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nyheder2019juli09

9h

Discussing global warming leads to greater acceptance of climate science [Environmental Sciences]

Climate change is an urgent global issue, with demands for personal, collective, and governmental action. Although a large body of research has investigated the influence of communication on public engagement with climate change, few studies have investigated the role of interpersonal discussion. Here we use panel data with 2 time…

9h

Fyrværkeri i rummet: Teleskop fanger billede af dobbeltstjerne-eksplosion

Billede af den døende stjerne Eta Carinae A giver overraskende detaljer.

3h

Sturgeon, America's forgotten dinosaurs, show signs of life

Sturgeon were America's vanishing dinosaurs, armor-plated beasts that crowded the nation's rivers until mankind's craving for caviar pushed them to the edge of extinction.

2min

Author Correction: Semen levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) protein families members in men with high and low sperm DNA fragmentation

Scientific Reports, Published online: 10 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-45361-2 Author Correction: Semen levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) protein families members in men with high and low sperm DNA fragmentation

5min

NHS teams up with Amazon to bring Alexa to patients

Voice assistant enlisted to aid elderly and blind patients who cannot easily search for adviceThe NHS has teamed up with Amazon to allow elderly people, blind people and other patients who cannot …

7min

UN: Climate change undercutting work to end poverty, hunger

Hunger is growing and the world is not on track to end extreme poverty by 2030 and meet other U.N. goals, mainly because progress is being undermined by the impact of climate change and increasing inequality, a U.N. report said Tuesday.

17min

Research team brings computation and experimentation closer together

A bioengineering group from the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering is bringing the worlds of computational modeling and experimentation closer together by developing a methodology to help analyze the wealth of imaging data provided by advancements in imaging tools and automated microscopes.

35min

Nitrogen from biosolids can help urban soils and plant growth

The "zero waste" trend could have a friend in the form of biosolids. Biosolids are the materials produced after domestic waste is treated in urban wastewater systems. In the past, most of this solid material was transferred to landfills. But, processes developed over the past few decades can create "exceptional quality" biosolids.

35min

Research team brings computation and experimentation closer together

A bioengineering group from the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering is bringing the worlds of computational modeling and experimentation closer together by developing a methodology to help analyze the wealth of imaging data provided by advancements in imaging tools and automated microscopes.

38min

Tour de France pelotons governed by sight, not aerodynamics

The 2019 Tour de France has just begun. As 190 riders speed through the streets of France, spectators will marvel at the tightly-packed formation of cyclists known as the peloton. Fans will argue that a peloton creates an aerodynamic advantage, allowing riders to conserve energy throughout the grueling three-week race.

41min

52min

Elbows key for walkers' efficiency

Wandering through the Harvard campus one day in 2015, graduate student Andrew Yegian recalls how something unusual caught his eye. "I noticed a person running with straight arms," he explains. This really stood out for Yegian, as runners usually bend the elbow, while walkers keep their arms straight, which made him wonder: "If straight arms are better for walking, why aren't they better for runnin

56min

Elbows key for walkers' efficiency

Wandering through the Harvard campus one day in 2015, graduate student Andrew Yegian recalls how something unusual caught his eye. "I noticed a person running with straight arms," he explains. This really stood out for Yegian, as runners usually bend the elbow, while walkers keep their arms straight, which made him wonder: "If straight arms are better for walking, why aren't they better for runnin

59min

1h

Stem cell meat explained and where we are at

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1h

1h

Coral reefs shifting away from equator

Coral reefs are retreating from equatorial waters and establishing new reefs in more temperate regions, according to new research in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series. The researchers found that the number of young corals on tropical reefs has declined by 85 percent—and doubled on subtropical reefs—during the last four decades.

1h

Klimaforandringer gør bekæmpelse af sult sværere

Flere af FN's verdensmål bliver svære at nå på grund af klimaforandringer og stigende ulighed, viser en ny FN-rapport.

1h

The Great Yorkshire Show – in pictures

Guardian photographer Christopher Thomond went to the opening events at the 161st Great Yorkshire Show in Harrogate, a three-day showcase of British farming and the countryside Continue reading…

1h

Ny solcelletype opstilles i Danmark: Optager lys fra begge sider

PLUS. På få år har indmaden i solcellepaneler forandret sig markant. Det har ført til udviklingen af en ny type solceller, der tager lys ind fra begge sider med en markant højere ydeevne til følge. Nu kommer de første såkaldte bi-facielle solceller i drift i Danmark.

1h

1h

Scientists Are Trying to Make 'Ploonets' a Thing, And We Are Here For It

There could be outer ploonets, inner ploonets… all kinds of ploonets.

1h

Kraftigere skybrud truer dæmninger

PLUS. Hvis et heftigt skybrud rammer det sydlige Californien, har verdens mest berømte temapark høj risiko for at blive oversvømmet. Mange tusinde dæmninger verden over er slet ikke bygget til det nye klima. Og selv om Danmark ikke har denne type dæmninger, har vi beslægtede udfordringer.

1h

Direktør forsvarer adgang til gymnasie-opgaver: De indgår kun som data til maskinlæring

Det handler ikke om elever, men om ettaller og nuller, når firmaet Lectio har stillet 130.000 opgaver til rådighed for forskere, siger direktøren.

2h

2h

The Very British Tradition of ‘Verbal Cartooning’

LONDON—When Boris Johnson joined a London-based radio program last month to discuss his ongoing bid to be Britain’s next prime minister, he was quizzed 26 times about the origins of a mysteriously timed photograph of him and his partner, Carrie Symonds, the Conservative Party’s former communications chief. Each time, the prime-ministerial hopeful evaded the question with his trademark bumble and

3h

One giant … lie? Why so many people still think the moon landings were faked

It all started with a man called Bill Kaysing and his pamphlet about ‘America’s $30bn swindle’ … It took 400,000 Nasa employees and contractors to put Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the moon in 1969 – but only one man to spread the idea that it was all a hoax. His name was Bill Kaysing. It began as “a hunch, an intuition”, before turning into “a true conviction” – that the US lacked the tech

3h

Has humanity reached ‘peak intelligence’?

submitted by /u/izumi3682 [link] [comments]

3h

Mats skjuts upp för att mäta gravitationsvågor

Huvudinstrumentet ombord är baserat på en ny typ av teleskop som är utvecklat i Göteborg och beskrivs i en avhandling av Arvid Hammar. Mats är den första svenska forskningssatelliten på 18 år, utvecklad i ett samarbete mellan forskare på Stockholms universitet, Chalmers och KTH. Från sin omloppsbana på 600 kilometers höjd kommer Mats att studera så kallade gravitationsvågor i atmosfären (inte des

3h

How does playing with other children affect toddlers' language learning?

Toddlers are surprisingly good at processing the speech of other young children, according to a new study. And toddlers who have more exposure to other children, such as those in daycare, may be particularly good at certain word learning skills.

3h

Nitrogen from biosolids can help urban soils and plant growth

Research determines bioavailable nitrogen content of different biosolid products.

3h

Flu fact sheet for parents increases vaccination rate in children

Parents given a handout with flu facts at their pediatrician's office were significantly more likely to get their kids vaccinated before the end of flu season, Columbia pediatricians have found.

3h

Why sex becomes less satisfying with age

The number of women regularly having sex declines with age, and the number of women enjoying sex postmenopause is even lower. Although these facts are not surprising, the causes for these declines may be because previous research focused largely on biological causes only. However, a new UK study identifies psychosocial contributors. Study results are published online today in Menopause, the journa

3h

New evidence shows cytotoxic T cells can identify, invade, and destroy targets of large mass like Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts

CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes can kill host cells infected with various microorganisms and single individual cancer cells through direct cell-to-cell contact, but their ability to destroy a target of large mass remains unexplored. A study in The American Journal of Pathology provided novel evidence on the capability of the immune system to eliminate large parasite-filled cysts associated with chron

3h

Best male biathletes 'more attractive'

Top male biathletes are more attractive to the opposite sex, according to a new study by scientists at the universities of Exeter and Bristol.

3h

Best male biathletes 'more attractive'

Top male biathletes are more attractive to the opposite sex, according to a new study by scientists at the universities of Exeter and Bristol.

4h

Best male biathletes 'more attractive'

Top male biathletes are more attractive to the opposite sex, according to a new study by scientists at the universities of Exeter and Bristol.

4h

Efter brud på atomaftale: Hvor tæt er Iran egentlig på at kunne fremstille kernevåben?

PLUS. Irans brud på atomaftalen med Europa er sandsynligvis primært et råb om hjælp. Men hvor lang tid ville det tage, hvis landet rent faktisk vil fremstille a-våben? Ingeniøren undersøger sagen.

4h

Americans Surveyed See Artificial Intelligence as Jobs Killer

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4h

Scientists are discovering a "strange" way to eliminate cancer

submitted by /u/hassanaali112 [link] [comments]

4h

Pharma's market: the man cleaning up Africa's meat

In Namibia a country of meat-lovers, vital expertise is needed to stop livestock spreading diseases Wreathed in barbecue smoke, Vetjaera Haakuria gestures at the men butchering meat and cooking it over hot coals behind his back. “What have you learned about the risks of eating this?” he asks his young audience, spotless in their white lab coats. “It might contain drug residues, right? And what ab

5h

Sorting protein in neurons defends against neurodegenerative disease

A molecule known as VPS35 detects and removes defective proteins from neurons. Researchers show for the first time that VPS35 clears the brain of a potentially harmful protein called tau, which otherwise accumulates and contributes to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease.

5h

Deep learning-powered 'DeepEC' helps accurately understand enzyme functions

Researchers have shown that a deep learning-powered computational framework enables the high-quality and high-throughput prediction of enzyme commission numbers, which is essential for the accurate understanding of enzyme functions.

5h

Inbreeding depression reduces litter sizes in golden retrievers

New research shows that inbreeding depression, the result of breeding closely-related individuals, reduces litter sizes in purebred golden retrievers.

5h

New research links early-life mortality and family structure, education, income

A new study reveals substantially higher risks of death between ages 1-24 for children living in families with lower levels of parental education, lower levels of family income, and/or for those living in a single parent family — all independent of one another.

5h

How will automation affect careers in education?

I'll be starting my teaching career in the fall of 2020 in High School Language Arts. Assuming the state pension fund doesn't poop out, I'll be able to retire and collect a pension in 2052. I'm deeply passionate about my field, and I really hope I can stay in education for my entire professional career. With the impending reality of automation/AI however, I'm genuinely scared that my job could be

5h

Will we need to make restrictions on VR or even make it illegal as the technology becomes more realistic?

Especially as haptic feedback continues to improve and is eventually fully implemented into the VR experience, do we risk a generation getting lost in virtual worlds to the point where they can longer become productive members of society? ​ Are we facing a new epidemic of VR addiction in the coming years? submitted by /u/33Merlin11 [link] [comments]

5h

6h

We're still finding new ways in which the Zika virus hurts infants

Looking outside microcephaly is key for a robust understanding of Zika. (Deposit Photos/) When the Zika virus spread across South America in 2015 and 2016, the most immediate concern was for its link to microcephaly in infants born to mothers infected by the virus during pregnancy. But microcephaly, a condition where babies are born with smaller heads than expected, only occurs in a small number

6h

Experts Warn There's a Huge Problem With How Mental Health Problems Are Diagnosed

Some of the diagnoses are "scientifically meaningless".

6h

7h

7h

Clownfish reproduction threatened by artificial light in coral reefs

The movie Finding Nemo could have a much darker sequel — as artificial light in coral reefs leaves the famous fish unable to reproduce offspring, according to a new study.Results from a new study published in Biology Letters show an increasing amount of artificial light at night (ALAN) in coral reefs, even at relatively low levels, masks natural cues which trigger clownfish eggs to hatch after du

7h

Igloo made out of empty plastic milk bottles at County Durham school

The structure aims to teach about plastic pollution and give the pupils somewhere to read and play.

7h

This Is The Most Important Antarctic Glacier The World Needs to Watch Right Now

A new study shows it could trigger a chain reaction.

7h

'Climategate': 10 years on, what's changed?

Hackers stole 6,000 emails and other documents from a climate research centre almost 10 years ago.

7h

How a fake hand test can help the study of empathy

People with a rare condition called mirror-touch synesthesia could help scientists understand empathy.

7h

From centenarians' genetic code, a potential new therapy against cardiovascular diseases

Some people live much longer than average, partly thanks to their DNA. An all-Italian research, published in the European Heart Journal, shows that it could be possible to replicate this 'genetic gift' even for those lacking it. The way is now open to an innovative therapy model, capable of preventing and fighting cardiovascular diseases through a real rejuvenation of blood vessels.

8h

NASA Announces a Dozen Science and Tech Experiments to Scout the Moon

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8h

8h

Music could send Wi-fi passwords to your phone

Researchers have developed a technique for embedding data in music and transmitting it to a smartphone. Since the data are imperceptible to the human ear, they don’t affect listening experience. This could have interesting applications in hotels, museums, and department stores. For example, background music can contain the access data for the local Wi-Fi network, and a mobile phone’s built-in mic

8h

Moon landings: What was the 1969 Apollo 11 mission?

It's 50 years since the first ever manned landing on the Moon – what was involved?

8h

Nerve transfer restores some hand motion after spine injury

Nerve transfer surgery for people suffering tetraplegia after a traumatic spinal cord injury can improve independence, according to new research. Mary Galea AM, a professorial fellow at the University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital, and Natasha van Zyl, a plastic and reconstructive surgeon at Austin Health, explain their research here: Spinal cord injury is a devastating, life-changing

8h

Light Pollution Might Stop Nemo From Being Born

Clownfish rely on darkness to hatch. Human lights are stealing it away. (Credit: patrik johnson/Shutterstock) From space, the picture is crystal clear. Across the globe, cities twinkle with artificial light against the night sky. And the nocturnal expanse is only getting brighter. Scientists estimate the amount of artificial light at night grows by more than two percent every year. The nighttime g

8h

India Set to Launch Moon Rover and Orbiter

(Credit: ISRO) India is expected to launch their second lunar mission, Chandrayaan-2 on July 14. The launch will take up an orbiter, a lander, and a rover, dubbed Pragyan, all designed to study the moon’s little explored south pole. Using the Indian Space Research Organization’s (ISRO) most powerful rocket, Chandrayaan-2 will reach Earth’s orbit, where it’ll spend about 16 days before it heads ove

8h

Bloodhound supersonic car to run at high speed in October

The UK-led attempt to break the land speed record will conduct 500-600mph trials later this year.

8h

Start growing a verdant indoor garden in three easy steps

As of 2017, Summer Rayne Oakes had 670 plants in her Brooklyn apartment. Her new book, How to Make a Plant Love You is out now. (Courtesy of Optimism Press/) Perhaps there is no better example of living partnerships than there is between a plant’s roots and the living soil it exists in. Soil serves many purposes and is often used to protect a plant’s patrolling roots; keep a plant anchored and up

8h

Tour de France pelotons governed by sight, not aerodynamics

In a recent study, researchers reveal that vision is the main factor in the formation and shape of a peloton.

8h

New blood test for human TB may also identify people at most risk

A new study conducted by researchers in Leicester and Nottingham has shown the potential for a new blood test to not only diagnose human tuberculosis (TB) but also identify those at most risk of developing the disease, according to findings published in medical journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.

8h

Human pregnancy dependent on cells evolved in platypus-like animal 300 million years ago

Platelet cells, which prevent mammals from bleeding non-stop, first evolved around 300 million years ago in an egg-laying animal similar to the modern duck-billed platypus, finds joint research by UCL and Yale University.

8h

Gorillas found to live in 'complex' societies, suggesting deep roots of human social evolution

Algorithms reveal 'social tiers' in gorillas seen in only a few other species, such as dolphins and humans. Researchers suggest that some of these social bonds may be analogous to 'old friendships' and 'tribes' in humans. They argue that 'collaborative foraging' may be an evolutionary driver for gorilla societies — and consequently our own.

8h

UK is going backwards on climate change action, advisers warn

The Committee on Committee Climate Change says UK is not preparing adequately for global warming impacts or meeting the challenge of its carbon emission targets

8h

Human cytomegalovirus evades antibody-mediated immunity through endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the FcRn receptor

Nature Communications, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10865-y Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can persist for the life of a host in the face of robust immune responses owing to a wide range of immune evasion strategies. Here Liu and colleagues show that HCMV evades the IgG-mediated response by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the neonatal Fc receptor for Ig

9h

Anoxygenic photosynthesis and the delayed oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere

Nature Communications, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10872-z Competition dynamics between early Earth photosynthetic microorganisms are unclear. Here, the authors demonstrate that competition for light and nutrients between oxygenic phototrophs and Fe-based photosynthesizers in surface oceans provides a novel ecophysiological mechanism for the protracted oxygenation of Ea

9h

A novel method to test non-exclusive hypotheses applied to Arctic ice projections from dependent models

Nature Communications, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10561-x Climate models depend on each other which makes meaningful comparisons difficult. Here, the authors apply a novel Bayesian method to test non-exclusive hypotheses to a set of climate models and show that the Arctic is likely to be ice-free at 2 to 2.5 °C of warming, with a sizeable risk even at lower rates.

9h

Origin of ocean island basalts in the West African passive margin without mantle plume involvement

Nature Communications, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10832-7 The genesis of hotspot magmatism remains controversial especially at continental margins such as offshore West Africa. Here, by analysing trace element and Pb isotopes of intraplate basalts, the authors conclude that their generation was caused by the melting of two fusible regions of subcontinental lithospheric

9h

Mapping the drivers of within-host pathogen evolution using massive data sets

Nature Communications, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10724-w Various host factors may impact within-host pathogen evolution. Here, the authors develop a Bayesian approach for identifying host-pathogen interactions using large data sets of pathogen diversity, and apply it to investigate HLA-induced selection in the HIV-1 genome.

9h

Neurons in primary auditory cortex represent sound source location in a cue-invariant manner

Nature Communications, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10868-9 The brain's auditory cortex is involved not just in detection of sounds, but also in localizing them. Here, the authors show that neurons in ferret primary auditory cortex (A1) encode the location of sound sources, as opposed to merely reflecting spatial cues.

9h

A systematic approach to orient the human protein–protein interaction network

Nature Communications, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10887-6 The directions of most human protein-protein interactions (PPIs) remain unknown. Here, the authors use cancer genomic and drug response data to infer the direction of signal flow in the human PPI network and show that the directed network improves drug target and cancer driver gene prioritization.

9h

Monoallelic expression and epigenetic inheritance sustained by a Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein exclusion complex

Nature Communications, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10823-8 Monoallelic expression of variant surface glycoprotein genes (VSGs) is essential for immune evasion by Trypanosoma brucei. Here, Faria et al. show that the VEX protein complex controls VSG allelic exclusion, and that CAF‐1 sustains inheritance of the VEX‐complex in association with the active VSG.

9h

Climate change: UK Government 'like Dad's Army'

The UK government isn't cutting emissions fast enough to tackle global heating, its advisers say.

9h

A dual role for {beta}II-spectrin in axons [Commentaries]

Spectrins have been known for a long time as submembrane structural proteins, but a study from Lorenzo et al. (1) demonstrates an unexpected role for a neuronal spectrin in axonal transport. Actin and spectrins form specialized submembrane scaffolds important for the morphogenesis, compartmentation, and mechanical properties in a range of…

9h

Quantitative modelling predicts the impact of DNA methylation on RNA polymerase II traffic [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Patterns of gene expression are primarily determined by proteins that locally enhance or repress transcription. While many transcription factors target a restricted number of genes, others appear to modulate transcription levels globally. An example is MeCP2, an abundant methylated-DNA binding protein that is mutated in the neurological disorder Rett syndrome….

9h

The optoelectronic microrobot: A versatile toolbox for micromanipulation [Cell Biology]

Microrobotics extends the reach of human-controlled machines to submillimeter dimensions. We introduce a microrobot that relies on optoelectronic tweezers (OET) that is straightforward to manufacture, can take nearly any desirable shape or form, and can be programmed to carry out sophisticated, multiaxis operations. One particularly useful program is a serial…

9h

How lovebirds maneuver through lateral gusts with minimal visual information [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Flying birds maneuver effectively through lateral gusts, even when gust speeds are as high as flight speeds. What information birds use to sense gusts and how they compensate is largely unknown. We found that lovebirds can maneuver through 45° lateral gusts similarly well in forest-, lake-, and cave-like visual environments….

