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nyheder2019juli22

Correction for Pederson, The sui generis Sydney Brenner [Correction]

RETROSPECTIVE Correction for “The sui generis Sydney Brenner,” by Thoru Pederson, which was first published June 10, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1907536116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 13155–13157). The author notes that, on page 13155, left column, second paragraph, lines 13–14, “Cyril Hinshelwood at Oxford, a leading figure in the early bacteriophage…

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Correction for Koll and Cronin, Earth’s outgoing longwave radiation linear due to H2O greenhouse effect [Correction]

EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for “Earth’s outgoing longwave radiation linear due to H2O greenhouse effect,” by Daniel D. B. Koll and Timothy W. Cronin, which was first published September 25, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1809868115 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, 10293–10298). The authors note that, on page 10294, left column,…

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Correction for Saleem-Batcha et al., Enzymatic control of dioxygen binding and functionalization of the flavin cofactor [Correction]

BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Enzymatic control of dioxygen binding and functionalization of the flavin cofactor,” by Raspudin Saleem-Batcha, Frederick Stull, Jacob N. Sanders, Bradley S. Moore, Bruce A. Palfey, K. N. Houk, and Robin Teufel, which was first published April 23, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1801189115 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci….

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Arctic lead pollution and economic history Drilling ice cores on the Greenland ice sheet. Industrial lead emissions captured in Arctic ice can provide insight into historical changes in Europe’s economy. To measure and analyze changes in Arctic lead pollution between 500 and 2010 CE, Joseph McConnell et al. (pp. 14910–14915)…

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Quasi-Mendelian paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA: A notorious artifact, or anticipated behavior? [Biological Sciences]

A recent report (1) presents the long-awaited confirmation of paternal inheritance of mtDNA in humans (2). Surprisingly, paternal transmission of mtDNA (1) follows a bimodal pattern: About half of the offspring show fairly uniform paternal/maternal heteroplasmy levels, while the rest do not inherit paternal mtDNA at all. This pattern resembles…

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Reply to Annis et al.: Is quasi-Mendelian mtDNA competition enough to drive transmission of paternal mtDNA? [Biological Sciences]

In response to our report of biparental mtDNA inheritance (1), Annis et al. have conducted their own evaluation of our results (2). They disagreed with the autosomal dominant-like inheritance model we proposed as well as the idea of NUMT contamination suggested by others (3, 4). Instead, they offer a mathematical…

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P cycle cannot be a general mechanism for energy production, and it does not sensitize bacteria toward aminoglycosides [Biological Sciences]

In PNAS, Su et al. (1) claim that the pyruvate cycle or “P cycle,” which adds three enzymes—phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase—to the TCA cycle, “operates routinely as a general mechanism for energy production” in Escherichia coli, and that glutamate generates more energy through the P cycle…

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Reply to Nikaido: The pyruvate cycle provides respiratory energy and potentiates aminoglycosides to kill multidrug-resistant bacteria [Biological Sciences]

Nikaido (1) claims, contrary to our work (2), that the P cycle is not a general mechanism for energy production and that it does not sensitize bacteria toward aminoglycosides. However, the argumentation for both points is not convincing to us. The P cycle is proposed from the stable-isotope–based nontargeted isotope…

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Autoimmune diabetes mellitus and the leaky gut [Immunology and Inflammation]

Over the past decade, our understanding of the immune reactivity and, in particular, of autoimmune disorders has witnessed a silent revolution. It has become clear that many, if not all autoimmune diseases entertain an intimate connection to the bacterial gut flora, a cosmos of trillions of different bacteria, forming diverse…

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Human retrovirus pHEV-W envelope protein and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis [Neuroscience]

Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) (1). We have learned much about the pathogenesis of different stages of the disease, including involvement of both the white matter, rich in myelin, and cortical and deep gray matter. Based on histologic…

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Pits with aspiration explain life expectancy of a conifer species [Plant Biology]

Considerable attention has been given to the well-known growth–longevity trade-off in biology, but mechanistic explanations for this trade-off remain incompletely understood. While a life history trade-off is generally assumed to result from resource allocation conflicts (1), Roskilly et al. (2) provide convincing evidence that a single trait of xylem anatomy…

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Characteristic disruptions of an excitable carbon cycle [Applied Mathematics]

The history of the carbon cycle is punctuated by enigmatic transient changes in the ocean’s store of carbon. Mass extinction is always accompanied by such a disruption, but most disruptions are relatively benign. The less calamitous group exhibits a characteristic rate of change whereas greater surges accompany mass extinctions. To…

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Active cargo positioning in antiparallel transport networks [Applied Physical Sciences]

Cytoskeletal filaments assemble into dense parallel, antiparallel, or disordered networks, providing a complex environment for active cargo transport and positioning by molecular motors. The interplay between the network architecture and intrinsic motor properties clearly affects transport properties but remains poorly understood. Here, by using surface micropatterns of actin polymerization, we…

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Entropic colloidal crystallization pathways via fluid-fluid transitions and multidimensional prenucleation motifs [Applied Physical Sciences]

Complex crystallization pathways are common in protein crystallization, tetrahedrally coordinated systems, and biomineralization, where single or multiple precursors temporarily appear before the formation of the crystal. The emergence of precursors is often explained by a unique property of the system, such as short-range attraction, directional bonding, or ion association. But,…

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Homeorhesis and ecological succession quantified in synthetic microbial ecosystems [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The dynamics of ecological change following a major perturbation, known as succession, are influenced by random processes. Direct quantitation of the degree of contingency in succession requires chronological study of replicate ecosystems. We previously found that population dynamics in carefully controlled, replicated synthetic microbial ecosystems were strongly deterministic over several…

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Molecular-level origin of the carboxylate head group response to divalent metal ion complexation at the air-water interface [Chemistry]

We exploit gas-phase cluster ion techniques to provide insight into the local interactions underlying divalent metal ion-driven changes in the spectra of carboxylic acids at the air–water interface. This information clarifies the experimental findings that the CO stretching bands of long-chain acids appear at very similar energies when the head…

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Impacts of protected areas vary with the level of government: Comparing avoided deforestation across agencies in the Brazilian Amazon [Economic Sciences]

Protected areas (PAs) are the leading tools to conserve forests. However, given their mixed effectiveness, we want to know when they have impacts internally and, if they do, when they have spillovers. Political economy posits roles for the level of government. One hypothesis is that federal PAs avoid more internal…

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Assessing micrometastases as a target for nanoparticles using 3D microscopy and machine learning [Applied Biological Sciences]

Metastasis of solid tumors is a key determinant of cancer patient survival. Targeting micrometastases using nanoparticles could offer a way to stop metastatic tumor growth before it causes excessive patient morbidity. However, nanoparticle delivery to micrometastases is difficult to investigate because micrometastases are small in size and lie deep within…

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Intravascular innate immune cells reprogrammed via intravenous nanoparticles to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury [Applied Biological Sciences]

Traumatic primary spinal cord injury (SCI) results in paralysis below the level of injury and is associated with infiltration of hematogenous innate immune cells into the injured cord. Methylprednisolone has been applied to reduce inflammation following SCI, yet was discontinued due to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio associated with off-target effects….

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Catalytic deficiency of O-GlcNAc transferase leads to X-linked intellectual disability [Biochemistry]

O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is an X-linked gene product that is essential for normal development of the vertebrate embryo. It catalyses the O-GlcNAc posttranslational modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins and proteolytic maturation of the transcriptional coregulator Host cell factor 1 (HCF1). Recent studies have suggested that conservative missense mutations distal to the…

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A cell-cell interaction format for selection of high-affinity antibodies to membrane proteins [Biochemistry]

Generating and improving antibodies and peptides that bind specifically to membrane protein targets such as ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can be challenging using established selection methods. Current strategies are often limited by difficulties in the presentation of the antigen or the efficiency of the selection process. Here,…

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The dynamic switch mechanism that leads to activation of LRRK2 is embedded in the DFG{psi} motif in the kinase domain [Biochemistry]

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large multidomain protein, and LRRK2 mutants are recognized risk factors for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although the precise mechanisms that control LRRK2 regulation and function are unclear, the importance of the kinase domain is strongly implicated, since 2 of the 5 most common familial…

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Stochastic geometry sensing and polarization in a lipid kinase-phosphatase competitive reaction [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Phosphorylation reactions, driven by competing kinases and phosphatases, are central elements of cellular signal transduction. We reconstituted a native eukaryotic lipid kinase–phosphatase reaction that drives the interconversion of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P] and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-phosphate [PI(4,5)P2] on membrane surfaces. This system exhibited bistability and formed spatial

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Protein synthesis rates and ribosome occupancies reveal determinants of translation elongation rates [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Although protein synthesis dynamics has been studied both with theoretical models and by profiling ribosome footprints, the determinants of ribosome flux along open reading frames (ORFs) are not fully understood. Combining measurements of protein synthesis rate with ribosome footprinting data, we here inferred translation initiation and elongation rates for over…

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How lovebirds maneuver through lateral gusts with minimal visual information [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Flying birds maneuver effectively through lateral gusts, even when gust speeds are as high as flight speeds. What information birds use to sense gusts and how they compensate is largely unknown. We found that lovebirds can maneuver through 45° lateral gusts similarly well in forest-, lake-, and cave-like visual environments….

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Structure of KAP1 tripartite motif identifies molecular interfaces required for retroelement silencing [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Transcription of transposable elements is tightly regulated to prevent genome damage. KRAB domain-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) and KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1/TRIM28) play a key role in regulating retrotransposons. KRAB-ZFPs recognize specific retrotransposon sequences and recruit KAP1, inducing the assembly of an epigenetic silencing complex, with chromatin remodeling activitie

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Dynamic allostery-based molecular workings of kinase:peptide complexes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

A dense interplay between structure and dynamics underlies the working of proteins, especially enzymes. Protein kinases are molecular switches that are optimized for their regulation rather than catalytic turnover rates. Using long-simulations dynamic allostery analysis, this study describes an exploration of the dynamic kinase:peptide complex. We have used protein kinase…

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Mosquito feeding behavior and how it influences residual malaria transmission across Africa [Ecology]

The antimalarial efficacy of the most important vector control interventions—long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)—primarily protect against mosquitoes’ biting people when they are in bed and indoors. Mosquito bites taken outside of these times contribute to residual transmission which determines the maximum effectiveness of current malaria prevention….

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Responses of tundra soil microbial communities to half a decade of experimental warming at two critical depths [Environmental Sciences]

Northern-latitude tundra soils harbor substantial carbon (C) stocks that are highly susceptible to microbial degradation with rising global temperatures. Understanding the magnitude and direction (e.g., C release or sequestration) of the microbial responses to warming is necessary to accurately model climate change. In this study, Alaskan tundra soils were subjected…

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Deep evolutionary origin of limb and fin regeneration [Evolution]

Salamanders and lungfishes are the only sarcopterygians (lobe-finned vertebrates) capable of paired appendage regeneration, regardless of the amputation level. Among actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes), regeneration after amputation at the fin endoskeleton has only been demonstrated in polypterid fishes (Cladistia). Whether this ability evolved independently in sarcopterygians and actinopterygian

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Rare dental trait provides morphological evidence of archaic introgression in Asian fossil record [Anthropology]

The recently described Denisovan hemimandible from Xiahe, China [F. Chen et al., (2019) Nature 569, 409–412], possesses an unusual dental feature: a 3-rooted lower second molar. A survey of the clinical and bioarchaeological literature demonstrates that the 3-rooted lower molar is rare (less than 3.5% occurrence) in non-Asian Homo sapiens….

