into the mindset of loving to work out.

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Ancient Turing Pattern Builds Feathers, Hair — and Now, Shark Skin

In 1952, well before developmental biologists spoke in terms of Hox genes and transcription factors, or even understood DNA’s structure, Alan Turing had an idea. The famed mathematician who hastened the end of World War II by cracking the Enigma code turned his mind to the natural world and devised an elegant mathematical model of pattern formation . His theory outlined how endless varieties of s

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Long term ag change impacts stream water quality

A new study examines how the switch to conservation tillage has impacted a southwestern Ohio lake over the past decades. From 1994 to 2014, an unusually long timespan, the researchers measured concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus in streams draining into Acton Lake.

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Feisty hummingbirds prioritize fencing over feeding

Hummingbirds are fierce fighters, but also efficient feeders with tongues and bills well adapted to extracting every bit of nectar from a flower. Why, then, do the males of some tropical species have bizarre hooks, serrations and hard tips that defeat efficient nectar extraction? Using high-speed video, UC Berkeley researchers have documented how these males use their weaponized bills to fight riv

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NBA teams that come from behind don't garner more overtime wins — Ben-Gurion U. Research

'People talk about momentum as an indicator for success in business, sports and politics,' says Dr. Elia Morgulev from the BGU Department of Management, Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management. 'However, after studying close to 900 tied games with fourth quarter comebacks over 11 National Basketball Association seasons, we found that regardless of momentum, teams with the home advantage

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Engineers, zoologists reveal how gulls 'wing morph' for stable soaring

A unique collaboration between U of T Engineering's aviation expert Professor Philippe Lavoie and UBC zoologists provides new insights into how gulls configure their wing shape — known as wing morphing — to stabilize their flight. The findings could be used to design more efficient flying vehicles, including soaring drones for farming or environmental monitoring.

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Juno mission captures images of volcanic plumes on Jupiter's moon Io

The Juno spacecraft captured new images of a volcanic plume on Jupiter's moon Io during a Dec. 21 flyby. JunoCam, the Stellar Reference Unit (SRU), the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM), and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVS) observed Io for over an hour, providing a glimpse of the moon's polar regions as well as evidence of an active eruption.

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Natural-based antibiofilm and antimicrobial peptides from microorganisms

The exploration of AMP and antibiofilm peptide (ABP) producer microorganisms brings with it a lot of challenges experimentally. In this review study, we want to highlight the importance and challenge of these natural peptides derived from microorganisms. We will also propose a new explanation for ABPs.

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Letters: Treatment vs. Incarceration Is a ‘False Choice’

A Narcotics Officer Ends His War on Drugs As a narcotics cop, Kevin Simmers locked up hundreds of drug users. In Jeremy Raff’s documentary and the accompanying article he published in November, Simmers explained how his ideology on drug treatment and punishment changed when his 18-year-old daughter became addicted to opioids: “I now think the whole drug war is total bullshit,” Simmers said. This

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Rare Flying Reptile with Mouthful of Fangs Trolled Jurassic Skies

A new species of Jurassic pterosaur had fearsome teeth.

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Why populism has taken off worldwide

When the Great Recession shook the economy in 2008, a wave of anti-establishment messages emerged that has led to a rising appeal of populist politics, according to three political scientists. Over the past decade, people from across the political spectrum have increasingly questioned how in touch elected officials are with the concerns of ordinary people and whether Wall Street influences them m

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Photo Gallery: Capturing the Everyday Horror of Dairy Farming in Germany

Photographer Nikita Teryoshin visited factory farms, insemination stations, and more for his series 'Hornless Heritage.'

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Roku Channel Streams Shows to Your Phone, No Box Required

The Roku Channel will be available to stream from within the Roku app, and will add paid subscription options like Showtime.

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New findings on genes that drive male-female brain differences, timing of puberty

Columbia University researchers have discovered a group of genes in roundworms that control the onset of puberty and induce sex differences in neural structures that raise new questions of whether differences in male and female behavior are hardwired in our brains.

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Surrey AI predicts cancer patients' symptoms

Doctors could get a head start treating cancer thanks to new AI developed at the University of Surrey that is able to predict symptoms and their severity throughout the course of a patient's treatment.

