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nyheder2019januar18

The Lancet Neurology: Frailty could make people more susceptible to dementia

New research published in The Lancet Neurology journal suggests that frailty makes older adults more susceptible to Alzheimer's dementia, and moderates the effects of dementia-related brain changes on dementia symptoms. The findings suggest that frailty should be considered in clinical care and management of Alzheimer's dementia.

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A new hope in treating neurodegenerative disease

Korean researchers have identified the inhibition of autophagy in microglia, brain immune cells. It is expected to help develop treatments for Alzheimer's diseases which occur due to the inhibition of autophagy.

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Scientists connect dots between colitis and colon cancer

Lingering inflammation in the colon is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer and now scientists report one way it resets the stage to enable this common and often deadly cancer.

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More Than 250,000 People May Die Each Year Due to Climate Change

In the coming decades, more than a quarter-million people may die each year as a result of climate change, according to a new review study.

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Radio Atlantic: Is the President a Russian Asset?

Subscribe to Radio Atlantic : Apple Podcasts | Spotify | Stitcher | Google Play On this week’s show, Alex Wagner chats with the Atlantic staff writer Franklin Foer about the startling news of an FBI investigation that asked if President Donald Trump was secretly working on behalf of Russia. Frank and Alex debate how exactly to explain President Trump’s relationship with Vladimir Putin: handler an

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Please don’t pay $8,000 for an infusion of young blood

Health There are so many better ways to spend your money. Ambrosia, a startup founded in 2017 by Jesse Karmazin (who went to medical school, but isn’t licensed to practice medicine), promotes its treatments based on the idea…

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Heads-Up For Sunday, A Super 'Blood Moon' Is On The Way

Not only will the moon be particularly close to Earth, but it will also be bathed in a reddish light just before midnight Eastern time. (Image credit: Patrik Stollarz/AFP/Getty Images)

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F.D.A. Panel Splits on Whether to Approve New Diabetes Drug

The advisory committee voted 8-8 on approving the drug, to be called Zynquista, which would be the first oral medication for people with Type 1 diabetes.

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What Happened to Earth’s Ancient Craters? Scientists Seek Clues on the Moon’s Pocked Surface

The pace of space rocks pummeling Earth and the moon was relatively infrequent, but then doubled or tripled for unknown reasons, a new study finds.

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The Atlantic Politics & Policy Daily: No-Fly Zone

What We’re Following Today It’s Thursday, January 17 . The partial government shutdown is now in its 27th day. ‘Zero-Tolerance’ Policy: Donald Trump’s administration likely separated thousands more children from their parents than previously thought since the practice of family separations first spiked in 2017, a new inspector general report finds. While administration officials had once denied t

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Is It Time for a Google Fitness Watch?

Fitness is what’s driving smartwatches.

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New findings on eye-signal blending

Knowing precisely where the signals meet and the brain processes them is vital to treating amblyopia, or reduced vision in one eye because the brain and eye aren't working together properly.

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New scale for electronegativity rewrites the chemistry textbook

Electronegativity is one of the most well-known models for explaining why chemical reactions occur. Now scientists have redefined the concept with a new, more comprehensive scale.

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Danske forskere kortlægger hidtil ukendt sygdom hos børn

Forskere fra Aarhus Universitet har kortlagt en alvorlig nyopdaget sygdom, der giver børn epileptiske anfald, magnesiumtab i urinen og nedsat intelligens. Det giver fremadrettet nye muligheder for diagnosticering, mener forsker.

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Alk vil søge godkendelse af tabletvaccine til børn

Studie af tabletvaccine mod høfeber hos børn reducerer symptomer og brug af medicin.

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New test to detect disease and infection

Researchers have developed a highly innovative new enzyme biomarker test that has the potential to indicate diseases and bacterial contamination saving time, money and possibly lives.

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This computer program makes pharma patents airtight

Routes to making life-saving medications and other pharmaceutical compounds are among the most carefully protected trade secrets in global industry. Building on recent work programming computers to identify synthetic pathways leading to pharmaceutically complex molecules, researchers have unveiled computerized methods to suggest only synthetic strategies that bypass patent-protected aspects of ess

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Why Does a Lunar Eclipse Get Called a Blood Moon?

It means that people (*cough astrologers not astronomers*) are giving names to phenomena that don’t really need cute labels.

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Scientists search for new methods to cure neurodegenerative diseases

Most neurons in the human brain are generated from neural stem cells during embryonic development. After birth, a small reservoir of stem cells remains in the brain that keeps on producing new neurons throughout life. However, the question arises as to whether these new neurons really support brain function? And if so, can we improve brain capacity by increasing the number of neurons? A research g

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Blister fluid could help diagnose burn severity

Severe burns can leave physical and psychological scars, especially in children. When a burn patient enters the clinic, doctors use factors such as the depth and size of the burn, as well as the time required for skin healing — or re-epithelialization — to determine the best course of treatment. Now, researchers have found another, possibly more accurate way to classify burn severity: analyzing

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The cytoskeleton of neurons has been found to be involved in Alzheimer's disease

A researcher has participated in a study describing what it is during the early stages of Alzheimer's that triggers the loss of dynamics and subsequent impairment of the dendritic spines, the compartments of the neurons responsible for receiving nerve impulses from other neurons. The role played by the actin cytoskeleton of these compartments and how it responds in the presence of beta-amyloid pep

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'Dragon Ball Super: Broly' and the Franchise's Surprising Longevity

More than 30 years after the original manga began, the anime series and feature films are more popular than ever.

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Bioethicists call for oversight of consumer 'neurotechnologies' with unproven benefits

The marketing of consumer 'neurotechnologies' can be enticing: apps that diagnose a mental state, and brain devices that improve cognition or 'read' one's emotional state. However, many of these increasingly popular products aren't fully supported by science and have little to no regulatory oversight, which poses potential health risks to the public. Two bioethicists suggest the creation of a work

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Communication in Brain May Be Remarkably Constant in Autism

Two studies find that connectivity patterns remain stable over time in people with ASD, while in typical subjects they change.