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Variational implicit-solvent predictions of the dry-wet transition pathways for ligand-receptor binding and unbinding kinetics [Applied Mathematics]

Ligand–receptor binding and unbinding are fundamental biomolecular processes and particularly essential to drug efficacy. Environmental water fluctuations, however, impact the corresponding thermodynamics and kinetics and thereby challenge theoretical descriptions. Here, we devise a holistic, implicit-solvent, multimethod approach to predict the (un)binding kinetics for a generic ligand–pocket mod

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Ternary nitride semiconductors in the rocksalt crystal structure [Applied Physical Sciences]

Inorganic nitrides with wurtzite crystal structures are well-known semiconductors used in optical and electronic devices. In contrast, rocksalt-structured nitrides are known for their superconducting and refractory properties. Breaking this dichotomy, here we report ternary nitride semiconductors with rocksalt crystal structures, remarkable electronic properties, and the general chemical formula M

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Crumpling of silver nanowires by endolysosomes strongly reduces toxicity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Fibrous particles interact with cells and organisms in complex ways that can lead to cellular dysfunction, cell death, inflammation, and disease. The development of conductive transparent networks (CTNs) composed of metallic silver nanowires (AgNWs) for flexible touchscreen displays raises new possibilities for the intimate contact between novel fibers and human…

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Quantitative modelling predicts the impact of DNA methylation on RNA polymerase II traffic [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Patterns of gene expression are primarily determined by proteins that locally enhance or repress transcription. While many transcription factors target a restricted number of genes, others appear to modulate transcription levels globally. An example is MeCP2, an abundant methylated-DNA binding protein that is mutated in the neurological disorder Rett syndrome….

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Dynamic graphical models of molecular kinetics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Most current molecular dynamics simulation and analysis methods rely on the idea that the molecular system can be represented by a single global state (e.g., a Markov state in a Markov state model [MSM]). In this approach, molecules can be extensively sampled and analyzed when they only possess a few…

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Microfluidic protein isolation and sample preparation for high-resolution cryo-EM [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

High-resolution structural information is essential to understand protein function. Protein-structure determination needs a considerable amount of protein, which can be challenging to produce, often involving harsh and lengthy procedures. In contrast, the several thousand to a few million protein particles required for structure determination by cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can…

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The optoelectronic microrobot: A versatile toolbox for micromanipulation [Cell Biology]

Microrobotics extends the reach of human-controlled machines to submillimeter dimensions. We introduce a microrobot that relies on optoelectronic tweezers (OET) that is straightforward to manufacture, can take nearly any desirable shape or form, and can be programmed to carry out sophisticated, multiaxis operations. One particularly useful program is a serial…

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Spontaneous self-assembly and structure of perfluoroalkylalkane surfactant hemimicelles by molecular dynamics simulations [Chemistry]

Fully atomistic molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of perfluoroalkylalkane molecules at the surface of water show the spontaneous formation of aggregates whose size and topography closely resemble the experimentally observed hemimicelles for this system. Furthermore, the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) pattern calculated from the simulation trajectories reproduces the experimental GIXD

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A di-iron protein recruited as an Fe[II] and oxygen sensor for bacterial chemotaxis functions by stabilizing an iron-peroxy species [Chemistry]

Many bacteria contain cytoplasmic chemoreceptors that lack sensor domains. Here, we demonstrate that such cytoplasmic receptors found in 8 different bacterial and archaeal phyla genetically couple to metalloproteins related to β-lactamases and nitric oxide reductases. We show that this oxygen-binding di-iron protein (ODP) acts as a sensor for chemotactic responses…

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Opinion: What does AI’s success playing complex board games tell brain scientists? [Computer Sciences]

In research, it sometimes happens that advances in one field unexpectedly inform another in a fundamental way. A case in point may be what computer-generated gameplay suggests about how brains operate. Spearheaded by Demis Hassabis, David Silver, and their colleagues at the artificial intelligence (AI) company Google DeepMind, a series…

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Large distances separate coregulated genes in living Drosophila embryos [Developmental Biology]

Transcriptional enhancers are short segments of DNA that switch genes on and off in response to a variety of cellular signals. Many enhancers map quite far from their target genes, on the order of tens or even hundreds of kilobases. There is extensive evidence that remote enhancers are brought into…

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Schwann cell precursors contribute to skeletal formation during embryonic development in mice and zebrafish [Developmental Biology]

Immature multipotent embryonic peripheral glial cells, the Schwann cell precursors (SCPs), differentiate into melanocytes, parasympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells, and dental mesenchymal populations. Here, genetic lineage tracing revealed that, during murine embryonic development, some SCPs detach from nerve fibers to become mesenchymal cells, which differentiate further into chondrocytes and ma

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Earth’s radiative imbalance from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere determines the temporal evolution of the global climate, and vice versa changes in the climate system can alter the planetary energy fluxes. This interplay is fundamental to our understanding of Earth’s heat budget and the climate system. However, even today, the…

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Marine ice sheet instability amplifies and skews uncertainty in projections of future sea-level rise [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Sea-level rise may accelerate significantly if marine ice sheets become unstable. If such instability occurs, there would be considerable uncertainty in future sea-level rise projections due to imperfectly modeled ice sheet processes and unpredictable climate variability. In this study, we use mathematical and computational approaches to identify the ice sheet…

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Hysteresis and critical transitions in a coffee agroecosystem [Ecology]

Seeking to employ ecological principles in agricultural management, a classical ecological debate provides a useful framing. Whether ecosystems are controlled from above (predators are the limiting force over herbivores) or from below (overutilization of plant resources is the limiting force over herbivores) is a debate that has motivated much research….

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Trophic control of cryptic coralline algal diversity [Ecology]

Understanding how trophic dynamics drive variation in biodiversity is essential for predicting the outcomes of trophic downgrading across the world’s ecosystems. However, assessing the biodiversity of morphologically cryptic lineages can be problematic, yet may be crucial to understanding ecological patterns. Shifts in keystone predation that favor increases in herbivore abundance…

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Tuning anion solvation energetics enhances potassium-oxygen battery performance [Engineering]

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a critical reaction in secondary batteries based on alkali metal chemistries. The nonaqueous electrolyte mediates ion and oxygen transport and determines the heterogeneous charge transfer rates by controlling the nature and degree of solvation. This study shows that the solvent reorganization energy (λ) correlates…

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Discussing global warming leads to greater acceptance of climate science [Environmental Sciences]

Climate change is an urgent global issue, with demands for personal, collective, and governmental action. Although a large body of research has investigated the influence of communication on public engagement with climate change, few studies have investigated the role of interpersonal discussion. Here we use panel data with 2 time…

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Pervasive Arctic lead pollution suggests substantial growth in medieval silver production modulated by plague, climate, and conflict [Environmental Sciences]

Lead pollution in Arctic ice reflects large-scale historical changes in midlatitude industrial activities such as ancient lead/silver production and recent fossil fuel burning. Here we used measurements in a broad array of 13 accurately dated ice cores from Greenland and Severnaya Zemlya to document spatial and temporal changes in Arctic…

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Mutations in TFAP2B and previously unimplicated genes of the BMP, Wnt, and Hedgehog pathways in syndromic craniosynostosis [Genetics]

Craniosynostosis (CS) is a frequent congenital anomaly featuring the premature fusion of 1 or more sutures of the cranial vault. Syndromic cases, featuring additional congenital anomalies, make up 15% of CS. While many genes underlying syndromic CS have been identified, the cause of many syndromic cases remains unknown. We performed…

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Telomere shortening rate predicts species life span [Genetics]

Telomere shortening to a critical length can trigger aging and shorter life spans in mice and humans by a mechanism that involves induction of a persistent DNA damage response at chromosome ends and loss of cellular viability. However, whether telomere length is a universal determinant of species longevity is not…

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Antigen structure affects cellular routing through DC-SIGN [Immunology and Inflammation]

Dendritic cell (DC) lectins mediate the recognition, uptake, and processing of antigens, but they can also be coopted by pathogens for infection. These distinct activities depend upon the routing of antigens within the cell. Antigens directed to endosomal compartments are degraded, and the peptides are presented on major histocompatibility complex…

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Feedback regulation of Arid5a and Ppar-{gamma}2 maintains adipose tissue homeostasis [Immunology and Inflammation]

Immune cells infiltrate adipose tissues and provide a framework to regulate energy homeostasis. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and signaling by which the immune system regulates energy homeostasis in metabolic tissues remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the AT-rich interactive domain 5A (Arid5a), a cytokine-induced nucleic acid binding protein,…

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Efficient T cell-B cell collaboration guides autoantibody epitope bias and onset of celiac disease [Immunology and Inflammation]

B cells play important roles in autoimmune diseases through autoantibody production, cytokine secretion, or antigen presentation to T cells. In most cases, the contribution of B cells as antigen-presenting cells is not well understood. We have studied the autoantibody response against the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in celiac disease patients…

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A simple variant selection in stress-driven martensitic transformation [Physics]

The study of orientation variant selection helps to reveal the mechanism and dynamic process of martensitic transformations driven by temperature or pressure/stress. This is challenging due to the multiple variants which may coexist. While effects of temperature and microstructure in many martensitic transformations have been studied in detail, effects of…

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Evidence for neural rhythms embedded within binocular rivalry [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Evidence for perceptual periodicity emerges from studies showing periodic fluctuations in visual perception and decision making that are accompanied by neural oscillations in brain activity. We have uncovered signs of periodicity in the time course of binocular rivalry, a widely studied form of multistable perception. This was done by analyzing…

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Constraints on the lexicons of human languages have cognitive roots present in baboons (Papio papio) [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Using a pattern extraction task, we show that baboons, like humans, have a learning bias that helps them discover connected patterns more easily than disconnected ones—i.e., they favor rules like “contains between 40% and 80% red” over rules like “contains around 30% red or 100% red.” The task was made…

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A large-scale field experiment shows giving advice improves academic outcomes for the advisor [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Common sense suggests that people struggling to achieve their goals benefit from receiving motivational advice. What if the reverse is true? In a preregistered field experiment, we tested whether giving motivational advice raises academic achievement for the advisor. We randomly assigned n = 1,982 high school students to a treatment…

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Evaluating the prevalence and quality of conference codes of conduct [Social Sciences]

Efforts to increase inclusion in science face multiple barriers, including cultural and social behaviors in settings such as academic conferences. Conferences are beneficial, but the culture can promote inequities and power differentials that harm historically underrepresented groups. Science suffers when conference culture propagates exclusion and discrimination that leads to attrition…

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Chihuahua Was Abducted by a Seagull. It Could Happen, Expert Says.

Poor Gizmo likely never knew what nabbed him.