9h

Constraints on the lexicons of human languages have cognitive roots present in baboons (Papio papio) [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Using a pattern extraction task, we show that baboons, like humans, have a learning bias that helps them discover connected patterns more easily than disconnected ones—i.e., they favor rules like “contains between 40% and 80% red” over rules like “contains around 30% red or 100% red.” The task was made…

9h

Pits with aspiration explain life expectancy of a conifer species [Commentaries]

Considerable attention has been given to the well-known growth–longevity trade-off in biology, but mechanistic explanations for this trade-off remain incompletely understood. While a life history trade-off is generally assumed to result from resource allocation conflicts (1), Roskilly et al. (2) provide convincing evidence that a single trait of xylem anatomy…

9h

Feedback regulation of Arid5a and Ppar-{gamma}2 maintains adipose tissue homeostasis [Immunology and Inflammation]

Immune cells infiltrate adipose tissues and provide a framework to regulate energy homeostasis. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and signaling by which the immune system regulates energy homeostasis in metabolic tissues remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the AT-rich interactive domain 5A (Arid5a), a cytokine-induced nucleic acid binding protein,…

9h

YIPF6 controls sorting of FGF21 into COPII vesicles and promotes obesity [Medical Sciences]

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone that regulates glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. While gene expression of FGF21 is regulated by the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in the fasted state, little is known about the regulation of trafficking and secretion of FGF21. We show…

9h

Active cargo positioning in antiparallel transport networks [Applied Physical Sciences]

Cytoskeletal filaments assemble into dense parallel, antiparallel, or disordered networks, providing a complex environment for active cargo transport and positioning by molecular motors. The interplay between the network architecture and intrinsic motor properties clearly affects transport properties but remains poorly understood. Here, by using surface micropatterns of actin polymerization, we…

9h

Structure of KAP1 tripartite motif identifies molecular interfaces required for retroelement silencing [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Transcription of transposable elements is tightly regulated to prevent genome damage. KRAB domain-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) and KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1/TRIM28) play a key role in regulating retrotransposons. KRAB-ZFPs recognize specific retrotransposon sequences and recruit KAP1, inducing the assembly of an epigenetic silencing complex, with chromatin remodeling activitie

9h

Human retrovirus pHEV-W envelope protein and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis [Commentaries]

Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) (1). We have learned much about the pathogenesis of different stages of the disease, including involvement of both the white matter, rich in myelin, and cortical and deep gray matter. Based on histologic…

9h

Origin of programmed cell death from antiviral defense? [Commentaries]

Viruses and other genetic parasites are ubiquitous in the biosphere, and virtually all cellular organisms evolved multiple defense mechanisms to cope with onslaughts of these parasites (1). In multicellular life forms, a major class of such mechanisms is programmed cell death (PCD), whereby an infected cell “commits altruistic suicide” to…

9h

Autoimmune diabetes mellitus and the leaky gut [Commentaries]

Over the past decade, our understanding of the immune reactivity and, in particular, of autoimmune disorders has witnessed a silent revolution. It has become clear that many, if not all autoimmune diseases entertain an intimate connection to the bacterial gut flora, a cosmos of trillions of different bacteria, forming diverse…

9h

Hysteresis and critical transitions in a coffee agroecosystem [Ecology]

Seeking to employ ecological principles in agricultural management, a classical ecological debate provides a useful framing. Whether ecosystems are controlled from above (predators are the limiting force over herbivores) or from below (overutilization of plant resources is the limiting force over herbivores) is a debate that has motivated much research….

9h

Dynamic graphical models of molecular kinetics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Most current molecular dynamics simulation and analysis methods rely on the idea that the molecular system can be represented by a single global state (e.g., a Markov state in a Markov state model [MSM]). In this approach, molecules can be extensively sampled and analyzed when they only possess a few…

9h

Linking the pseudogap in the cuprates with local symmetry breaking: A commentary [Commentaries]

In the last 2 decades, increasingly precise measurements have established that the cuprate high-temperature superconductors exhibit numerous ordering tendencies. In addition to the “big 2”—Néel antiferromagnetism (AF) and d-wave superconductivity (SC)—a variety of other orders have been observed, especially in the enigmatic “pseudogap” regime of the phase diagram. The term…

9h

Evolution of facial muscle anatomy in dogs [Evolution]

Domestication shaped wolves into dogs and transformed both their behavior and their anatomy. Here we show that, in only 33,000 y, domestication transformed the facial muscle anatomy of dogs specifically for facial communication with humans. Based on dissections of dog and wolf heads, we show that the levator anguli oculi…

9h

Entropic colloidal crystallization pathways via fluid-fluid transitions and multidimensional prenucleation motifs [Applied Physical Sciences]

Complex crystallization pathways are common in protein crystallization, tetrahedrally coordinated systems, and biomineralization, where single or multiple precursors temporarily appear before the formation of the crystal. The emergence of precursors is often explained by a unique property of the system, such as short-range attraction, directional bonding, or ion association. But,…

9h

Correction for Borot et al., Gene-edited stem cells enable CD33-directed immune therapy for myeloid malignancies [Corrections]

MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Gene-edited stem cells enable CD33-directed immune therapy for myeloid malignancies,” by Florence Borot, Hui Wang, Yan Ma, Toghrul Jafarov, Azra Raza, Abdullah Mahmood Ali, and Siddhartha Mukherjee, which was first published May 28, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1819992116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 11978–11987). The authors note that…

9h

Schwann cell precursors contribute to skeletal formation during embryonic development in mice and zebrafish [Developmental Biology]

Immature multipotent embryonic peripheral glial cells, the Schwann cell precursors (SCPs), differentiate into melanocytes, parasympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells, and dental mesenchymal populations. Here, genetic lineage tracing revealed that, during murine embryonic development, some SCPs detach from nerve fibers to become mesenchymal cells, which differentiate further into chondrocytes and ma

9h

Evidence for neural rhythms embedded within binocular rivalry [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Evidence for perceptual periodicity emerges from studies showing periodic fluctuations in visual perception and decision making that are accompanied by neural oscillations in brain activity. We have uncovered signs of periodicity in the time course of binocular rivalry, a widely studied form of multistable perception. This was done by analyzing…

9h

ANK2 autism mutation targeting giant ankyrin-B promotes axon branching and ectopic connectivity [Neuroscience]

Giant ankyrin-B (ankB) is a neurospecific alternatively spliced variant of ANK2, a high-confidence autism spectrum disorder (ASD) gene. We report that a mouse model for human ASD mutation of giant ankB exhibits increased axonal branching in cultured neurons with ectopic CNS axon connectivity, as well as with a transient increase…

9h

Nbn-Mre11 interaction is required for tumor suppression and genomic integrity [Medical Sciences]

We derived a mouse model in which a mutant form of Nbn/Nbs1mid8 (hereafter Nbnmid8) exhibits severely impaired binding to the Mre11−Rad50 core of the Mre11 complex. The Nbnmid8 allele was expressed exclusively in hematopoietic lineages (in Nbn−/mid8vav mice). Unlike Nbnflox/floxvav mice with Nbn deficiency in the bone marrow, Nbn−/mid8vav mice…

9h

Correction for Helyes et al., Transfer of complex regional pain syndrome to mice via human autoantibodies is mediated by interleukin-1-induced mechanisms [Corrections]

NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Transfer of complex regional pain syndrome to mice via human autoantibodies is mediated by interleukin-1–induced mechanisms,” by Zsuzsanna Helyes, Valéria Tékus, Nikolett Szentes, Krisztina Pohóczky, Bálint Botz, Tamás Kiss, Ágnes Kemény, Zsuzsanna Környei, Krisztina Tóth, Nikolett Lénárt, Hajnalka Ábrahám, Emmanuel Pinteaux, Sheila Francis, Serena Sensi, Ádám Dénes,..

9h

Impacts of protected areas vary with the level of government: Comparing avoided deforestation across agencies in the Brazilian Amazon [Economic Sciences]

Protected areas (PAs) are the leading tools to conserve forests. However, given their mixed effectiveness, we want to know when they have impacts internally and, if they do, when they have spillovers. Political economy posits roles for the level of government. One hypothesis is that federal PAs avoid more internal…

9h

Mosquito feeding behavior and how it influences residual malaria transmission across Africa [Ecology]

The antimalarial efficacy of the most important vector control interventions—long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)—primarily protect against mosquitoes’ biting people when they are in bed and indoors. Mosquito bites taken outside of these times contribute to residual transmission which determines the maximum effectiveness of current malaria prevention….

9h

Responses of tundra soil microbial communities to half a decade of experimental warming at two critical depths [Environmental Sciences]

Northern-latitude tundra soils harbor substantial carbon (C) stocks that are highly susceptible to microbial degradation with rising global temperatures. Understanding the magnitude and direction (e.g., C release or sequestration) of the microbial responses to warming is necessary to accurately model climate change. In this study, Alaskan tundra soils were subjected…

9h

A large-scale field experiment shows giving advice improves academic outcomes for the advisor [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Common sense suggests that people struggling to achieve their goals benefit from receiving motivational advice. What if the reverse is true? In a preregistered field experiment, we tested whether giving motivational advice raises academic achievement for the advisor. We randomly assigned n = 1,982 high school students to a treatment…

9h

Rare dental trait provides morphological evidence of archaic introgression in Asian fossil record [Anthropology]

The recently described Denisovan hemimandible from Xiahe, China [F. Chen et al., (2019) Nature 569, 409–412], possesses an unusual dental feature: a 3-rooted lower second molar. A survey of the clinical and bioarchaeological literature demonstrates that the 3-rooted lower molar is rare (less than 3.5% occurrence) in non-Asian Homo sapiens….

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Correction for Llanos et al., Exploration of the chemical space and its three historical regimes [Corrections]

CHEMISTRY Correction for “Exploration of the chemical space and its three historical regimes,” by Eugenio J. Llanos, Wilmer Leal, Duc H. Luu, Jürgen Jost, Peter F. Stadler, and Guillermo Restrepo, which was first published June 11, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1816039116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 12660–12665). The authors note that the…

9h

Trophic control of cryptic coralline algal diversity [Ecology]

Understanding how trophic dynamics drive variation in biodiversity is essential for predicting the outcomes of trophic downgrading across the world’s ecosystems. However, assessing the biodiversity of morphologically cryptic lineages can be problematic, yet may be crucial to understanding ecological patterns. Shifts in keystone predation that favor increases in herbivore abundance…

9h

Assessing micrometastases as a target for nanoparticles using 3D microscopy and machine learning [Applied Biological Sciences]

Metastasis of solid tumors is a key determinant of cancer patient survival. Targeting micrometastases using nanoparticles could offer a way to stop metastatic tumor growth before it causes excessive patient morbidity. However, nanoparticle delivery to micrometastases is difficult to investigate because micrometastases are small in size and lie deep within…

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Large distances separate coregulated genes in living Drosophila embryos [Developmental Biology]

Transcriptional enhancers are short segments of DNA that switch genes on and off in response to a variety of cellular signals. Many enhancers map quite far from their target genes, on the order of tens or even hundreds of kilobases. There is extensive evidence that remote enhancers are brought into…

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Adaptation by naive CD4+ T cells to self-antigen-dependent TCR signaling induces functional heterogeneity and tolerance [Immunology and Inflammation]

Naïve CD4+ T cells experience weak T cell receptor (TCR) signals induced by self-peptides presented by MHC II. To investigate how these “basal” TCR signals influence responses to agonist TCR ligand stimulation, we analyzed naïve CD4+ cells expressing varying amounts of CD5, Ly6C, and Nur77-GFP, markers that reflect the strength…

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White matter volume and white/gray matter ratio in mammalian species as a consequence of the universal scaling of cortical folding [Neuroscience]

Because the white matter of the cerebral cortex contains axons that connect distant neurons in the cortical gray matter, the relationship between the volumes of the 2 cortical compartments is key for information transmission in the brain. It has been suggested that the volume of the white matter scales universally…

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Efficient T cell-B cell collaboration guides autoantibody epitope bias and onset of celiac disease [Immunology and Inflammation]

B cells play important roles in autoimmune diseases through autoantibody production, cytokine secretion, or antigen presentation to T cells. In most cases, the contribution of B cells as antigen-presenting cells is not well understood. We have studied the autoantibody response against the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in celiac disease patients…

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Marine ice sheet instability amplifies and skews uncertainty in projections of future sea-level rise [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Sea-level rise may accelerate significantly if marine ice sheets become unstable. If such instability occurs, there would be considerable uncertainty in future sea-level rise projections due to imperfectly modeled ice sheet processes and unpredictable climate variability. In this study, we use mathematical and computational approaches to identify the ice sheet…

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Evaluating the prevalence and quality of conference codes of conduct [Social Sciences]

Efforts to increase inclusion in science face multiple barriers, including cultural and social behaviors in settings such as academic conferences. Conferences are beneficial, but the culture can promote inequities and power differentials that harm historically underrepresented groups. Science suffers when conference culture propagates exclusion and discrimination that leads to attrition…

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Telomere shortening rate predicts species life span [Genetics]

Telomere shortening to a critical length can trigger aging and shorter life spans in mice and humans by a mechanism that involves induction of a persistent DNA damage response at chromosome ends and loss of cellular viability. However, whether telomere length is a universal determinant of species longevity is not…

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Earth’s radiative imbalance from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere determines the temporal evolution of the global climate, and vice versa changes in the climate system can alter the planetary energy fluxes. This interplay is fundamental to our understanding of Earth’s heat budget and the climate system. However, even today, the…

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Global-level population genomics reveals differential effects of geography and phylogeny on horizontal gene transfer in soil bacteria [Microbiology]

Although microorganisms are known to dominate Earth’s biospheres and drive biogeochemical cycling, little is known about the geographic distributions of microbial populations or the environmental factors that pattern those distributions. We used a global-level hierarchical sampling scheme to comprehensively characterize the evolutionary relationships and distributional limitations of the nitrogen-

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The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3 controls the differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells following microbial stimulation [Immunology and Inflammation]

In response to microbial stimulation, monocytes can differentiate into macrophages or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) but the molecular requirements guiding these possible fates are poorly understood. In addition, the physiological importance of MoDCs in the host cellular and immune responses to microbes remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the nuclear…

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Intravascular innate immune cells reprogrammed via intravenous nanoparticles to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury [Applied Biological Sciences]

Traumatic primary spinal cord injury (SCI) results in paralysis below the level of injury and is associated with infiltration of hematogenous innate immune cells into the injured cord. Methylprednisolone has been applied to reduce inflammation following SCI, yet was discontinued due to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio associated with off-target effects….

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A SWI/SNF subunit regulates chromosomal dissociation of structural maintenance complex 5 during DNA repair in plant cells [Plant Biology]

DNA damage decreases genome stability and alters genetic information in all organisms. Conserved protein complexes have been evolved for DNA repair in eukaryotes, such as the structural maintenance complex 5/6 (SMC5/6), a chromosomal ATPase involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Several factors have been identified for recruitment of SMC5/6…

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Dynamic allostery-based molecular workings of kinase:peptide complexes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

A dense interplay between structure and dynamics underlies the working of proteins, especially enzymes. Protein kinases are molecular switches that are optimized for their regulation rather than catalytic turnover rates. Using long-simulations dynamic allostery analysis, this study describes an exploration of the dynamic kinase:peptide complex. We have used protein kinase…

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Trpc5 deficiency causes hypoprolactinemia and altered function of oscillatory dopamine neurons in the arcuate nucleus [Neuroscience]

Dopamine neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) tonically inhibit the release of the protein hormone prolactin from lactotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland and thus play a central role in prolactin homeostasis of the body. Prolactin, in turn, orchestrates numerous important biological functions such as maternal behavior, reproduction,…

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Pervasive Arctic lead pollution suggests substantial growth in medieval silver production modulated by plague, climate, and conflict [Environmental Sciences]

Lead pollution in Arctic ice reflects large-scale historical changes in midlatitude industrial activities such as ancient lead/silver production and recent fossil fuel burning. Here we used measurements in a broad array of 13 accurately dated ice cores from Greenland and Severnaya Zemlya to document spatial and temporal changes in Arctic…

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Crumpling of silver nanowires by endolysosomes strongly reduces toxicity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Fibrous particles interact with cells and organisms in complex ways that can lead to cellular dysfunction, cell death, inflammation, and disease. The development of conductive transparent networks (CTNs) composed of metallic silver nanowires (AgNWs) for flexible touchscreen displays raises new possibilities for the intimate contact between novel fibers and human…

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A cell-cell interaction format for selection of high-affinity antibodies to membrane proteins [Biochemistry]

Generating and improving antibodies and peptides that bind specifically to membrane protein targets such as ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can be challenging using established selection methods. Current strategies are often limited by difficulties in the presentation of the antigen or the efficiency of the selection process. Here,…

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Characteristic disruptions of an excitable carbon cycle [Applied Mathematics]

The history of the carbon cycle is punctuated by enigmatic transient changes in the ocean’s store of carbon. Mass extinction is always accompanied by such a disruption, but most disruptions are relatively benign. The less calamitous group exhibits a characteristic rate of change whereas greater surges accompany mass extinctions. To…

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Caspase-8 restricts antiviral CD8 T cell hyperaccumulation [Immunology and Inflammation]

The magnitude of CD8 T cell responses against viruses is checked by the balance of proliferation and death. Caspase-8 (CASP8) has the potential to influence response characteristics through initiation of apoptosis, suppression of necroptosis, and modulation of cell death-independent signal transduction. Mice deficient in CASP8 and RIPK3 (Casp8−/−Ripk3−/−) mount enhanced…

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Lack of protective vaginal bacteria linked to high ovarian cancer risk

Women who are genetically at risk for ovarian cancer have lower levels of protective strains of bacteria, similar to women who have the disease

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Social stress linked to bone density loss in postmenopausal women

Postmenopausal women with high social stress and poor relationships may be at higher risk of bone fractures due to stress hormones lowering bone density

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Only big fines will change how the auditors audit

Splitting a firm’s audit and consulting functions has merit but only large penalties will affect proper change •Watchdog finds work of Patisserie Valerie auditor unacceptable This time last year the Financial Reporting Council tried to read the riot act to the auditing industry. Standards, which were already too low, had fallen, the regulator’s inspectors reported. The Big Four firms were told to

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Enter the Evergreen Prize to scale up your education non-profit!

Big Think is highlighting worthy ventures that promote innovation and scale within educational programs. The Evergreen National Education Prize will award a $100,000 top prize to an organization that helps low-income youths access college or vocational education. Applications for this year's Evergreen Prize must be completed by July 12, 2019. None Earlier this year, Big Think partnered with the L

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Why it matters how fruit flies make new neurons

New research describes the activation of dormant neural stem cells in fruit flies and the generation of new neurons. The findings could potentially help people with brain injury or neuronal loss, if similar mechanisms apply in humans. In a paper in PLOS Biology , the research team from Duke-NUS Medical School describes the process and molecules involved in reactivating fruit flies’ (also known by

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Gorillas found to live in 'complex' societies, suggesting deep roots of human social evolution

Gorillas have more complex social structures than previously thought, from lifetime bonds forged between distant relations, to "social tiers" with striking parallels to traditional human societies, according to a new study.

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Human pregnancy dependent on cells evolved in platypus-like animal 300 million years ago

Platelet cells, which prevent mammals from bleeding non-stop, first evolved around 300 million years ago in an egg-laying animal similar to the modern duck-billed platypus, finds joint research by UCL and Yale University.

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AR goggles: FORM is sorta like Google Glass, but for swimming

submitted by /u/MaikeruShogun [link] [comments]

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Gorillas found to live in 'complex' societies, suggesting deep roots of human social evolution

Gorillas have more complex social structures than previously thought, from lifetime bonds forged between distant relations, to "social tiers" with striking parallels to traditional human societies, according to a new study.

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Human pregnancy dependent on cells evolved in platypus-like animal 300 million years ago

Platelet cells, which prevent mammals from bleeding non-stop, first evolved around 300 million years ago in an egg-laying animal similar to the modern duck-billed platypus, finds joint research by UCL and Yale University.

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AT&T to pull Friends from Netflix for its streaming service

AT&T is pulling "Friends" from Netflix to beef up its own upcoming streaming service. With new services launching, popular shows are splintering onto several different platforms.

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Most dog and cat owners not aware of pet blood donation schemes

Most dog and cat owners are not aware of pet blood donation schemes and animal blood banks, finds a survey of pet owners published in Vet Record.