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Lipo-protein apheresis and PCSK9-inhibitors

This review aims to present the role of lipoprotein apheresis in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia and discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages of its combination with PCSK9 inhibitors.It is quite clear that further investigation on possible direct and/or indirect pleiotropic effects of PCSK9-I on inflammatory molecules is necessary and to be expected. Evidence on both arg

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Familial hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents: diagnosis and treatment

Familial hypercholesterolemia is a hereditary genetic disorder predisposing in premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications.The main gap of evidence remains the lack of longitudinal follow up studies investigating cardiovascular outcomes, side effects, and effectiveness of treatment starting from childhood. Evidence would be expected in the near future by cohort and registry studies.

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The role of PCSK9 in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Data indicates that high intrahepatic or circulating PCSK9 levels increase muscle and liver lipid storage, adipose energy storage and hepatic fatty acids, as well as triglycerides storage and secretion, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The findings of animal and human studies, aiming to reduce PCSK9 with inhibitors point towards liver protection from NAFLD through inhibition of PCSK

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Is very low LDL-C harmful?

Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major Cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Accumulating evidence supports a linear association between LDL-C levels and CV risk. However, the lower limit of LDL-C that might offer CV benefits without any safety concerns is still a topic of debate.Achieving an LDL-C of 40-50 mg/dl seems to be safe, and importantly might offer CV beneficial effects. Data

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Exploration of umbelliferone based derivatives as potent MAO inhibitors

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are potential drug candidates within therapeutics of different neuropsychological and neurodegenerative disorders including anxiety, depression and Parkinson's disease. Our findings revealed a good correlation between experimental MAO inhibition and docking score by computational studies. Notably, the compounds with remarkable MAO inhibitory potential were also observe

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Role of PCSK9 inhibitors in high risk patients with dyslipidemia

The purpose of this review is to present available data on the efficacy and safety of the two available PCSK9 inhibitors in patients with FH, and importantly to discuss potential differences between the two drugs.A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify available data from clinical studies evaluating the impact of evolocumab or alirocumab on lipid and CV parameters in patients w

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Clinical Trials Have the Best Medicine but Do Not Enroll the Patients Who Need It

Most cancer patients never get into lifesaving drug trials because of barriers at community hospitals — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Innovative magnets for new energy-recovery accelerator

When it comes to particle accelerators, magnets are one key to success. Powerful magnetic fields keep particle beams "on track" as they're ramped up to higher energy, crashed into collisions for physics experiments, or delivered to patients to zap tumors. Innovative magnets have the potential to improve all these applications.

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Climate Change Is Bad For Peru's Pastures … But There's A 1,200-Year-Old Fix

Climate change has shrunk the wetlands in the Andes where livestock graze. Could reviving ancient water systems bring back the grass? (Image credit: Carlos Díaz Huerta (Tres Mitades)/UNDP)

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How we built a tool that detects the strength of Islamophobic hate speech on Twitter

In a landmark move, a group of MPs recently published a working definition of the term Islamophobia. They defined it as "rooted in racism", and as "a type of racism that targets expressions of Muslimness or perceived Muslimness".

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A boundary dance of amyloid-β stepping into dementia

Alzheimer's disease is caused by aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. This aggregation is accelerated at the cell membrane surface. Using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR experiments, the research group at ExCELLS has revealed the reason for this phenomenon. The findings were published in the Journal of Physical Chemistry B.

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Scientists produce 'designer triacylglycerols' in industrial microalgae

Molecules of triacylglycerol (TAG), formed by attaching three molecules of fatty acid (FA) to a glycerol backbone, are the main constituents of vegetable oil in plants and fats in animals and humans. TAG plays an important role in cellular metabolism as a universal storage form and currency of energy, since its energy density is much greater than carbohydrates or proteins.

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Brain scans better predict drug relapse

In a new study, brain scan data could correctly predict who would and would not relapse about three-quarters of the time—a significant improvement over past efforts. Predicting who will remain drug-free and who will relapse following treatment for drug addiction has been impossible. Now, psychologists think they’ve found a possible clue. For stimulants like cocaine and amphetamines, at least, act

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Powerful Icelandic Vikings were buried with stallions

Archaeologists in Iceland have for decades examined the remains of more than 350 graves from the Viking Age. In approximately 150 examples, teeth or bones of horses were found. Geneticists and archaeologists have now examined ancient DNA from 19 horses in such graves, and found that all the horses except one were male.

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Martian drill set for Antarctic climate mission

A drill originally developed to break through Martian rocks is set to be deployed to Antarctica on a mission which could help us understand the history of Earth's changing climate.

