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nyheder2019marts05

Second patient free of HIV after stem-cell therapy

Second patient free of HIV after stem-cell therapy Second patient free of HIV after stem-cell therapy, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00798-3 The breakthrough suggests first case was not a one-off and could pave way for future treatments.

8h

HIV remission achieved in second patient

A second person has experienced sustained remission from HIV-1 after ceasing treatment, reports a new article. The case report comes ten years after the first such case, known as the 'Berlin Patient.'

2h

København hugger bremsen i over for el-løbehjul

Københavns Kommune varsler påbud mod tre virksomheder, der ulovligt stiller elektriske løbehjul og cykler i de københavnske gader og pladser og udlejer dem via deres apps.

8h

Apple will repair iPhones with third-party batteries

In a change to its longstanding policy, Apple is apparently repairing iPhones with third-party batteries at its Genius Bars and Apple Authorized Service Providers. This is a about-face …

now

13min

Genetic 'usual suspects' identified in researchers' new list

After analyzing tens of thousands of data samples, researchers have created a list of genes that ranks them based on how frequently they are implicated in specific diseases. The list may prove invaluable for future research and drug discovery.

19min

Answers to 4 Key Questions About an H.I.V. Cure

Translating the latest success against the AIDS virus into a practical treatment will take years — if it happens at all. Here are answers to some of the most pressing questions raised by the news.

21min

Massive Study Confirms That Vaccines Don’t Cause Autism

Vaccines Don’t Cause Autism More than two decades ago, a doctor published a study claiming that vaccines can cause autism. Despite the fact that that study was later completely discredited and debunked — and the doctor behind it barred from practicing medicine — the belief continues to persist throughout society . Now, a massive study of more than half a million children has confirmed what those

31min

Clever Tool Uses Apple’s Videogame Logic Engine to Protect Macs

A new Mac security service called GamePlan uses a system's own indicators, and some videogame magic, to keep a lookout.

33min

Gaining a little weight after quitting tobacco is offset by the benefits for people with diabetes

People with diabetes who quit smoking tobacco may have a lower risk of heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular diseases — and weight gain following smoking cessation does not mitigate the health benefits among these patients, according to one study. Long-term, heavy smoking is a risk factor for cognitive decline, researchers found in an unrelated study.

48min

The surprising lives of Myanmar's logging elephants

Myanmar's logging industry has a very particular kind of employee: elephants. While many captive elephants are subjected to horrible treatment, Myanmar's logging elephants live twice as long as elephants kept in zoos and are "semi-captive". While they are treated exceptionally well for captive elephants, are logging elephants truly treated humanely? None There's something unique about the logging

52min

Location and competition

Those of us who drive regularly are keenly aware of gas prices and their daily fluctuations. Many of the factors that influence the price per gallon — the cost of crude oil, regional taxes and processing and transportation charges — affect all pumps in a given area. Why then do some stations charge more for fuel than others in the same general geographic location?

58min

One device, many frequencies: Argonne researchers create a unique, tiny resonator

A finding from a team led by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory could ultimately help improve the army of tiny, vibrating components found in a range of electronics and even create devices that mimic biological processes. The researchers have pioneered a micromechanical device that responds to external signals in an entirely new way.

58min

More immediate concerns beat heart health in the priorities and behaviors of young women

Although it is the leading cause of death in women, more than 75 percent of young women worry little or not at all about getting heart disease. Most young adult women have taken some actions to preserve their health, such as seeing a doctor, exercising or trying to reduce stress. Competing health concerns and a lack of awareness of heart disease as a killer of women are barriers to young women ado

1h

Soda, sugar-sweetened beverages linked to more severe symptoms for people with multiple sclerosis

For people with multiple sclerosis (MS), drinking around 290 calories per day of soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages, or the equivalent of about two cans of non-diet soda, may be tied to more severe symptoms and a higher level of disability compared to people with MS who seldom consume sugar-sweetened beverages, according to a preliminary study.

1h

First experimental evaluation of pharmaceutical industry-led access program

A new study is the first to use a randomized trial design to generate rigorous evidence on the impact of a pharmaceutical industry-led medicines access program.

1h

Distracted drivers 29 times more likely to wreck in a highway work zone

Highway work zone crashes happen every 5.4 minutes. Now, a new study says an inattentive driver is 29 times more likely to cause a collision or near collision in a work zone

1h

Google underpays men, not women, study finds

The recent analysis was for 2018 and it was conducted by Google. The results show that, at least within one large group of software engineers, men received less discretionary funds than women. Google did not release pay information along racial lines or other categories. None Since 2012, Google has conducted an annual review to see whether different groups of employees are paid equally. You might

1h

Modern beer yeast emerged from mix of European grape wine, Asian rice wine yeast

For thousands of years brewers made beer using specialized strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A new study shows that modern brewing strains were derived from a mixture of European grape wine and Asian rice wine strains. This finding points to the emergence of beer yeast from a historical East-West transfer of fermentation technology.