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Fall in GP antibiotic prescribing has been slowest for older patients and those with an unclear diagnosis

GP in England are prescribing fewer antibiotics and when they prescribe them they are increasingly choosing drugs that target a narrow range of organisms rather than broad spectrum antibiotics, suggests new research from King's College London published online in BMJ Open.

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Poor quality social relationships linked to bone loss in postmenopausal women

Poor quality social relationships that contribute to psychosocial stress may be associated with bone loss in postmenopausal women, suggests research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.

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White evangelicals are least likely to say U.S. should accept refugees

A Pew Research Center survey found that only 25% of white evangelicals say the U.S. has a responsibility to accept refugees. Meanwhile, people with no religious affiliation were most likely to say the U.S. does have that responsibility. The results show the divide between the principles and practices of right-wing Christians in the U.S. None It might seem like non-religious people would be most l

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These rare blue clouds could be headed your way

Noctilucent clouds shine over Swaledale in the Yorkshire Dales, United Kingdom, in June 2019. (Neil Squires/PA Wire/PA Images/) Cloud watchers have recently been given record-breaking glimpses of the rarest clouds in the skies. Stunning rippled blue clouds have been forming in the highest reaches of the atmosphere over Europe and the United States . These clouds are normally only seen around the

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Most dog and cat owners not aware of pet blood donation schemes

Most dog and cat owners are not aware of pet blood donation schemes and animal blood banks, finds a survey of pet owners published in Vet Record.

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Five best travel water bottles

Hydration at an arms reach. (Thom Holmes via Unsplash/) The United States throws out around 108 billion disposable cups per year, so there's a lot of room for improvement here. Bring your own water bottle with you to cut down on waste at home and in the office. The following travel tumblers are the best for keeping your water, coffee, or tea at the temperature you want. It comes in a whole bunch

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C.D.C. Investigates Rare Type of Paralysis in Children

Cases of acute flaccid myelitis afflicted more than 200 children last year, but much about the illness is still a mystery.

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Washington Floods Expose a Double Threat: Old Drains and Climate Change

Cities will need to spend heavily to adapt their water systems to cope with rainstorms like the one that struck Monday, experts warn.

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Most dog and cat owners not aware of pet blood donation schemes

Most dog and cat owners are not aware of pet blood donation schemes and animal blood banks, finds a survey of pet owners published in Vet Record.

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On-demand control of terahertz and infrared waves

A theory from 2006 predicts that it should be possible to use graphene in a magnetic field not only to absorb terahertz and infrared light on demand but also to control the direction of the circular polarization. Researchers have succeeded in testing this theory and achieved the predicted results. The study shows that the scientists found an efficient way to control infrared and terahertz waves.

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Goats can distinguish emotions from the calls of other goats

Goats can probably distinguish subtle emotional changes in the calls of other goats, according to a new study led by Queen Mary University of London.

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Elbows key for walkers' efficiency

Why do walkers hold their arms straight and runners bend the arm at the elbow? A team of scientists at Harvard University campus have discovered that walking with a straight arm is much more efficient than holding it bent, but the jury is still out why runners bend their arms.

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Amazon workers to strike on upcoming Prime Day

Amazon workers at a Minnesota fulfillment center organized the strike, which is expected to last 6 hours on July 15. The workers consist mainly of East African Muslim immigrants, who've clashed with the company in the past. Amazon, Target and Walmart are all racing to offer customers the quickest shipping, a move that will likely worsen worker conditions at fulfillment centers. None Amazon employ

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Straight arms or bent? For walking, it's clear. For running, less so

The way we walk is very efficient, but runners’ bent-arm bias is not so straightforward It is a question that perhaps only a scientist would ask and try to answer: why do we walk with straight arms but run with them bent? Months after the conundrum struck Andrew Yegian as he strolled across campus at Harvard, he has part of the answer. Continue reading…

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Goats can distinguish emotions from each other's calls – study

Animals can distinguish between happy and sad calls and have different reactions They are known for gobbling socks from washing lines and for their fearsome headbutting capabilities but the rich emotional life of goats may have been underestimated. Scientists have found that goats are able to distinguish emotions from each other’s calls and also respond to the feelings of their peers, a phenomeno

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Goats reveal their feelings with the sound of distinctive bleats

When goats were played a recording of a ‘happy’ animal bleating, they noticed when there was a shift to ‘sad’ bleats in the recording, and vice versa

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Do you run with bent arms? Turns out it doesn't make much difference

A study found that people don’t use any more energy by running with their arms held straight, even though they found it was a more awkward running style

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Goats can distinguish emotions from the calls of other goats

Goats can probably distinguish subtle emotional changes in the calls of other goats, according to a new study led by Queen Mary University of London.

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Goats can distinguish emotions from the calls of other goats

Goats can probably distinguish subtle emotional changes in the calls of other goats, according to a new study led by Queen Mary University of London.

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New high-definition satellite radar can detect bridges at risk of collapse from space

An early warning system to identify at-risk structures using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been developed. The system could be applied to infrastructure projects including roads, railways and building developments at lower cost and greater accuracy than existing techniques.

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Light therapy could replace opioids as main treatment for cancer treatment side effect

A worldwide coalition of researchers and clinicians has agreed that light therapy is among the most effective interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, painful ulcers in the mouth resulting from cancer therapy.

10h

Decades-long butterfly study shows common species on the decline

The most extensive and systematic insect monitoring program ever undertaken in North America shows that butterfly abundance in Ohio declined yearly by 2%, resulting in an overall 33% drop for the 21 years of the program.

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New antibiotics effective without triggering resistance, mouse study shows

Researchers have developed two new antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria, and they also appear not to trigger resistance when used to treat infection in mice.

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Symptom-triggered medication for neonatal opioid withdrawal yields shorter hospital stays

A study found that symptom-triggered medication dosing for neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome instead of infants receiving a fixed schedule of medication with a long taper reduced the length of their hospital stay.

10h

Quantum chemistry on quantum computers

A new quantum algorithm has been implemented for identifying important physical quantities such as spin quantum numbers relevant to convoluted electronic wave functions on quantum computers, serving as tracking complex chemical reactions without exponential/combinatorial explosion, giving exact solutions of Schroedinger Equations for chemistry, for the first time.

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Left out to dry: A more efficient way to harvest algae biomass

Researchers have developed a new system for evaporating the water from algae biomass with reusable nanoporous graphene, which can lead to cheaper, more environmentally friendly biofuels and fine chemicals.

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On-demand control of terahertz and infrared waves

A theory from 2006 predicts that it should be possible to use graphene in a magnetic field not only to absorb terahertz and infrared light on demand but also to control the direction of the circular polarization. Researchers have succeeded in testing this theory and achieved the predicted results. The study shows that the scientists found an efficient way to control infrared and terahertz waves.

10h

Exactly how fast is the universe expanding?

The collision of two neutron stars (GW170817) flung out an extraordinary fireball of material and energy that is allowing a a team of astrophysicists to calculate a more precise value for the Hubble constant, the speed of the universe's expansion. Previous estimates put the value between 66 and 90 km/s/Mpc, which this team refined to between 65.3 and 75.6 km/s/Mpc.

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Cultural drive breeds war in new evolutionary theory

A new evolutionary model shows that a cultural drive to fight for fighting's sake, even when there is no benefit for the winner, can explain the evolution of intergroup conflict in human societies. The mechanism underlying this process is acculturation — the adoption, through coercion or imitation, of the victor's cultural traits. It's an alternative to the common theoretical explanation that war

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Physicists' finding could revolutionize information transmission

submitted by /u/ovirt001 [link] [comments]

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Nancy Pelosi Would Prefer Not to

Speaker Nancy Pelosi isn’t mincing words about Labor Secretary Alex Acosta: He “must step down” over his role in a past sweetheart deal with the sexual offender Jeffrey Epstein, the Democrat wrote in a tweet Monday evening. But if he doesn’t? Don’t expect her to do anything about it. “It’s up to the president. It’s his Cabinet,” Pelosi said Tuesday when asked whether she’d consider launching impe

10h

The parallel ecomorph evolution of scorpionflies: The evidence is in the DNA

Defying expectations, scorpionflies were found to have ecomorphed in parallel evolutions, independently adapting along different high altitude locations in Japan. Using Bayesian simulations and molecular phylogenetic analysis, scientists were able to show the differing lineages of the 'alpine' and 'general' types of scorpionflies in their DNA, as well as time selective events such as glacial-inter

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Exercise improves brain function in overweight and obese individuals

New findings show that, on top of its benefits for metabolism, mood, and general health, exercise also improves brain function. In recent studies, researchers learned that obese and overweight individuals are prone to insulin resistance in the brain, where it provides information about current nutritional status, as well as the rest of the body. So researchers wanted to know whether exercise can i

10h

Food and alcohol reduce activity in 'hunger neurons' via different brain pathways

How does the brain process rewards? Researchers are investigating how the brain responds differently to two commonly ingested rewards — food and alcohol — to understand how they alter neural activity and behavior.

10h

Brain stimulation enhances motivation to work for food

Electrical stimulation of the brain through the vagus nerve increases the motivations to work for food, according to recent findings. These findings demonstrate a novel method to alter motivation to obtain food.

10h

'Hunger hormone' enhances memory

Neuroscience researchers have identified a surprising new role for the 'hunger hormone' ghrelin. Ghrelin has previously been recognized for its unique role in sending hunger signals from the gut to the brain, but new findings suggest that it may also be important for memory control.

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Perception of lower socioeconomic standing stimulates appetite

Recent research suggests that the psychological consequences of being in a disadvantaged position in society may stimulate appetite and increase eating regardless of one's ability to access healthier foods.

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Growth failure in preterm infants tied to altered gut bacteria

Extremely premature infants who fail to grow as expected have delayed development of their microbiome, or communities of bacteria and other micro-organisms living in the gut, according to a new study.

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Computation and experimentation come closer together

A bioengineering group is bringing the worlds of computational modeling and experimentation closer together by developing a methodology to help analyze the wealth of imaging data provided by advancements in imaging tools and automated microscopes. They show how using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can help infer useful quantitative information for experimental design.

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Osteoporosis: Risks, Symptoms and Treatment

Osteoporosis is most common in postmenopausal women and may occur without much warning.

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Book Review: Reflecting on a Life of Citizen Science

Anne Innis Dagg, Smitten by Giraffe: My Life as a Citizen Scientist, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2016. 256 pp. $34.95 hardcover. Image courtesy of McGill-Queen’s University Press Smitten by Giraffe: My Life as a Citizen Scientist is a memoir by Anne Innis Dagg. In the text, she describes her pursuits as a citizen scientist, ranging from her first encounter with giraffe (the plural o

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Atira Asteroids: Strange Family of Space Rocks Circle Close to Sun

The newly found asteroids circles entirely within Earth's orbit. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech) Astronomers just found an asteroid circling surprisingly close to our home sun, adding one more sibling to a rare family of space rocks. Our solar system has a lot of rubble left over from its creation that's strewn haphazardly between and beyond the planets. But there is some order to the mess. At the oute

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The Purpose of Mucus, the Body’s Unsung Hero

Mucus (shown in pink) is secreted by a cell in the stomach. (Credit: The Path to Digestion Is Paved with Repair. Underwood J, PLoS Biology Vol. 4/9/2006, e307. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040307) We know it best as a stringy slime dripping from noses and as viscous, discolored goop hacked up by sickened airways. But it’s so much more than that. Coating the surfaces of guts, eyes, mouth, nasal cavity

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Intermittent fasting protects mice from type 2 diabetes

Every-other-day fasting substantially reduces the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes in mice eating a fat-rich diet, according to new research out of the German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke. These findings, presented this week at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior in Utrecht, Netherlands, suggest that periodic fasting can reduce fat accum

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Exercise improves brain function in overweight and obese individuals

New findings out of the University of Tübingen show that, on top of its benefits for metabolism, mood, and general health, exercise also improves brain function. In recent studies, researchers learned that obese and overweight individuals are prone to insulin resistance in the brain, where it provides information about current nutritional status, as well as the rest of the body. So researchers wan

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Insulin nasal spray may boost cognitive function in obese adolescents by improving connectivity

Researchers at the Modern Diet and Physiology Research Center and Department of Pediatrics at Yale School of Medicine are investigating whether insulin delivered directly to the brain by nasal inhalation can enhance communication between brain regions and improve cognition in adolescents with obesity and prediabetes. Led by Dr. Dana Small, preliminary findings from a two-year study suggest that in

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Food and alcohol reduce activity in 'hunger neurons' via different brain pathways

How does the brain process rewards? Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania are investigating how the brain responds differently to two commonly ingested rewards — food and alcohol — to understand how they alter neural activity and behavior. Their findings were presented this week in Utrecht, Netherlands at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB),

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Brain stimulation enhances motivation to work for food

Electrical stimulation of the brain through the vagus nerve increases the motivations to work for food, according to recent findings of a research group at the University of Tübingen. These findings, which were presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior this week in Utrecht, Netherlands, demonstrate a novel method to alter motivation to obtain food.

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'Hunger hormone' enhances memory

A team of neuroscience researchers at the University of Southern California have identified a surprising new role for the 'hunger hormone' ghrelin. Ghrelin has previously been recognized for its unique role in sending hunger signals from the gut to the brain, but, as presented this week at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, these new findings suggest that it may

10h

Perception of lower socioeconomic standing stimulates appetite

Recent research suggests that the psychological consequences of being in a disadvantaged position in society may stimulate appetite and increase eating regardless of one's ability to access healthier foods.

10h

California earthquake leaves scar on the desert

Satellite pictures shows how the 7.1 magnitude earthquake changed the landscape.

11h

Moment's anamorphic drone lens makes aerial footage look more like the movies

The Moment Air anamorphic lens makes for cinematic footage. (Moment/) Modern video editing tools make it easy to rely on post-processing for a variety of effects, but there are some jobs that still require a hardware solution. We typically know Moment for its high-end smartphone accessory lenses, but now the company has launched a Kickstarter campaign to fund the Moment Air line of accessory lens

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Learn AI Basics Online with This Innovative ‘Pay What You Want’ Course Bundle

Pretty much all technology in the not-so-distant future will be powered by artificial intelligence , or AI. If you want to be a part of that future, or if you want to help bring it about, you need to get up to speed on the subject. And if you are interested to to learn about AI, the AI & Deep Learning Bundle from Packt Publishing is a great resource . Artificial intelligence run amok is a very po

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Interstellar iron isn't missing, it's just hiding in plain sight

Cosmochemists have found that interstellar iron and carbon form a kind of linked molecule that cloaks the iron — and helps stabilize large carbon molecules.

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'Connecting the dots' for quantum networks

Researchers have developed a novel technique that could enable new technologies that use properties of quantum physics for computing, communication and sensing, which may lead to 'neuromorphic' or brain-inspired computing.

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Do teaching and communicating about microfluidics advances need improvement?

Microfluidics and learning-on-a-chip research — involving the manipulation of small amounts of fluids to run miniaturized experiments — are a prolific research field. But there aren't yet many published examples of how to teach it in an easily understandable way or to communicate advances within the field to the public.

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Hinge-like protein may open new doors in cystic fibrosis treatment

Drugs known as potentiators alleviate some symptoms of cystic fibrosis. Researchers recently figured out how these compounds work–a finding that may lead to better drugs that patients can more easily afford.

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Characterizing the 'arrow of time' in open quantum systems

Even in the strange world of open quantum systems, the arrow of time points steadily forward — most of the time. New experiments compare the forward and reverse trajectories of superconducting circuits called qubits, and find that they largely tend to follow the second law of thermodynamics.

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Decentralizing science may lead to more reliable results in biomedical research

Research results on drug-gene interactions are much less likely to be replicated if they are performed by hierarchical communities or close-knit groups of frequent collaborators who use similar methods, instead of independent groups of scientists using different methods.

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Nearly 200K People Have Signed Up to Steal Alien Secrets from Area 51 in Late-Summer Raid

More than 200,000 Facebook users say they're interested in joining a raid on Nevada's infamous Area 51 air base this summer.

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Apple Kills the 12-Inch MacBook, a Webcam Hack, and More News

Catch up on the most important news from today in two minutes or less.

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Amazon and Microsoft Want to Build A “War Cloud” for the Military

Cloud City At the end of August, the Pentagon will award a $10 billion contract to a tech company that will build it a so-called “war cloud.” The AI-driven cloud computing network, formally called the Joint Enterprise Defense Infrastructure (JEDI) plan, is expected to vastly improve the U.S. military’s ability to plan and engage in warfare, reports the Associated Press . Right now, the contract w

11h

Here's What It Really Means That Iran Enriched Uranium to 4.5%

Iran enriched uranium to 4.5%, breaking the limit of 3.67% set during the 2015 nuclear deal. Here's what that all means for the possibility of an Iranian bomb.

11h

Addicted to Ran, ovarian cancer cells stop moving when deprived

In a new study, researchers have shown the key role that a protein called Ran plays in the mobility of ovarian cancer cells. They demonstrated these cells cannot migrate from cancerous sites without the help of Ran.

11h

A drier future sets the stage for more wildfires

November 8, 2018 was a dry day in Butte County, California. The state was in its sixth consecutive year of drought, and the county had not had a rainfall event producing more than a half inch of rain for seven months. The dry summer had parched the spring vegetation, and the strong northeasterly winds of autumn were gusting at 35 miles per hour and rising, creating red flag conditions: Any planned

11h

Interstellar iron isn't missing, it's just hiding in plain sight

Cosmochemists have found that interstellar iron and carbon form a kind of linked molecule that cloaks the iron — and helps stabilize large carbon molecules.

11h

Physicists' finding could revolutionize information transmission

A research team has observed, characterized, and controlled dark trions in a semiconductor — ultraclean single-layer tungsten diselenide — a feat that could increase the capacity and alter the form of information transmission.

11h

Scientists identify new virus-killing protein

A new protein called KHNYN has been identified as a missing piece in a natural antiviral system that kills viruses by targeting a specific pattern in viral genomes, according to new findings.

11h

'Chaos' in the home linked to poor asthma control in children

A chaotic household, as well as child and parent depression, are risk factors for worse asthma outcomes in urban minority children, according to a new article.

11h

Criteria for bariatric surgery should consider more than just patient's weight

More than one-third of Americans are obese, and while more than 250,000 bariatric surgeries are performed annually in the United States, experts say surgery should be an option for many more patients. Researchers say the standard criteria to qualify for bariatric surgery are nearly three decades old and are arbitrarily based on a patient's body mass index (BMI).

11h

'Connecting the dots' for quantum networks

Researchers have developed a novel technique that could enable new technologies that use properties of quantum physics for computing, communication and sensing, which may lead to 'neuromorphic' or brain-inspired computing.

11h

Do teaching and communicating about microfluidics advances need improvement?

Microfluidics and learning-on-a-chip research — involving the manipulation of small amounts of fluids to run miniaturized experiments — are a prolific research field. But there aren't yet many published examples of how to teach it in an easily understandable way or to communicate advances within the field to the public.

11h

New antibacterial fillings may combat recurring tooth decay

A new study finds potent antibacterial capabilities in novel dental restoratives, or filling materials.

11h

Therapeutic strategies based on evolutionary principles may improve patient outcomes

Researchers propose the evolutionary dynamics of background extinctions suggest this focus on finding new and better drugs may have neglected opportunities to develop new and better treatment strategies to improve outcomes with currently available drugs.

11h

Linking phenotypes to genotypes: A newly devised gene-editing strategy

Scientists have developed a new methodology that allows the study of CRISPR-mediated effects in cells while accurately ascertaining the exact DNA changes that caused them. This novel protocol is opening up new avenues of study for neurobiology and further upgrade the already powerful abilities of CRISPR-based techniques.

11h

Cyborg-like microchip valve driven by earthworm muscle

Scientists have developed the first microchip valve powered by living cells. Earthworm muscle tissue allowed for a high contractile force that could be sustained for minutes, and unlike electrically controlled valves, did not require any external power source such as batteries.

11h

Why Baseballs Are Flying in 2019

An analysis of the 2019 edition of the Major League baseball points to reasons why it's leaving ballparks at a record rate.

11h

Light touch to improve rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis

A new way of detecting rheumatoid arthritis using infrared light could offer an objective way of diagnosing the disease and monitoring treatment effectiveness, a new study shows.

11h

New imaging method aids in water decontamination

A breakthrough imaging technique shows promise in decontaminating water by yielding surprising and important information about catalyst particles that can't be obtained any other way.