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Quantum chemistry on quantum computers

A new quantum algorithm has been implemented for quantum chemical calculations on quantum computers to predict complex chemical reactions without exponential/combinatorial explosion, giving exact solutions of Schroedinger Equations for chemistry, for the first time.

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A guide to hunting zombie stars

Apparently not all supernovas work. And when they fail, they leave behind a half-chewed remnant, still burning from leftover heat but otherwise lifeless: a zombie star. Astronomers aren't sure how many of these should-be-dead creatures lurk in the interstellar depths, but with recent simulations scientists are making a list of their telltale signatures so that future surveys can potentially track

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Russian researchers explore the prospects for creating photonic integrated circuits

The transition from electronic integrated circuits to faster, more energy-efficient and interference-free optical circuits is one of the most important goals in the development of photon technologies. Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are already used today for transmitting and processing signals in optical networks and communication systems, including, for example, I/O multiplexers of optical s

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Digital Earth: the paradigm now shaping our world's data cities

Today's smart cities rely on networks: squillions of semiconductor devices that constantly pulse electromagnetic waves (light and radio frequencies) through telecommunications satellites.

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Tropical fish breeding to improve as result of new collaboration

Pioneering new techniques will enable leading aquarium visitor attractions to breed their own tropical fish, following a new collaboration.

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Løsrevet lastbiltrailer ramte ulykkestoget på Storebælt

Skaderne på det havarerede IC4-tog på Storebæltsbroen blev især forårsaget af en lastbilstrailer, der rev sig løs, oplyser havariundersøger.

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It’s the Most Inadequate Time of the Year

You might have recently noticed Queen Latifah, Ted Danson, and a Jonas brother in a series of TV commercials, encouraging you to take care of yourself with Cigna health insurance in 2019. They’re part of a sweeping campaign that also includes a website and sponsored Twitter trending topic, and that gives the impression Cigna has invested a lot of money in associating itself with the neuroses that

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Is it ethical to engineer HIV-proof babies?

There’s been a lot of controversy after news broke that Chinese researcher He Jiankui allegedly used CRISPR to genetically engineer twin girls. That said, fears of a science-fiction world filled with “designer babies” aren’t likely to become reality, medical ethicist Jonathan Moreno argues. CRISPR is science’s most efficient methodology to modify chromosomes to express different properties throug

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Is eating cheese as bad for animals and the planet as eating meat?

Bravo for having given up eating meat! But in the ninth of our 12 Days of Culture, might we suggest giving up cheese and going back to chicken – for ethical reasons?

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Second scientific balloon launches from Antarctica

Washington University in St. Louis announced that its X-Calibur instrument, a telescope that measures the polarization of X-rays arriving from distant neutron stars, black holes and other exotic celestial bodies, launched today from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

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NASA's technosignatures report: every way to find evidence of an intelligent civilization

In 1961, famed astronomer Frank Drake created a formula for estimating the number of extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) that could exist within our galaxy. Known as the "Drake Equation," this formula demonstrated that even by the most conservative estimates, our galaxy was likely to host at least a few advanced civilizations at any given time. About a decade later, NASA officially kicked of its

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Quantum chemistry on quantum computers

Quantum computing and quantum information processing technology have attracted attention in recently emerging fields. Among many important and fundamental issues in science, solving the Schroedinger equation (SE) of atoms and molecules is one of the ultimate goals in chemistry, physics and their related fields. SE is the first principle of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, whose solutions, terme

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Image of the Day: Light Salve

Researchers used infrared light to relieve itchy mice.

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Kango, HopSkipDrive Try to Make Ride-Hail Work for Kids

The outfits vying to be the "Uber for kids" must build viable businesses that assuage all sorts of concerns about kids in cars.

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Diversity in the Lab Makes Me a Better Scientist

It exposes my research to a wealth of different perspectives — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Regulating Fringe Practitioners

Fringe professions like chiropractic and naturopaths are not adequately regulated. This needs to be fixed.

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Early protostar already has a warped disk

Using observations from the ALMA radio observatory in Chile, researchers have observed, for the first time, a warped disk around an infant protostar that formed just several tens of thousands of years ago. This implies that the misalignment of planetary orbits in many planetary systems—including our own—may be caused by distortions in the planet-forming disk early in their existence.

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Why archaeology is so much more than just digging

It's our experience that most people think archaeology mainly means digging in the dirt.