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Mandy Takes the Wheel | Deadliest Catch

At the helm in heavy seas, Mandy takes the wheel under Captain Sig's supervision. Stream Full Episodes of Deadliest Catch: https://go.discovery.com/tv-shows/deadliest-catch/ Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Join us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DeadliestCatch https://www.facebook.com/Discovery Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/DeadliestCatch https://twitter

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Availability of public databases for triangulation of findings [Letters (Online Only)]

Struk et al. (1) report evidence that the rs13499 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the PRKG1 gene is associated with foraging and goal pursuit behavior. The authors used an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) for PRKG1 obtained from the CommonMind Consortium (n = 467) to test for association between gene expression…

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Reply to Lyon et al.: Self-regulation and the foraging gene: From flies to humans [Letters (Online Only)]

Below we directly address Lyon et al.’s (1) critique of Struk et al. (2). We do not debate the utility of genome-wide vs. candidate gene studies of complex behavioral phenotypes (3). The Struk et al. (2) paper uses a hypothesis-driven approach to test the association of the rs13499 single-nucleotide polymorphism…

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Gain control of saccadic eye movements is probabilistic [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Saccades are rapid eye movements that orient the visual axis toward objects of interest to allow their processing by the central, high-acuity retina. Our ability to collect visual information efficiently relies on saccadic accuracy, which is limited by a combination of uncertainty in the location of the target and motor…

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Gid10 as an alternative N-recognin of the Pro/N-degron pathway [Biochemistry]

In eukaryotes, N-degron pathways (formerly “N-end rule pathways”) comprise a set of proteolytic systems whose unifying feature is their ability to recognize proteins containing N-terminal degradation signals called N-degrons, thereby causing degradation of these proteins by the 26S proteasome or autophagy. Gid4, a subunit of the GID ubiquitin ligase in…

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Trading amino acids at the aphid-Buchnera symbiotic interface [Evolution]

Plant sap-feeding insects are widespread, having evolved to occupy diverse environmental niches despite exclusive feeding on an impoverished diet lacking in essential amino acids and vitamins. Success depends exquisitely on their symbiotic relationships with microbial symbionts housed within specialized eukaryotic bacteriocyte cells. Each bacteriocyte is packed with symbionts that are…

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A photostable fluorescent marker for the superresolution live imaging of the dynamic structure of the mitochondrial cristae [Cell Biology]

Stimulation emission depletion (STED) microscopy enables ultrastructural imaging of organelle dynamics with a high spatiotemporal resolution in living cells. For the visualization of the mitochondrial membrane dynamics in STED microscopy, rationally designed mitochondrial fluorescent markers with enhanced photostability are required. Herein, we report the development of a superphotostable fluoresc

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The neural circuit linking mushroom body parallel circuits induces memory consolidation in Drosophila [Neuroscience]

Memory consolidation is augmented by repeated learning following rest intervals, which is known as the spacing effect. Although the spacing effect has been associated with cumulative cellular responses in the neurons engaged in memory, here, we report the neural circuit-based mechanism for generating the spacing effect in the memory-related mushroom…

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The final steps of [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturation [Chemistry]

The active site (H-cluster) of [FeFe]-hydrogenases is a blueprint for the design of a biologically inspired H2-producing catalyst. The maturation process describes the preassembly and uptake of the unique [2FeH] cluster into apo-hydrogenase, which is to date not fully understood. In this study, we targeted individual amino acids by site-directed…

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A stepwise mechanism for aqueous two-phase system formation in concentrated antibody solutions [Applied Physical Sciences]

Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formation is the macroscopic completion of liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS), a process by which aqueous solutions demix into 2 distinct phases. We report the temperature-dependent kinetics of ATPS formation for solutions containing a monoclonal antibody and polyethylene glycol. Measurements are made by capturing dark-field images of…

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Methodology and theoretical basis of forward genetic screening for sleep/wakefulness in mice [Neuroscience]

The regulatory network of genes and molecules in sleep/wakefulness remains to be elucidated. Here we describe the methodology and workflow of the dominant screening of randomly mutagenized mice and discuss theoretical basis of forward genetics research for sleep in mice. Our high-throughput screening employs electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) to…

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Perturbation of the interactions of calmodulin with GRK5 using a natural product chemical probe [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are responsible for initiating desensitization of activated GPCRs. GRK5 is potently inhibited by the calcium-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM), which leads to nuclear translocation of GRK5 and promotion of cardiac hypertrophy. Herein, we report the architecture of the Ca2+·CaM–GRK5 complex determined by small-angle X-ray scattering…

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New genetic interactions that may impact cancer outcomes

Scientists have identified 12 distinct types of gene-pair interactions in which varying levels of expression in the two genes correlated with cancer patient survival. The results suggest that genes involved in such paired interactions could provide new targets for cancer therapy.

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'Kneeding' a break: First evidence ACL injuries an overuse failure

Repetitive knee stress and failure to accommodate sufficient rest between periods of strenuous exercise may be key factors behind the rapid rise in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in world sport, a new international study has found.

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For anemonefish, male-to-female sex change happens first in the brain

The anemonefish is a gender-bending marvel. It starts out as a male, but can switch to female when circumstances allow, for example, when the only female present dies or disappears. In a new study, researchers found that the male-to-female sex-change occurs first in the fish's brain and only later involves the gonads – sometimes after a delay of months or years.

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New concept for self-assembling micromachines

Polarisable microrobots components can be designed to find each other in an electric field.

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Molecular sensor scouts DNA damage and supervises repair

Using single-molecule imaging, researchers witness how molecules find and fix damaged DNA.

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Teacher incentive programs can improve student achievement

Teacher incentive pay programs with a hybrid structure involving both individual and group incentives can have good results. Multiple and understandable performance metrics, combined with regular feedback to teachers, may also make incentive programs more effective. Finally, rewards should be strong enough to entice teachers to adjust their teaching practices.

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U.S. Cities Might Release More Methane Than Previously Thought

The combined emissions of six cities is more than some of the biggest natural gas production centers — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Ad, bed bugs! Sådan undgår du at få blodsugende kryb med hjem fra ferien

Smid beskidt tøj i en lukket plastpose og frys din kuffert, hvis du vil undgå væggelus.

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Dinosaurs of a Feather Nested Together

A special site in the Gobi Desert preserves rare evidence of a dinosaur nesting ground. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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The Veronica Mars Twist That Undoes a Strong Season

This story contains major spoilers for the new season of Veronica Mars . While previewing Hulu’s revival of Veronica Mars , the noir drama about the titular, once-teenage sleuth, the show’s star, Kristen Bell, dropped a grim clue. “This will be a controversial season, let me just say that,” she hesitantly told E! “I’m also going to probably stay off the internet once it airs … There’s some stuff

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French parliament adopts copyright reform after EU law

The French parliament on Tuesday adopted a copyright reform to protect media against the use of their news by tech giants, the first national legislature to agree the new EU law.

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Antibiotics before liver transplants lead to better results

A research team has found that giving mice antibiotics for 10 days prior to a liver transplant leads to better liver function after the surgery. They they found data from previously transplanted patients finding that it works in humans. It's all linked to the gut microbiome.

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Hidden dynamics detected in neuronal networks

Neuronal networks in the brain can process information particularly well when they are close to a critical. However, experimental investigations of brain activity revealed much fewer indicators of such critical states than expected. Scientists have now proposed a possible explanation. They showed that neuronal networks can assume a second, previously unknown critical mode whose hidden dynamics are

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Exposure to air pollution among women in Mozambique greatly intensified by the use of kerosene lamps

Study shows that women living in the Manhiça region are breathing air with much higher concentrations of black carbon than those found in Europe.

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The first bioluminescent click beetle discovered in Asia represents a new subfamily

The first record of a luminescent click beetle in Asia, representing a new to science subfamily, is reported from southwest China. Molecular analysis provided new evidence for the multiple origin of bioluminescence in the family of click beetles.

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When the pigeon and the letter do not travel together

In standard communication the pigeon always carries the message; the information is linked to a physical entity/particle. Counter to intuition, in a new counterfactual communication protocol, scientists have experimentally demonstrated that in quantum mechanics this is not always true, thereby contradicting a crucial premise of communication theory.

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Keeping livestock in the yard just might help your baby's immune system

Getting up close — and a little dirty — with farm animals just might help us fend off illness, say researchers who've further demonstrated the benefits of early exposure to a wide variety of environmental bacteria.

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Inside dark, polar moon craters, water not as invincible as expected, scientists argue

The Moon's south pole region is home to some of the most extreme environments in the solar system: it's unimaginably cold, massively cratered, and has areas that are either constantly bathed in sunlight or in darkness. This is precisely why NASA wants to send astronauts there in 2024 as part of its Artemis program.

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White-tailed deer were predominant in pre-Columbian Panama feasts

An analysis of white-tailed deer remains at an archaeological site in Panama revealed signs of 'feasting behavior' associated with this animal among pre-Columbian populations.

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Towards a light driven molecular assembler

A team of chemists built the first artificial assembler, which uses light as the energy source. These molecular machines are performing synthesis in a similar way as biological nanomachines. Advantages are fewer side products, enantioselectivity, and shorter synthetic pathways since the mechanosynthesis forces the molecules into a predefined reaction channel.

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Towards a light driven molecular assembler

A team of chemists built the first artificial assembler, which uses light as the energy source. These molecular machines are performing synthesis in a similar way as biological nanomachines. Advantages are fewer side products, enantioselectivity, and shorter synthetic pathways since the mechanosynthesis forces the molecules into a predefined reaction channel.

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The Superbug Candida auris is Giving Rise to Warnings–and Big Questions

Scientists ponder how the deadly fungus arose and became so resistant to treatment — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Apollo 11: fly-tipping us all to the moon? | Letters

Humans should not be allowed to turn the moon and planets into a junkyard, writes Phil Murray , while Ian McNicholas says space exploration is vital for the survival of our species Your recent series of articles commemorating the Apollo 11 moon landing have been both informative and stimulating. Your sidebar story ( Lunar litter: Junk humans left behind , 20 July) does, however, sound a siren warn

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The Twisted Flight Paths of 'Global Girl' and the Lolita Express

Model-turned-pilot Nadia Marcinko, an alleged accomplice of Jeffrey Epstein, is among a group of girls who came to the Epstein syndicate—presumably by plane—from abroad.

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Biologist: Babies Born in Space Might Not Be Fully Human

Next-Gen Species The first step to human colonization of the universe is fairly straightforward: we need to figure out how to get people to Mars and beyond. But evolutionary biologist Scott Solomon isn’t terribly concerned with how humans plan to explore the universe. Instead, he’s focused his attention on what might happen to our species once we settle into our off-world homes . His surprising c

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Wavelength-encoded laser particles for massively multiplexed cell tagging

A new study, "Wavelength-encoded laser particles for massively multiplexed cell tagging," by scientists in the Wellman Center for Photomedicine has been published in Nature Photonics.

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US Embassy Staff in Cuba Show Unusual Brain Changes After Alleged 'Sonic Attacks'

A new study finds distinct differences in the brains of U.S. embassy workers who were potentially exposed to bizarre sensory phenomena while serving in Cuba.

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Fossils Show How Shovel-Beaked Dinosaurs Grew

A collection of tiny skull bones offers new insights to the early life of Edmontosaurus. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Privatization of public goods can cause population decline, research shows

Scientists have given a fascinating new insight into the way microbes adopt a 'cooperative' approach to securing the nutrients they need to thrive.

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Bill Barr Already Won

Back in May, Representative Justin Amash of Michigan held a town hall to defend his position as the lone Republican calling for impeachment proceedings against President Donald Trump. Amash explained to voters that he’d arrived at this position after reading Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s 448-page report on Russian interference in the 2016 election and possible obstruction of justice by the pre

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Scholars weigh in on new ideas about autism

A new paper that challenges widely held ideas about autism has attracted comments from more than 30 scholars across the disciplines of psychology, anthropology, education, and neuroscience.

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In the shoes of a robot: The future approaches

Identifying with someone is an exercise that makes us understand them deeply, empathize with them, and helps us overcome mistrust and prejudice. And this occurs even when that someone is a robot. These interpersonal dynamics were confirmed by an experimental study that was published days ago in Scientific Reports. The study is the result of scientific collaboration between Italian and French scien

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Opinion: Please Help Reviewers by Embedding Your Figures

The standard system of separating figures, tables, and legends from the text is unnecessary and laborious.

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Hidden world of stream biodiversity revealed through water sampling for environmental DNA

For the first time, researchers have used a novel genomics-based method to detect the simultaneous presence of hundreds of organisms in a stream.

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Hidden world of stream biodiversity revealed through water sampling for environmental DNA

For the first time, researchers have used a novel genomics-based method to detect the simultaneous presence of hundreds of organisms in a stream.

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NASA analyzes new Atlantic depression's tropical rainfall

Tropical Depression 3 has formed about off the eastern coast of central Florida. NASA analyzed the rainfall that the new depression was generating using the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite.

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Global warming will accelerate water cycle over global land monsoon regions

The global monsoon region, sprawling north and south from the Earth's equator, sustains nearly two-thirds of the world's population. It is characterized with abundant monsoon rainfall, a distinct wet-dry season contrast, and hence an active water cycle.

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Brain Scans Find Differences But No Injury In U.S. Diplomats Who Fell Ill In Cuba

Advanced MRI scans of 40 embassy workers who developed health problems in Havana found no evidence to support claims that they were attacked or suffered brain injuries. (Image credit: Alexandre Meneghini/Reuters)

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Fussy fish can have their coral, and eat it too

Fussy fish seeking refuge from climate change on deeper reefs can still keep their specialized diets. The corals they prey upon change their own diets to survive the different environment at depth. This ensures their fussy predators are still well-fed!