11h

Coral reefs shifting away from equator

Coral reefs are retreating from equatorial waters and establishing new reefs in more temperate regions, according to new research. The researchers found that the number of young corals on tropical reefs has declined by 85 percent — and doubled on subtropical reefs — during the last four decades.

12h

Unusual eating behaviors may be a new diagnostic indicator for autism

Atypical eating behaviors may be a sign a child should be screened for autism, according to researchers who found that atypical eating behaviors were present in 70 percent of children with autism, which is 15 times more common than in neurotypical children.

12h

Storing data in music

Researchers have developed a technique for embedding data in music and transmitting it to a smartphone. Since the data is imperceptible to the human ear, it doesn't affect listening pleasure. This could have interesting applications in hotels, museums and department stores.

12h

Teens 'mocked' by their parents are at greater risk for bullying, victimization

New evidence suggests that adolescent bullying and victimization may have origins in the home. Many bullies have parents who are hostile, punitive and rejecting. A unique longitudinal study provides a more complete understanding of how parents' belittling and critical interactions with adolescents thwart their ability to maintain positive relationships with peers. Derisive parenting precipitates a

12h

Drinking Matcha tea can reduce anxiety

Using the 'elevated plus maze' test with mice, researchers have shown that Matcha green tea can reduce anxiety. Their experiments revealed that Matcha's anxiolytic effects are due to the activation of dopamine D1 receptors and certain serotonin receptors. The researchers suggest that adding a little Matcha tea to your diet may improve your health.

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Improved model could help scientists better predict crop yield, climate change effects

A new computer model incorporates how microscopic pores on leaves may open in response to light — an advance that could help scientists create virtual plants to predict how higher temperatures and rising levels of carbon dioxide will affect food crops.

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Nanoscale visualization of the distribution and optical behavior of dopant in GaN

In Gallium Nitride (GaN) implanted with a small amount of magnesium (Mg), scientists succeeded for the first time in visualizing the distribution and optical behavior of the implanted Mg at the nanoscale which may help in improving electrical performance of GaN based devices. Some of the mechanisms by which introduced Mg ions convert GaN into a p-type semiconductor are also revealed. These finding

12h

How much do climate fluctuations matter for global crop yields?

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation has been responsible for widespread, simultaneous crop failures in recent history, according to a new study. This finding runs counter to a central pillar of the global agriculture system, which assumes that crop failures in geographically distant breadbasket regions such as the United States, China and Argentina are unrelated. The results also underscore the poten

12h

Scientists decode DNA secrets of world's toughest bean

Scientists have decoded the genome of black-eyed peas, offering hope for feeding Earth's expanding population, especially as the climate changes. Understanding the genes responsible for the peas' drought and heat tolerance eventually could help make other crops tougher too.

12h

Blue light at night increases the consumption of sweets in rats

A new study demonstrates that just one hour of exposure to blue light at night — the kind of light produced by the screens of our many devices — raises blood sugar levels and increases sugar consumption in male rats.

12h

Light touch to improve rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis

A new way of detecting rheumatoid arthritis using infrared light could offer an objective way of diagnosing the disease and monitoring treatment effectiveness, a new study shows.

12h

University of Pittsburgh group brings computation and experimentation closer together

A bioengineering group from the University of Pittsburgh is bringing the worlds of computational modeling and experimentation closer together by developing a methodology to help analyze the wealth of imaging data provided by advancements in imaging tools and automated microscopes. They recently published a paper in PLOS ONE that shows how using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can help infer

12h

Growth failure in preterm infants tied to altered gut bacteria

Extremely premature infants who fail to grow as expected have delayed development of their microbiome, or communities of bacteria and other micro-organisms living in the gut, according to a new study published in Scientific Reports.

12h

Watch This Tiny Plane Nail a Fully Autonomous Landing

Wheels Down Commercial aircraft have been making autonomous landings for decades, but they’re typically only able to do so thanks to instrument landing systems (ILS), which use a combination of radio signals from ground-based antennae and autopilot tech built into the plane to guide it to a safe landing. ILS systems are generally confined to larger airports. That means aircraft often can’t fly at

12h

Ny forskning kan pille ved fordom: Der bliver grebet ind i ni ud af ti konflikter på gaden

Overvågningskameraer dokumenterer tilskueres rolle ved konflikter eller vold i det offentlige rum.

12h

Why Baseballs Are Flying in 2019

An analysis of the 2019 edition of the Major League baseball points to reasons why it's leaving ballparks at a record rate. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Compound in semen is sea lamprey ‘cologne’

Spermine, an odorous compound in semen, proves to be a powerful aphrodisiac for lampreys, according to new research. Spermine isn’t a new discovery. It’s been a known quantity in semen since 1678—at least in humans. Its tractor-beam effect on spawning female sea lampreys is new, however, and it can be yet another key way to potentially control the invasive species. “We found the male ejaculate co

12h

Zoom Will Fix the Flaw That Let Hackers Hijack Webcams

While it at first dismissed the vulnerability, Zoom says it will release a patch Tuesday night.

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Amazon Wants to Join SpaceX and Launch 3,200 Internet Satellites

Project Kuiper Amazon has officially filed an application with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to launch 3,236 broadband satellites . The online retailer is trying to connect the remaining tens of millions of people to the internet that don’t have access yet as part of Project Kuiper. “The goal here is broadband everywhere,” Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos said during the company’s re:MARS conf

12h

Addicted to ran, ovarian cancer cells stop moving when deprived

Did you know that 90% of cancer patients die from distant metastasis? The latter occurs when cancer cells have the ability to move within the patient's body and invade its healthy tissues. In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers from the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM) have shown the key role that a protein called Ran plays in the mobility of ovarian can

12h

Coral reefs shifting away from equator

Coral reefs are retreating from equatorial waters and establishing new reefs in more temperate regions, according to new research in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series. The researchers found that the number of young corals on tropical reefs has declined by 85 percent – and doubled on subtropical reefs – during the last four decades.

12h

Killing the seeds of cancer: A new finding shows potential in destroying cancer stem cells

When doctors remove a tumor surgically or use targeted therapies, the cancer may appear to be gone. However, evidence suggests a tiny subpopulation of adaptable cancer cells can remain and circulate through the body to seed new metastasis in far-off locations. A collaborative research project has identified an entirely new class of molecules that shows promise in rooting out and killing those canc

12h

Study of the impact of long-duration space missions at the International Space Station on the astronaut microbiome

Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46303-8 Study of the impact of long-duration space missions at the International Space Station on the astronaut microbiome

12h

Dual Kit/Aur Inhibitors as Chemosensitizing Agents for the Treatment of Melanoma: Design, Synthesis, Docking Studies and Functional Investigation

Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46287-5 Dual Kit/Aur Inhibitors as Chemosensitizing Agents for the Treatment of Melanoma: Design, Synthesis, Docking Studies and Functional Investigation

12h

The Pol β variant containing exon α is deficient in DNA polymerase but has full dRP lyase activity

Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-45846-0 The Pol β variant containing exon α is deficient in DNA polymerase but has full dRP lyase activity

12h

Clostridioides difficile LuxS mediates inter-bacterial interactions within biofilms

Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46143-6 Clostridioides difficile LuxS mediates inter-bacterial interactions within biofilms

12h

The safety and preventive effects of a supraorbital transcutaneous stimulator in Japanese migraine patients

Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46044-8 The safety and preventive effects of a supraorbital transcutaneous stimulator in Japanese migraine patients

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Identification of prognosis markers for endometrial cancer by integrated analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data

Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46195-8 Identification of prognosis markers for endometrial cancer by integrated analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data

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Air pollution speeds up aging of the lungs and increases chronic lung disease risk

A study of more than 300,000 people has found that exposure to outdoor air pollution is linked to decreased lung function and an increased risk of developing COPD. Lung function normally declines as we age, but the new research suggests that air pollution may contribute to the ageing process and adds to the evidence that breathing in polluted air harms the lungs.

12h

New anticancer agents may better control tumor growth in nearly every cancer type

Researchers have discovered a novel set of MYC promoter G-quadruplex stabilizers that have demonstrated anticancer activity in human cancer cell cultures.

12h

Pneumonia patients get too many antibiotics — especially as they leave the hospital

A million times a year, pneumonia sends American adults to the hospital. And while antibiotics help save lives, a new study shows two-thirds receive more antibiotics than they probably need. It's not the care that happens in the hospital that leads to over-treatment, the study finds. Rather, it's the prescriptions that patients receive as they head home from the hospital. In all, 93% of the overly

12h

New probe could help surgeons more accurately remove tumours

A new study has the potential to help surgeons more accurately remove tumors and detect cancer in lymph nodes during surgery.

12h

Does genetic testing pose psychosocial risks?

For the last quarter century, researchers have been asking whether genetic information might have negative psychosocial effects. Anxiety, depression, disrupted relationships, and heightened stigmatization have all been posited as possible outcomes — but not consistently found. What accounts for the discrepancy? A new special report explores this question.

12h

New imaging method aids in water decontamination

A breakthrough imaging technique shows promise in decontaminating water by yielding surprising and important information about catalyst particles that can't be obtained any other way.

12h

Gadolinium deposition occurs in early MS

A commonly used imaging linear contrast agent, gadodiamide, does accumulate in the brain early in MS but there is no discernible clinical impact.

12h

Life is tough but so are worms — thanks to mom

Numerous studies show that the legacy of hardship can be passed from one generation to the next. The good news is that resilience can cross generations too. A worm study found that offspring of mothers who ate fewer calories during pregnancy were better able to bounce back from starvation themselves. A mother worm transmits her coping abilities to the next generation via changes in insulin signali

12h

Killing the seeds of cancer: A new finding shows potential in destroying cancer stem cells

When doctors remove a tumor surgically or use targeted therapies, the cancer may appear to be gone. However, evidence suggests a tiny subpopulation of adaptable cancer cells can remain and circulate through the body to seed new metastasis in far-off locations. A collaborative research project has identified an entirely new class of molecules that shows promise in rooting out and killing those canc

12h

The Horrors of ICE’s ‘Trans-Pod’

“I decided to come to the U.S. to save my life,” says Luz, a transgender asylum seeker, in Sylvia Johnson’s short documentary Luz’s Story . In Honduras, Luz was shot multiple times by alleged gang members who targeted her for her trans identity. She barely emerged with her life. As soon as she was released from the hospital, she was transferred to a Honduran prison on charges of defending her ide

12h

A Wind Storm in Australia Nearly Interrupted the Moon Landing Broadcast

As Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the moon, radio telescope operators in New South Wales scrambled to receive the live video

12h

California’s stem cell research fund dries up

Researchers hope a planned ballot initiative will renew funding in 2020

12h

The Cryptocurrency Rush Transforming Old Swiss Gold Mines

In 2016, Alpine Tech started a digital currency mining operation in Gondo, on the Italian border. Photographer Claudio Cerasoli documented their efforts.

12h

Scientists Melted Ancient Ice and a Long-Dead Worm Wriggled Out

Welcome Back When a team of biologists melted some Siberian permafrost to look for microbes , an ancient survivor waved hello. On University of Tennessee microbiologist Tatiana Vishnivetskaya’s petri dish sat a small pile of nematodes — half-millimeter long roundworms — that sprang back to life as the ice age-era frost melted away around them, according to The Washington Post . The against-all-od

12h

Watch a tiny worm make one of the loudest sounds in the ocean

Sponge-dwelling worms may be one of the nosiest animals in the sea

12h

We’re All Living in the World Ross Perot Made

His television platform was Larry King Live , not The Apprentice , and his persona was genial and folksy, not blustery and dark. But more than a quarter century ago, Ross Perot revealed a truth about the American electorate that Donald Trump would exploit: There is a big chunk of voters who feel disaffected, harmed by free trade, threatened by demographic change, and attracted to an eccentric out

12h

A drier future sets the stage for more wildfires

November 8, 2018 was a dry day in Butte County, California. The state was in its sixth consecutive year of drought, and the county had not had a rainfall event producing more than a half inch of rain for seven months. The dry summer had parched the spring vegetation, and the strong northeasterly winds of autumn were gusting at 35 miles per hour and rising, creating red flag conditions: Any planned

12h

Characterizing the 'arrow of time' in open quantum systems

Even in the strange world of open quantum systems, the arrow of time points steadily forward—most of the time. New experiments conducted at Washington University in St. Louis compare the forward and reverse trajectories of superconducting circuits called qubits, and find that they follow the second law of thermodynamics. The research is published July 9 in the journal Physical Review Letters.

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Scientists identify new virus-killing protein

A new protein called KHNYN has been identified as a missing piece in a natural antiviral system that kills viruses by targeting a specific pattern in viral genomes, according to new findings published today in eLife. Studying the body's natural defenses to viruses and how viruses evolve to evade them is crucial to developing new vaccines, drugs and anticancer treatments.

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Interstellar iron isn't missing, it's just hiding in plain sight

Astrophysicists know that iron (chemical symbol: Fe) is one of the most abundant elements in the universe, after lightweight elements such as hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Iron is most commonly found in gaseous form in stars such as the Sun, and in more condensed form in planets such as Earth.

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Scientists identify new virus-killing protein

A new protein called KHNYN has been identified as a missing piece in a natural antiviral system that kills viruses by targeting a specific pattern in viral genomes, according to new findings published today in eLife. Studying the body's natural defenses to viruses and how viruses evolve to evade them is crucial to developing new vaccines, drugs and anticancer treatments.

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AT&T pulls 'Friends' from Netflix for its streaming service

AT&T is pulling "Friends" from Netflix to beef up its own upcoming streaming service. With new services launching, popular shows are splintering onto several different platforms.

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Interstellar iron isn't missing, it's just hiding in plain sight

ASU cosmochemists have found that interstellar iron and carbon form a kind of linked molecule that cloaks the iron — and helps stabilize large carbon molecules.

13h

A Finnish Startup Is Making Food out of Carbon Dioxide

Alternative Snacks Solar Foods has developed a process that uses renewable energy and the carbon dioxide polluting our atmosphere to create an alternative protein it calls Solein. The company says this process makes Solein 100 times more climate-friendly than other sources of protein, even those created from plants — and if it proves scalable, the technique could address both the devastating envi

13h

This Cockatoo Thinks He Can Dance

Researchers have become convinced that Snowball, a YouTube sensation, and perhaps other animals, share humans’ sensitivity to music. He certainly has his own moves.

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The shakiest earthquake myths debunked

The San Andreas Fault is actually visible in the Carrizo Plain (Doc Searls/) Back-to-back tremors shook up Southern California last week. A magnitude 6.4 quake struck Thursday morning, followed by a magnitude 7.1 event Friday night. Both occurred near the small city of Ridgecrest, located about 122 miles east-northeast of Los Angeles. While there are no reports of deaths or injuries, the U.S. Geo

13h

MyHeritage Launches Health-Related Genetic Test, Ignites Debate

Its screen for selected variants of some disease-linked genes gives customers an incomplete picture of their risk – do they know?

13h

A drier future sets the stage for more wildfires

November 8, 2018 was a dry day in Butte County, California. The state was in its sixth consecutive year of drought, and the county had not had a rainfall event producing more than a half inch of rain for seven months. The dry summer had parched the spring vegetation, and the strong northeasterly winds of autumn were gusting at 35 miles per hour and rising, creating red flag conditions: Any planned

13h

Apple MacBook Pro With Touch Bar (2019): Price, Specs, Release Date

Apple has refreshed its laptop lineup, adding the Touch Bar control strip to its entry-level MacBook Pro, and killing off the popular 12-inch MacBook in favor of the redesigned MacBook Air.

13h

Tracing the roots: Mapping a vegetable family tree for better food

Scientists have challenged prior theories of the origins of three vegetables — canola, rutabaga and Siberian kale — by mapping the genetic family tree of these leafy greens.

13h

Ridehailing services may be driving up traffic deaths

The arrival of ridehailing is associated with an increase of approximately 3 percent in the number of motor vehicle fatalities and fatal accidents, according to new research.

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New clues to the origin of massive underwater volcano, Tamu Massif

The discovery of Tamu Massif, a gigantic volcano located about 1,000 miles east of Japan, made big news in 2013 when researchers reported it was the largest single volcano documented on earth, roughly the size of New Mexico. New findings conclude that it is a different breed of volcanic mountain than earlier thought, throwing into doubt the prior claim that it is the world's largest single volcano

13h

How to reduce extreme heat in city neighborhoods

Planting more vegetation, using reflective materials on hard surfaces and installing green roofs on buildings can help cool potentially deadly urban heat islands — a phenomenon that exists in nearly all large cities — a new study shows.

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Sneaky mating may be in female damselfies' interest

New research on damselflies in northern Africa suggests that females may facilitate the reproductive success of inferior males when their health is at risk.

13h

What the 'Stranger Things' High Viewership Numbers Actually Mean

Netflix says more than 40 million accounts are watching the show. That number says very little.

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“Cyborg-Like” Earthworm Controls Microchip With Its Muscles

Cyborg Earthworm Japanese researchers developed a tiny microchip valve that can be entirely powered by a living earthworm’s muscles, no electricity required. According to a press release , it’s the first valve of its kind entirely powered by living cells. The valve is a so-called Bio-MEMS (biomedical microelectromechanical system) — a kind of technology that’s been used in electrochemical sensors

13h

Bad News, Astronauts: NASA Probably Won’t Reach Moon by 2024

Delicate Operation Things don’t look great for Artemis, NASA’s upcoming crewed mission to the Moon. Tasked by the White House with putting boots on the Moon by 2024, NASA has scrambled to accelerate its plans and piece together a successful, cohesive mission amidst budgetary problems and technological shortcomings . “If the pieces come together in the right way they can pull it off,” Planetary Sc

13h

Smells like love…to sea lampreys

Some people are drawn to cologne; others are attracted to perfume. When it comes to sea lampreys, however, spermine smells like love. Spermine, an odorous compound found in male semen, proved to be a powerful aphrodisiac.

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Rogue Crane on the Cornelia Marie | Deadliest Catch

In storm-driven seas, Cornelia Marie's crane goes off the rails. Stream Full Episodes of Deadliest Catch: https://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/deadliest-catch/ Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Join us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DeadliestCatch https://www.facebook.com/Discovery Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/DeadliestCatch https://twitter.com/Discovery F

13h

SpaceX Scores NASA Contract to Launch Black Hole Spacecraft

Black Hole Explorer NASA just awarded SpaceX a contract to launch what the agency’s calling a “groundbreaking astrophysics mission:” NASA’s Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) mission, which could one day allow astronomers to uncover the mysteries behind black holes and neutron stars. The $50.3 million mission is planning to launch three space telescopes that are capable of analyzing the po

13h

New technique developed to detect autism in children

In a new study, researchers characterized how children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) scan a person's face differently than a neuro-typical child. The researchers were able to develop a technique that considers how a child with ASD gaze transitions from one part of a person's face to another.

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Hinge-like protein may open new doors in cystic fibrosis treatment

Drugs known as potentiators alleviate some symptoms of cystic fibrosis. Researchers recently figured out how these compounds work–a finding that may lead to better drugs that patients can more easily afford.

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Scientists identify new virus-killing protein

A new protein called KHNYN has been identified as a missing piece in a natural antiviral system that kills viruses by targeting a specific pattern in viral genomes, according to new findings published today in eLife.

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Symptom-triggered medication for neonatal opioid withdrawal yields shorter hospital stays

A study led by researchers at Boston Medical Center (BMC) found that symptom-triggered medication dosing for neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome instead of infants receiving a fixed schedule of medication with a long taper reduced the length of their hospital stay.

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Smells like love…to sea lampreys

Some people are drawn to cologne; others are attracted to perfume. When it comes to sea lampreys, however, spermine smells like love. In new research led by Michigan State University and published in the current issue of PLoS Biology, spermine, an odorous compound found in male semen, proved to be a powerful aphrodisiac.

14h

Decades-long butterfly study shows common species on the decline

The most extensive and systematic insect monitoring program ever undertaken in North America shows that butterfly abundance in Ohio declined yearly by 2%, resulting in an overall 33% drop for the 21 years of the program.

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Aphrodisiac pheromone discovered in fish semen

An aphrodisiac pheromone discovered in the semen of sea lampreys attracts ready-to-mate females, according to a study publishing July 9 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Anne M. Scott of Michigan State University, Zhe Zhang of Shanghai Ocean University, and colleagues.