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Playing The Gender Card: Overlooking And Overthrowing Sexist Stereotypes

This week on the Hidden Brain radio show, we tell the stories of two people who defy gender stereotypes in their jobs. (Image credit: Mitch Blunt/Getty Images/Ikon Images)

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Unraveling of 58-year-old corn gene mystery may have plant-breeding implications

In discovering a mutant gene that 'turns on' another gene responsible for the red pigments sometimes seen in corn, researchers solved an almost six-decades-old mystery with a finding that may have implications for plant breeding in the future.

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How our cellular antennas are formed

Most of our cells contain an immobile primary cilium. The 'skeleton' of the cilium consists of microtubule doublets, which are 'pairs' of proteins essential for their formation and function. Scientists have developed an in vitro system capable of forming microtubule doublets, and have uncovered the mechanism and dynamics of their assembly. Their study reveals the crucial role of tubulin, a real bu

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Scientists find increase in asteroid impacts on ancient Earth by studying the Moon

A team of scientists has determined the number of asteroid impacts on the Moon and Earth increased by two to three times starting around 290 million years ago. Previous theories held that there were fewer craters on both objects dating back to before that time because they had disappeared due to erosion. The new findings claim that there were simply fewer asteroid impacts during that earlier perio

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Lack of fair access to urban green spaces

People with higher incomes and more education tend to have greater access to urban green spaces than their less privileged neighbors, a new study of parks and greenery in 10 major North American cities has found.

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Complex molecules emerge without evolution or design

In biology, folded proteins are responsible for most advanced functions. These complex proteins are the result of evolution or design by scientists. Now scientists have discovered a new class of complex folding molecules that emerge spontaneously from simple building blocks.

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Additive manufacturing reflects fundamental metallurgical principles to create materials

Engineers have been taking a novel approach to the development of engineering components produced using additive manufacturing.

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Local focus could help tackle global problems

People's love for their local areas could be harnessed to tackle global environmental problems, researchers say.

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Epigenetics contribute to male and female differences in fear memory

In a mouse model of traumatic memory, male mice recall fear-related memories better than female mice, according to a new study.

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Cultivating 4D tissues: The self-curving cornea

Scientists have developed a biological system which lets cells form a desired shape by molding their surrounding material — in the first instance creating a self-curving cornea. The astonishing video shows the cornea molding itself into a bowl-like structure over the course of 5 days.

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A Vengeful Start to the Trump-Pelosi Rivalry

She disinvited him from delivering the State of the Union during a government shutdown. He grounded her plane, abruptly canceling her taxpayer-funded trip to a foreign war zone. Two weeks in, the relationship between the new House speaker, Nancy Pelosi, and President Donald Trump is off to a smashing start. Forget a swift resolution to the record-breaking shutdown : As hundreds of thousands of fe

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Automated text messages improve outcomes after joint replacement surgery

An automated text messaging system increases patient engagement with home-based exercise and promotes faster recovery after total knee or hip replacement surgery, reports a study in the Jan. 16, 2019, issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio in partnership with Wolters Kluwer.

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Bee surveys in newest US national park could aid pollinator studies elsewhere

Declines in native bee populations are widely reported, but can existing data really analyze these trends? Utah State University and USDA entomologists Meiners, Griswold and Messinger Carril report findings about pollinator biodiversity in California's Pinnacle National Park derived from three separate surveys spanning 17 years and say similar studies in other areas are needed.

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2017 Women's March solidarity events drew 100 times national protest average, study shows

Based on a survey of sister marches across the United States, key characteristics of the events were massive turnout, majority female leadership, low rate of counterdemonstrators, substantial grassroots mobilization and strong support from faith-based groups.

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Discovery of enhanced bone growth could lead to new treatments for osteoporosis

UCLA and UC San Francisco biologists have discovered a dramatic pattern of bone growth in female mice — research that could potentially lead to stronger bone density in women and new treatments for osteoporosis in older women. The researchers found that blocking a set of signals from a small number of neurons in the brain causes female mice to build super-strong bones and maintain them into old a

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Salad, soda and socioeconomic status: Mapping a social determinant of health in Seattle

Seattle residents who live in waterfront neighborhoods tend to have healthier diets compared to those who live along Interstate-5 and Aurora Avenue, according to new research on social disparities from the University of Washington School of Public Health. The study used local data to model food consumption patterns by city block. Weekly servings of salad and soda served as proxies for diet quality

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New combination blood test for pancreatic cancer may catch disease earlier

A new approach to pancreatic cancer screening may help doctors detect the disease in people at high risk before it reaches more advanced and difficult-to treat stages.A team led by Van Andel Research Institute (VARI) scientists has developed a new, simple blood test that, when combined with an existing test, detects nearly 70 percent of pancreatic cancers with a less than 5 percent false-positive

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Observations of nearby supernova and associated jet cocoon provide new insights on gamma-ray bursts

An international team of researchers including Chryssa Kouveliotou, a professor of physics at the George Washington University, discovered the missing link connecting hypernovae to GRBs in the form of a hot cocoon around the jets of matter expelled by the central engine as these spread through the outer layers of the progenitor star.

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Ultraviolet disinfection 97.7 percent effective in eliminating pathogens in hospital settings

Using ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections eliminated up to 97.7 percent.

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Orchards in natural habitats draw bee diversity, improve apple production

Apple orchards surrounded by agricultural lands are visited by a less diverse collection of bee species than orchards surrounded by natural habitats.

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Telling stories using rhythmic gesture helps children improve their oral skills

For the first time it has been shown that a brief training session with rhythmic gestures has immediate benefits for narrative discourse in children of 5 and 6 years of age.