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Obstructive sleep apnea may be one reason depression treatment doesn't work

When someone is depressed and having suicidal thoughts or their depression treatment just isn't working, their caregivers might want to check to see if they have obstructive sleep apnea, investigators say.

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Presence of hoarding symptoms does not negatively impact CBT response in youth with OCD

Hoarding can often be a debilitating problem for adults and is often associated with poorer mental health functioning and response to treatment. For children however, that may not be the case. A new study reveals that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be successful for youth with hoarding symptoms.

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Gender binary in elite sports should be abandoned, researchers urge

Existing gender categories in sport should perhaps be abandoned in favor of a more 'nuanced' approach in the new transgender era, researchers say.

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How stimulant treatment prevents serious outcomes of ADHD

Analysis quantifies the extent which stimulant treatment reduces serious outcomes in children and young adults with ADHD.

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Q&A: How Ecuador, the world’s largest banana exporter, is defending against a devastating fungus

“I’m calm but busy,” says agriculture minister Xavier Lazo Guerrero

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'Legacy' mercury pollution still a problem in New Jersey meadowlands waters

"Legacy" mercury pollution from decades ago and miles away is an important source of contamination in New Jersey Meadowlands waterways, according to a Rutgers-led study that could help guide cleanup efforts.

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Finding alternatives to diamonds for drilling

Diamonds aren't just a girl's best friend—they're also crucial components for hard-wearing industrial components, such as the drill bits used to access oil and gas deposits underground. But a cost-efficient method to find other suitable materials to do the job is on the way.

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Unconventional phenomena triggered by acoustic waves in 2-D materials

Researchers at the Center for Theoretical Physics of Complex Systems (PCS), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS, South Korea), and colleagues have reported a novel phenomenon, called Valley Acoustoelectric Effect, which takes place in 2-D materials, similar to graphene. This research is published in Physical Review Letters and brings new insights to the study of valleytronics.

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Seniorforsker: Spreder resistent malaria sig til Afrika, bliver det slemt

Malaria bliver sværere at behandle – men ingen grund til bekymring for danske turister.

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Has College Gotten Too Easy?

An astonishing number of students start college in America without finishing it: Roughly 40 percent of college enrollees don’t go on to get a degree within six years of starting to work toward one. The good news is that in recent decades things have gotten a bit less bad. By one calculation , at four-year state schools that didn’t make the top 50 public universities in U.S. News & World Report ’s

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Americans Can Handle the Truth. Mueller Needs to Give It to Them.

If former Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s testimony will have any value tomorrow, it should be to guide Congress to satisfy its constitutionally distinct role. Mueller, a former FBI director, has always displayed a “just the facts approach.” He already has contradicted Attorney General William Barr’s sycophantic characterization of the results of the investigation by firmly stating that if his s

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North Carolina coastal flooding is worsening with climate change, population growth

Researchers can confirm what data modeling systems have predicted: Climate change is increasing precipitation events like hurricanes, tropical storms and floods.

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Which Should Come First in Physics: Theory or Experiment? Glad You Asked

Since Newton, the foundations of physics progressed in a virtuous cycle of hypothesis and experiment until the cycle broke 40 years ago. A bigger collider will not solve the problem — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Daily briefing: The first animal has been declared endangered by deep-sea mining

Nature, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02282-4 The scaly-foot snail is found at only three hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean. Plus: what UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson could mean for science and the part-time data detective who has exposed some of science’s biggest fakers.

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Wavelength-encoded laser particles for massively multiplexed cell tagging

Researchers describe a new class of biocompatible probes, laser particles that can be inserted inside living cells.

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Survey finds patients want more guidance from physicians on self-care

Physicians and consumers agree that self-care is important to health, yet 75% of patients say they haven't discussed it with their physician within the last two years, according to a new survey released today, conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of Samueli Integrative Health Programs. Nearly half of doctors (46%) say patients don't seem interested in the topic, while a most patients (72%) say t

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Is Instagram behavior motivated by a desire to belong?

Does a desire to belong and perceived social support drive a person's frequency of Instagram use?

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Type of stent affects immediate and long-term outcomes

A new study comparing the outcomes of different types of stents used to treat cerebral aneurysms shows that the type of stent used affects a patient's immediate and long-term health outcomes. The study was presented at the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery's (SNIS) 16th Annual Meeting.

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Leaks reveal a trio of iPhone 11 releases to come from Apple this fall

Expect to hear all about the A13 chip and a new engine for touch controls this fall.

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Facebook Is Having Trouble Fighting Scams About Its Own Altcoin

Public Trust When Facebook unveiled its new Libra cryptocurrency , the company asked us to trust it with our finances. Now, Facebook itself is getting inundated with people posting Libra scams — and it didn’t know it was happening until The Washington Post informed the social media giant of the problem. Cryptocurrency advocates will say that the whole point of blockchain technology is to build a

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What’s really behind baseball’s recent home run surge

Some pitchers are convinced the balls are being messed with behind the scenes. (Aspen Photo/Shutterstock.com/) At the 2019 Major League Baseball All-Star Game, Houston Astros pitcher Justin Verlander griped that too many home runs had been hit so far this season. He accused the league of altering, or "juicing," the balls, making it easier to hit home runs. Among players and fans, Verlander’s “jui

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This Attempt to Simulate the Human Brain Fell Amazingly Flat

Ten years ago, the Human Brain Project shook the neuroscience research community with the bold claim that it was going to simulate a human brain, down to the level of individual cells and genes, within ten years. Needless to say, the plan didn’t work out, according to The Atlantic , which archived the shockingly well-funded initiative’s rise and fall. The simulation, which locked down a billion e

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Flying sensors snare vast amounts of a ‘fugitive’ greenhouse gas

Nature, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02229-9 Inventories sharply underestimate the quantity of methane wafting from six large US cities.

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Many Dallas-Fort Worth area faults have the potential to host earthquakes, new study finds

A study led by The University of Texas at Austin has found that the majority of faults underlying the Fort Worth Basin are as sensitive to changes in stress that could cause them to slip as those that have generated earthquakes in recent years.

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Researchers get a handle on how to control blood sugar after stroke

Hyperglycemia, or high levels of glucose, is common in patients with acute ischemic stroke and is associated with worse outcomes compared to normal blood sugar levels. Animal studies also pointed to an effect of high blood sugar in worsening stroke injury. Stroke experts have debated whether intensive glucose management after acute ischemic stroke leads to better outcomes but a new study in JAMA f

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Unconventional phenomena triggered by acoustic waves in 2D materials

IBS researchers and colleagues have reported a novel phenomenon, called Valley Acoustoelectric Effect, which takes place in 2D materials, similar to graphene. This research is published in Physical Review Letters and brings new insights to the study of valleytronics

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Diagonal nematicity in the pseudogap phase of HgBa2CuO4+δ

Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11200-1 One of the proposed explanations for the unusual pseudogap behaviour of cuprate superconductors is the formation of an electron nematic phase. Murayama et al. find magnetic anisotropy in the pseudogap regime of HgBa2CuO4+δ, providing evidence for anomalous nematic ordering.

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Plasmodium myosin A drives parasite invasion by an atypical force generating mechanism

Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11120-0 Here, Robert-Paganin et al. show that myosin A from Plasmodium falciparum is critical for red blood cell invasion and that non-canonical interactions and regulated phosphorylation are important for force generation during parasite invasion.

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Adaptive responses of animals to climate change are most likely insufficient

Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10924-4 It is unclear whether species’ responses to climate change tend to be adaptive or sufficient to keep up with climate change. Here, Radchuk et al. perform a meta-analysis showing that in birds phenology has advanced adaptively in some species, though not all the way to the new optima.

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Room-temperature superionic-phase nanocrystals synthesized with a twinned lattice

Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11229-2 The ability to control the internal domain structure of a nanocrystal represents a new direction in nanomaterials design. Here, the authors develop a method to controllably introduce twin boundaries in cuprous sulfide nanocrystals, and find that twinning stabilizes these nanocrystals in the superionic phase well

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Evolution of metazoan oxygen-sensing involved a conserved divergence of VHL affinity for HIF1α and HIF2α

Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11149-1 Paralogs HIF1α and HIF2α are important modulators regulating cellular transcriptional profile following hypoxia. Here, the authors investigate evolutionary substitutions that fine tune the interaction between HIFα and their regulator VHL in the vertebrate and invertebrate lineages.

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The generation and use of recombinant extracellular vesicles as biological reference material

Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11182-0 There is no universal reference material to develop extracellular vesicle (EV) separation methods and carry out calibration and normalization. Here the authors use HIV-derived gag proteins to assemble recombinant fluorescent EV as a trackable reference material resembling the physical and biochemical properties

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RIF1 promotes replication fork protection and efficient restart to maintain genome stability

Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11246-1 Replication fork degradation can result in genome instability. Here authors reveal a role for Rif1 protein in protecting stalled replication forks from undergoing extensive, DNA2-dependent, degradation.

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Nanoscale mapping of quasiparticle band alignment

Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11253-2 Sharp atomic interfaces between materials dictate the interface’s electronic properties. The authors use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with a spatial resolution of ~500 nm to investigate the nanoscale electronic band structure and band alignment in a lateral heterostructure composed of WS2 placed on

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One Small Controversy About Neil Armstrong’s Giant Leap

Editor’s Note: This article is part of a series reflecting on the Apollo 11 mission, 50 years later. The Apollo 11 mission was, in most respects, a feat of extraordinary precision. Traveling at a maximum velocity of about seven miles a second, the Saturn V rocket would have launched the crew far off course in the event of even a slight navigational error. From nearly 240,000 miles away, Houston’s

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Which Should Come First in Physics: Theory or Experiment? Glad You Asked

Since Newton, the foundations of physics progressed in a virtuous cycle of hypothesis and experiment until the cycle broke 40 years ago. A bigger collider will not solve the problem — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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The first bioluminescent click beetle discovered in Asia represents a new subfamily

A remarkable bioluminescent click beetle was discovered in the subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests in southwest China. Scientists Mr. Wen-Xuan Bi, Dr. Jin-Wu He, Dr. Xue-Yan Li, all affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Kunming), Mr. Chang-Chin Chen of Tianjin New Wei San Industrial Company, Ltd. (Tianjing, China) and Dr. Robin Kundrata of Palacký University (Olomouc, Czech Republic

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For anemonefish, male-to-female sex change happens first in the brain

The anemonefish is a gender-bending marvel. It starts out as a male, but can switch to female when circumstances allow, for example, when the only female present dies or disappears. In a new study, researchers found that the male-to-female sex-change occurs first in the fish's brain and only later involves the gonads—sometimes after a delay of months or years. (Includes video).

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The first bioluminescent click beetle discovered in Asia represents a new subfamily

A remarkable bioluminescent click beetle was discovered in the subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests in southwest China. Scientists Mr. Wen-Xuan Bi, Dr. Jin-Wu He, Dr. Xue-Yan Li, all affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Kunming), Mr. Chang-Chin Chen of Tianjin New Wei San Industrial Company, Ltd. (Tianjing, China) and Dr. Robin Kundrata of Palacký University (Olomouc, Czech Republic

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For anemonefish, male-to-female sex change happens first in the brain

The anemonefish is a gender-bending marvel. It starts out as a male, but can switch to female when circumstances allow, for example, when the only female present dies or disappears. In a new study, researchers found that the male-to-female sex-change occurs first in the fish's brain and only later involves the gonads—sometimes after a delay of months or years. (Includes video).

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NZ researchers call for gender binary in elite sports to be abandoned

Existing gender categories in sport should perhaps be abandoned in favour of a more "nuanced" approach in the new transgender era, University of Otago researchers say.