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New antibiotics developed by Inserm and Université de Rennes 1

Prof. Brice Felden and his team at the Inserm and Université de Rennes 1 'Bacterial Regulatory RNAs and Medicine' joint laboratory (U1230) has developed two new antibiotics that do not trigger resistance when they are used to treat infection in mice. This French advance could bring both fresh impetus and new possibilities for fighting antibiotic resistance worldwide.

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40 procent af os sover dårligt: Her får du fem råd til en god nats søvn

Bliv længere oppe og skriv dine bekymringer ned, siger søvnforsker.

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The best gear and gadgets for summer camping

This story originally published on FieldandStream.com Summer is the perfect time to go camping with the family. School is out, public campgrounds across the country are open now, and, with the snow (finally) disappearing in the high country, the weather is starting to hit that sweet spot. And if you need more convincing—did you know that June is National Camping Month? And while part of the fun o

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Butterfly numbers fell by one third in the US over last two decades

Butterfly numbers have dropped by one third in the US over 20 years because of climate change and habitat destruction – and other insects may be declining too

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Scenes From the Sydney Surf

Recent excellent surf conditions in Sydney, Australia, have brought people out to enjoy some of Sydney’s dozens of beaches and surf spots. Several photographers have been out as well, capturing some of the dazzling light of the low sun on churning water, and some of the amazing encounters and rides experienced by surfers along the New South Wales coast. Gathered here: images from the past few yea

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Tuning out the static: It took 40 years before I found out that I have ADHD | Tom Hawking

It’s hard not to wonder how things like jobs and relationships might have turned out differently had I been medicated all along In retrospect, the signs were there all along. Difficulty concentrating, especially on things that didn’t interest me. Awful short-term memory. A complete inability to keep track of time. Lack of emotional self-control. And so on. Nevertheless, it took 40 years before so

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Oh No: Someone Deepfaked Jim Carrey Into “The Shining”

Here’s Jimmy Someone has finally done it: they used machine learning to superimpose the face of Jim Carrey onto Jack Nicholson’s character in Stanley Kubrick’s iconic 1980 adaptation of Stephen King’s “The Shining.” Let’s be real, though — you just want to see it: Daddy’s Home It’s a fun clip — and, in terms of mapping Carrey’s face onto Nicholson’s complex performance, one of the most impressive

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Apollonian Experiences

Apollonian Experiences A reporter recalls what it was like to cover the space race. apollo16_crop2.jpg The Apollo 16 space vehicle is launched on April 16, 1972. Reporter Peter Gwynne covered 11 crewed Apollo missions, including Apollo 16. Image credits: NASA Space Tuesday, July 9, 2019 – 14:15 Peter Gwynne, Contributor (Inside Science) — I was there on July 16, 1969. I sat in the bleachers at F

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What Apollo Tells Us About the Next Moon Missions

What Apollo Tells Us About the Next Moon Missions Half a century after Neil Armstrong stepped onto the Moon, can NASA recover the sense of adventure that sparked its Cold War triumph? Apollo10_Hasselblad_edited.jpg Image credits: Project Apollo Archive Space Tuesday, July 9, 2019 – 14:00 Peter Gwynne, Contributor (Inside Science) — In May 1969, after the Apollo 10 astronauts returned from a jour

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Researchers develop two new antibiotics that do not trigger resistance in mice

Two new antibiotics created by Prof. Brice Felden and his team at the Inserm and Université de Rennes 1 are not only effective against Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria, they also appear not to trigger resistance when used to treat infection in mice. This advance could bring new possibilities for fighting antibiotic resistance worldwide. Details on this research are published in

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Aphrodisiac pheromone discovered in fish semen

An aphrodisiac pheromone discovered in the semen of sea lampreys attracts ready-to-mate females, according to a study publishing July 9 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Anne M. Scott of Michigan State University, Zhe Zhang of Shanghai Ocean University, and colleagues.

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Decades-long butterfly study shows common species on the decline

The most extensive and systematic insect monitoring program ever undertaken in North America shows that butterfly abundance in Ohio declined yearly by 2%, resulting in an overall 33% drop for the 21 years of the program.

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Researchers develop two new antibiotics that do not trigger resistance in mice

Two new antibiotics created by Prof. Brice Felden and his team at the Inserm and Université de Rennes 1 are not only effective against Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria, they also appear not to trigger resistance when used to treat infection in mice. This advance could bring new possibilities for fighting antibiotic resistance worldwide. Details on this research are published in

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Aphrodisiac pheromone discovered in fish semen

An aphrodisiac pheromone discovered in the semen of sea lampreys attracts ready-to-mate females, according to a study publishing July 9 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Anne M. Scott of Michigan State University, Zhe Zhang of Shanghai Ocean University, and colleagues.

14h

Decades-long butterfly study shows common species on the decline

The most extensive and systematic insect monitoring program ever undertaken in North America shows that butterfly abundance in Ohio declined yearly by 2%, resulting in an overall 33% drop for the 21 years of the program.

14h

Characterizing the 'arrow of time' in open quantum systems

Even in the strange world of open quantum systems, the arrow of time points steadily forward — most of the time. A video details new experiments conducted at Washington University in St. Louis that compare the forward and reverse trajectories of superconducting circuits called qubits, and find that they largely tend to follow the second law of thermodynamics. The research is published July 9 in t

14h

Lovebirds ace maneuvers in the dark

In order to navigate extreme crosswinds in the dark, lovebirds only need a single point of light.

14h

Lovebirds ace maneuvers in the dark

While pilots rely on radio signals, advanced computations and tools to keep them on course during strong crosswinds, birds can naturally navigate these demanding conditions—and do so in environments with little visibility. To understand how they accomplish this feat, researchers in the lab of David Lentink, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University, studied lovebirds fly

14h

Lovebirds ace maneuvers in the dark

While pilots rely on radio signals, advanced computations and tools to keep them on course during strong crosswinds, birds can naturally navigate these demanding conditions—and do so in environments with little visibility. To understand how they accomplish this feat, researchers in the lab of David Lentink, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University, studied lovebirds fly

14h

More legroom, less conversation for Uber riders who pay

Uber is letting passengers tell their driver in advance that they'd like a little less conversation, and more legroom, if they're willing to pay.

14h

Getting money for your bottles and cans

Recycling reverse vending machines will soon be a common sight across Scotland.

14h

Switching off this enzyme reversed prediabetes in mice

A new study shows that deactivating an enzyme that alters ceramides can prevent insulin resistance and fatty liver as well as reverse prediabetes in mice.

14h

This Bizarre Drone Splits Into Five Mini-Drones Mid-Air

Plant the Seed Samaras are tiny seed pods with a wing-like shape on one side that causes them to spin as they float to the ground from the branches of tree. As a child you might have tossed them into the air yourself, watching as the “whirlybirds” spun out in different directions. Now, a team of researchers has created a drone comprising five samara-like mini-drones — and they believe it could on

14h

In Environment Speech, Trump Fails to Mention Climate Change

The address also included inaccurate claims on the state of U.S. air quality — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

14h

We spoke to survivalists prepping for disaster: Here’s what we learned about the end of the world

We are all fucked. A crude though oft-uttered sigh which tries to encapsulate an intense, but vague anxiety we experience on many fronts. What's causing it? The possibility of climate-induced population extinction , the development of so-called NBIC (nano-bio-info-cogno) technologies, global financial collapse and the exponential development of potentially malevolent machine intelligence , to nam

14h

AR goggles: FORM is sorta like Google Glass, but for swimming

The rise of augmented reality has enabled tech companies to create some of the most hyped-up eyewear the world has ever seen.

14h

No getting out of chemistry classes | Brief letters

GCSE science | Carry On films | Apt surnames | Clueless crosswords | Not enough women The idea that a state school can “scrap” GCSE chemistry because “the lab is expensive to maintain” ( Letters , 8 July) is mistaken. All state secondary schools in England are required to teach science (biology, chemistry and physics) as a core subject leading to a national qualification. All three science subject

14h

High-resolution contrast-enhanced microCT reveals the true three-dimensional morphology of the murine placenta [Applied Biological Sciences]

Genetic engineering of the mouse genome identified many genes that are essential for embryogenesis. Remarkably, the prevalence of concomitant placental defects in embryonic lethal mutants is highly underestimated and indicates the importance of detailed placental analysis when phenotyping new individual gene knockouts. Here we introduce high-resolution contrast-enhanced microfocus computed tomogra

14h

A structure-based mechanism of cisplatin resistance mediated by glutathione transferase P1-1 [Biochemistry]

Cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP)] is one of the most successful anticancer agents effective against a wide range of solid tumors. However, its use is restricted by side effects and/or by intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Here, we probed the role of glutathione transferase (GST) P1-1, an antiapoptotic protein often overexpressed in…

14h

Enabling microbial syringol conversion through structure-guided protein engineering [Biochemistry]

Microbial conversion of aromatic compounds is an emerging and promising strategy for valorization of the plant biopolymer lignin. A critical and often rate-limiting reaction in aromatic catabolism is O-aryl-demethylation of the abundant aromatic methoxy groups in lignin to form diols, which enables subsequent oxidative aromatic ring-opening. Recently, a cytochrome P450…

14h

A heuristic derived from analysis of the ion channel structural proteome permits the rapid identification of hydrophobic gates [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Ion channel proteins control ionic flux across biological membranes through conformational changes in their transmembrane pores. An exponentially increasing number of channel structures captured in different conformational states are now being determined; however, these newly resolved structures are commonly classified as either open or closed based solely on the physical…

14h

A cell topography-based mechanism for ligand discrimination by the T cell receptor [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The T cell receptor (TCR) initiates the elimination of pathogens and tumors by T cells. To avoid damage to the host, the receptor must be capable of discriminating between wild-type and mutated self and nonself peptide ligands presented by host cells. Exactly how the TCR does this is unknown. In…

14h

Robust single-cell Hi-C clustering by convolution- and random-walk-based imputation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Three-dimensional genome structure plays a pivotal role in gene regulation and cellular function. Single-cell analysis of genome architecture has been achieved using imaging and chromatin conformation capture methods such as Hi-C. To study variation in chromosome structure between different cell types, computational approaches are needed that can utilize sparse and…

14h

Long noncoding RNA LINC00673-v4 promotes aggressiveness of lung adenocarcinoma via activating WNT/{beta}-catenin signaling [Cell Biology]

It is well recognized that metastasis can occur early in the course of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) development, and yet the molecular mechanisms driving this capability of rapid metastasis remain incompletely understood. Here we reported that a long noncoding RNA, LINC00673, was up-regulated in LAD cells. Of note, we first found…

14h

Atlastin-mediated membrane tethering is critical for cargo mobility and exit from the endoplasmic reticulum [Cell Biology]

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane junctions are formed by the dynamin-like GTPase atlastin (ATL). Deletion of ATL results in long unbranched ER tubules in cells, and mutation of human ATL1 is linked to hereditary spastic paraplegia. Here, we demonstrate that COPII formation is drastically decreased in the periphery of ATL-deleted cells….

14h

The combination of TPL2 knockdown and TNF{alpha} causes synthetic lethality via caspase-8 activation in human carcinoma cell lines [Cell Biology]

Most normal and tumor cells are protected from tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced apoptosis. Here, we identify the MAP3 kinase tumor progression locus-2 (TPL2) as a player contributing to the protection of a subset of tumor cell lines. The combination of TPL2 knockdown and TNFα gives rise to a synthetic…

14h

dTcf/Pangolin suppresses growth and tumor formation in Drosophila [Developmental Biology]

Wnt/Wingless (Wg) signaling controls many aspects of animal development and is deregulated in different human cancers. The transcription factor dTcf/Pangolin (Pan) is the final effector of the Wg pathway in Drosophila and has a dual role in regulating the expression of Wg target genes. In the presence of Wg, dTcf/Pan…

14h

Acculturation drives the evolution of intergroup conflict [Evolution]

Conflict between groups of individuals is a prevalent feature in human societies. A common theoretical explanation for intergroup conflict is that it provides benefits to individuals within groups in the form of reproduction-enhancing resources, such as food, territory, or mates. However, it is not always the case that conflict results…

14h

Multiplicative fitness, rapid haplotype discovery, and fitness decay explain evolution of human MHC [Evolution]

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a central component of the vertebrate immune system and hence evolves in the regime of a host–pathogen evolutionary race. The MHC is associated with quantitative traits which directly affect fitness and are subject to selection pressure. The evolution of haplotypes at the MHC HLA…

14h

Noninvasive preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy in spent medium may be more reliable than trophectoderm biopsy [Genetics]

Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) with trophectoderm (TE) biopsy is widely applied in in vitro fertilization (IVF) to identify aneuploid embryos. However, potential safety concerns regarding biopsy and restrictions to only those embryos suitable for biopsy pose limitations. In addition, embryo mosaicism gives rise to false positives and false…

14h

Chemical depletion of phagocytic immune cells in Anopheles gambiae reveals dual roles of mosquito hemocytes in anti-Plasmodium immunity [Immunology and Inflammation]

Mosquito immunity is composed of both cellular and humoral factors that provide protection from invading pathogens. Immune cells known as hemocytes, have been intricately associated with phagocytosis and innate immune signaling. However, the lack of genetic tools has limited hemocyte study despite their importance in mosquito anti-Plasmodium immunity. To address…

14h

Consecutive seeding and transfer of genetic diversity in metastasis [Medical Sciences]

During metastasis, only a fraction of genetic diversity in a primary tumor is passed on to metastases. We calculate this fraction of transferred diversity as a function of the seeding rate between tumors. At one extreme, if a metastasis is seeded by a single cell, then it inherits only the…

14h

EBV infection is associated with histone bivalent switch modifications in squamous epithelial cells [Medical Sciences]

Epstein−Barr virus (EBV) induces histone modifications to regulate signaling pathways involved in EBV-driven tumorigenesis. To date, the regulatory mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this study, we show that EBV infection of epithelial cells is associated with aberrant histone modification; specifically, aberrant histone bivalent switches by reducing the transcriptional activation…

14h

Discovery of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stabilizers to rescue ER-stressed podocytes in nephrotic syndrome [Medical Sciences]

Emerging evidence has established primary nephrotic syndrome (NS), including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), as a primary podocytopathy. Despite the underlying importance of podocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathogenesis of NS, no treatment currently targets the podocyte ER. In our monogenic podocyte ER stress-induced NS/FSGS mouse model, the podocyte…

14h

Structures of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase in malaria parasites reveal a unique structural relay mechanism for activation [Medical Sciences]

The cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) was identified >25 y ago; however, efforts to obtain a structure of the entire PKG enzyme or catalytic domain from any species have failed. In malaria parasites, cooperative activation of PKG triggers crucial developmental transitions throughout the complex life cycle. We have determined…

14h

The VEGF receptor neuropilin 2 promotes homologous recombination by stimulating YAP/TAZ-mediated Rad51 expression [Medical Sciences]

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in tumor cells mediated by neuropilins (NRPs) contributes to the aggressive nature of several cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), independently of its role in angiogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms by which VEGF–NRP signaling contributes to the phenotype of such cancers is a significant and…

14h

Noninvasive imaging of tumor progression, metastasis, and fibrosis using a nanobody targeting the extracellular matrix [Medical Sciences]

Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition is a hallmark of many diseases, including cancer and fibroses. To exploit the ECM as an imaging and therapeutic target, we developed alpaca-derived libraries of “nanobodies” against disease-associated ECM proteins. We describe here one such nanobody, NJB2, specific for an alternatively spliced domain of fibronectin expressed…

14h

Glucocorticoid receptor modulators CpdX and CpdX-D3 exhibit the same in vivo antiinflammatory activities as synthetic glucocorticoids [Medical Sciences]

We previously reported that the nonsteroidal compound CpdX, which was initially characterized 20 y ago as a possible gestagen and, shortly afterward, as a possible drug for treatments of inflammatory diseases, selectively triggers the NFκB/AP1-mediated tethered indirect transrepression function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and could therefore be a selective…

14h

The glucocorticoid receptor agonistic modulators CpdX and CpdX-D3 do not generate the debilitating effects of synthetic glucocorticoids [Medical Sciences]

Seventy years after the discovery of their anti-inflammatory properties, glucocorticoids (GCs) remain the mainstay treatment for major allergic and inflammatory disorders, such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, and conjunctivitis, among others. However, their long-term therapeutical administration is limited by major debilitating side effects, e.g., skin atrophy, osteopo

14h

Arginine dephosphorylation propels spore germination in bacteria [Microbiology]

Bacterial spores can remain dormant for years but possess the remarkable ability to germinate, within minutes, once nutrients become available. However, it still remains elusive how such instant awakening of cellular machineries is achieved. Utilizing Bacillus subtilis as a model, we show that YwlE arginine (Arg) phosphatase is crucial for…

14h

Species-specific mechanisms of cytotoxicity toward immune cells determine the successful outcome of Vibrio infections [Microbiology]

Vibrio species cause infectious diseases in humans and animals, but they can also live as commensals within their host tissues. How Vibrio subverts the host defenses to mount a successful infection remains poorly understood, and this knowledge is critical for predicting and managing disease. Here, we have investigated the cellular…

14h

Structure-guided examination of the mechanogating mechanism of PIEZO2 [Neuroscience]

Piezo channels are mechanically activated ion channels that confer mechanosensitivity to a variety of different cell types. Piezos oligomerize as propeller-shaped homotrimers that are thought to locally curve the membrane into spherical domes that project into the cell. While several studies have identified domains and amino acids that control important…

14h

Nogo-A targeted therapy promotes vascular repair and functional recovery following stroke [Neuroscience]

Stroke is a major cause of serious disability due to the brain’s limited capacity to regenerate damaged tissue and neuronal circuits. After ischemic injury, a multiphasic degenerative and inflammatory response is coupled with severely restricted vascular and neuronal repair, resulting in permanent functional deficits. Although clinical evidence indicates that revascularization…

14h

Axonal pathology in hPSC-based models of Parkinson’s disease results from loss of Nrf2 transcriptional activity at the Map1b gene locus [Neuroscience]

While mutations in the SNCA gene (α-synuclein [α-syn]) are causal in rare familial forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), the prevalence of α-syn aggregates in the cortices of sporadic disease cases emphasizes the need to understand the link between α-syn accumulation and disease pathogenesis. By employing a combination of human pluripotent…

14h

Tracking the evolution of CNS remyelinating lesion in mice with neutral red dye [Neuroscience]

Animal models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination, including toxin-induced focal demyelination and immune-mediated demyelination through experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of neuroinflammation and CNS remyelination. However, the ability to track changes in transcripts, proteins, and metabolites, as well as cellular populat

14h

Odor coding in the antenna of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans [Neuroscience]

Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomiasis to humans and livestock across much of sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse are attracted by olfactory cues emanating from their hosts. However, remarkably little is known about the cellular basis of olfaction in tsetse. We have carried out a systematic physiological analysis of the Glossina morsitans antenna. We…

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Cryo-EM structure of OSCA1.2 from Oryza sativa elucidates the mechanical basis of potential membrane hyperosmolality gating [Plant Biology]

Sensing and responding to environmental water deficiency and osmotic stresses are essential for the growth, development, and survival of plants. Recently, an osmolality-sensing ion channel called OSCA1 was discovered that functions in sensing hyperosmolality in Arabidopsis. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure and function of an OSCA1 homolog…

14h

An effector from cotton bollworm oral secretion impairs host plant defense signaling [Plant Biology]

Insects have evolved effectors to conquer plant defense. Most known insect effectors are isolated from sucking insects, and examples from chewing insects are limited. Moreover, the targets of insect effectors in host plants remain unknown. Here, we address a chewing insect effector and its working mechanism. Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)…

14h

A Lotus japonicus cytoplasmic kinase connects Nod factor perception by the NFR5 LysM receptor to nodulation [Plant Biology]

The establishment of nitrogen-fixing root nodules in legume–rhizobia symbiosis requires an intricate communication between the host plant and its symbiont. We are, however, limited in our understanding of the symbiosis signaling process. In particular, how membrane-localized receptors of legumes activate signal transduction following perception of rhizobial signaling molecules has mostly…

14h

Arabinogalactan protein-rare earth element complexes activate plant endocytosis [Plant Biology]

Endocytosis is essential to all eukaryotes, but how cargoes are selected for internalization remains poorly characterized. Extracellular cargoes are thought to be selected by transmembrane receptors that bind intracellular adaptors proteins to initiate endocytosis. Here, we report a mechanism for clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of extracellular lanthanum [La(III)] cargoes, which requires…