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Can a critic-turned-believer sway others? The case of genetically modified foods

When an advocate for one side of an issue announces that he or she now believes the opposite, can that message affect others' views? Research shows that such a conversion message can influence public attitudes. Using video of environmentalist Mark Lynas speaking about his change from an opponent of genetically modified crops to an advocate, researchers found that message had a greater impact than

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How to rapidly image entire brains at nanoscale resolution

A powerful new technique combines expansion microscopy with lattice light-sheet microscopy for nanoscale imaging of fly and mouse neuronal circuits and their molecular constituents that's roughly 1,000 times faster than other methods.

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Teenage Diver Finds Tons Of Golf Balls Rotting Off California

Alex Weber discovered more than 50,000 balls in the ocean near coastal California golf courses. When golf balls degrade, as these were doing, they release plastic particles and toxic chemicals.

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Not All Insomnia Is The Same — In Fact, There May Be 5 Types

There's a new way of looking at insomnia.

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Scientists create a renewable source of cancer-fighting T cells

A study by UCLA researchers is the first to demonstrate a technique for coaxing pluripotent stem cells — which can give rise to every cell type in the body and which can be grown indefinitely in the lab — into becoming mature T cells capable of killing tumor cells.

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Not One, Not Two, But Three Fungi Present in Lichen

Scientists discover a third fungus that is widespread in lichens, but it's not clear yet whether it's a partner in the algal-fungal symbiosis or a bystander.

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Total lunar eclipse meets supermoon Sunday night

Here comes a total lunar eclipse and supermoon, all wrapped into one.

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RoboFossil Reveals Locomotion of Beast from Deep Time

Modeling shows the 290-million-year-old Orobates had an advanced way of walking—revising an enduring view of how tetrapods colonized dry land — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Trump Unveils Ambitious Missile Defense Plans

The strategy, reminiscent of the Cold War-era Star Wars program, calls for new sensors in space, updated missile interceptors and advanced weapons, including lasers. (Image credit: Mark Wright/Missile Defense Agency)

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A life-saving device that detects silent heart attacks | Akash Manoj

You probably know the common symptoms of a heart attack: chest and arm pain, shortness of breath and fatigue. But there's another kind that's just as deadly and harder to detect because the symptoms are silent. In this quick talk, 17-year-old inventor Akash Manoj shares the device he's developed to stop this silent killer: a noninvasive, inexpensive, wearable patch that alerts patients during a cr

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One-quarter of antibiotic prescriptions aren’t necessary

Health And that's a conservative estimate. It’s easy to think of antibiotics as a default first step in treating whatever ambiguous cold-like illness you have this winter. But in recent years, as we’ve come to…

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Brain cells that make pain unpleasant

If you step on a tack, neurons in your brain will register two things: that there's a piercing physical sensation in your foot, and that it's not pleasant. Now, a team of scientists has identified a bundle of brain cells in mice responsible for the latter — that is, the negative emotions of pain.

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Saturn's spectacular rings are 'very young'

One of the most distinctive features in the Solar System is no more than 100 million years old.

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Amazon Ruined Online Shopping

Updated at 5:28 p.m. ET on January 17, 2019. There’s a Gatorade button attached to my basement fridge. If I push it, two days later a crate of the sports drink shows up at my door, thanks to Amazon. When these “Dash buttons” were first rumored in 2015, they seemed like a joke . Press a button to one-click detergent or energy bars? What even? , my colleague Adrienne LaFrance reasonably inquired. T

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Survey: Users keep doctors ignorant of medical marijuana

As more states legalize medical cannabis, more people will likely use it to supplement, or as a substitute for, prescription drugs, researchers say. A new study assesses attitudes and use of medical cannabis and the mainstream health care system—described as either a doctor or hospital—among marijuana users. “…the current public health framework focusing primarily on cannabis abstinence appears o

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Lionfish: Beautiful and Dangerous Invaders

Lionfish are known for their breathtaking beauty, venomous sting and relentless invasion of tropical waters far from their native habitat.

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Extreme Microbes Found in Crystals Buried 200 Feet Beneath the Sea of Japan

Living in extreme environments requires extreme solutions.

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Orca Calf Offers Hope for a Fading Group in the Pacific Northwest

The newborn killer whale, called L124, looks healthy. But its family is still in danger of extinction.

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Does Marijuana Use Cause Schizophrenia?

As the drug becomes more popular, concerns have been raised that its use can lead to psychotic disorders. Here’s what scientists know for sure, and what they don’t.

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The Massive Mystery of Saturn’s Rings

Saturn has confounded scientists since Galileo, who found that the planet was “ not alone ,” as he put it. “I do not know what to say in a case so surprising, so unlooked-for, and so novel,” he wrote . He didn’t realize it then, but he had seen the planet’s rings, a cosmic garland of icy material. From Earth, the rings look solid, but up close, they are translucent bands made of countless particl

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Orchards in natural habitats draw bee diversity, improve apple production

Apple orchards surrounded by agricultural lands are visited by a less diverse collection of bee species than orchards surrounded by natural habitats, according to a new Cornell University-led study, published in the journal Science.

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The Moment We First Saw Ultima Thule Up Close

What it was like to be with the science team as the New Horizons probe reported back from the most distant object ever visited by a spacecraft — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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How the Feds Failed to Track Thousands of Separated Children

Ad hoc systems and haphazard databases made the Trump administration’s cruel border separation policies somehow even worse.

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Can a critic-turned-believer sway others? The case of genetically modified foods

What happens when a strong advocate for one side of a controversial issue in science publicly announces that he or she now believes the opposite? Does the message affect the views of those who witness it—and if so, how?

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Orchards in natural habitats draw bee diversity, improve apple production

Apple orchards surrounded by agricultural lands are visited by a less diverse collection of bee species than orchards surrounded by natural habitats, according to a new Cornell University-led study, published in the journal Science.

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UCLA scientists create a renewable source of cancer-fighting T cells

A study by UCLA researchers is the first to demonstrate a technique for coaxing pluripotent stem cells — which can give rise to every cell type in the body and which can be grown indefinitely in the lab — into becoming mature T cells capable of killing tumor cells.