1h

1 in 3 students with ADHD receive no school interventions

One in three students with ADHD received no school-based interventions and two of three received no classroom management, researchers found in the largest study of children and teens with ADHD ever conducted. At least one in five students with ADHD who experience significant academic and social impairment – those most in need of services – received no school intervention. The gap was particularly

1h

Springer Nature Now Shares Select Papers on ResearchGate

A pilot project between the scholarly publisher and the academic networking platform launched last week.

1h

One More Time, With Big Data: Measles Vaccine Doesn’t Cause Autism

A 10-year look at more than 600,000 children comes at a time when anti-vaccine suspicion is on the rise again.

1h

Long-Term HIV Remission After Medicine Discontinued

The "London patient" may represent the second person cured of the infection by a cell transplant.

1h

Israel’s Moon Lander Just Got Photobombed by the Earth

Earth Selfie Israel’s lunar lander Beresheet just snapped an impressive selfie — with a distant planet Earth looming in the background. SpaceIL, the private Israeli space company that launched the lander last week , revealed the photo on Twitter this morning. The picture was taken 23,363 miles (37,600 km) from Earth. At a distance of 37,600 km from Earth, #Beresheet ’s selfie camera took a pictur

1h

The Megalodon Spent Tens of Millions of Years Honing Its Lethal, Knife-Like Teeth

The biggest shark to ever swim the oceans had huge, sharp teeth that it could use to tear into its prey like a handful of knives.

1h

Microsoft's disc-less Xbox One S reportedly launches next month

First detailed last November, the new console – codenamed Xbox Maverick – will launch as the Xbox One S All-Digital Edition. Sources familiar with the matter tell Windows Central that pre-orders …

1h

New Study: Microdosing DMT Reduces Depression and Anxiety

Microdosing DMT The idea of taking small doses of psychedelic drugs has gained cachet in recent years, especially in the world of tech startups, where practitioners believe it can enhance creativity and fight depression. Now, new research shows that microdosing DMT — taking doses of the drug that are too low to cause hallucinations — could indeed reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety, accordi

1h

How Much Is Today's HIV Research Centered Around The Search For A Cure?

For the second time ever, a man's HIV infection has been sent into remission. NPR's Mary Louise Kelly talks with Rowena Johnston, director of research for the Foundation for AIDS Research.

1h

10 of the most controversial people in Russian history

Russia's history is fascinating and filled with colorful characters. Some of the most influential of them have been extremely controversial. Here are ten of the most interesting, both good and bad. Russia is a fascinating place. Its history is filled with adventures, drama, triumphs, and tragedies. Many of the most interesting people to grace that history have been extremely controversial. Today,

1h

Owls against owls in a challenge for survival

Scientists are puzzling out how to address the declining numbers of northern spotted owls (NSO) in their Pacific Northwest forest habitat. A new study in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecological Applications explores the reasons why spotted owls are losing a foothold in their habitat, forecasts future habitat conditions and species interactions, and suggests best management practices

1h

CERN lab on the hunt for dark matter

Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe.

1h

Owls against owls in a challenge for survival

Scientists are puzzling out how to address the declining numbers of northern spotted owls (NSO) in their Pacific Northwest forest habitat. A new study in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecological Applications explores the reasons why spotted owls are losing a foothold in their habitat, forecasts future habitat conditions and species interactions, and suggests best management practices

1h

Results of ABATE infection trial published

Daily bathing with an antiseptic soap, plus nasal ointment for patients with prior antibiotic resistant bacteria, reduced hospital acquired infections among patients with central venous catheters and other devices that pierce the skin, according to results of the ABATE Infection Trial. The study, "Chlorhexidine versus Routine Bathing to Prevent Multi Drug-Resistant Organisms and All-Cause Bloodstr

1h

Alzheimer's treatment holds promise for primary progressive aphasia patients

Scientists have discovered that an existing therapy frequently used to treat Alzheimer's disease might also work on patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a type of dementia that destroys language and currently has no treatment.

1h

More immediate concerns beat heart health in the priorities and behaviors of young women

Although it is the leading cause of death in women, more than 75 percent of young women worry little or not at all about getting heart disease. Most young adult women have taken some actions to preserve their health, such as seeing a doctor, exercising or trying to reduce stress. Competing health concerns and a lack of awareness of heart disease as a killer of women are barriers to young women ado

1h

Gaining a little weight after quitting tobacco is offset by the benefits for people with diabetes

People with diabetes who quit smoking tobacco may have a lower risk of heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular diseases — and weight gain following smoking cessation does not mitigate the health benefits among these patients, according to one study. Long-term, heavy smoking is a risk factor for cognitive decline, researchers found in an unrelated study.