14h

Probing the limits of activity-silent non-conscious working memory [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Two types of working memory (WM) have recently been proposed: (i) active WM, relying on sustained neural firing, and (ii) activity-silent WM, for which firing returns to baseline, yet memories may be retained by short-term synaptic changes. Activity-silent WM in particular might also underlie the recently discovered phenomenon of non-conscious…

14h

Dynamic secretome of bone marrow-derived stromal cells reveals a cardioprotective biochemical cocktail [Systems Biology]

Transplanted stromal cells have demonstrated considerable promise as therapeutic agents in diverse disease settings. Paracrine signaling can be an important mediator of these therapeutic effects at the sites of acute or persistent injury and inflammation. As many stromal cell types, including bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs), display tissue-specific responses, there…

14h

The hominid ilium is shaped by a synapomorphic growth mechanism that is unique within primates [Anthropology]

The human ilium is significantly shorter and broader than those of all other primates. In addition, it exhibits an anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) that emerges via a secondary center of ossification, which is unique to hominids (i.e., all taxa related to the human clade following their phyletic separation from…

14h

High-fidelity amplified FISH for the detection and allelic discrimination of single mRNA molecules [Applied Biological Sciences]

Amplification of signals by the hybridization chain reaction (HCR) is a powerful approach for increasing signal strength in single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization, but probes tagged with an HCR initiator sequence are prone to producing false signals. Here we describe a system of interacting hairpin binary probes in which the…

14h

Cochlear partition anatomy and motion in humans differ from the classic view of mammals [Applied Physical Sciences]

Mammals detect sound through mechanosensitive cells of the cochlear organ of Corti that rest on the basilar membrane (BM). Motions of the BM and organ of Corti have been studied at the cochlear base in various laboratory animals, and the assumption has been that the cochleas of all mammals work…

14h

Tethering guides fusion-competent trans-SNARE assembly [Biochemistry]

R-SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor receptor), Q-SNAREs, and Sec1/Munc18 (SM)-family proteins are essential for membrane fusion in exocytic and endocytic trafficking. The yeast vacuolar tethering/SM complex HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting) increases the fusion of membranes bearing R-SNARE to those with 3Q-SNAREs far more than it enhances their trans-SNARE…

14h

The role of gelsolin domain 3 in familial amyloidosis (Finnish type) [Biochemistry]

In the disease familial amyloidosis, Finnish type (FAF), also known as AGel amyloidosis (AGel), the mechanism by which point mutations in the calcium-regulated actin-severing protein gelsolin lead to furin cleavage is not understood in the intact protein. Here, we provide a structural and biochemical characterization of the FAF variants. X-ray…

14h

Four amino acids define the CO2 binding pocket of enoyl-CoA carboxylases/reductases [Biochemistry]

Carboxylases are biocatalysts that capture and convert carbon dioxide (CO2) under mild conditions and atmospheric concentrations at a scale of more than 400 Gt annually. However, how these enzymes bind and control the gaseous CO2 molecule during catalysis is only poorly understood. One of the most efficient classes of carboxylating…

14h

Allosteric modulation of a human protein kinase with monobodies [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Despite being the subject of intense effort and scrutiny, kinases have proven to be consistently challenging targets in inhibitor drug design. A key obstacle has been promiscuity and consequent adverse effects of drugs targeting the ATP binding site. Here we introduce an approach to controlling kinase activity by using monobodies…

14h

Unified cochlear model for low- and high-frequency mammalian hearing [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The spatial variations of the intricate cytoarchitecture, fluid scalae, and mechano-electric transduction in the mammalian cochlea have long been postulated to provide the organ with the ability to perform a real-time, time-frequency processing of sound. However, the precise manner by which this tripartite coupling enables the exquisite cochlear filtering has…

14h

Deep learning enables high-quality and high-throughput prediction of enzyme commission numbers [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

High-quality and high-throughput prediction of enzyme commission (EC) numbers is essential for accurate understanding of enzyme functions, which have many implications in pathologies and industrial biotechnology. Several EC number prediction tools are currently available, but their prediction performance needs to be further improved to precisely and efficiently process an ever-increasing…

14h

Cellular responses to reactive oxygen species are predicted from molecular mechanisms [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Catalysis using iron–sulfur clusters and transition metals can be traced back to the last universal common ancestor. The damage to metalloproteins caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) can prevent cell growth and survival when unmanaged, thus eliciting an essential stress response that is universal and fundamental in biology. Here we…

14h

Steps on Pt stereodynamically filter sticking of O2 [Chemistry]

Low coordinated sites on catalytic surfaces often enhance reactivity, but the underlying dynamical processes are poorly understood. Using two independent approaches, we investigate the reactivity of O2 impinging onto platinum and resolve how step edges on (111) terraces enhance sticking. At low incident energy, the linear dependence on step density,…

14h

The energetic basis for hydroxyapatite mineralization by amelogenin variants provides insights into the origin of amelogenesis imperfecta [Chemistry]

Small variations in the primary amino acid sequence of extracellular matrix proteins can have profound effects on the biomineralization of hard tissues. For example, a change in one amino acid within the amelogenin protein can lead to drastic changes in enamel phenotype, resulting in amelogenesis imperfecta, enamel that is defective…

14h

Rapid assembly and profiling of an anticoagulant sulfoprotein library [Chemistry]

Hematophagous organisms produce a suite of salivary proteins which interact with the host’s coagulation machinery to facilitate the acquisition and digestion of a bloodmeal. Many of these biomolecules inhibit the central blood-clotting serine proteinase thrombin that is also the target of several clinically approved anticoagulants. Here a bioinformatics approach is…

14h

Histone H2B monoubiquitination regulates heart development via epigenetic control of cilia motility [Developmental Biology]

Genomic analyses of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have identified significant contribution from mutations affecting cilia genes and chromatin remodeling genes; however, the mechanism(s) connecting chromatin remodeling to CHD is unknown. Histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) is catalyzed by the RNF20 complex consisting of RNF20, RNF40, and UBE2B. Here, we…

14h

Plant functional traits and climate influence drought intensification and land-atmosphere feedbacks [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The fluxes of energy, water, and carbon from terrestrial ecosystems influence the atmosphere. Land–atmosphere feedbacks can intensify extreme climate events like severe droughts and heatwaves because low soil moisture decreases both evaporation and plant transpiration and increases local temperature. Here, we combine data from a network of temperate and boreal…

14h

Chronic, sublethal effects of high temperatures will cause severe declines in southern African arid-zone birds during the 21st century [Ecology]

Birds inhabiting hot, arid regions are among the terrestrial organisms most vulnerable to climate change. The potential for increasingly frequent and intense heat waves to cause lethal dehydration and hyperthermia is well documented, but the consequences of sublethal fitness costs associated with chronic exposure to sustained hot weather remain unclear….

14h

Decoding team and individual impact in science and invention [Economic Sciences]

Scientists and inventors increasingly work in teams, raising fundamental questions about the nature of team production and making individual assessment increasingly difficult. Here we present a method for describing individual and team citation impact that both is computationally feasible and can be applied in standard, wide-scale databases. We track individuals…

14h

Cyanobacterial viruses exhibit diurnal rhythms during infection [Environmental Sciences]

As an adaptation to the daily light–dark (diel) cycle, cyanobacteria exhibit diurnal rhythms of gene expression and cell cycle. The light–dark cycle also affects the life cycle of viruses (cyanophages) that infect the unicellular picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, which are the major primary producers in the oceans. For example, the…

14h

A fully resolved backbone phylogeny reveals numerous dispersals and explosive diversifications throughout the history of Asteraceae [Evolution]

The sunflower family, Asteraceae, comprises 10% of all flowering plant species and displays an incredible diversity of form. Asteraceae are clearly monophyletic, yet resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family has proven difficult, hindering our ability to understand its origin and diversification. Recent molecular clock dating has suggested a Cretaceous origin,…

14h

Epigenetic signature of PD-1+ TCF1+ CD8 T cells that act as resource cells during chronic viral infection and respond to PD-1 blockade [Immunology and Inflammation]

We have recently defined a novel population of PD-1 (programmed cell death 1)+ TCF1 (T cell factor 1)+ virus-specific CD8 T cells that function as resource cells during chronic LCMV infection and provide the proliferative burst seen after PD-1 blockade. Such CD8 T cells have been found in other chronic…

14h

Sfrp4 repression of the Ror2/Jnk cascade in osteoclasts protects cortical bone from excessive endosteal resorption [Medical Sciences]

Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt inhibitor secreted frizzled receptor protein 4 (SFRP4) cause Pyle’s disease (OMIM 265900), a rare skeletal disorder characterized by wide metaphyses, significant thinning of cortical bone, and fragility fractures. In mice, we have shown that the cortical thinning seen in the absence of Sfrp4 is associated…

14h

The sRNA DicF integrates oxygen sensing to enhance enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence via distinctive RNA control mechanisms [Microbiology]

To establish infection, enteric pathogens integrate environmental cues to navigate the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and precisely control expression of virulence determinants. During passage through the GIT, pathogens encounter relatively high levels of oxygen in the small intestine before transit to the oxygen-limited environment of the colon. However, how bacterial pathogens…

14h

Vibrio cholerae filamentation promotes chitin surface attachment at the expense of competition in biofilms [Microbiology]

Collective behavior in spatially structured groups, or biofilms, is the norm among microbes in their natural environments. Though biofilm formation has been studied for decades, tracing the mechanistic and ecological links between individual cell morphologies and the emergent features of cell groups is still in its infancy. Here we use…

14h

Structural bases for F plasmid conjugation and F pilus biogenesis in Escherichia coli [Microbiology]

Bacterial conjugation systems are members of the large type IV secretion system (T4SS) superfamily. Conjugative transfer of F plasmids residing in the Enterobacteriaceae was first reported in the 1940s, yet the architecture of F plasmid-encoded transfer channel and its physical relationship with the F pilus remain unknown. We visualized F-encoded…

14h

Multimodal cue integration in the dung beetle compass [Neuroscience]

South African ball-rolling dung beetles exhibit a unique orientation behavior to avoid competition for food: after forming a piece of dung into a ball, they efficiently escape with it from the dung pile along a straight-line path. To keep track of their heading, these animals use celestial cues, such as…

14h

Intravital 2-photon imaging reveals distinct morphology and infiltrative properties of glioblastoma-associated macrophages [Neuroscience]

Characterized by a dismal survival rate and limited response to therapy, glioblastoma (GBM) remains one of the most aggressive human malignancies. Recent studies of the role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the progression of GBMs have demonstrated that TAMs are significant contributors to tumor growth, invasion, and therapeutic resistance. TAMs,…

14h

Strigolactone promotes cytokinin degradation through transcriptional activation of CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE 9 in rice [Plant Biology]

Strigolactones (SLs), a group of terpenoid lactones derived from carotenoids, are plant hormones that control numerous aspects of plant development. Although the framework of SL signaling that the repressor DWARF 53 (D53) could be SL-dependently degraded via the SL receptor D14 and F-box protein D3 has been established, the downstream…

14h

PUCHI regulates very long chain fatty acid biosynthesis during lateral root and callus formation [Plant Biology]

Lateral root organogenesis plays an essential role in elaborating plant root system architecture. In Arabidopsis, the AP2 family transcription factor PUCHI controls cell proliferation in lateral root primordia. To identify potential targets of PUCHI, we analyzed a time course transcriptomic dataset of lateral root formation. We report that multiple genes…

14h

Context shapes early diversity in abstract thought [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Early abstract reasoning has typically been characterized by a “relational shift,” in which children initially focus on object features but increasingly come to interpret similarity in terms of structured relations. An alternative possibility is that this shift reflects a learned bias, rather than a typical waypoint along a universal developmental…

14h

An interoceptive illusion of effort induced by false heart-rate feedback [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Interoception, or the sense of the internal state of the body, is key to the adaptive regulation of our physiological needs. Recent theories contextualize interception within a predictive coding framework, according to which the brain both estimates and controls homeostatic and physiological variables, such as hunger, thirst, and effort levels,…

14h

Structured, uncertainty-driven exploration in real-world consumer choice [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Making good decisions requires people to appropriately explore their available options and generalize what they have learned. While computational models can explain exploratory behavior in constrained laboratory tasks, it is unclear to what extent these models generalize to real-world choice problems. We investigate the factors guiding exploratory behavior in a…

14h

Americans overestimate the intergenerational persistence in income ranks [Social Sciences]

Recent research suggests that intergenerational income mobility has remained low and stable in America, but popular discourse routinely assumes that Americans are optimistic about mobility prospects in society. Examining these 2 seemingly contradictory observations requires a careful measurement of the public’s perceptions of mobility. Unlike most previous work that measures…

14h

Converting existing transmission corridors to HVDC is an overlooked option for increasing transmission capacity [Sustainability Science]

A changing generation mix and growing demand for carbon-free electricity will almost certainly require dramatic changes in the infrastructure and topology of the electricity system. Rather than build new lines, one way to minimize social opposition and regulatory obstacles is to increase the capacity of existing transmission corridors. In addition…

14h

Correction for Davis, Profile of Aravinda Chakravarti [Correction]

PROFILE Correction for “Profile of Aravinda Chakravarti,” by Tinsley H. Davis, which was first published May 6, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1906109116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 10608–10610). The editors wish to note that on page 10609, Dr. C. C. Li was described as a founder of the field of population genetics….

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Correction for Litvinov et al., Unique transmembrane domain interactions differentially modulate integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 and {alpha}IIb{beta}3 function [Correction]

BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Unique transmembrane domain interactions differentially modulate integrin αvβ3 and αIIbβ3 function,” by Rustem I. Litvinov, Marco Mravic, Hua Zhu, John W. Weisel, William F. DeGrado, and Joel S. Bennett, which was first published June 3, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1904867116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 12295–12300)….

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Correction for Geng et al., Prostate cancer-associated mutations in speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) regulate steroid receptor coactivator 3 protein turnover [Correction]

MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Prostate cancer-associated mutations in speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) regulate steroid receptor coactivator 3 protein turnover,” by Chuandong Geng, Bin He, Limei Xu, Christopher E. Barbieri, Vijay Kumar Eedunuri, Sue Anne Chew, Martin Zimmermann, Richard Bond, John Shou, Chao Li, Mirjam Blattner, David M. Lonard, Francesca Demichelis,…

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Snail-inspired superglue Land snail adhering to a rough surface using its epiphragm. Image courtesy of Younghee Lee (photographer). Commercial adhesives are either strong and irreversible, such as superglues, or weak and reusable, such as pressure-sensitive tapes. Some biologically inspired adhesives such as Velcro are both strong and reversible, but they…

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When big data aren’t the answer [Social Sciences]

In PNAS, Greenberg, et al. (1) use data collected using 4 surveys from over half a million people to support the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) theory of autism and the Empathizing–Systematizing (E-S) theory of sex differences. Large sample sizes are—all other things being equal—better than small sample sizes. However, the…

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Reply to Perrykkad and Hohwy: When big data are the answer [Social Sciences]

Perrykkad and Hohwy (1) argue that autism was historically diagnosed predominantly in males (4 males to 1 female) (2) and thus the defining characteristics of autism are male biased. They conclude that because the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was developed within this historical framework, (i) the AQ may not capture…

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Monarch butterfly trends are sensitive to unexamined changes in museum collections over time [Biological Sciences]

Museum records can document long-term changes in phenology, species interactions, and trait evolution (1). However, these data have spatial and temporal biases in sampling which may limit their use for tracking abundance (2). Often, museum records are the only historical data available, and in PNAS, Boyle et al. (3) make…

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Tracking trends in monarch abundance over the 20th century is currently impossible using museum records [Biological Sciences]

Opportunistic data provide a tantalizing opportunity to examine patterns in biodiversity over large spatiotemporal scales (1). Recent methodological advancements hold promise for utilizing such data to estimate trends while also highlighting the difficulty in accurately assessing biases (2–5). The idea is to determine the total number of collections of similar…

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Reply to Wepprich and Ries et al.: Alternative methods do not provide support for the contribution of GM crops to monarch declines [Biological Sciences]

We are pleased to see Wepprich (1) and Ries et al. (2) engaging with the museum records data presented in our original study (3). One of the strengths of digitized specimen data is that its portability allows precisely this kind of reanalysis. The main point of our original study was…

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Jean Bourgain, problem solver [Retrospectives]

Jean Bourgain, a truly exceptional and prolific problem solver who transformed multiple areas of mathematics, died on December 22, 2018, aged 64, after a prolonged battle with cancer. Jean Bourgain, 1954–2018. Image courtesy of Institute for Advanced Study/Andrea Kane. Jean received almost every award in the field of mathematics, ranging…

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A strategy for stabilizing the catalyst Co4O4 in a metal-organic framework [Chemistry]

Artificial photosynthesis provides a basis for storing solar energy in chemical bonds (1, 2), with water oxidation a critical step (3, 4). The half reaction for the oxidation of water, 2H2O → O2 + 4e− + 4H+, provides protons and electrons for the production of a fuel at a cathode…

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Early agriculture’s toll on human health [Anthropology]

It is difficult to envision a world without agriculture. However, as recently as 10 millennia ago, only in the Near East had people turned from hunting and gathering to agriculture as a means of supporting themselves. One such place was Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey, the subject of Larsen et al.’s…

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Plasmonics sheds light on the nanotechnology of daguerreotypes [Applied Physical Sciences]

The capturing of images has become one of our most universal and commonplace technologies. As a digital electronic technology, it has permanently transformed society by revolutionizing personal recording and interpersonal communication. It has also revolutionized modern science, changing the way data are obtained and expanding our ability to study complex…

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Unraveling the complexity of oxygen reactions on Pt surfaces [Chemistry]

Platinum (Pt) is a key material in automotive catalytic converters used to clean up the exhaust of the combustion engine. Pt particles in a ceramic matrix serve as an oxidation catalyst to eliminate toxic carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (CxHy) from the engine’s exhaust gases. For this process to…

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Nineteenth-century nanotechnology: The plasmonic properties of daguerreotypes [Applied Physical Sciences]

Plasmons, the collective oscillations of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures, interact strongly with light and produce vivid colors, thus offering a new route to develop color printing technologies with improved durability and material simplicity compared with conventional pigments. Over the last decades, researchers in plasmonics have been devoted to manipulating…

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Comprehensive comparison of pore-scale models for multiphase flow in porous media [Applied Physical Sciences]

Multiphase flows in porous media are important in many natural and industrial processes. Pore-scale models for multiphase flows have seen rapid development in recent years and are becoming increasingly useful as predictive tools in both academic and industrial applications. However, quantitative comparisons between different pore-scale models, and between these models…

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Ion-to-ion amplification through an open-junction ionic diode [Applied Physical Sciences]

As biological signals are mainly based on ion transport, the differences in signal carriers have become a major issue for the intimate communication between electrical devices and biological areas. In this respect, an ionic device which can directly interpret ionic signals from biological systems needs to be designed. Particularly, it…

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Integration of renewable deep eutectic solvents with engineered biomass to achieve a closed-loop biorefinery [Applied Physical Sciences]

Despite the enormous potential shown by recent biorefineries, the current bioeconomy still encounters multifaceted challenges. To develop a sustainable biorefinery in the future, multidisciplinary research will be essential to tackle technical difficulties. Herein, we leveraged a known plant genetic engineering approach that results in aldehyde-rich lignin via down-regulation of cinnamyl…

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Learning to predict the cosmological structure formation [Astronomy]

Matter evolved under the influence of gravity from minuscule density fluctuations. Nonperturbative structure formed hierarchically over all scales and developed non-Gaussian features in the Universe, known as the cosmic web. To fully understand the structure formation of the Universe is one of the holy grails of modern astrophysics. Astrophysicists survey…

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Dissecting fat-tailed fluctuations in the cytoskeleton with active micropost arrays [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The ability of animal cells to crawl, change their shape, and respond to applied force is due to their cytoskeleton: A dynamic, cross-linked network of actin protein filaments and myosin motors. How these building blocks assemble to give rise to cells’ mechanics and behavior remains poorly understood. Using active micropost…

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Environment-to-phenotype mapping and adaptation strategies in varying environments [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Biological organisms exhibit diverse strategies for adapting to varying environments. For example, a population of organisms may express the same phenotype in all environments (“unvarying strategy”) or follow environmental cues and express alternative phenotypes to match the environment (“tracking strategy”), or diversify into coexisting phenotypes to cope with environmental uncertainty…

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I-branched carbohydrates as emerging effectors of malignant progression [Medical Sciences]

Cell surface carbohydrates, termed “glycans,” are ubiquitous posttranslational effectors that can tune cancer progression. Often aberrantly displayed or found at atypical levels on cancer cells, glycans can impact essentially all progressive steps, from malignant transformation to metastases formation. Glycans are structural entities that can directly bind promalignant glycan-binding proteins and.