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Psychological distress is a risk factor for dementia

A new study suggests that vital exhaustion — which can be perceived as an indicator of psychological distress — is a risk factor for future risk of dementia.

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Saturn hasn't always had rings

In its last days, the Cassini spacecraft looped between Saturn and its rings so that Earth-based radio telescopes could track the gravitational tug of each. Scientists have now used these measurements to determine the mass of the rings and estimate its age, which is young: 10-100 million years. This supports the hypothesis that the rings are rubble from a comet or Kuiper Belt object captured late

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New findings reveal surprising role of the cerebellum in reward and social behaviors

A study in rodents found that the brain's cerebellum — known to play a role in motor coordination — also helps control the brain's reward circuitry. Researchers found a direct neural connection from the cerebellum to the ventral tegmental area (a brain area long known to be involved in reward processing and encoding). The findings shed light on the brain circuits critical to the affective and so

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Green groups question big industry's plastic clean-up plan

Environmental groups on Thursday poured cold water over a much-trumpeted initiative by some of the world's biggest petrochemical firms to help end plastic refuse.

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Philips to shut UK factory over 'geopolitical' concerns

Dutch multinational Philips announced Thursday the closure of a British factory making baby bottles, threatening 430 jobs, citing "ongoing geopolitical challenges", months after warning about the potential negative effects of Brexit.

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New thermoelectric material delivers record performance

Taking advantage of recent advances in using theoretical calculations to predict the properties of new materials, researchers reported Thursday the discovery of a new class of half-Heusler thermoelectric compounds, including one with a record high figure of merit—a metric used to determine how efficiently a thermoelectric material can convert heat to electricity.

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Want to age gracefully? A new study says live meaningfully

A new study finds that adults who feel their lives are meaningful have better health and life outcomes. Adults who felt their lives were worthwhile tended to be more social and had healthier habits. The findings could be used to help improve the health of older adults. The need for meaning seems to be intrinsic to human beings. The question of what meaning life has, if any, and how to live a life

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Understanding our early human ancestors: Australopithecus sediba

Following the 2008 discovery of Malapa in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa by Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, where two of the most complete skeletons of early human ancestors were found, a new hominin species, 'Australopithecus sediba (Au. sediba),' was named. 'PaleoAnthropology' has published a special issue with full descriptions of the hominin fossil mater

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Saturn is ancient, but its rings are only as old as the dinosaurs

Space How the gas giant got its rings. Saturn’s rings are one of the most gorgeous sights to behold in the solar system, but we’ve never quite understood their origin story.

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Ethereum’s got a hard forking problem thanks to another delayed upgrade

Software bugs are holding things up, and it’s turned into a referendum on the cryptocurrency’s decentralized nature.

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Awareness is barrier to 'plastic-free periods'

New research indicates that more needs to be done to raise awareness of the amount of plastic contained in commonly-used menstrual products.

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Silencing brain cells in mice can make them no longer care about pain

When certain brain cells are silenced in mice, they still sense pain but no longer seem bothered by it. The finding could lead to new pain treatments

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Asteroid smash-up may have rained down on Earth 290 million years ago

Craters on the moon show that it and Earth faced a massive increase in large meteorite strikes about 290 million years ago, which could have endangered life on the planet

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Size matters—to livebearer fish, big fins are a big deal

To female molly and Limia fish, nothing is hotter than a male with a large dorsal fin. But these fins aren't just decorations to attract females.

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Can a critic-turned-believer sway others? The case of genetically modified foods

When an advocate for one side of an issue announces that he or she now believes the opposite, can that message affect others' views? Research from the Annenberg Public Policy Center shows that such a conversion message can influence public attitudes. Using video of environmentalist Mark Lynas speaking about his change from an opponent of genetically modified crops to an advocate, researchers found

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New findings reveal surprising role of the cerebellum in reward and social behaviors

A study in rodents found that the brain's cerebellum — known to play a role in motor coordination — also helps control the brain's reward circuitry. Researchers found a direct neural connection from the cerebellum to the ventral tegmental area (a brain area long known to be involved in reward processing and encoding). The findings shed light on the brain circuits critical to the affective and so

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Combination therapy more effective in treating patients with leishmaniasis and HIV

The results of clinical trials conducted in Ethiopia by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi), in partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), the University of Gondar, and Addis Ababa University, open the way for more effective and safer treatments for people with both HIV and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a group of patients who have historically suffered from poor treatment opti

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Saturn hasn't always had rings

In its last days, the Cassini spacecraft looped between Saturn and its rings so that Earth-based radio telescopes could track the gravitational tug of each. Scientists in Italy and the U.S. have now used these measurements to determine the mass of the rings and estimate its age, which is young: 10-100 million years. This supports the hypothesis that the rings are rubble from a comet or Kuiper Belt

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Three-day imaging captures hi-res, cinematic view of fly brain

Fluorescent tagging of cellular proteins has allowed unprecedentedly detailed images of brain circuits, but imaging neurons and synapses over large areas in fine detail is difficult. Researchers at HHMI, UC Berkeley and MIT have joined two techniques — expansion microscopy and lattice light-sheet microscopy — to capture neural circuits, including all synapses, in a whole fly brain in only three

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Scientists find increase in asteroid impacts on ancient Earth by studying the moon

A team of scientists has determined the number of asteroid impacts on the moon and Earth increased by two to three times starting around 290 million years ago. Previous theories held that there were fewer craters on both objects dating back to before that time because they had disappeared due to erosion. The new findings claim that there were simply fewer asteroid impacts during that earlier perio

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First clinical study shows mavoglurant improves eye gaze behavior in fragile X syndrome patients

Researchers at Rush University Medical Center and the MIND Institute at UC Davis have found that mavoglurant, an experimental drug known as an mGluR5 negative modulator, can positively modify a key characteristic behavior in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS).