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Skeptical Science New Research for Week #29, 2019

A relatively small haul of 42 articles. The usual proportion of climate-related research domain output is notably reversed this week. Knock-on effects of climate change and how to deal with them dominated the raw feed of articles. The physical science of climate change remains fascinating in itself as a matter of pure abstract curiosity. We could wish we only were witnessing a scientific phenomen

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Someone Just Paid $1.8 Million for Videos of the First Moon Walk

Must-See TV In 1969, more than half a billion people across the globe watched on their television sets as Neil Armstrong took humanity’s first steps on the Moon . They were seeing something no one had ever seen before — but by today’s standards, the quality was poor. Every time the feed bounced to a new microwave tower, both the audio and video lost some of their original crispness. But now, one

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Anonymizing personal data 'not enough to protect privacy,' shows new study

With the first large fines for breaching EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) regulations upon us, and the UK government about to review GDPR guidelines, researchers have shown how even …

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IMF downgrades world growth, warns of 'precarious' 2020

Global trade tensions, continued uncertainty and rising prospects for a no-deal Brexit are sapping the strength of the world economy, which faces a "precarious" 2020, the International Monetary Fund warned on Tuesday.

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Monsoon rains have become more intense in the southwest in recent decades

Monsoon rain storms have become more intense in the southwestern United States in recent decades, according to a study recently published by Agricultural Research Service scientists.

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New map outlines seismic faults across Dallas-Fort Worth region

Scientists from SMU, The University of Texas at Austin and Stanford University found that the majority of faults underlying the Fort Worth Basin are as sensitive to forces that could cause them to slip as those that have hosted earthquakes in the past.

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NASA finds depression strengthen into Tropical Storm Dalila

Satellite imagery on July 22 showed that wind shear was preventing the Eastern Pacific Ocean's Tropical Depression 5 from consolidating and strengthening. Infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite on July 23 showed that the wind shear eased and the storm was able to strengthen.

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Teen climate activist to French critics: Listen to science

Swedish teen climate activist Greta Thunberg has told lawmakers at France's lower house of parliament that they need to listen to scientists on the issue of climate change and act now to avert a catastrophe.

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Catching Sight Of A Rare Butterfly In A Surprising Refuge

Regal fritillary butterflies have largely disappeared from the East Coast, save for a military base in central Pennsylvania. A few days each summer, hundreds descend for guided tours to see them. (Image credit: Doug Watson/WITF)

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'Legacy' mercury pollution still a problem in New Jersey Meadowlands waters

'Legacy' mercury pollution from decades ago and miles away is an important source of contamination in New Jersey Meadowlands waterways, according to a Rutgers-led study that could help guide cleanup efforts.

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Global warming will accelerate water cycle over global land monsoon regions

A new study provides a broader understanding on the redistribution of freshwater resources across the globe induced by future changes in the monsoon system.

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Ozone threat from climate change

We know the recent extreme heat is something that we can expect more of as a result of increasing temperatures due to climate change. But a new study from the University of Delaware warns that there's another impact — worsened air quality due to an increase in the number and intensity of 'ozone alert' days.

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NASA analyzes new Atlantic depression's tropical rainfall

Tropical Depression 3 has formed about off the eastern coast of central Florida. NASA analyzed the rainfall that the new depression was generating using the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite.

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New map outlines seismic faults across DFW region

Scientists from SMU, The University of Texas at Austin and Stanford University found that the majority of faults underlying the Fort Worth Basin are as sensitive to forces that could cause them to slip as those that have hosted earthquakes in the past.

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Study shows new moms may be vulnerable to 'sharenting'

Two related studies found evidence that women's feelings of vulnerability about being a mother are linked to their posting on social media — and those posts sometimes include their children's personally identifiable information, such as names, birthdates, and photographs.The researchers suggest the need for enhanced governmental guidance to protect children's online privacy from commercial entiti

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Study suggests much more water on the moon than thought

A trio of researchers at the University of California has found evidence that suggests there is far more ice on the surface of the moon than has been thought. In their paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience, Lior Rubanenko, Jaahnavee Venkatraman and David Paige describe their study of similarities between ice on Mercury and shadowed regions on the moon and what they found.

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Anonymised data isn't nearly anonymous enough – here’s how we fix it

It's too easy to identify people in supposedly anonymous personal datasets, but there are ways we can protect our privacy, says Yves-Alexandre de Montjoye

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Brain scans hint the mysterious 'sonic attack' in Cuba was real

US diplomats in Havana reported a mysterious illness in 2016, but it was unclear if the effects were psychosomatic. Now scans suggest their brains have changed

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LightSail 2 Unfurls Sails, Next Step Toward Space Travel by Solar Sail

The Planetary Society deployed LightSail 2, aiming to further demonstrate the potential of the technology for space propulsion.

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Scientists discover new chemistry that may help explain the origins of cellular life

All life is cellular, but the origins of cellularity remain unknown. Scientists have discovered that simple organic compounds like glycolic and lactic acid polymerize and self-assemble into cell-sized droplets when dried and rewetted, as might have happened along primitive beaches and drying puddles. These cell-like compartments can trap and concentrate biomolecules, and can merge and separate, fo

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It's Just Good Business: Even Red States Are Dumping Coal for Solar

submitted by /u/solar-cabin [link] [comments]

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We need to retrain workers—not rescrew them

submitted by /u/gone_his_own_way [link] [comments]

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I put all Kurzweil's future predictions on a timeline. Enjoy!

submitted by /u/saibabhatti [link] [comments]

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NASA finds depression strengthen into Tropical Storm Dalila

Satellite imagery on July 22 showed that wind shear was preventing the Eastern Pacific Ocean's Tropical Depression 5 from consolidating and strengthening. Infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite on July 23 showed that the wind shear eased and the storm was able to strengthen.

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Daily e-cigarette use may help smokers quit regular cigarettes

New study from the Massachusetts General Hospital's Tobacco Research and Treatment Center provides critical evidence demonstrating that using e-cigarettes daily helps U.S. smokers to quit traditional cigarettes.

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Novel powdered milk method yields better frothing agent

A novel method of processing — using high-pressure jets to spray milk and then quickly drying the spray — yields skim milk powders with enhanced properties and functionality, according to Penn State researchers, who say the discovery may lead to 'cleaner' labels on foods.

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'Kneeding' a break: First evidence ACL injuries an overuse failure

Repetitive knee stress and failure to accommodate sufficient rest between periods of strenuous exercise may be key factors behind the rapid rise in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in world sport, a new international study has found.

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Mount Sinai researchers develop novel vaccine that induces antibodies that contribute to protection

Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have developed a novel vaccine consisting of DNA and recombinant proteins?proteins composed of a portion of an HIV protein and another unrelated protein.

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Study looks at stem cells for answers to how a type of autism develops

The lab of Yongchao Ma, Ph.D., from Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, discovered how the genetic defect in fragile X syndrome — a type of autism — delays production of neurons (nerve cells) at a critical time in the embryo's brain development.

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New discovery points toward possible treatment for diabetic non-healing wounds

A new mouse and human tissues study identifies an enzyme critical for normal wound healing that may open up avenues for treatment.

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Climate changes faster than animals adapt

Although animals do commonly respond to climate change, such responses are in general insufficient to cope with the rapid pace of rising temperatures and sometimes go in wrong directions.

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Cancer lab on chip to enable widespread screening, personalized treatment

Pathology labs mounted on chips are set to revolutionize the detection and treatment of cancer by using devices as thin as a human hair to analyze bodily fluids. The technology, known as microfluidics, promises portable, cheap devices that could enable widespread screening for early signs of cancer and help to develop personalized treatments for patients, said Ciprian Iliescu, a co-author of a rev

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Anonymizing personal data 'not enough to protect privacy,' shows new study

Current methods for anonymizing data leave individuals at risk of being re-identified, according to new research from University of Louvain (UCLouvain) and Imperial College London.

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Novel rheumatoid arthritis drug succeeds in clinical trial led by Stanford investigator

Rheumatoid arthritis patients getting little or no relief from conventional small-molecule drugs and injectable biologic drugs saw substantial improvement in their condition from daily use of an experimental compound in a large 24-week study led by a Stanford University School of Medicine investigator.

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Imaging shows brain matter alterations in US government personnel who served in Cuba

Images reveal key brain differences, particularly in the cerebellum, between impacted patients and healthy individuals, which may underlie clinical findings previously reported by the Penn team.

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Finding alternatives to diamonds for drilling

Diamond is one of the only materials hard and tough enough for the job of constant grinding without significant wear, but diamonds are pricey. High costs drive the search for new hard and superhard materials. However, the experimental trial-and-error search is expensive. A simple, reliable way to predict new material properties is needed to facilitate modern technology development. Using a computa

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USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit. The USPSTF routinely makes recommendations about the effectiveness of preventive care services and this statement is a reaffirmation of its 2009 recommendation.

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Brain imaging findings of US government personnel in Cuba

Imaging shows differences in the brains of US government personnel who were potentially exposed to unusual audible and sensory phenomena (sound, pressure or vibration) while serving in Cuba when compared with brain images from a group of healthy individuals without such exposure, although the clinical importance of these brain differences is uncertain. A preliminary report published by JAMA in 201

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Scientists identify new genetic interactions that may impact cancer outcomes

In a new study, scientists at the University of Maryland and the National Cancer Institute identified 12 distinct types of gene-pair interactions in which varying levels of expression in the two genes correlated with cancer patient survival. The results, which were published in the journal Cell Reports on July 23, 2019, suggest that genes involved in such paired interactions could provide new targ

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100 days, 100 nights: Sensor network reveals telltale patterns in neighborhood air quality

Black carbon — a contributor to global warming and a pollutant of concern to residents in urban areas — can be difficult to track. To address this problem, researchers at Berkeley Lab generated a technology that didn't exist. With more than 100 custom-built sensors installed for 100 days, the team created the largest black carbon monitoring network to be deployed in a single city, setting a foun

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An innovative way to publish

Nature, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02277-1 The research community needs to find ways to reward study design and methodology as much as the final result. A publishing format called Registered Reports offers a means of addressing this challenge.

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Teacher incentive programs can improve student achievement

It seems like a great idea: Pay teachers more if their students learn more. But does it work?

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Trial of HIV prevention implant hailed as boost in fight against disease

Device tested in humans for first time, raising prospect of ‘fit and forget’ treatment An implant containing an HIV-prevention drug has been trialled in humans, in a step experts have hailed as an exciting development in curtailing infections. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, with antiretroviral drugs has become a hot topic in recent years, with the drugs shown to substantially reduce the risk

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Brain scans of US embassy staff to Cuba may show abnormalities

Diplomats had reported falling ill after what was thought to be ‘acoustic attack’ Brain scans of US embassy staff who became ill in mysterious circumstances while serving in Cuba have found potential abnormalities that may be related to their symptoms. The scans taken from 40 US government workers who suffered strange concussion-like symptoms during their deployment to Havana revealed that partic

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How do brains remember decisions?

Mammal brains — including those of humans — store and recall impressive amounts of information based on our good and bad decisions and interactions in an ever-changing world. Now, in a series of new experiments with mice, scientists report they have added to evidence that such 'decision-based' memories are stored in very particular parts of the brain.

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Sverige kanske landväxternas vagga

För drygt 450 miljoner år sedan kröp livet upp på land. Nu säger forskare i Sverige och Argentina att allt kan ha börjat när en supervulkan fick ett enormt utbrott i ett grunt hav utanför det som i dag är södra Sverige.

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The Science of Strategic Thinking: Shift Your Mindset to "Win-Win"

Often times, interactions that we think are "zero-sum" can actually be beneficial for both parties. Ask, What outcome will be good for both parties? How can we achieve that goal? Afraid the win-win situation might not continue? Build trust by creating a situation that increases the probability you and your counterpart will meet again.

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How to thrive when foreign competitors enter your market

Researchers from University of Texas A&M and University of Texas at Austin published a new paper in the Journal of Marketing that examines how incumbent domestic companies can use marketing tools to counter the threat of foreign entrants after the domestic market is liberalized.