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Visualizing probabilistic models and data with Intensive Principal Component Analysis [Applied Mathematics]

Unsupervised learning makes manifest the underlying structure of data without curated training and specific problem definitions. However, the inference of relationships between data points is frustrated by the “curse of dimensionality” in high dimensions. Inspired by replica theory from statistical mechanics, we consider replicas of the system to tune the…

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Impact of jamming criticality on low-temperature anomalies in structural glasses [Applied Physical Sciences]

We present a mechanism for the anomalous behavior of the specific heat in low-temperature amorphous solids. The analytic solution of a mean-field model belonging to the same universality class as high-dimensional glasses, the spherical perceptron, suggests that there exists a cross-over temperature above which the specific heat scales linearly with…

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Intrinsically reversible superglues via shape adaptation inspired by snail epiphragm [Applied Physical Sciences]

Adhesives are ubiquitous in daily life and industrial applications. They usually fall into one of two classes: strong but irreversible (e.g., superglues) or reversible/reusable but weak (e.g., pressure-sensitive adhesives and biological and biomimetic surfaces). Achieving both superstrong adhesion and reversibility has been challenging. This task is particularly difficult for hydrogels…

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Restoring universality to the pinch-off of a bubble [Applied Physical Sciences]

The pinch-off of a bubble is an example of the formation of a singularity, exhibiting a characteristic separation of length and time scales. Because of this scale separation, one expects universal dynamics that collapse into self-similar behavior determined by the relative importance of viscous, inertial, and capillary forces. Surprisingly, however,…

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Hybridization of singular plasmons via transformation optics [Applied Physical Sciences]

Surface plasmon resonances of metallic nanostructures offer great opportunities to guide and manipulate light on the nanoscale. In the design of novel plasmonic devices, a central topic is to clarify the intricate relationship between the resonance spectrum and the geometry of the nanostructure. Despite many advances, the design becomes quite…

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Systematic mapping of cell wall mechanics in the regulation of cell morphogenesis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Walled cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria come with a large range of shapes and sizes, which are ultimately dictated by the mechanics of their cell wall. This stiff and thin polymeric layer encases the plasma membrane and protects the cells mechanically by opposing large turgor pressure derived mechanical stresses….

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A platinum(II) molecular hinge with motions visualized by phosphorescence changes [Chemistry]

With the rapidly growing exploration of artificial molecular machines and their applications, there is a strong demand to develop molecular machines that can have their motional states and configuration/conformation changes detectable by more sensitive and innovative methods. A visual artificial molecular hinge with phosphorescence behavior changes is designed and synthesized…

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Inner Workings: Physicists dig deep to seek the origin of matter [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

“Here’s to low-grade ore and plenty of it,” mining magnate George Hearst reportedly said after he bought the Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, SD, in June 1877. Although the mine contained less than an ounce of the precious metal per ton, the sheer quantity of ore meant that the operation…

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Core Concept: Gene transfers from bacteria and viruses may be shaping complex organisms [Genetics]

When evolutionary genomicist Richard Cordaux and his team decided to look at the genomes of a puzzling group of pillbugs a few years ago, they set out to test a 30-year-old hypothesis. In 1984, French scientists had shown that sex-determination mechanisms in a particular lineage of Armadillidium vulgare were skewed,…

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Common knowledge, coordination, and strategic mentalizing in human social life [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

People often coordinate for mutual gain, such as keeping to opposite sides of a stairway, dubbing an object or place with a name, or assembling en masse to protest a regime. Because successful coordination requires complementary choices, these opportunities raise the puzzle of how people attain the common knowledge that…

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Scaling trajectories of cities [Social Sciences]

Urban scaling research finds that agglomeration effects—the higher-than-expected outputs of larger cities—follow robust “superlinear” scaling relations in cross-sectional data. But the paradigm has predictive ambitions involving the dynamic scaling of individual cities over many time points and expects parallel superlinear growth trajectories as cities’ populations grow. This prediction has not…

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Decentralising science may lead to more reliable results

Research results on drug-gene interactions are much less likely to be replicated if they are performed by hierarchical communities or close-knit groups of frequent collaborators who use similar methods, instead of independent groups of scientists using different methods, suggests a paper published last week in eLife.

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Amazon workers in Minnesota plan 6-hour strike during Prime Day event

A worker advocacy group said 100 Amazon warehouse workers in Shakopee, Minn., plan to strike for six hours on the e-commerce giant's Prime Day next week, in an effort to demand better work conditions.

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Body plan evolution not as simple as once believed

The role of Hox genes in changing the layout of different body parts during evolution has been challenged by a study led by researchers out of the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Biological Sciences.

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Marriott faces $123 million fine in UK for data breach

Marriott says it will fight a $123 million U.K. government fine related to its massive data breach.

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More legroom, less conversation for Uber riders who pay

Uber is letting passengers tell their driver in advance that they'd like a little less conversation, and more legroom, if they're willing to pay.

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New high-definition satellite radar can detect bridges at risk of collapse from space

Researchers from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Bath have developed a satellite-based early warning system that could spot tiny movements in bridges that indicate they could collapse.

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Physicists' finding could revolutionize information transmission

Move aside, electrons; it's time to make way for the trion.

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Vitamin C is key to protection of exciting new nanomaterial

In work that could open a floodgate of future applications for a new class of nanomaterials known as MXenes (pronounced 'Maxines'), researchers have discovered a simple, inexpensive way to prevent the materials' rapid degradation.

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Body plan evolution not as simple as once believed

The role of Hox genes in changing the layout of different body parts during evolution has been challenged by a study led by researchers out of the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Biological Sciences.

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ddPCR MSI RUO Assay for Early Access Customers

Bio-Rad’s Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) Microsatellite Instability (MSI) RUO Assay is available for early access customers.

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Duchenne muscular dystrophy: New analysis shows drug slows down respiratory decline

Duchenne muscular dystrophy occurs in boys and is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness leading to a decline in respiratory function. Strategies to arrest this severe progressive deterioration are needed to extend lives and improve quality of life. Results of three clinical trials using eteplirsen, an exon-skipping antisense oligonucleotide, show promising results.

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Vitamin C is key to protection of exciting new nanomaterial

In work that could open a floodgate of future applications for a new class of nanomaterials known as MXenes (pronounced 'Maxines'), researchers have discovered a simple, inexpensive way to prevent the materials' rapid degradation.

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A clearer picture of global ice sheet mass

Fluctuations in the masses of the world's largest ice sheets carry important consequences for future sea level rise, but understanding the complicated interplay of atmospheric conditions, snowfall input and melting processes has never been easy to measure due to the sheer size and remoteness inherent to glacial landscapes.

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Advocacy group launches national campaign to ban facial-recognition technology from government use

As some cities and states crack down on government use of facial-recognition software, a national advocacy group is going a step further by calling for an outright federal ban on the technology.

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Decentralising science may lead to more reliable results

Research results on drug-gene interactions are much less likely to be replicated if they are performed by hierarchical communities or close-knit groups of frequent collaborators who use similar methods, instead of independent groups of scientists using different methods.

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Unusual eating behaviors may be a new diagnostic indicator for autism

Atypical eating behaviors may be a sign a child should be screened for autism, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers who found that atypical eating behaviors were present in 70% of children with autism, which is 15 times more common than in neurotypical children.

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Body plan evolution not as simple as once believed

Hox gene do not work alone to determine the layout of vertebrae, limbs and other body parts. A study led by University of Pittsburgh researchers shows how an entire network works together toward that goal.

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Light therapy could replace opioids as main treatment for cancer treatment side effect

A worldwide coalition of researchers and clinicians has agreed that light therapy is among the most effective interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, painful ulcers in the mouth resulting from cancer therapy.

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From the Family Station Wagon to the Apollo Lunar Rover, My Dad's Engineering Talent Had No Limits

Stricken with polio as an adult, he retired from the military and joined NASA's ingenious design team

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BMW's all-electric Mini Cooper rolls onto the scene in March 2020

We’ve been hearing about BMW’s all-electric Mini Cooper for years. A production model was originally slated to arrive in 2019 with redesigned headlights, premium wheels and an updated front …

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The corporate spat is over between Google and Amazon: YouTube is again available on Amazon Fire TV

The corporate spat between Google and Amazon ends today, with good news for TV viewers.

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Parental 'memory' is inherited across generations

A new study reveals that female fruit flies switch to ethanol-rich food when their eggs are threatened by predatory wasps, and that this adaptation is inherited across five generations of their offspring.

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High mutation rates within huge, old-growth trees

Scientists found the first evidence of the tremendous genetic variation that can accumulate in some of our tallest trees. They found that an old-growth Sitka spruce could have up to 100,000 genetic differences in DNA sequence between the base of the tree and the tip of the crown.

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Breaching a 'carbon threshold' could lead to mass extinction

Carbon dioxide emissions may trigger a reflex in the carbon cycle, with devastating consequences, study finds.

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Lead pollution in Arctic ice shows economic impact of wars and plagues for past 1,500 years

A research team used 13 ice cores from Greenland and the Russian Arctic to measure, date, and analyze lead emissions captured in ice from 500 to 2010 CE. They found that increases in lead concentration in the ice cores track closely with periods of expansion in Europe, the advent of new technologies, and economic prosperity. Decreases in lead, on the other hand, paralleled climate disruptions, war

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Ancient molar points to interbreeding between archaic humans and Homo sapiens in Asia

An analysis of a 160,000-year-old archaic human molar fossil discovered in China offers the first morphological evidence of interbreeding between archaic humans and Homo sapiens in Asia.

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Immunotherapy could work against bowel cancers resistant to important targeted treatment

Patients with bowel cancer who have stopped responding to a widely used targeted drug could benefit from immunotherapy, a major new study reveals. Scientists found that bowel tumours which had initially responded to cetuximab before developing resistance became more visible to the immune system — potentially leaving them vulnerable to immunotherapies. A phase II clinical trial has already begun t

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Knowing BRCA status associated with better breast cancer outcomes even without surgery

Women who knew their BRCA+ status were diagnosed with earlier stage breast cancer, needed less chemotherapy, less extensive surgery, and had greater overall 5-year survival (98 percent vs. 74 percent).

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Manatee deaths by watercraft rising at record pace in Florida

Wildlife experts have blamed toxic red tide algae and a cold snap for the deadly 2018 experienced by manatees, but so far this year, boats are the primary cause.

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Manatee deaths by watercraft rising at record pace in Florida

Wildlife experts have blamed toxic red tide algae and a cold snap for the deadly 2018 experienced by manatees, but so far this year, boats are the primary cause.

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New high-definition satellite radar can detect bridges at risk of collapse from space

An early warning system to identify at-risk structures using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been developed. The system could be applied to infrastructure projects including roads, railways and building developments at lower cost and greater accuracy than existing techniques. Researchers from Bath worked with the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Italian Space Agency to study the Mor

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Criteria for bariatric surgery should consider more than just patient's weight

More than one-third of Americans are obese, and while more than 250,000 bariatric surgeries are performed annually in the United States, experts at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and 45 worldwide scientific and medical societies say surgery should be an option for many more patients. Dr. Stacy Brethauer says the standard criteria to qualify for bariatric surgery are nearly three d

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Physicists' finding could revolutionize information transmission

A research team led by physicists at the University of California, Riverside, has observed, characterized, and controlled dark trions in a semiconductor — ultraclean single-layer tungsten diselenide — a feat that could increase the capacity and alter the form of information transmission.

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Inbreeding depression reduces litter sizes in golden retrievers

Data from the Morris Animal Foundation Golden Retriever Lifetime Study shows that inbreeding depression, the result of breeding closely-related individuals, reduces litter sizes in purebred golden retrievers.

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Pregnancy outcomes greatly improved in lupus patients

A new study published July 8, 2019 in the Annals of Internal Medicine demonstrates that pregnancy outcomes in the last two decades have drastically improved for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

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Computer attempts to replicate the dream-like maths of Ramanujan

A computer program called the Ramanujan Machine is generating mathematical conjectures for constants like π and e, just like the legendary Indian mathematician

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New Grants to Increase Public Interest in Brain Science

The International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and the Dana Foundation are excited to announce the launch of their partnership on new annual grants to increase opportunities for outreach and awareness campaigns in regions challenged by a lack of resources, support, and/or public understanding about the brain. Up to $1,250 (USD) will be awarded to each selected project organized for Brain Aw

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The Air Really Was Cleaner Under Obama

Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of President Donald Trump’s speech yesterday was that it happened at all. It was billed as a celebration of Trump’s environmental leadership. Three senators and six Cabinet-level leaders—powerful people whose scarcest resource is their time—watched the president speak for close to an hour. During that period, Trump did not announce a new green program, nor did h

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Small-volume, high-throughput organic synthesis

University of Groningen Professor of Drug Design, Alexander Dömling, has devised a method to rapidly synthesize thousands of new molecules and evaluate their properties as potential drugs. In a paper published by Science Advances on 5 July, he shows that this method works well when applied to boronic acid chemistry, an important technique in synthetic organic chemistry. The study also produced an

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Biologist found dead during Crete conference

Nature, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02132-3 Max Planck researcher Suzanne Eaton was discovered in a cave by police after a five-day search.

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Small-volume, high-throughput organic synthesis

University of Groningen Professor of Drug Design, Alexander Dömling, has devised a method to rapidly synthesize thousands of new molecules and evaluate their properties as potential drugs. In a paper published by Science Advances on 5 July, he shows that this method works well when applied to boronic acid chemistry, an important technique in synthetic organic chemistry. The study also produced an

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Tungsten as interstellar radiation shielding?

A boiling point of 5900 degrees Celsius and diamond-like hardness in combination with carbon: tungsten is the heaviest metal, yet has biological functions—especially in heat-loving microorganisms. A team led by Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of Vienna report for the first time rare microbial-tungsten interactions at the nanometer range. Based on these findings, n

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Linking phenotypes to genotypes: A newly devised gene-editing strategy

The power and convenience of modern-day word-processing programs like Microsoft Word have revolutionized our daily tasks. Need to create a quick resume for a new job opportunity? Procrastinating on that final term paper due tomorrow? Even creating a quick grocery list: Most of us rely on word-processing programs as stewards of our written lives. The functionality is impressive and unlike its archa

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Twitter bans 'dehumanizing' posts toward religious groups

Twitter now prohibits hate speech that targets religious groups using dehumanizing language.

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Plastic Has A Big Carbon Footprint — But That Isn't The Whole Story

Plastic waste litters cities, oceans and even the air. Largely overlooked is how making plastic affects the environment. Plastic is a big contributor to global warming. So are its alternatives. (Image credit: Koji Sasahara/AP)

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Linking phenotypes to genotypes: A newly devised gene-editing strategy

The power and convenience of modern-day word-processing programs like Microsoft Word have revolutionized our daily tasks. Need to create a quick resume for a new job opportunity? Procrastinating on that final term paper due tomorrow? Even creating a quick grocery list: Most of us rely on word-processing programs as stewards of our written lives. The functionality is impressive and unlike its archa

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US wants to dump 1.5 tons of rat poison pellets on Farallon Islands: Biologists say it's for the best

For most humans, life on these jagged islands off the coast of San Francisco would be a nightmare: Waves lash the shore with treacherous force, the stench of guano fills the air, and the screech of seagulls is so loud that resident scientists wear earplugs to bed.

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Amazon, Microsoft wage war over the Pentagon's 'war cloud'

Amazon and Microsoft are battling it out over a $10 billion opportunity to build the U.S. military its first "war cloud" computing system. But Amazon's early hopes of a shock-and-awe victory may be slipping away.

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Charge transfer within transition-metal dyes analysed

Transition-metal complexes in dye-based solar cells are responsible for converting light into electrical energy. A model of spatial charge separation within the molecule has been used to describe this conversion. However, an analysis at BESSY II shows that this description of the process is too simple. For the first time, a team there has investigated the fundamental photochemical processes around

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Fifty years after Apollo, when will we go back to the moon?

Fifty years ago, Neil Armstrong's famous first steps on the surface of the moon demonstrated both ground-breaking technical expertise and immense political will. Science and technology have made considerable progress since then, so why was the last manned mission to the moon in 1972? In his new book, Returning People to the Moon After Apollo, former Apollo engineer Pat Norris gives a detailed acco

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Storing data in music

Manuel Eichelberger and Simon Tanner, two ETH doctoral students, store data in music. This means, for example, that background music can contain the access data for the local Wi-Fi network, and a mobile phone's built-in microphone can receive this data. "That would be handy in a hotel room," Tanner says, "since guests would get access to the hotel Wi-Fi without having to enter a password on their

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'Connecting the dots' for quantum networks

Researchers at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) developed a new technique that could enable future advancements in quantum technology.

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Tungsten as interstellar radiation shielding?

A boiling point of 5900 degrees Celsius and diamond-like hardness in combination with carbon: tungsten is the heaviest metal, yet has biological functions—especially in heat-loving microorganisms. A team led by Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of Vienna report for the first time rare microbial-tungsten interactions at the nanometer range. Based on these findings, n

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Live fast and die young, or play the long game? Scientists map 121 animal life cycles

Scientists have pinpointed the 'pace' and 'shape' of life as the two key elements in animal life cycles that affect how different species get by in the world. The findings have important implications for predicting which species will be the winners and losers from the global environment crisis.

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Deciphering enzymatic degradation of sugar from marine alga

Enzymes are biocatalysts that are crucial for the degradation of seaweed biomass in oceans. For the first time, an international team of scientists recently decoded the complete degradation pathway of the algal polysaccharide Ulvan by biocatalysts from a marine bacterium.

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Infection-fighting protein also senses protein misfolding in non-infected cells

Researchers have uncovered an immune mechanism by which host cells combat bacterial infection, and at the same time found that a protein crucial to that process can sense and respond to misfolded proteins in all mammalian cells.

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Problematic smartphone use linked to poorer grades, alcohol misuse, more sexual partners

A survey of more than 3,400 university students in the US has found that one in five respondents reported problematic smartphone use. Female students were more likely be affected and problematic smartphone use was associated with lower grade averages, mental health problems and higher numbers of sexual partners.

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US wants to dump 1.5 tons of rat poison pellets on Farallon Islands: Biologists say it's for the best

For most humans, life on these jagged islands off the coast of San Francisco would be a nightmare: Waves lash the shore with treacherous force, the stench of guano fills the air, and the screech of seagulls is so loud that resident scientists wear earplugs to bed.

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'Chaos' in the home linked to poor asthma control in children

A chaotic household, as well as child and parent depression, are risk factors for worse asthma outcomes in urban minority children, according to a new paper published in the journal Pediatrics.

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IBM Patented a Goofy-Looking Watch That Folds Into a Tablet

Spy Dude IBM just patented an extremely goofy-looking take on the smartwatch: its touch-screen display unfolds to form a full-sized tablet while strapped to your wrist. The device, which is described as “an electronic display device configured for variable display size” according to last month’s patent , takes foldable devices to a whole new level with its 8x increase in size from watch mode to t

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The Voyager Probes Are Running Low on Power

Energy Efficiency The vacuum of space just got a little bit colder. NASA just switched off the heater on Voyager 2, one of the two probes currently exploring the outer reaches of the solar system, in an attempt to conserve its dwindling power supply. Over the four decades since the Voyager space probes launched, their nuclear batteries have become less and less efficient, according to Space.com ,

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Tesla Disrupts — BMW Boss Throws In The Towel –

submitted by /u/izumi3682 [link] [comments]

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High-safety, flexible and scalable rechargeable planar micro-batteries

Increasing development of micro-scale electronics has stimulated demand of the corresponding micro-scale power sources, especially for micro-batteries (MBs). However, complex manufacturing processes and poor flexibility of the traditional stacked batteries have hindered their practical applications.

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Smoke from Canadian fires drifts into United States

Canada has been battling a very active and destructive fire season on multiple fronts this year. A warming climate, very dry environment, and more extreme weather including severe thunderstorms has led to massive wildfires throughout the country. Two of the provinces hardest hit by these fires are Ontario and Manitoba. On July 7, 2019, the Suomi NPP satellite using its VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imag

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Twitter bans 'dehumanizing' posts toward religious groups

Twitter now prohibits hate speech that targets religious groups by using dehumanizing language, a ban it says may extend to other categories like race and gender.