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Stress fracture? Your foot hitting pavement wasn't the main problem

A segment of the multibillion-dollar wearables industry aims to save potential victims from this fate, but a Vanderbilt University engineering professor found a major problem: the devices are measuring the wrong thing.

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Mapping the brain at high resolution

Researchers have developed a technique to image the brain with unprecedented resolution and speed. Using a combination of expansion microscopy and lattice light-sheet microscopy, they can locate individual neurons, trace connections between them, and visualize organelles inside neurons, over large volumes of brain tissue.

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Mapping the neural circuit of innate responses to odors

Animal responses to odors can be learned or innate. The innate capacity to discern between an appetizing and a foul — i.e., dangerous — odor is essential, from the start, to guide behavior for survival. Even the youngest animals need to escape predators and find adequate food sources. Until now, little was known about how these innate olfactory responses are hard-wired in the brain.

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SwRI scientists study moon craters to understand Earth's impact history

Using images and thermal data collected by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Southwest Research Institute scientists and their collaborators have calculated the ages of large lunar craters across the moon to be less than 1 billion years. By comparing the impact history of the moon with Earth's craters over this interval, they discovered that the rate of sizable asteroid collisions has inc

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How our cellular antennas are formed

Most of our cells contain an immobile primary cilium. The 'skeleton' of the cilium consists of microtubule doublets, which are 'pairs' of proteins essential for their formation and function. Scientists from UNIGE have developed an in vitro system capable of forming microtubule doublets, and have uncovered the mechanism and dynamics of their assembly. Their study reveals the crucial role of tubulin

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Stanford researchers discover the brain cells that make pain unpleasant

If you step on a tack, neurons in your brain will register two things: that there's a piercing physical sensation in your foot, and that it's not pleasant. Now, a team of scientists at Stanford University has identified a bundle of brain cells in mice responsible for the latter — that is, the negative emotions of pain.

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The cerebellum's hidden roles in social and reward-driven behavior

The cerebellum may regulate sociability and reward-driven behavior by controlling the release of dopamine, according to a new study.

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Serum prevents deadly cytomegalovirus infection after stem cell transplantation

In a mouse model, researchers have identified a potential pathway towards creating effective treatments for Cytomegalovirus, a common, yet potentially lethal viral infection for stem cell transplant patients.

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In the apple orchards: A new way to gauge bee pollinator success

A decade-long analysis of bee activity in apple orchards in New York showed decreased pollination services in some orchards beyond what simple counts of bee number or species richness would predict.

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Measurements of Saturn's gravitational field show its rings are younger than the planet

Using data from the Cassini spacecraft's final orbits, scientists report new measurements of the gravitational field around Saturn and its rings, which allowed them to constrain its internal structure, the depth of its winds, and the mass and age of its rings.

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Earth and moon pummeled by more asteroids since the age of dinosaurs, say scientists

The number of asteroids colliding with the Earth and moon has increased by up to three times over the past 290 million years, according to a major new study involving the University of Southampton. These findings, published in Science challenge our previous understanding of Earth's history.

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Scientists learn how common virus reactivates after transplantation

A new study in Science challenges long-held theories of why a common virus — cytomegalovirus, or CMV — can reactivate and become a life-threatening infection in people with a compromised immune system, including blood cancer patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation.

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How to rapidly image entire brains at nanoscale resolution

A powerful new technique combines expansion microscopy with lattice light-sheet microscopy for nanoscale imaging of fly and mouse neuronal circuits and their molecular constituents that's roughly 1,000 times faster than other methods.

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Brain's cerebellum found to influence addictive and social behavior

In a study published online today in the journal Science, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, part of Montefiore, prove for the first time that the brain's cerebellum — long thought to be mainly involved in coordinating movement — helps control the brain's reward circuitry. The surprising finding indicates that the cerebellum plays a major role in reward processing and social beh

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Combination therapy treats leishmaniasis, HIV patients

Coinfection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been observed in at least 35 countries on four continents and requires special case management. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends AmBisome monotherapy for treatment. Now, researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have showed that a combination therapy of AmBisome and miltefosin

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You Don't Look A Day Over 100 Million, Rings Of Saturn

A new study shows that Saturn's rings are only 10 million to 100 million years old, much younger than the planet itself. (Image credit: NASA, ESA, A. Simon (GSFC) and the OPAL Team, and J. DePasquale (STScI))

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Video: The limonene myth

Limonene, a compound found in citrus fruits, has two enantiomers: mirror-image molecules that cannot be superimposed, like a left and right hand.

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Asteroid strikes 'increase threefold over last 300m years'

Planet and moon have been hit by more asteroids in the past 290m years than at any time in previous billion The rate at which asteroids are slamming into Earth has nearly tripled since the dinosaurs first roamed, according to a survey of the scars left behind. Researchers worked out the rate of asteroid strikes on the moon and the Earth and found that in the past 290m years the number of collisio

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The moon’s craters suggest Earth hasn’t erased lots of past impacts

A new look at moon craters suggests the Earth and moon suffered more impacts in the last 290 million years, and the Earth retains its biggest scars.