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Physicists have let light through the plane of the world's thinnest semiconductor crystal

In every modern microcircuit hidden inside a laptop or smartphone, you can see transistors—small semiconductor devices that control the flow of electric current, i.e. the flow of electrons. If we replace electrons with photons (elementary particles of light), then scientists will have the prospect of creating new computing systems that can process massive information flows at a speed close to the

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Exposure to air pollution among women in Mozambique greatly intensified by the use of kerosene lamps

Exposure to black carbon particles is 81% higher among Mozambican women who use kerosene as the main source of energy for lighting compared to those who use electricity. This was the main finding of a study undertaken by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), an institute supported by "la Caixa," in collaboration with the Manhiça Health Research Centre (CISM) in Mozambique and the I

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You’re very easy to track down, even when your data has been anonymized

A new study shows you can be easily re-identified from almost any database, even when your personal details have been stripped out.

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Someday, an Arm Implant May Prevent H.I.V. Infection for a Year

In preliminary tests, a matchstick-size rod containing a new drug offered promise as a shield against the virus. But a large clinical trial must still be done.

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Odds stacked against privacy, study shows

Giving personal data anonymously doesn’t mean you can’t be identified – in all probability. Mark Bruer reports.

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Inside dark, polar moon craters, water not as invincible as expected, scientists argue

The Moon's south pole region is home to some of the most extreme environments in the solar system: it's unimaginably cold, massively cratered, and has areas that are either constantly bathed in sunlight or in darkness. This is precisely why NASA wants to send astronauts there in 2024 as part of its Artemis program.

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Alibaba lets US small, medium businesses to sell on platform

China's e-commerce juggernaut Alibaba will allow nearly 30 million small and medium-sized businesses from the U.S. to sell on its platform in the U.S. and around the globe.

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Towards a light driven molecular assembler

Chemists usually synthesize molecules using stochastic bond-forming collisions of the reactant molecules in solution. Nature follows a different strategy in biochemical synthesis. The majority of biochemical reactions are driven by machine-type protein complexes that bind and position the reactive molecules for selective transformations. Artificial "molecular assemblers" performing "mechanosynthes

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Fussy fish can have their coral, and eat it too

Being a fussy eater is a problem for reef fish who seek refuge from climate change on deeper reefs. But, scientists discovered, the coral that these fussy fish eat can support them.

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Fussy fish can have their coral, and eat it too

Being a fussy eater is a problem for reef fish who seek refuge from climate change on deeper reefs. But, scientists discovered, the coral that these fussy fish eat can support them.

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Were U.S. Diplomats Attacked in Cuba? Brain Study Deepens Mystery

“Something happened to the brain” of diplomats who reported odd ailments, brain-imaging study suggests. But the cause is still unclear.

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Many Animals Can’t Adapt to Climate Change Fast Enough

Researchers find some species seem to be able to cope with global warming, but are still running out of time.

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Can you guess the legend to this map?

Europe divided into two blocs? That's not unheard of in history. However, this map of Red vs. Blue countries is indecipherable without its legend. That key is both trivial and unexpected. Can you guess what it is? Red vs. Blue What does this map show? Don't skip ahead. See if you can guess what it's about. We'd be pretty amazed if you could. It shows Europe divided into two blocs. That's not unhe

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Grief isn’t a pathology. It’s an altered state of mind.

When it comes to moving forward, the slightly harder path — but in the long run, the way easier path — would be for us to develop the skill of grieving. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's theories about the five stages may be off, but she gave us a lens from which to come to understand the process of grieving. The fact that you grieve is a testimony to your love. A Beginner's Guide to the End: Practical Adv

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Climate changes faster than animals adapt

Climate change can threaten species, and extinctions can impact ecosystem health. It is therefore of vital importance to assess to which degree animals can respond to changing environmental conditions, for example, by shifting the timing of breeding, and whether these shifts enable the persistence of populations in the long run.

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Climate changes faster than animals adapt

Climate change can threaten species, and extinctions can impact ecosystem health. It is therefore of vital importance to assess to which degree animals can respond to changing environmental conditions, for example, by shifting the timing of breeding, and whether these shifts enable the persistence of populations in the long run.

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‘Fruit from the Sands’ explores the Silk Road origins of apples, tea and more

A new book explains how many of today’s popular foods got started on Central Asia’s ancient Silk Road trade networks.

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Brain scans find possible evidence of Cuban ‘sonic attacks’

Blamed on everything from espionage to insects, Havana Syndrome might be real after all. Barry Keily reports.

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Animal adaptations ‘not keeping pace with climate change’

International study highlights impact on phenology. Nick Carne reports.

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Study quantifies smoking's strong link to peripheral artery disease

A new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that cigarette smoking boosts the risk of peripheral artery disease, and this elevated risk can persist up to 30 years after smoking cessation.

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Monsoon rains have become more intense in the southwest in recent decades

Monsoon rain storms have become more intense in the southwestern United States in recent decades, according to a study recently published by Agricultural Research Service scientists.Monsoon rains — highly localized bursts of rain — have become stronger since the 1970s, meaning the same amount of rain falls in a shorter amount of time–by 6 to 11 percent. In addition, the number of rainfall event

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Stem cell therapy furthers research for infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome

A phase I clinical trial is the first research monitored by the Food and Drug Administration that demonstrates the potential of regenerative therapy for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) through collecting, processing and injecting an infant's own stem cells directly into the heart at the time of surgery. A paper detailing the clinical trial was published in The Journal of Thoracic and Cardio

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Custom 3D-printed heart valves fit perfectly

Custom-made artificial heart valves made with 3D printing could help meet an aging population’s growing demand for replacement heart valves, according to new research. The human heart has four chambers, each equipped with a valve to ensure blood flow in one direction only. If any of the heart valves are leaking, narrowed or distended (or even ruptured), the blood runs back into the atria or ventr

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Zombie Ants Are Controlled by a 'Master Puppeteer' Parasite, But We Still Don't Know How

The parasite forces the ants to climb to the tops of shrubs, bite down and die.

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Chandra X-ray observatory celebrates its 20th anniversary

On July 23, 1999, the Space Shuttle Columbia blasted off from the Kennedy Space Center carrying the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In the two decades that have passed, Chandra's powerful and unique X-ray eyes have contributed to a revolution in our understanding of the cosmos.

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Multidrug-resistant malaria spreading in Asia

Genomic surveillance has revealed that malaria resistance to two first-line antimalarial drugs has spread rapidly from Cambodia to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Researchers discovered that descendants of one multi-drug resistant malaria strain are replacing the local parasites in Vietnam, Laos and northeastern Thailand, and are picking up additional new genetic changes which could furth

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Budget deal raises hopes for U.S. research agencies

Two-year agreement would add funds to civilian and defense programs

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For anemonefish, male-to-female sex change happens first in the brain

The anemonefish is a gender-bending marvel. It starts out as a male, but can switch to female when circumstances allow, for example, when the only female present dies or disappears. In a new study, researchers found that the male-to-female sex-change occurs first in the fish's brain and only later involves the gonads – sometimes after a delay of months or years. (Includes video.)

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A new concept for self-assembling micromachines

Polarisable microrobots components can be designed to find each other in an electric field.

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More heart attacks and strokes when cholesterol-lowering prescription rejected or unfilled

Individuals at high risk for cardiovascular events had more heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular events when they were unable to obtain their prescribed LDL-cholesterol lowering medication. In a new study in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, researchers with the FH Foundation found that individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or atherosclerotic heart disease

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Teacher incentive programs can improve student achievement

Teacher incentive pay programs with a hybrid structure involving both individual and group incentives can have good results. Multiple and understandable performance metrics, combined with regular feedback to teachers, may also make incentive programs more effective. Finally, rewards should be strong enough to entice teachers to adjust their teaching practices.

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Salmon study may foil Trump's plan to boost water deliveries to Central Valley farms

Federal biologists worked frantically this year to meet a deadline to assess the environmental impacts of Trump administration plans to send more water to Central Valley farmers.

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What It Means to Be a Bad Mom

The Vermont lake was the perfect setting for a mother-daughter day. The mother packed water and towels. The daughter, an excitable young girl, shoved cheese sticks into a cooler. When the two arrived at the beach, they swung the cooler between them as they walked to the water. But the mother’s smile was strained, because the day of family fun would be closely watched. Joining the pair was Sharon

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Watch an Electric Ford F-150 Pickup Truck Tow 1 Million Pounds

Absolute Unit In a publicity stunt and impressive feat of strength, an all-electric Ford F-150 pickup truck just pulled a million pounds of enormous double-decker rail cars behind it for 1,000 feet — the length of 42 fossil-fuel-chugging F-150s. To hammer the point home, Ford then parked the 42 F-150s on the rail cars and towed the whole setup for another 1,000 feet — a total of 1.25 million poun

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Building therapeutic cities to tackle mental health problems

In all likelihood, poor mental health has blighted every age of human existence. Evolutionary psychologists suggest it may be an intrinsic, even necessary, condition for our species. But there are grounds to suppose that we are now witnessing a rise in conditions such as stress, anxiety, depression, burnout and suicide, as mental health disorders are measured to have a growing toll on the global p

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Why cone shapes are ‘just right’ for meteorites

Scientists have an explanation for how the physics of flight in the atmosphere leads to cone-shaped meteorites. The progression, which the researchers discovered through a series of replication experiments, involves melting and erosion during flight that ultimately results in an ideal shape as meteoroids hurl through the atmosphere. “Slender or narrow cones flip over and tumble, while broad cones

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How do brains remember decisions?

Mammal brains — including those of humans — store and recall impressive amounts of information based on our good and bad decisions and interactions in an ever-changing world. Now, in a series of new experiments with mice, scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have added to evidence that such 'decision-based' memories are stored in very particular parts of the brain.

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Women missing out on the best heart care

A mistaken belief that coronary heart disease (CHD) affects only middle-aged men could be the reason why both women and younger people with the disease are not receiving optimal care, say the authors of a new study into Australian general practice care.

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Rise of Candida auris blamed on global warming

Global warming may have played a pivotal role in the emergence of Candida auris, according to a new study. C. auris, which is often multi-drug resistant and is a serious public health threat, may be the first example of a new fungal disease emerging from climate change.

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Addressing mental health issues in small businesses could bring major boost to the economy

Mental health awareness has risen enormously in recent years. Celebrities from athlete Michael Phelps to Prince Harry and pop star Lady Gaga have spoken publicly about their mental health struggles and the stigma surrounding them.

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Garlic on broccoli may keep pests away

The right odours can repel insects. Amelia Nichele reports.

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Ozone threat from climate change

Increasing temperatures due to climate change will shift climatic conditions, resulting in worse air quality by increasing the number of days with high concentrations of ozone, according to a new journal article on air quality throughout the Mid-Atlantic region from researchers at the University of Delaware's College of Earth, Ocean and Environment(CEOE).

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Develop the perfect pitch to launch a start-up

Nature, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02252-w In the final instalment of a three-part series on science start-ups, Nature Careers introduces investor relations: how to find investors, wow them and work with them.

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Cold War–Era Bunker Mania Forever Altered Albania

Communism left distinct architectural legacies in countries across the former Soviet bloc. In Albania, it's concrete bunkers that now serve other uses.

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Garlic on broccoli may keep pests away

The right odours can repel insects. Amelia Nichele reports.

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So, why a cone-shaped meteorite?

It’s just the physics of flight, mathematicians suggest.

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India heading to the Moon

Chandrayaan-2 lifts off for a seven-week trip.

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How Scientists Used Light to Incept Sensations and Memories in Mice

Last week, Elon Musk’s mysterious Neuralink finally revealed their master plan after two years of silence: to build high bandwidth, immune resistant, thread-like brain-machine interfaces that can be robotically implanted into the brain. In theory, the implant could allow computers to replace faulty circuits or augment healthy ones. An even more ambitious future, if technologically possible, is to

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Inside dark, polar moon craters, water not as invincible as expected, scientists argue

The Moon's south pole region is home to some of the most extreme environments in the solar system: it's unimaginably cold, massively cratered, and has areas that are either constantly bathed in sunlight or in darkness. This is precisely why NASA wants to send astronauts there in 2024 as part of its Artemis program.