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A new, escape-proof fish cage for a lice-free salmon farm

In October this year, the first salmon were farmed in a new fish production prototype in Trøndelag, Norway. With a rigid steel construction and a water current generator, the new Aquatraz fish cage both prevents fish escape and keeps the fish in shape, while researchers from the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) are monitoring the sea lice and water quality in the cage.

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From volcanoes on Mars to scarps on Mercury – how places on other worlds get their names

The New Horizons spacecraft, which flew past Pluto in 2015, successfully completed a flyby of "Ultima Thule", an object in the Kuiper belt of bodies beyond Neptune on January 1, 2019. The name Ultima Thule, signifying a distant unknown place, is fitting but it is currently just a nickname pending formal naming. The official names of the body and of the features on its surface will eventually be al

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The periodic table is 150 – but it could have looked very different

The periodic table stares down from the walls of just about every chemistry lab. The credit for its creation generally goes to Dimitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist who in 1869 wrote out the known elements (of which there were 63 at the time) on cards and then arranged them in columns and rows according to their chemical and physical properties. To celebrate the 150th anniversary of this pivotal mo

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China's war on particulate air pollution is causing more severe ozone pollution

In early 2013, the Chinese government declared a war on air pollution and began instituting stringent policies to regulate the emissions of fine particulate matter, a pollutant known as PM 2.5. Cities restricted the number of cars on the road, coal-fired power plants reduced emissions or were shuttered and replaced with natural gas. Over the course of five years, PM 2.5 concentrations in eastern C

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Imaging nerve-cell interactions

A new imaging technique developed by LMU researchers is garnering lots of attention. Based on a method for making tissues, organs and even whole organisms transparent, it promises to transform studies of the nervous system in particular.

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Microbe hunt beneath Antarctic ice sheet

Renowned Montana State University polar scientist John Priscu and a team of researchers from more than a dozen universities will begin the new year hunting for microbes and other living specimens in a lake far beneath the surface of the Antarctic ice sheet.

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Ultrathin digital camera inspired by Xenos peckii eyes

The visual system of Xenos peckii, an endoparasite of paper wasps, demonstrates distinct benefits for high sensitivity and high resolution, differing from the compound eyes of most insects. Inspired by their unique features, a KAIST team developed an ultrathin digital camera that emulates the unique eyes of Xenos peckii.

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China Moon mission lands Chang'e-4 spacecraft on far sideChina Chang e 4 Moon

The robotic space mission is the first landing on the side of the Moon that never faces Earth.

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Forget sharks… here's why you are more likely to be injured by litter at the beach

Our beaches are our summer playgrounds, yet beach litter and marine debris injures one-fifth of beach users, particularly children and older people.

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Asian mussel confirmed on British beaches

An Asian mussel named after a British naval officer has found its way to Britain and is making itself at home on southern beaches, according to new research.

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Machine learning speeds up atomistic simulations of water and ice

Why is water densest at around 4 degrees Celsius? Why does ice float? Why does heavy water have a different melting point compared to normal water? Why do snowflakes have a six-fold symmetry? A collaborative study of researchers from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, the University of Göttingen and the University of Vienna and just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy o

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Singapore 'smoking ban' sounds radical, but it's an odd way to reduce air pollution

On January 1 2019, Singapore will introduce a "no smoking zone" along a three kilometre stretch of Orchard Road – one of the city's busiest shopping districts. It sounds controversial – restricting people's right to smoke in public spaces, as a way of tackling air pollution and improving public health. But smoking is not actually banned down the length of Orchard Road: instead, smokers will be con

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In the opioid crisis, here's what it takes to save a life | Jan Rader

As a fire chief and first responder, Jan Rader has spent her career saving lives. But when the opioid epidemic hit her town, she realized they needed to take a brand-new approach to life-saving. In this powerful, hopeful talk, Rader shows what it's like on the front lines of this crisis — and how her community is taking an unusual new approach to treating substance-abuse disorder that starts with

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Imagine Giving Birth in Space

The moment has arrived at last. A woman in a hospital gown steels herself, ready to push. A nearby monitor displays her baby’s heart rate in big, neon numbers. A nurse in crisp scrubs coos in her ear, offering words of encouragement, advice. The scene would resemble any other delivery room if it weren’t for the view outside the window: the soft curvature of the blue Earth against the blackness of

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Bakterier skal producere bæredygtige fluorstoffer uden giftig kemi

PLUS. Fluorstoffer til f.eks. slip let-belægninger og medicin kan produceres af modificerede bakterier, så man undgår den miljøbelastende kemiske fremstilling.