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News at a glance

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Iron hits the mark

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Neoantigen reactivity

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Journey to jorumycin

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Targeting CH2 sites

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Luminescence and reactivity of a charge-transfer excited iron complex with nanosecond lifetime

Iron’s abundance and rich coordination chemistry are potentially appealing features for photochemical applications. However, the photoexcitable charge-transfer states of most iron complexes are limited by picosecond or subpicosecond deactivation through low-lying metal-centered states, resulting in inefficient electron-transfer reactivity and complete lack of photoluminescence. In this study, we

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Earth and Moon impact flux increased at the end of the Paleozoic

The terrestrial impact crater record is commonly assumed to be biased, with erosion thought to eliminate older craters, even on stable terrains. Given that the same projectile population strikes Earth and the Moon, terrestrial selection effects can be quantified by using a method to date lunar craters with diameters greater than 10 kilometers and younger than 1 billion years. We found that the im

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Structural adaptations of photosynthetic complex I enable ferredoxin-dependent electron transfer

Photosynthetic complex I enables cyclic electron flow around photosystem I, a regulatory mechanism for photosynthetic energy conversion. We report a 3.3-angstrom-resolution cryo–electron microscopy structure of photosynthetic complex I from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. The model reveals structural adaptations that facilitate binding and electron transfer from the photosynthet

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Observation of magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances in ultracold 23Na40K + 40K collisions

Resonances in ultracold collisions involving heavy molecules are difficult to simulate theoretically and have proven challenging to detect. Here we report the observation of magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances in ultracold collisions between potassium-40 ( 40 K) atoms and sodium-23–potassium-40 ( 23 Na 40 K) molecules in the rovibrational ground state. We prepare the atoms and molecules in v

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A Eu3+-Eu2+ ion redox shuttle imparts operational durability to Pb-I perovskite solar cells

The components with soft nature in the metal halide perovskite absorber usually generate lead (Pb) 0 and iodine (I) 0 defects during device fabrication and operation. These defects serve as not only recombination centers to deteriorate device efficiency but also degradation initiators to hamper device lifetimes. We show that the europium ion pair Eu 3+ -Eu 2+ acts as the "redox shuttle" that sele

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Concise total syntheses of (-)-jorunnamycin A and (-)-jorumycin enabled by asymmetric catalysis

The bis-tetrahydroisoquinoline (bis-THIQ) natural products have been studied intensively over the past four decades for their exceptionally potent anticancer activity, in addition to strong Gram-positive and Gram-negative antibiotic character. Synthetic strategies toward these complex polycyclic compounds have relied heavily on electrophilic aromatic chemistry, such as the Pictet–Spengler reactio

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An amygdalar neural ensemble that encodes the unpleasantness of pain

Pain is an unpleasant experience. How the brain’s affective neural circuits attribute this aversive quality to nociceptive information remains unknown. By means of time-lapse in vivo calcium imaging and neural activity manipulation in freely behaving mice encountering noxious stimuli, we identified a distinct neural ensemble in the basolateral amygdala that encodes the negative affective valence

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Agriculturally dominated landscapes reduce bee phylogenetic diversity and pollination services

Land-use change threatens global biodiversity and may reshape the tree of life by favoring some lineages over others. Whether phylogenetic diversity loss compromises ecosystem service delivery remains unknown. We address this knowledge gap using extensive genomic, community, and crop datasets to examine relationships among land use, pollinator phylogenetic structure, and crop production. Pollinat

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Flagellar microtubule doublet assembly in vitro reveals a regulatory role of tubulin C-terminal tails

Microtubule doublets (MTDs), consisting of an incomplete B-microtubule at the surface of a complete A-microtubule, provide a structural scaffold mediating intraflagellar transport and ciliary beating. Despite the fundamental role of MTDs, the molecular mechanism governing their formation is unknown. We used a cell-free assay to demonstrate a crucial inhibitory role of the carboxyl-terminal (C-ter

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Strain-specific antibody therapy prevents cytomegalovirus reactivation after transplantation

Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent and life-threatening complication that significantly limits positive transplantation outcomes. We developed preclinical mouse models of cytomegalovirus reactivation after transplantation and found that humoral immunity is essential for preventing viral recrudescence. Preexisting antiviral antibodies decreased after transplant in the presence of graft-versus

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H3K9me3-heterochromatin loss at protein-coding genes enables developmental lineage specification

Gene silencing by chromatin compaction is integral to establishing and maintaining cell fates. Trimethylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3)–marked heterochromatin is reduced in embryonic stem cells compared to differentiated cells. However, the establishment and dynamics of closed regions of chromatin at protein-coding genes, in embryologic development, remain elusive. We developed an antibody-inde

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New Products

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Cerebellar modulation of the reward circuitry and social behavior

The cerebellum has been implicated in a number of nonmotor mental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. However, its contribution to these disorders is not well understood. In mice, we found that the cerebellum sends direct excitatory projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), one of the brain regions that processes and encodes reward. Optogenetic activat

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CRISPR-mediated activation of a promoter or enhancer rescues obesity caused by haploinsufficiency

A wide range of human diseases result from haploinsufficiency, where the function of one of the two gene copies is lost. Here, we targeted the remaining functional copy of a haploinsufficient gene using CRISPR-mediated activation (CRISPRa) in Sim1 and Mc4r heterozygous mouse models to rescue their obesity phenotype. Transgenic-based CRISPRa targeting of the Sim1 promoter or its distant hypothalam

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The importance of synthetic chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry

Innovations in synthetic chemistry have enabled the discovery of many breakthrough therapies that have improved human health over the past century. In the face of increasing challenges in the pharmaceutical sector, continued innovation in chemistry is required to drive the discovery of the next wave of medicines. Novel synthetic methods not only unlock access to previously unattainable chemical m

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Prediction of higher-selectivity catalysts by computer-driven workflow and machine learning

Catalyst design in asymmetric reaction development has traditionally been driven by empiricism, wherein experimentalists attempt to qualitatively recognize structural patterns to improve selectivity. Machine learning algorithms and chemoinformatics can potentially accelerate this process by recognizing otherwise inscrutable patterns in large datasets. Herein we report a computationally guided wor

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Cortical column and whole-brain imaging with molecular contrast and nanoscale resolution

Optical and electron microscopy have made tremendous inroads toward understanding the complexity of the brain. However, optical microscopy offers insufficient resolution to reveal subcellular details, and electron microscopy lacks the throughput and molecular contrast to visualize specific molecular constituents over millimeter-scale or larger dimensions. We combined expansion microscopy and latt

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Asteroid Rate Jumped in Solar System’s Past

Some 290 million years ago, as the last trilobites scuttled across the seafloor, the skies above grew just a little more ominous. At that point, large asteroids — including the impactor that would later kill off the dinosaurs — began to rain down on our planet between two and three times more frequently than they did before, according to a study published today in Science . Researchers spotted th

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Earth May Be in the Middle of a Giant Asteroid Spike, Billion-Year Survey Reveals

Was the gargantuan asteroid that killed the dinosaurs just business as usual in our neck of the solar system?