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Towards a light driven molecular assembler

A team of chemists at Kiel University (Germany) built the first artificial assembler, which uses light as the energy source. These molecular machines are performing synthesis in a similar way as biological nanomachines. Advantages are fewer side products, enantioselectivity, and shorter synthetic pathways since the mechanosynthesis forces the molecules into a predefined reaction channel.

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Keeping livestock in the yard just might help your baby's immune system

Getting up close — and a little dirty — with farm animals just might help us fend off illness, say researchers who've further demonstrated the benefits of early exposure to a wide variety of environmental bacteria.

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Fussy fish can have their coral, and eat it too

Fussy fish seeking refuge from climate change on deeper reefs can still keep their specialised diets. The corals they prey upon change their own diets to survive the different environment at depth. This ensures their fussy predators are still well-fed!

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Renewable and nonrenewable energy in Myanmar's economic growth

An international group of scientists including a researcher from Ural Federal University developed a mathematical model that describes the influence of regenerative and non-regenerative energy sources on the economic growth of Myanmar. The work was published in the Environmental Science and Pollution Research journal and supported with a grant of the Russian Science Foundation.

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Privatization of public goods can cause population decline, research shows

Scientists have given a fascinating new insight into the way microbes adopt a 'co-operative' approach to securing the nutrients they need to thrive.

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Hidden dynamics detected in neuronal networks

Neuronal networks in the brain can process information particularly well when they are close to a critical. However, experimental investigations of brain activity revealed much fewer indicators of such critical states than expected. Scientists from Forschungszentrum Jülich and RWTH Aachen University have now proposed a possible explanation. They showed that neuronal networks can assume a second, p

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The Charney Report: 40 years ago, scientists accurately predicted climate change

This month the world has been celebrating the 50th anniversary of Neil Armstrong setting foot on the Moon. But this week sees another scientific anniversary, perhaps just as important for the future of civilisation.

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Scientists Are Reconsidering an Incredibly Cruel Animal Experiment

Detecting Depression The biological and behavior characteristics of mice make them ideal models for many human diseases and disorders, from cancer to the flu . Today, the little rodents are such an intrinsic part of medical research that some have described them as “test tubes with tails.” However, using the animals to research depression has proven incredibly difficult. Scientists just don’t hav

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Phosphate shortage: The dwindling resource required to grow food

By 2030, the world's population is projected to be about 8.5 billion people. Global food security is a major concern for governments—zero hunger is the second most important of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

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Bird embryos respond to adult warning calls inside their shells

A pair of researchers with Universidad de Vigo has found that yellow-legged gull embryos respond to parental warning calls by vibrating inside their shells. In their paper published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, Jose Noguera and Alberto Velando describe their study of the gulls in their lab and what they learned.

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CRISPR conundrum: Strict European court ruling leaves food-testing labs without a plan

Nature, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02162-x Scientists struggle to detect the unauthorized sale of gene-edited crops whose altered DNA can mimic natural mutations.

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What Not to Do in Grad School

This article , from Nature ‘s Careers section, has a lot of sound advice for people making it through graduate school. It’s presented as a list of things not to do, and I would agree with all of them. And I think that most anyone who’s been through the experience would as well. Among these is an admonition not to blindly trust your own data, and I got to learn that one a few times. I would extend

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Nunavik Inuit are genetically unique

A new study has found that an Inuit population in Canada's Arctic are genetically distinct from any known group, and certain genetic variants are correlated with brain aneurysm.

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Plants defend against insects by inducing 'leaky gut syndrome'

Plants may induce 'leaky gut syndrome' — permeability of the gut lining — in insects as part of a multipronged strategy for protecting themselves from being eaten, according to researchers. By improving our understanding of plant defenses, the findings could contribute to the development of new pest control methods.

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How to choose the best digital camera for you

Whatever your photography needs, there's a digital camera that fulfills them. (Kevin Grieve via Unsplash/) Your smartphone can snap pretty good photos . But let's face it—it's not a dedicated photography device, and it shows. If quality photos are your thing, buying a digital camera means you don't have to settle for blurred, dark shots. Explore the host of dedicated digital cameras, and you'll e

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Phosphate shortage: The dwindling resource required to grow food

By 2030, the world's population is projected to be about 8.5 billion people. Global food security is a major concern for governments—zero hunger is the second most important of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

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Bird embryos respond to adult warning calls inside their shells

A pair of researchers with Universidad de Vigo has found that yellow-legged gull embryos respond to parental warning calls by vibrating inside their shells. In their paper published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, Jose Noguera and Alberto Velando describe their study of the gulls in their lab and what they learned.

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A Russian Intelligence Contractor Just Got Hacked

I’m In A team of hackers going by the name ov1ru$ stole 7.5 terabytes of data from SyTech, a company working for Russian intelligence agency Federal Security Service. The hack, first reported by BBC Russia , took place earlier this month. It revealed a number of Russian intelligence projects that the hackers published on Twitter, including one with the goal of finding out how to deanonymize peopl

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White-tailed deer were predominant in pre-Columbian Panama feasts

In pre-Columbian times, the white-tailed deer was among the most abundant and frequently consumed mammals in Panama. It was also an icon, represented on thousands of clay vessels. Through an analysis of deer remains in refuse piles at the Sitio Sierra archaeological site, researchers from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) discovered signs of "feasting behavior" associated with thi

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Space-enabled app for pilots takes to the skies

An app that integrates navigational data and weather conditions to improve flight safety for pilots has been launched. Its inventors hope to have a full commercial version on sale by the end of the year.

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Manipulation of the carbon emissions system threatens climate targets

Manipulation of European Union Emissions Trading system (EU ETS) by the buy, bank, burn program compensates unregulated emissions while regulated sectors carry a large part of the burden. This distorts the balance between regulated firms and non-regulated projects, so parties outside the EU ETS can be virtuous at the cost of others. Environmental economists Reyer Gerlagh and Roweno Heijmans of the

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How fireflies glow and what signals they're sending

You might not really be sure you saw what you think you saw when the first one shows up. But you stare in the direction of the flicker of light and there it is again—the first firefly of the evening. If you are in good firefly habitat, soon there are dozens, or even hundreds, of the insects flying about, flashing their mysterious signals.

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Sea Pangolin: The first ever species endangered by potential deep sea mining

Hydrothermal vents host rare species at incredibly high density comparable to tropical rainforests or coral reefs. Forty years ago, the first descriptions of the ecosystems around these deep underwater heat funnels changed our understanding of deep ocean environments and the very origins of life. Now, species in even the most inaccessible parts of Earth are threatened by disturbance from human act

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New database to monitor national energy use and carbon emissions

How much of the Swedish chemical industry's energy use is from renewables and how much from fuel oil? What are the global trends in fossil fuels consumption over the last decades? The new online World Input-Output Database (WIOD) environmental accounts, launched today by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), helps to answer these, and similar questions through data on the industri

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How fireflies glow and what signals they're sending

You might not really be sure you saw what you think you saw when the first one shows up. But you stare in the direction of the flicker of light and there it is again—the first firefly of the evening. If you are in good firefly habitat, soon there are dozens, or even hundreds, of the insects flying about, flashing their mysterious signals.

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Sea Pangolin: The first ever species endangered by potential deep sea mining

Hydrothermal vents host rare species at incredibly high density comparable to tropical rainforests or coral reefs. Forty years ago, the first descriptions of the ecosystems around these deep underwater heat funnels changed our understanding of deep ocean environments and the very origins of life. Now, species in even the most inaccessible parts of Earth are threatened by disturbance from human act

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Exposure to air pollution among women in Mozambique greatly intensified by the use of kerosene lamps

Study shows that women living in the Manhiça region are breathing air with much higher concentrations of black carbon than those found in Europe.

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The first bioluminescent click beetle discovered in Asia represents a new subfamily

The first record of a luminescent click beetle in Asia, representing a new to science subfamily, is reported from southwest China by researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, (Kunming), Tianjin New Wei San Industrial Company, Ltd. (Tianjing, China) and the Palacký University (Olomouc, Czech Republic). Molecular analysis provided new evidence for the multiple origin of bioluminescence in th

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White-tailed deer were predominant in pre-Columbian Panama feasts

An analysis of white-tailed deer remains at an archaeological site in Panama revealed signs of 'feasting behavior' associated with this animal among pre-Columbian populations.

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When the pigeon and the letter do not travel together

In standard communication the pigeon always carries the message; the information is linked to a physical entity/particle. Counter to intuition, in a new counterfactual communication protocol published in NPJ Quantum Information, scientists from the University of Vienna, the University of Cambridge and the MIT have experimentally demonstrated that in quantum mechanics this is not always true, there

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New studies suggest prenatal marijuana may be capable of causing FASD-like impairment

Whether alone or combined with alcohol, new studies included in Birth Defects Research just published by the Teratology Society with John Wiley & Sons, suggest marijuana exposure may be capable of triggering morphological and behavioral impairments similar to those seen with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The groundbreaking insight is part of a special journal issue of 13 studies looking

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In quantum mechanics, the pigeon and the letter do not always travel together

In standard communication the pigeon always carries the message; the information is linked to a physical entity/particle. Counter to intuition, in a new counterfactual communication protocol published in NPJ Quantum Information, scientists from the University of Vienna, the University of Cambridge and the MIT have experimentally demonstrated that in quantum mechanics this is not always true, there

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Privatization of public goods can cause population decline, research shows

Scientists have given a fascinating new insight into the way microbes adopt a 'co-operative' approach to securing the nutrients they need to thrive.

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Hundreds of scientists embark on mission aimed at improving air quality forecasts

Extreme wildfire seasons are no longer an outlier in the western United States, where climate change is drying out vegetation and people are moving deeper and deeper into western forests.

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Privatization of public goods can cause population decline, research shows

Scientists have given a fascinating new insight into the way microbes adopt a 'co-operative' approach to securing the nutrients they need to thrive.

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Increasing Productivity with Automated Flash Purification

Download this case report to discover how Dr. László Kürti and his students at Rice University use automated flash purification to increase their productivity.

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New multi-material 3-D nanoprinting strategy could revolutionize optics, photonics and biomedicine

Engineers at the University of Maryland (UMD) have created a new multi-material 3-D nanoprinting technique that was featured on the inside front cover of the July 21 issue of Lab on a Chip.

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Researchers unveil first of four reports on racial disparities in prosecutor behavior

To promote fairness and transparency in the criminal justice system, researchers at FIU and Loyola University Chicago have partnered with prosecutors in Tampa, Chicago, Jacksonville and Milwaukee to take a fresh look at prosecutorial performance and decision-making.

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Robots roaming in Antarctic waters reveal why Ross Ice Shelf melts rapidly in summer

A new study reveals how local factors influence the Ross Ice Shelf's stability, refining predictions of how it will change and influence sea rise in the future.

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2D materials insight opens door for next-gen devices

The first visualization of the electronic structure in a microelectronic device may open up opportunities for finely tuned, high-performance devices, report researchers. Physicists developed a technique to measure the energy and momentum of electrons in operating microelectronic devices made of atomically thin—so-called 2D—materials. Using this information, the researchers created visual represen

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After Trump’s election, more Latina moms gave birth early

A significant jump in preterm births to Latina mothers living in the US occurred in the nine months following the election of President Donald Trump, a new study shows. The new analysis, based on US government data of more than 33 million live births in the country, found an excess of 2,337 preterm births to US Latinas compared to expected given trends in preterm birth in the years prior to the e

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Presence of hoarding symptoms does not negatively impact CBT response in youth with OCD

Hoarding can often be a debilitating problem for adults and is often associated with poorer mental health functioning and response to treatment. For children however, that may not be the case. A new study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), published by Elsevier, reveals that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) used to treat obsessive-compulsive disor

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How to thrive when foreign competitors enter your market

A new study shows that foreign entrants can be a boost to domestic companies if they can learn from the new entrants to improve their marketing strategies.

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Antibiotics before liver transplants lead to better results

A UCLA-led research team has found that giving mice antibiotics for 10 days prior to a liver transplant leads to better liver function after the surgery. They they found data from previously transplanted patients finding that it works in humans. It's all linked to the gut microbiome.