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The Year the Alt-Right Went Underground

In 2018, American outrage forced white nationalists out of public spaces. Now, the movement's gone quiet—and that makes it even more dangerous.

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What a Tiny Electron Reveals About the Structure of the Universe

What shape is an electron? The answer, believe it or not, has implications for our understanding of the entire universe, and could reveal whether there are mysterious particles still to be discovered.

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Scientists Find the 'Missing' Dark Matter from the Early Universe

Past studies suggested there was less dark matter earlier on in the universe’s history.

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Sunken 17th-Century 'Pirate Ship' Discovered, Alongside Gunpowder-Packed Grenades

The ship, holding military stores, sank in a storm near Dollar Cove in April of 1684.

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In Photos: Pirate Ship Discovered in the UK

The ship sank in a storm in 1684 off Dollar Cove in the Gunwalloe district of Cornwall's Lizard Peninsula.

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A scientific guide to the resolutions that are really worth the effort

Being a better you needn't be as hard as you think. From more sleep, to snacking smarter and ditching the gym – we put 10 New Year's resolutions to the test

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Black-haired monkeys in Costa Rica are suddenly turning blonde

The howler monkeys of Costa Rica normally have black coats, but over the last 20 years some have turned yellow – a change too fast to be explained by evolution

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Poop provides a link in determining penguin diet from space

Scientists have figured out what foods dominate an Adélie penguin colony’s diet by looking at Landsat imagery. But to do so, they had to start with penguin guano.

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One Species Loves Our Climate-Wrecking Ways: Fire Ants!

These stinging insects love natural disasters, human landscaping, and the warming conditions brought by climate change. At least someone's happy.

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How Trump's Wall Would Alter Our Biological Identity Forever

It would destroy an extraordinary web of biodiversity that evolved over millions of years — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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In 2019, blockchains will start to become boring

After the Great Crypto Bull Run of 2017 and the monumental crash of 2018, blockchain technology won’t make as much noise in 2019. But it will become more useful.

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Distant space rock Ultima Thule looks like a spinning bowling pinNew Horizons Ultima Thule

NASA’s New Horizons probe has sent back the first blurry pictures of the most distant object we’ve ever visited

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Trump Escalates His Assault on Civil-Military Relations

We’ve gotten used to so much in Donald Trump’s two years in office, from the cruelty of his immigration policies to his childlike understanding of international trade, and from his apparent fear of Vladimir Putin to his whipsawing of the financial markets. Too many Americans have simply become accustomed to the president’s antics as a normal part of the background noise of their lives. Sometimes

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What the Press Won’t Tell You About Elizabeth Warren’s Presidency

Read enough news reports about Elizabeth Warren’s declaration that she is running for president, and you notice certain common features. In its story on her announcement, The New York Times noted that Warren has “become a favorite target of conservatives” and that, in a recent national poll, “only about 30 percent [of respondents] viewed her favorably, with 37 percent holding an unfavorable view.

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The Path to Give California 12 Senators, and Vermont Just One

In 1995, Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan declared , “Sometime in the next century the United States is going to have to address the question of apportionment in the Senate.” Perhaps that time has come. Today the voting power of a citizen in Wyoming, the smallest state in terms of population, is about 67 times that of a citizen in the largest state of California, and the disparities among the stat

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Uncovering the Roots of Caribbean Cooking

It has been said that enslaved Africans wore necklaces of seeds for good luck, seeds from the ackee plant, when they were forced onto ships’ hulls bound for the New World. Ackee, which is now known as the national fruit of Jamaica, is not indigenous to the land, but is native to western Africa. It made its debut in Jamaica in the late 18th century during a peak period of the British slave trade,

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Evangelical Mega-donors Are Rethinking Money in Politics

If the 2016 election was a reminder that white evangelical voters can determine who wins the White House, the past few years have also been a testament to the influence of Christian cash. Betsy DeVos, a juggernaut funder of religious and Republican causes in Michigan, is the U.S. secretary of education. Foster Friess, a conservative mega-donor in Wyoming, was an early backer of Donald Trump. And

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This scientist watches meat rot to decipher the Neandertal diet

This scientist is studying how meat changes as it rots to figure out what Neandertals might have eaten.