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Saturn’s rings formed in a smash-up less than 100 million years ago

Some of the Cassini spacecraft’s final measurements of Saturn’s gravitational field show that its rings are younger than we thought, and its winds run deeper

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You use less info to make decisions than you might think

People consume far less information than expected before making judgments and decisions, a new study finds. Whether buying a new car, hiring a job candidate, or getting married, people assume they can and will use more information to make their decisions than they actually do, according to the research. “Sometimes people need a lot of information to get an accurate reading, and sometimes people d

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Scientists Find Brain Cells That Make Pain Hurt

Researchers have pinpointed the neurons that give pain its unpleasant edge. By turning these neurons off in mice, the scientists relieved the unpleasantness of pain without numbing sensation. (Image credit: Sally Anscombe/Getty Images)

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New ways to image and control nerve cells could unlock brain mysteries

Methods that target single nerve cells in mice and fruit fly brains are starting to tease apart the brain’s complexity.

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How our cellular antennas are formed

Most of our cells contain an immobile primary cilium, an antenna used to transfer information from the surrounding environment. Some cells also have many mobile cilia that are used to generate movement. The 'skeleton' of the cilium consists of microtubule doublets, which are 'pairs' of proteins essential for their formation and function. Defects in the assembly or functioning of the cilia can caus

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Scientists find increase in asteroid impacts on ancient Earth by studying the Moon

An international team of scientists is challenging our understanding of a part of Earth's history by looking at the Moon, the most complete and accessible chronicle of the asteroid collisions that carved our solar system.

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Saturn hasn't always had rings

One of the last acts of NASA's Cassini spacecraft before its death plunge into Saturn's hydrogen and helium atmosphere was to coast between the planet and its rings and let them tug it around, essentially acting as a gravity probe.

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Three-day imaging captures hi-res, cinematic view of fly brain

A new fly-through of the fly brain allows anyone to whizz past neurons and visit any of the 40 million synapses where neurons touch neuron. It's a super-resolution view of the complex network connections in the insect's brain that underlie behaviors ranging from feeding to mating.

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Artificial intelligence thinks your face is full of data. Could it actually unmask you?

Technology Why humans, and by extension our machines, are so determined to “read” people. Looks can be deceiving. But humans, healthcare robots, and other emerging technologies are determined to read people like books.

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When Leaders are Bullies

In primate societies, whether human or non-human, a leader who's a bloated, self-serving egotist creates mayhem and confusion — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Frog eggs reveal pathways for DNA repair

Researchers have uncovered some of the pathways cells use to repair DNA damages. The body’s DNA is subject to constant damages and lesions, which the body must repair. But researchers haven’t precisely established how the body does this. Harmful DNA lesions may occur in a number of ways and can both be a result of internal and external factors. The type of damage the researchers studied is called

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Researchers identify brain cells likely involved in memories of eating that influence next meal

Brain cells involved in memory play an important role after a meal in reducing future eating behavior, a finding that could be key in understanding and fighting obesity, according to a study led by Georgia State University.

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New thermoelectric material delivers record performance

Taking advantage of recent advances in using theoretical calculations to predict the properties of new materials, researchers reported Thursday the discovery of a new class of half-Heusler thermoelectric compounds, including one with a record high figure of merit — a metric used to determine how efficiently a thermoelectric material can convert heat to electricity.

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Kunsten at fejle optimalt

PLUS. Forskere har sat tal på, hvor mange fejl man bør lave i læringssituationer.

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Size matters — To livebearer fish, big fins are a big deal

In a new paper, biologists from the University of California, Riverside, studied the evolution of 40 molly and Limia species, and concluded dorsal fin displays arose first for males to compete with other males, only later being used in courtship displays to females. These changes in fin function went hand in hand with enlargement of the male dorsal fin. The fins reached extreme sizes in a few spec

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The limonene myth (video)

Limonene, a compound found in citrus fruits, has two enantiomers: mirror-image molecules that cannot be superimposed, like a left and right hand. There is a persistent myth that one of these mirror molecules is responsible for the smell of oranges, while the other lends its odor to lemons. In this video, Reactions explains that smell chemistry is never that simple: https://youtu.be/W9JpRg8M1qk.

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Trauma before we can remember still leaves a mark

New research links stressful or traumatic experiences in a child’s earliest years—birth to age 5—to reduced hippocampal volume in adolescence. “These findings tell us that there may be a ‘sensitive period’ in which stress is more likely to affect the development of the hippocampus, which is connected to learning, memory, and mood,” says lead author Kathryn L. Humphreys, an assistant professor of

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Brain-reading headsets trialled on 10,000 schoolchildren in China

Thousands of schoolchildren in China have trialled a brain-scanning headband that lets teachers see if they stop paying attention in class

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Gene therapy blocks peripheral nerve damage in mice

Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have developed a gene therapy that blocks axonal degeneration, preventing axon destruction in mice and suggesting a therapeutic strategy that could help prevent the loss of peripheral nerves in multiple conditions.

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New study identifies specific obesity-related risk factors for kidney cancer

A new study confirms the long-suspected role of obesity as a risk factor for developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a type of kidney cancer, and identifies several specific obesity-related factors. These factors include multiple measures of obesity, diastolic blood pressure and fasting insulin. In contrast, the study found little evidence for an association with RCC risk for systolic blood pressur

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Advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Pembrolizumab prolongs survival

quamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers of the skin and mucosa. Treatment options for the advanced stage have been very limited for patients with tumours of the head and neck, i.e. in the mouth, the pharynx or the larynx: If recurrences or metastases occur during or after platinum-based chemotherapy, the disease is generally considered incurable. The goal is then to prolong the re

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Air pollution increases ER visits for breathing problems

As levels of ozone and fine particulate pollution (PM2.5) rise, more patients end up in the ER with breathing problems, according to the largest US study of air pollution and respiratory emergency room visits of patients of all ages. The study was published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Wired for obesity

In a multi-center collaboration, scientists at Children's Hospital Los Angeles and University of Cambridge discover a set of genes that help to establish brain connections governing body weight.