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Vitamin C is key to protection of exciting new nanomaterial

In work that could open a floodgate of future applications for a new class of nanomaterials known as MXenes (pronounced "Maxines"), researchers from Texas A&M University have discovered a simple, inexpensive way to prevent the materials' rapid degradation.

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Researchers train dogs to respond to haptic vibration commands

Dogs can be trained to respond to haptic vibration commands while wearing a modified canine vest developed by an interdisciplinary research team at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU).

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Federal Appeals Court Takes Up Case That Threatens Affordable Care Act

Upholding the lower court’s ruling would affect 20 million people who get medical coverage under the law and could upend the health care system — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Researchers train dogs to respond to haptic vibration commands

Dogs can be trained to respond to haptic vibration commands while wearing a modified canine vest developed by an interdisciplinary research team at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU).

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Vitamin C is key to protection of exciting new nanomaterial

In work that could open a floodgate of future applications for a new class of nanomaterials known as MXenes (pronounced 'Maxines'), researchers from Texas A&M University have discovered a simple, inexpensive way to prevent the materials' rapid degradation.

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New analysis shows drug slows down respiratory decline

Duchenne muscular dystrophy occurs in boys and is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness leading to a decline in respiratory function. Strategies to arrest this severe progressive deterioration are needed to extend lives and improve quality of life. Results of three clinical trials using eteplirsen, an exon-skipping antisense oligonucleotide, show promising results, accordin

15h

Ben-Gurion University researchers train dogs to respond to haptic vibration commands

'Our research results showed that dogs responded to these vibrotactile cues as well or even better than vocal commands,' says Prof. Amir Shapiro, director of the Robotics Laboratory within BGU's Department of Mechanical Engineering. 'Our current proof-of-concept study shows promising results that open the way toward the use of haptics for human-canine communication.'

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New research links early-life mortality and family structure, education, income

A new study reveals substantially higher risks of death between ages 1-24 for children living in families with lower levels of parental education, lower levels of family income, and/or for those living in a single parent family — all independent of one another.

15h

Study highlights need for tailored skin cancer prevention programs

Researchers at the GW Cancer Center found that sun safety practices for attendees at skin cancer screening events differ from the general public.

15h

Do teaching and communicating about microfluidics advances need improvement?

Microfluidics and learning-on-a-chip research—involving the manipulation of small amounts of fluids to run miniaturized experiments in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine—are a prolific research field. But, so far, there aren't many published examples of how to teach it in an easily understandable way to students or how to communicate the numerous significant advances within the field to publ

15h

Scientists Create an AI From a Sheet of Glass

AI Glass It turns out that you don’t need a computer to create an artificial intelligence. In fact, you don’t even need electricity. In an extraordinary bit of left-field research, scientists from the University of Wisconsin–Madison have found a way to create artificially intelligent glass that can recognize images without any need for sensors, circuits, or even a power source — and it could one

16h

Author Correction: Long-term ex vivo haematopoietic-stem-cell expansion allows nonconditioned transplantation

Nature, Published online: 09 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1395-9 Author Correction: Long-term ex vivo haematopoietic-stem-cell expansion allows nonconditioned transplantation

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Stadia Games Will Be Playable Even If Publishers No Longer Support Platform

Google continues to reveal more information about its upcoming Stadia cloud gaming service. There’s an interesting bit of information that the company has now confirmed on its FAQ page …

16h

How to Fight "Eroom's Law"

Human organs on a chip might be able to cure what ails pharma R&D — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

16h

Developmental Biologist Suzanne Eaton Found Dead in Greece

Eaton studied morphology and growth during development at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics.

16h

Why metalenses are about to revolutionize chip-making

The ability to focus light into a pattern rather than a point makes metalenses promising tools for carving circuits into silicon.

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What You Gain by Losing Quickly

America will not long remember the presidential candidacy of Representative Eric Swalwell. The California Democrat’s bid for the White House lasted a day less than three months; more than twice that amount of time will go by before voters cast the first primary ballots next year. Swalwell failed to register more than 1 percent in a single poll, and when he dropped out yesterday , it was so early

16h

Dancing cockatoo videos: Snowball 'shows social behaviour'

Snowball went viral in 2008, but now scientists say he can teach us about dance and social behaviour.

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Hate spoilers? This AI tool spots them for you

Researchers have have developed an AI-based system that can flag spoilers in online reviews of books and TV shows.

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Trump White House shelves ‘adversarial’ review of climate science

Officials worried effort would hurt reelection campaign

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Therapeutic strategies based on evolutionary principles may improve patient outcomes

In a new article published by Cancer Research, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers propose the evolutionary dynamics of background extinctions suggest this focus on finding new and better drugs may have neglected opportunities to develop new and better treatment strategies to improve outcomes with currently available drugs.

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Cyborg-like microchip valve driven by earthworm muscle

Scientists at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan have developed the first microchip valve powered by living cells. Earthworm muscle tissue allowed for a high contractile force that could be sustained for minutes, and unlike electrically controlled valves, did not require any external power source such as batteries.

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Smoke from Canadian fires drifts into United States

Canada has been battling a very active and destructive fire season on multiple fronts this year. A warming climate, very dry environment, and more extreme weather including severe thunderstorms has led to massive wildfires throughout the country.

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US Naval Research Laboratory 'connects the dots' for quantum networks

Researchers at the US Naval Research Laboratory developed a novel technique that could enable new technologies that use properties of quantum physics for computing, communication and sensing, which may lead to 'neuromorphic' or brain-inspired computing.

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Linking phenotypes to genotypes: A newly devised gene-editing strategy

Taniguchi and colleagues developed a new methodology that allows the study of CRISPR-mediated effects in cells while accurately ascertaining the exact DNA changes that caused them. This novel protocol is opening up new avenues of study for neurobiology and further upgrade the already powerful abilities of CRISPR-based techniques.

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New antibacterial fillings from Tel Aviv University may combat recurring tooth decay

A new study by Tel Aviv University researchers finds potent antibacterial capabilities in novel dental restoratives, or filling materials.

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Snowball The Dancing Cockatoo Vogues And Body Rolls On Beat

A new study finds that Snowball, a dancing cockatoo, has a repertoire of at least 14 different dance moves, suggesting that the predisposition to dance is embedded in our animal brains. (Image credit: Irena Schulz Via YouTube/ Screenshot by NPR)

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Sorry, even Mariah Carey can’t twist bottle caps off with her voice

Her voice is amazing, but it doesn't defy the laws of physics (yet). (Pixabay/) Real fans know that Mariah Carey's voice defies the laws of nature. The diva has one of the widest vocal ranges in recording history—five octaves from F2 to G7—and regularly whips out her piercing "whistle register," the highest note a human voice can hit. But no one thought she could do this : Challenge accepted! #bo

16h

How to Fight "Eroom's Law"

Human organs on a chip might be able to cure what ails pharma R&D — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Could Manipulating the Microbiome Treat Food Allergies?

As evidence grows that gut bacteria play roles in the development and persistence of food allergies, researchers begin to explore microbe-based interventions.

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Daily briefing: Why parrots are the only other animals that dance

Nature, Published online: 08 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02130-5 An excuse to watch some great videos of Snowball the dancing cockatoo, the promise of gene drives and one scientist’s story of turning her back on the lab bench.

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Attenborough: Climate risks Africa turmoil

The naturalist and broadcaster Sir David Attenborough says that climate change will make parts of Africa uninhabitable.

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Trump can't block people on Twitter, court rules

Donald Trump can't block people on Twitter, a US appeals court has found.

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The Iran Hawks Are Circling

Lashing out against the Trump administration’s tightening sanctions, Iran is accelerating its steps out of the nuclear deal, breaching another of its limits yesterday and vowing that more will come. In the U.S., congressional hawks are circling, feeling vindicated by Iran’s provocations, and are trying to seize the opportunity to kill the Obama-era nuclear deal once and for all. Last week, the Re

16h

Do teaching and communicating about microfluidics advances need improvement?

Microfluidics and learning-on-a-chip research — involving the manipulation of small amounts of fluids to run miniaturized experiments — are a prolific research field. But there aren't yet many published examples of how to teach it in an easily understandable way or to communicate advances within the field to the public. In Biomicrofluidics, researchers present a review of published literature ab

16h

Early first pregnancy is the key to successful reproduction of cheetahs in zoos

Cheetah experts in many zoos around the world are at a loss. Despite all their efforts, these cats often do not reproduce in the desired manner. Researchers from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, together with colleagues from the Allwetterzoo Münster, have now found a key to the issue: the age of the mothers at the first pregnancy is the decisive factor.

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Study identifies the best healthy eating nudges

In a meta-analysis of real-life experiments drawn from food science, nutrition, health economics, marketing and psychology, the authors find that behavioral nudges — facilitating action rather than providing knowledge or inducing feelings — can reduce daily energy intake by up to 209 kcal, the same number of calories as in 21 cubes of sugar.

16h

Geoscientists Were Wrong About the 'World's Largest Volcano'

Back in 2013, Tamu Massif — a giant underwater volcano off the coast of Japan — stole Hawaii's crown as the largest single volcano in the world. But it's not a true volcano at all.

16h

Genetic pathway could enhance survival of coral

Researchers have made a groundbreaking discovery that could enhance the ability of reef-building corals to survive a rapidly warming and disease-filled ocean.

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Rising tundra temperatures create worrying changes in microbial communities

Rising temperatures in the tundra of the Earth's northern latitudes could affect microbial communities in ways likely to increase their production of greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide, a new study of experimentally warmed Alaskan soil suggests.

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Mærsk Oil skal betale en halv million for at dumpe kemikalier: »Bøden kommer ikke til at gøre en forskel«

Mærsk Oil udledte ulovligt over 100 ton miljøfarlige kemikalier til havet. Nu skal selskabet betale en bøde på 500.000 kroner. Det er for billigt sluppet, mener miljøorganisationer.

16h

A Zoom Flaw Gives Hackers Easy Access to Your Webcam

All it takes is one wrong click, and the popular video conferencing software will put you in a meeting with a stranger.

16h

Opinion: Test Brain-Reviving Technology in Infants First

If a system tested in decapitated pigs ever gets to human clinical trials, neuroscientific and ethical reasons point to testing babies before adults.

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Looking at how the brain reacts to boredom could help people cope

New WSU research shows people can be taught coping mechanisms to avoid negative responses to boring situations.

17h

Ancient Saharan seaway shows how Earth's climate and creatures can undergo extreme change

A new paper integrates 20 years of research by a diverse scientific team and describes the ancient Trans-Saharan Seaway of Africa that existed 50 to 100 million years ago in the region of the current Sahara Desert. The study is a comprehensive synthesis and contains the first reconstructions of extinct aquatic species in their habitats along the seaway and places in context massive climate and sea

17h

A concussion can cost your job — especially if you are young and well educated

A seemingly harmless concussion can cause the loss of a job — especially for patients who are in their thirties and for those with a higher education. According to a large new study, these patients have a much higher risk of being without regular employment five year after the incident.

17h

Metabolic reprogramming of branched-chain amino acid facilitates drug resistance in lung cancer

Research teams led by Dr. Ji Hongbin at the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dr. Zhou Caicun at the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, and Dr. Li Cheng at the School of Life Sciences, Peking University, revealed the important role of epigenetic regulation-mediated metabolic reprogramming in lung cancer's capacity to resi

17h

Fear of predators increases risk of illness

Predators are not only a deadly threat to many animals, they also affect potential prey negatively simply by being nearby. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have studied what happens to the prey's immune system when they are forced to expend a large amount of their energy on avoiding being eaten.

17h

Tungsten as interstellar radiation shielding?

A boiling point of 5900 degrees Celsius and diamond-like hardness in combination with carbon: tungsten is the heaviest metal, yet has biological functions – especially in heat-loving microorganisms. A team led by Tetyana Milojevic at the University of Vienna report for the first time rare microbial-tungsten interactions at the nanometer range. Based on these findings, also the survivability of mic

17h

Small-volume, high-throughput organic synthesis

University of Groningen Professor of Drug Design, Alexander Dömling, has devised a method to rapidly synthesize thousands of new molecules and evaluate their properties as potential drugs. In a paper published by Science Advances on 5 July, he shows that this method works well when applied to boronic acid chemistry, an important technique in synthetic organic chemistry. The study also produced an

17h

High-safety, flexible and scalable Zn//MnO2 rechargeable planar micro-batteries

Screen printed Zn//MnO2 planar micro-batteries have been fabricated with intriguing features of scalability, environmental friendliness, high safety and metal-free current collectors, possessing high volumetric energy density, excellent rate capability and long-life cycling durability. Significantly, such printed Zn//MnO2 micro-batteries could be designed with various planar configurations, simult

17h

Could vacuum physics be revealed by laser-driven microbubble?

Scientists at Osaka University discovered a novel mechanism which they refer to as microbubble implosion (MBI) in 2018. In this study, the group confirmed that during MBI, an ultrahigh electrostatic field close to the Schwinger field could be achieved because micron-sized bubbles embedded in a solid hydride target implode to have nanometer-sized diameters upon ionization.

17h

Charge transfer within transition-metal dyes analysed

Transition-metal complexes in dye-based solar cells are responsible for converting light into electrical energy. A model of spatial charge separation within the molecule has been used to describe this conversion. However, an analysis at BESSY II shows that this description of the process is too simple.

17h

Storing data in music

Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a technique for embedding data in music and transmitting it to a smartphone. Since the data is imperceptible to the human ear, it doesn't affect listening pleasure. This could have interesting applications in hotels, museums and department stores.

17h

New shingles vaccine reduced occurrence in patients who had stem cell transplantation

The new, nonlive shingles vaccine reduced the occurrence of shingles (herpes zoster) compared with placebo among patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation with their own stem cells. Shingles risk is increased after this type of stem cell transplantation and a vaccine that contains a weakened live strain of the shingles virus isn't recommended for these immunocompromised patients.

17h

Discovery in mice points to potential treatment for vestibular disorders

Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found a way to regenerate hair cells in the inner ears of mice, allowing the animals to recover vestibular function. It's the first time such recovery has been observed in mature mammals.

17h

Fusion scientists have developed a 'nano-scale sculpture technique'

A research team of fusion scientists has succeeded in developing a "nano-scale sculpture technique" to fabricate an ultra-thin film by sharpening a tungsten sample with a focused ion beam. This enables the nano-scale observation of a cross-section very near the top surface of the tungsten sample using a transmission electron microscope. The sculpture technique developed by this research can be app

17h

On-demand control of terahertz and infrared waves

The ability to control infrared and terahertz waves using magnetic or electric fields is one of the great challenges in physics that could revolutionise opto-electronics, telecommunications and medical diagnostics. A theory from 2006 predicts that it should be possible to use graphene—a monoatomic layer of carbon atoms—in a magnetic field not only to absorb terahertz and infrared light on demand b

17h

Wimbledon’s First Fashion Scandal

This year’s Wimbledon marks the centennial of the tournament’s first, though hardly its last, fashion scandal. In 1919, a 20-year-old Frenchwoman named Suzanne Lenglen made her Wimbledon debut in a shockingly skimpy ensemble : a low-neck dress with short sleeves and a calf-length pleated skirt, her silk stockings rolled down to just above her knees, and a floppy hat covering her cropped hair. She

17h

Britain Has No Good Options for Its U.S. Ambassador

Updated at 12:51 p.m. ET Whatever Britain gained from feting President Donald Trump during last month’s state visit, it appears to have swiftly lost: This week, President Trump announced that the U.S. “will no longer deal with” Britain’s ambassador to Washington after a leak to a British newspaper revealed that the envoy, in confidential correspondence to his government dating back to 2017, descr

17h

Sloths Climb a New Evolutionary Tree

Analysis of ancient genes changes what researchers expected about giant sloth evolution. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Device could bring both solar power and clean water to millions

Researchers say one invention could solve two problems for people lacking basic resources A device that can produce electricity from sunlight while simultaneously purifying water has been produced by researchers, an invention they say could solve two problems in one stroke. The researchers say the device is not only a source of green energy but also offers an alternative to current technologies f

17h

Hög förskrivning av opioider vid artros

– Resultaten visar på en alarmerande hög förskrivning av opioider för artrospatienter, säger Martin Englund, professor vid Lunds universitet och läkare vid Skånes universitetssjukhus som lett studien, i vilken även forskare från Danmark och Storbritannien medverkat. Forskarna utgick från register över personer i Skåne som fyllt minst 35 år (totalt 751 579 personer) och som fått diagnosen knä- ell

17h

Climate change: Water and green energy produced by a single device

Researchers adapt a solar panel so that it can produce drinking water from the sea as well as green electricity.

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Electricity and water can be a good combination

Saudi researchers hope they can bring them together in one system. Natalie Parletta reports.

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#MeTooSTEM founder out at Vanderbilt

Outspoken neuroscientist, denied tenure, leaves university with little comment

17h

Virgin Galactic to become the first publicly traded space travel firm

Virgin Galactic is to become the first publicly traded company for human space travel after it announced a merger with a major investment group

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Firmaer vil opstille 21.000 elløbehjul og cykler i København

Interessen for at udleje elløbehjul og cykler i København er så overvældende, at kommunen kun vil give tilladelse til en tiendedel.

17h

‘Family tree’ could improve kale and its relatives

New research maps the genetic family tree of three leafy greens: canola, rutabaga, and Siberian kale. The research challenges prior theories of the origins of the three vegetables. “Domestication of plants—the process of adapting wild plants for human use—happened a long time ago before we knew about genetics,” says Makenzie Mabry, a doctoral student of biological sciences at the University of Mi

17h

A ‘skin’ of movable solar panels helps buildings keep their cool

Nature, Published online: 08 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02105-6 Swivelling panels balance solar-energy generation and interior temperatures.

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Schools and media literacy critical for teen refugees' social wellbeing

For a teenage refugee starting a new life in Europe, going to school and using digital media form a big part of navigating an unfamiliar society. But appropriate interventions at school and online could help them feel more at home in a new country.

17h

Organic solar cells that last 10 years in space

Scientists from the Skoltech Center for Energy Science and Technology, the Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics of RAS, and the Department of Chemistry of MSU have presented solar cells based on conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives that demonstrate record-high radiation stability and withstand gamma radiation of > 6,000 Gy, raising hopes for their stable operation in near-earth orbi

17h

The future of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy | Rick Doblin

Could psychedelics help us heal from trauma and mental illnesses? Researcher Rick Doblin has spent the past three decades investigating this question, and the results are promising. In this fascinating dive into the science of psychedelics, he explains how drugs like LSD, psilocybin and MDMA affect your brain — and shows how, when paired with psychotherapy, they could change the way we treat PTSD

17h

Marriott faces $123 million fine in UK for data breach

Marriott says it will fight a $123 million U.K. government fine related to its massive data breach.

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Nanoscale visualization of the distribution and optical behavior of dopant in GaN

In Gallium Nitride (GaN) implanted with a small amount of magnesium (Mg), NIMS succeeded for the first time in visualizing the distribution and optical behavior of implanted Mg at the nanoscale which may help in improving electrical performance of GaN based devices. Some of the mechanisms by which introduced Mg ions convert GaN into a p-type semiconductor are also revealed. These findings may sign

17h

Semi-arid land in China has expanded in recent decades and probably will continue to expand

Drylands cover approximately 50% of the land surface in China, among which semi-arid regions are the main dryland type. However, these semi-arid regions have undergone continuous expansion and a significant drying trend in recent decades, which increases the risk of land degradation and deterioration in China. Fully understanding the characteristics and dynamics of semi-arid climate change in Chin

17h

Nanobowl arrays endow perovskite solar cells with iridescent colors

With the maturing of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) technology, it is highly desirable to develop colorful solar cells to satisfy the requirements of aesthetic purposes in applications including building integrated photovoltaics and wearable electronics. The broad optical absorption and the large absorption coefficient of perovskites normally lead to high-efficiency cells with dark-brown colors. Ti

17h

Deep learning-powered 'DeepEC' framework helps accurately understand enzyme functions

A deep learning-powered computational framework, 'DeepEC,' will allow the high-quality and high-throughput prediction of enzyme commission numbers, which is essential for the accurate understanding of enzyme functions.

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