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3 proofs that debunk flat-Earth theory

Hey flat Earthers, it's time to put your theory to bed once and for all! "There are so many proofs that the Earth is round, it's difficult to know where to start. And it's not okay to think that the Earth is flat; this is not a viable argument," says NASA astronomer Michelle Thaller. Thaller explains three observable proofs that instantly debunk flat-Earth theory with irrefutable evidence of the

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Why Millions Of Kids Can't Read, And What Better Teaching Can Do About It

The instruction many students get is not based on the overwhelming scientific evidence about how kids turn spoken sounds into letters and words on a page. (Image credit: Emily Hanford/APM Reports)

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Jay Inslee Is Betting He Can Win the Presidency on Climate Change

OLYMPIA, Wash.—What if a meteor were hurtling toward the Earth, about to kill millions and reshape life on the planet as we know it? And what if the president, instead of doing anything to help, made it worse in just about every way, and called it a hoax (and any solutions a scam) instead of the very real, very clear disaster taking shape? And what if all the Democrats running to beat him in the

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How to Lose Tens of Thousands of Dollars on Amazon

I t was only after they’d sunk $40,000 and nine months of precious nights and weekends that Jordan McDowell and William Bjork realized how hard it is to make a passive income selling things on Amazon. The couple had hoped to strike it rich—or at least quit their day jobs—buying goods from China and reselling them on the e-commerce site. Instead, they lost their savings. For that, they blame Matt

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Midt i krisesituation på Storebæltsbroen: Politiets hjemmeside ramt af nedbrud

»Vi beklager. Politi.dk er i øjeblikket ikke tilgængelig,« lyder meldingen, når man forsøger at komme ind på politiets hjemmeside.

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Massive space rock smash-up with Uranus recreated in a riot of colour

Uranus was probably tilted on its side by a giant impact when it was young, and a detailed new simulation of this process is a riot of swirling colours

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Star Wars og Beatles: Se plakaterne fra Nasas missioner

Ifølge mediet boredpanda.com blev Nasas astronauter med tiden trætte af at stille op til almindelige gruppebilleder i forbindelse med de mange missioner til ISS, og så gik der sport i den. Nu stiller de op som både Star Wars, Beatles og Pirates of the Caribbean på de plakater, man kan downloade hos Nasa.

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Sund donorafføring kan blive fremtidens medicin

Flere steder i Danmark bruges donorafføring nu til behandling af enkelte lidelser.

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T-rrific: rare dinosaur fossils crown major Smithsonian makeover

‘The Nation’s T rex’ will stand upright for the first time in 66m years alongside 720 specimens as part of a five-year overhaul “He’s decapitating a Triceratops,” Siobhan Starrs observes casually. “You want drama with the T rex. We’ll give it to you.” The gory scene, worthy of Jurassic Park, is frozen in time in the 31,000sq-ft fossil hall at the popular Smithsonian National Museum of Natural His

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Juno mission captures images of volcanic plumes on Jupiter's moon Io

A team of space scientists has captured new images of a volcanic plume on Jupiter's moon Io during the Juno mission's 17th flyby of the gas giant. On Dec. 21, during winter solstice, four of Juno's cameras captured images of the Jovian moon Io, the most volcanic body in our solar system. JunoCam, the Stellar Reference Unit (SRU), the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) and the Ultraviolet Imagi

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Meltdown og Spectre nedsmeltede gamle ideer om it-sikkerhed i 2018

Gode intentioner om at udføre programmer hurtigere ved at gemme værdier lokalt, omordne instruktioner og gætte på udfald af forgreninger ligger bag nuværende og fremtidige sikkerhedsproblemer i CPU'er.

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Seks dræbt og 16 tilskadekomne efter togulykke på Storebæltsbroen

Et sammenstød mellem et lyntog og dele af lastbilstrailere på godsvogne på Storebæltsbroen betyder, at mindst seks personer er omkomnmet, og andre er i behandling.

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Undersøgelse: Cyklister er ligeglade med malede cykelbaner

Cyklister foretrækker ruter med de rigtige cykelfaciliteter – og i den sammenhæng tæller det ikke meget, om stien er malet blå. Forskere fra DTU forsøger nu at regne cyklisternes præferencer med i kommende transportmodeller.

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Global tech show to celebrate innovation amid mounting concerns

Amid trade wars, geopolitical tensions and a decline in public trust, the technology sector is seeking to put its problems aside with the Consumer Electronics Show, the annual extravaganza showcasing futuristic innovations.