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NZ researchers call for gender binary in elite sports to be abandoned

Existing gender categories in sport should perhaps be abandoned in favor of a more 'nuanced' approach in the new transgender era, University of Otago researchers say.

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Physicists have let light through the plane of the world's thinnest semiconductor crystal

An international research team has studied how photons travel in the plane of the world's thinnest semiconductor crystal. The results of the physicists' work open the way to the creation of monoatomic optical transistors — components for quantum computers, potentially capable of making calculations at the speed of light.

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The Meaning of All Caps—in Texting and in Life

Emphatic caps feel like the quintessential example of internet tone of voice. Sure enough, they’ve been around since the very early days online.

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From the archive

Nature, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02217-z How Nature reported early findings from Apollo 11, and Irish attempts to farm New Zealand flax in 1919.

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The computational protein designers

Nature, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02251-x A new breed of protein engineers is finding that the best way to create a molecule is to build it from scratch.

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A Book That Examines the Writing Processes of Two Poetry Giants

Nature . We all know what it means. (Cows, the sky, puddles, volcanoes …) But what does it mean to have this single, oddly abstract word for the entire domain of the organic and nonhuman? How did we become so estranged from our own sustaining element that we could point at it and call it “nature”? I love nature : There aren’t many things you can say that are simultaneously as banal and as ontolog

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Why the WHO's Emergency Declaration for Ebola Is a Big Deal

The president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene talks about how the designation could help fight the nearly year-old outbreak in central Sub-Saharan Africa — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Why the WHO's Emergency Declaration for Ebola Is a Big Deal

The president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene talks about how the designation could help fight the nearly year-old outbreak in central Sub-Saharan Africa — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Forskere testede balancering med elbiler under kabelafbrud på Bornholm

PLUS. I ti dage blev 21 kommunale elbiler om eftermiddagen og natten brug til at balancere Bornholms frekvens, mens øen var i elektrisk ø-drift. Nu skal forskere regne på, om elbilerne forbedrede kvaliteten af strømmen på nettet.

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It takes more than mass protests to drive change

Those large-scale protests on everything from climate change to wealth inequality make for engaging news segments. But do they result in real change?

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Warped diffusive radio halo detected around the galaxy NGC 4565

Using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), astronomers have discovered a diffuse radio halo around the spiral galaxy NGC 4565. The finding, reported in a paper published July 16 on the arXiv pre-print server, could shed more light on the nature of NGC 4565, disclosing important insights about star-forming activity and the distribution of cosmic-ray electrons in this galaxy.

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Sri Lanka orders return of smuggled British garbage

Sri Lanka customs Tuesday ordered the return of container loads of hazardous mortuary and clinical waste illegally imported into the island from Britain under the cover of metal recycling.

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Eight things we learned in the UK government's pre-Johnson info dump

Air pollution, plastic packaging, nuclear power plants, genome sequencing: just before Boris Johnson becomes prime minister, the UK government has put out dozens of documents. Here's what you need to know

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How to use family dinner to teach politics | Hajer Sharief

Everyone should participate in decision-making and politics — and it starts at home, says activist Hajer Sharief. She introduces a simple yet transformative idea: that parents can teach their children about political agency by giving them a say in how their households are run, in the form of candid family meetings where everyone can express their opinions, negotiate and compromise. "We need to te

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One year on, deadly Greek wildfire haunts survivors

Twelve months on, you can still see it in the faces of the survivors: the deadly wildfires that killed 102 people in the Greek coastal town of Mati has left its mark on local people.

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AfterShokz Aeropex: New bone-conduction sports headphone is best-sounding yet – CNET

Geared toward runners and bikers, AfterShokz' latest bone-conduction headphone is not only a little lighter but it sounds a little better and is fully waterproof.

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Suicidal thoughts can be reduced among Indigenous people; this new study finds the factors

New nationally representative Canadian study from the University of Toronto and Algoma University finds that 3-quarters of formerly suicidal Indigenous adults who are living off-reserve had been free from suicidal thoughts in the past year.

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Portugal's firefighters gain upper hand in forest blazes

Hundreds of Portuguese firefighters aided by overnight rain gained the upper hand against massive wildfires raging in a central region for four days and said they hoped to bring them under control on Tuesday.

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The world is literally on fire – so why is it business as usual for politicians? | Arwa Mahdawi

Our extreme weather is making me nostalgic for the damp conditions of my English childhood. But despite the climate emergency, capitalism continues regardless Do you remember when the weather was a reliable source of innocuous small talk? “Hot today, isn’t it?” you would observe to a colleague as you stood awkwardly in the lift together. They would reply with something about the garden needing ra

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A bath at the right time can improve your sleep

Taking a bath between one and two hours before bedtime in water of about 104-109 degrees Fahrenheit can significantly improve your sleep, report researchers. Systematic review protocols—a method used to search for and analyze relevant data—allowed researchers to analyze thousands of studies linking water-based passive body heating, or bathing and showering with warm/hot water, with improved sleep

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Meet your new coworker—it’s a robot!

submitted by /u/gone_his_own_way [link] [comments]

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Microsoft invests $1 billion in Elon Musk-founded OpenAI

submitted by /u/purexpinoy [link] [comments]

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Immigrant children experience high levels of discrimination when entering the labor market

The successful integration of migrants contributes to the future well-being, prosperity and cohesion of any society. However, labor market inequalities involving immigrants and minorities act as a barrier to the efficient use of existing human capital and growth. The rising share of migrants and their descendants in Europe poses a major policy challenge, where their incorporation and the successfu

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New tool supports future of organic farming

A collaboration with Japanese manufacturer Yanmar, the Kyoto Institute of Technology, the SUGAR Network, and Design Factory Melbourne (DFM) has created a time-saving product for organic farmers.

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How to Share Books and Movies Through Amazon Household

The retail giant offers a way to share your Prime benefits—including Kindle titles, audiobooks, and free Prime shipping—with others in your home.

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Image of the Day: Right on Target

An injectable biomaterial calls cancer drugs to tumor sites in mice.

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Singapore makes its biggest ever illegal ivory seizure

Singapore has made its largest ever seizure of smuggled ivory, impounding a haul of nearly nine tonnes of contraband tusks from an estimated 300 elephants, authorities said Tuesday.

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Singapore makes its biggest ever illegal ivory seizure

Singapore has made its largest ever seizure of smuggled ivory, impounding a haul of nearly nine tonnes of contraband tusks from an estimated 300 elephants, authorities said Tuesday.

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Independent, private firms pollute less than public firms, study shows

Private, independent firms are less likely to pollute and incur EPA penalties than public and private equity-owned firms, according to new research from the University of Notre Dame.

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How to Prevent Food Allergies

Feeding infants allergenic foods may be the key to preventing allergies — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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3-D printed custom silicon heart valves

Scientists at ETH Zurich and the South African company Strait Access Technologies are using 3-D printing to produce custom-made artificial heart valves from silicone. This could help meet an aging population's growing demand for replacement heart valves.

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Practicing Medicine Without a License Is Not Free Speech

A federal court has recently affirmed that states do indeed have the right to enforce professional licensing laws. This may seem obvious, and I think it is, but lawyers for Heather Del Castillo (from the libertarian, public-interest law firm, The Institute for Justice), a “holistic health coach” based in Florida, argued in court that their client was protected by the First Amendment’s guarantee o

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Probe opened in France over radioactive water rumours

After the panic, the prosecution: investigators in Paris have opened an enquiry to track down the source of false reports last week that drinking water in the French capital had been contaminated.

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Europe gears up for record-breaking heatwave

France and western Europe were Tuesday bracing for a new record-breaking heatwave that is forcing the temporary shutdown of a French nuclear power station and will test competitors in the legendary Tour de France cycle race.

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3-D printed custom silicon heart valves

Scientists at ETH Zurich and the South African company Strait Access Technologies are using 3-D printing to produce custom-made artificial heart valves from silicone. This could help meet an aging population's growing demand for replacement heart valves.

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New sensor network reveals telltale patterns in neighborhood air quality

Black carbon, commonly known as soot, is a significant contributor to global warming and is strongly linked to adverse health outcomes. Produced by the incomplete combustion of fuels—emitted from large trucks, trains, and marine vessels—it is an air pollutant of particular concern to residents in urban areas. Sensors available on the market today are expensive, making black carbon difficult to tra

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Reducing farm greenhouse gas emissions may plant the seed for a cooler planet

By adopting a few beneficial management practices, farms—and particularly dairy farms—can play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are warming the planet, according to a team of researchers.

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Archaeology student finds exceptionally rare fragment from Roman bottle

Peter Moore discovered a fragment from a 1,800 year-old glass fish at the National Trust's Chedworth Roman Villa in Gloucestershire.

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Elon Musk: Starship, Super Heavy Will Have 41 Total Engines

Most spaceflight firms would never hang around on Twitter and randomly tweet information on upcoming rocket designs. But most companies aren’t SpaceX, and most CEOs aren’t Elon Musk. During his daily Twitter ramblings, Musk revealed that the Starship launch platform is now up to a total of 41 Raptor engines. Although, he jokes that the design is begging for just one more. In his initial tweet, Mu

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What Boris Johnson’s leadership could mean for science

Nature, Published online: 23 July 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02279-z The next UK prime minister is a controversial character — and his stance on Brexit concerns researchers.

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Alien Hunter Explains Why He Won't Be Going to Area 51 to Look for 'Little Green Men'

What started as an internet joke has generated a stern military warning after more than a million people "signed up" to "raid" Area 51.

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'Important' Iron Age settlement found at Warboys dig

Roman and early Saxon finds were also discovered at the settlement, which was previously unknown.

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Modeling exoplanet atmospheres

All atoms and molecules emit distinctive spectral lines across the spectrum, the details of which depend on the internal structures of the species (for example, the vibration and rotation properties of molecules) and how they are excited by their environments. Measurements of the features' brightnesses, relative intensities, and shapes enable astronomers, at least in principle, to reconstruct most

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ExoMars radio science instrument readied for Red Planet

An ambitious instrument for ESA's ExoMars 2020 mission has passed its testing in conditions resembling those on the Red Planet. It will now be transported to Russia for its acceptance review, followed by integration onto the Kazachok Surface Platform, scheduled for launch this time next year.

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Apple hires the engineer who led the design of Tesla's car interiors

Nobody really knows — except those inside the company — what Apple has planned for self-driving cars, but it appears to be making moves to ensure it has the right people to be a major …

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How did Africa's grasslands get started?

Between 10 million and 6 million years ago, vegetation across much of the world underwent a transformation, as warmth-adapted grasses displaced previously dominant plants, shrubs and trees. The new grasses carried out the chemical reactions required for photosynthesis in a distinct new way. Scientists have labeled this new process the C4 pathway. In East Africa, the changeover coincided with the e

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The properties of composites for constructing reliable trains

Composite materials are increasingly popular. One of the primary composite materials for modern structures is glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP), which is commonly used in aviation, modern transport and wind power plants. Scientists of South Ural State University have carried out extensive studies of ballistic properties of GFRP to improve the efficiency of its use.

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How did Africa's grasslands get started?

Between 10 million and 6 million years ago, vegetation across much of the world underwent a transformation, as warmth-adapted grasses displaced previously dominant plants, shrubs and trees. The new grasses carried out the chemical reactions required for photosynthesis in a distinct new way. Scientists have labeled this new process the C4 pathway. In East Africa, the changeover coincided with the e

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Nasa Moon lander vision takes shape

Nasa has outlined more details of its plans for a landing craft that will take humans to the Moon's surface in the 2020s.

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Population Health: How We Can Cure What's Ailing Health Care

Looking at circumstances beyond the clinic is a key to better outcomes — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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The Milky Way Was an Adorable Cannibal, Cosmic 'Baby Picture' Reveals

Researchers have developed a "baby picture" of the Milky Way galaxy, tracing its origins back to the time before it cannibalized another, smaller galaxy.

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