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A new way to transfer energy between cells

Researchers have described a new method for the transmission of electrons between proteins that refutes the evidence from experiments until now. This process, involved in the generation of energy in both animal and plant cells, will permit better understanding of the behavior of proteins in the cells, as well as giving a deeper understanding of the energy dysfunctions that cause diseases.

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Models of life

Friedrich Simmel und Aurore Dupin, researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), have for the first time created artificial cell assemblies that can communicate with each other. The cells, separated by fatty membranes, exchange small chemical signaling molecules to trigger more complex reactions, such as the production of RNA and other proteins.

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Millions of Americans exposed to elevated nitrate levels in drinking water

More than 5.6 million Americans are exposed to nitrate in drinking water at levels that could cause health problems. In this first analysis of its kind, researchers also found that water systems with higher nitrate levels tend to serve communities with higher proportions of Hispanic residents. The findings could help inform programs to assist community water systems that might be vulnerable to con

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Telling stories using rhythmic gesture helps children improve their oral skills

For the first time it has been shown that a brief training session with rhythmic gestures has immediate benefits for narrative discourse in children of 5 and 6 years of age in a study published recently in Developmental Psychology led by Pilar Prieto, ICREA research professor and coordinator of the Prosodic Studies Group and of the Department of Translation and Language Sciences, together with her

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Psychological distress is a risk factor for dementia

A new study suggests that vital exhaustion — which can be perceived as an indicator of psychological distress — is a risk factor for future risk of dementia.

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Awareness is barrier to 'plastic-free periods'

New research indicates that more needs to be done to raise awareness of the amount of plastic contained in commonly-used menstrual products.

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Body-painting protects against bloodsucking insects

A study by researchers from Sweden and Hungary shows that white, painted stripes on the body protect skin from insect bites. It is the first time researchers have successfully shown that body-painting has this effect. Among indigenous peoples who wear body-paint, the markings thus provide a certain protection against insect-borne diseases.

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This 1997 Jeff Bezos interview proves he saw the future coming

Jeff Bezos had a clear vision for Amazon.com from the start. He was inspired by a statistic he learned while working at a hedge fund: In the '90s, web usage was growing at 2,300% a year. Bezos explains why books, in particular, make for a perfect item to sell on the internet. None "What's really incredible about this is that this is day one. This is the very beginning. This is the Kitty Hawk stag

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The best digital picture frames for all budgets

Gadgets A.K.A. a gift guide for the sentimental. The best digital picture frames for all budgets so you can view all your favorite moments.

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Researchers race against extinction to uncover tree's cancer-fighting properties

As the population of a fir tree in China dwindles, researchers are racing to replicate its cancer-fighting molecules.

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How molecules teeter in a laser field

When molecules interact with the oscillating field of a laser, an instantaneous, time-dependent dipole is induced. This very general effect underlies diverse physical phenomena. Now scientists report on an experiment where the dependence of the driven-dipole response on the bound state of an electron in a methyl iodine molecule is revealed.

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Could a diet save the planet? Only if we pay the real cost of food

There is no doubt that a “planetary diet” involving more vegetables and less meat would benefit the environment and likely save lives too, but making it happen won’t be easy

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Climate Forecast: World Is "Sleepwalking into Catastrophe"

In an annual World Economic Forum report, climate change, extreme weather and biodiversity loss were named among the highest global risks — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Google to buy power from solar farms in Tennessee, Alabama

Google plans to buy power from Tennessee and Alabama solar farms under a deal with the Tennessee Valley Authority.

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Renault 'actively' looking to post-Ghosn future

French carmaker Renault on Thursday launched the search for a successor to Chairman Carlos Ghosn, only hours after a Tokyo court quashed his appeal for bail as he faces three charges of financial misconduct.

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Amazon sets conference on robotics, artificial intelligence

Amazon announced plans Thursday to hold a conference open to the public on robotics, space and artificial intelligence, as well as to discuss future applications of emerging technologies.

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Researchers race against extinction to uncover tree's cancer-fighting properties

Three Chinese fir trees on a nature reserve in Southeastern China are the last of their kind. As their existence is threatened by human disturbance and climate change, researchers are hurrying to learn everything they can about the tree—which might inspire new and more effective ways to treat various cancers.

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Thousands of Australian Animals Die in Unprecedented Heatwave

Freshwater fish suffer from low levels of oxygen in the country's rivers, while bats are unable to survive the extreme air temperatures.

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Why People Paid Thousands of Dollars to Attend a Doomed Music Festival

How could you market something that wasn’t real? That’s the question Brett Kincaid, a commercial director who helped promote the infamous Fyre Festival, is forced to confront in a new Netflix documentary out Friday. Titled Fyre: The Greatest Party That Never Happened , Chris Smith’s film is a fairly straightforward accounting of the failed event that triggered a maelstrom of social-media schadenf

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A New 'Ghostbusters' Movie Is Coming in 2020

Also: Steve Carell is making a Space Force show for Netflix, and Apple is teaming up with Sofia Coppola and Bill Murray.

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Scientists confirm pair of skeletons are from same early hominin species

Separate skeletons suggested to be from different early hominin species are, in fact, from the same species, a team of anthropologists has concluded in a comprehensive analysis of remains first discovered a decade ago.

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Study highlights lack of fair access to urban green spaces

People with higher incomes and more education tend to have greater access to urban green spaces than their less privileged neighbours, a new University of British Columbia study of parks and greenery in 10 major North American cities has found.

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