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Disasters rock Indonesia's '10 New Balis' tourism push

Picture-postcard Tanjung Lesung was a cornerstone of Indonesia's bid to supercharge its tourism industry, boasting palm-fringed beaches, a towering volcano in the middle of turquoise waters and a rainforest sanctuary for endangered Javan rhinos.

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Baby chicks could be given faecal transplants to ward off infections

Farmed chickens often carry diseases like Campylobacter, which can cause food poisoning, but faecal transplants dramatically slow the spread of the bacteria

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Mysteriet om godstogene på Billundbanen

Transportministeriet undrer sig. Trafikstyrelsen undrer sig. Hvorfor vurderede Banedanmark, stik imod Folketingets beslutning, at der skal køre godstog til lufthavnen i Billund?

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A new 'atlas' of genetic influences on osteoporosis

A ground-breaking new study has succeeded in compiling an atlas of genetic factors associated with estimated bone mineral density (BMD), one of the most clinically relevant factors in diagnosing osteoporosis. The paper identifies 518 genome-wide loci, of which 301 are newly discovered, that explain 20 percent of the genetic variance associated with osteoporosis.

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Engineers create delicate sensor to monitor heart cells with minimal disruption

For the first time, engineers have demonstrated an electronic device to closely monitor beating heart cells without affecting their behavior. A collaboration between the University of Tokyo, Tokyo Women's Medical University and RIKEN in Japan produced a functional sample of heart cells with a soft nanomesh sensor in direct contact with the tissue. This device could aid study of other cells, organs

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Online mirrors: Video bloggers and viewers share emotions

Examining over 2,000 video blogs, or vlogs on YouTube, researchers found we mirror the emotions of those we see online and seek out people who share our emotions.

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Tumors backfire on chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is an effective treatment for breast cancer, yet some patients develop metastasis in spite of it. Researchers have now discovered that chemotherapy-treated mammary tumors produce small vesicles that may help them spread to other organs.

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Wireless 'pacemaker for the brain' could offer new treatment for neurological disorders

A new neurostimulator can listen to and stimulate electric current in the brain at the same time, potentially delivering fine-tuned treatments to patients with diseases like epilepsy and Parkinson's.

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Physicists record 'lifetime' of graphene qubits

Researchers have recorded, for the first time, quantum coherence of a graphene-based superconducting qubit, meaning how long it stays in superposition to compute with two logical states simultaneously. The work is a key step forward for practical quantum computing.

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Metamaterial with inherently robust sound transport

Researchers have developed a metamaterial that can transport sound in unusually robust ways along its edges and localize it at its corners.

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Thriving on teamwork: New research shows how brain cells filter information in groups

For decades, scientists studying the visual system thought that individual brain cells, called neurons, operate as filters. Some neurons would prefer coarse details of the visual scene and ignore fine details, while others would do the opposite. Every neuron was thought to do its own filtering. A new study reveals that the same neurons that prefer coarse details could change to prefer finer detail

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'Time is ripe' to use big data for planet-sized plant questions

Scientists have issued a 'call to action' to use big data to tackle longstanding questions about plant diversity and evolution and forecast how plant life will fare on an increasingly human-dominated planet.

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Early protostar already has a warped disk

Using observations from the ALMA radio observatory in Chile, researchers have observed, for the first time, a warped disk around an infant protostar that formed just several tens of thousands of years ago. This implies that the misalignment of planetary orbits in many planetary systems — including our own — may be caused by distortions in the planet-forming disk early in their existence.

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Unmuting large silent genes lets bacteria produce new molecules, potential drug candidates

By enticing away the repressors dampening unexpressed, silent genes in Streptomyces bacteria, researchers at the have unlocked several large gene clusters for new natural products. Since many antibiotics, anti-cancer agents and other drugs have been derived from genes readily expressed in Streptomyces, the researchers hope that unsilencing genes that have not previously been expressed in the lab w

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Smelling in tiny houses: How ciliary electric currents keep olfaction reliable

Scientists have used a combination of mathematical modeling, electrophysiology, and computer simulations to explain how cells communicate effectively in highly constricted spaces such as the olfactory cilia, where odor detection takes place. The findings will inform future studies of cellular signaling and communication in the olfactory system and also in other confined spaces of the nervous syste

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Increased risk of harm from cannabis across Europe

A significant new study shows that cannabis potency has doubled across Europe in the past 11 years.

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