1h

Soda, sugar-sweetened beverages linked to more severe symptoms for people with MS

For people with multiple sclerosis (MS), drinking around 290 calories per day of soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages, or the equivalent of about two cans of non-diet soda, may be tied to more severe symptoms and a higher level of disability compared to people with MS who seldom consume sugar-sweetened beverages, according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the Amer

1h

Owls against owls in a challenge for survival

Scientists are puzzling out how to address the declining numbers of northern spotted owls (NSO) in their Pacific Northwest forest habitat. A new study explores the reasons why spotted owls are losing a foothold in their habitat, forecasts future habitat conditions and species interactions, and suggests best management practices.

1h

Alaska forest fires over past 450 years

In a recent study, researchers explored the ways forest succession and climate variability interacted and influenced fires in Alaska's boreal forests over the past four centuries — from 1550 to 2015.

1h

New reactor-liner alloy material offers strength, resilience

A new tungsten-based alloy can withstand unprecedented amounts of radiation without damage. Essential for extreme irradiation environments such as the interiors of magnetic fusion reactors, previously explored materials have thus far been hobbled by weakness against fracture, but this new alloy seems to defeat that problem.

1h

Looks matter when it comes to success in STEM, study shows

Demand for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) degrees is on the rise. However, there are many barriers to gaining one.

1h

Your Dumb Party Balloons Are Killing All the Seabirds

The biggest threat to seabirds isn't plastic straws. It's balloons.

2h

Genetic 'usual suspects' identified in researchers' new list

After analyzing tens of thousands of data samples, researchers have created a list of genes that ranks them based on how frequently they are implicated in specific diseases. The list may prove invaluable for future research and drug discovery.

2h

Looks matter when it comes to success in STEM, study shows

Demand for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) degrees is on the rise. However, there are many barriers to gaining one. One reason may be the appearance of the student seeking the degree, according to a new Rice University study.

2h

Deus Ex…Artificial Intelligence?

There are just nine companies that Professor Amy Webb says control the future of AI. (Image credit: Elena Seibert)

2h

Seven North Atlantic Right Whale Calves Spotted So Far This Year

The number of new babies is up from zero born last year, but scientists say the birth rate is still too low to sustain the population of endangered whales.

2h

Lost Cave of 'Jaguar God' Rediscovered Below Mayan Ruins — and It's Full of Treasure

These amazing artifacts have been sealed away for a millennium.

2h

Study shows success of measles vaccine campaigns in India

A mass measles vaccination campaign saved tens of thousands of children's lives in India between 2010 and 2013, according to a new report.

2h

Why California’s droughts and floods will only get worse

Environment This is bad news for water storage and flood risk. California's dramatic shift from wet to dry over the last winter may hint at what we can expect for the state's climate in the future.

2h

CERN approves hunt for new cosmic particles at the Large Hadron Collider

The CERN research board has approved the Forward Search Experiment, giving a green light to the assembly, installation and use of an instrument that will look for new fundamental particles at the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland.

2h

We savor 7 kinds of conversations most

We tend to savor certain specific types of meaningful conversations, according to new research. While we often encounter the word “savor” in the context of food, we can also savor important experiences, moments, or even visually compelling events, such as an exceptionally vibrant sunset. The new research explores how people savor different types of communication. The work builds on evidence from

2h

Struggling kids retain more science if they rap, dance, draw it

Incorporating the arts—rapping, dancing, drawing—into science lessons can help low-achieving students retain more knowledge, research finds. This strategy could possibly help students of all ability levels be more creative in their learning, the study suggests. The findings appear in Trends in Neuroscience and Education and support broader arts integration in the classroom. “Our study provides mo

2h

The Most Notable Part of Oprah Winfrey’s After Neverland Special

In a November 2010 episode of her eponymous daytime talk show, Oprah Winfrey invited 200 adult men, all of whom had said they’d been sexually assaulted as children, to join her studio audience. The opening shots of the episode panned across the room, to the men holding photos of themselves at the age when they said they were first abused. A harrowing chorus rang out as some of the men described t

2h

Climate Change Has Young People Questioning Having Kids

Young and Worried Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez recently argued in an Instagram Live video that climate change is forcing many young people to reconsider whether or not they should have children. According to a recent Business Insider poll , Ocasio-Cortez’s assertion wasn’t off-base. Thirty-seven percent of respondents between the ages of 18 and 29 said climate change should factor into family pl

2h

China’s “democracy” includes mandatory apps, mass chat surveillance

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2h

Owls against owls in a challenge for survival

Scientists are puzzling out how to address the declining numbers of northern spotted owls (NSO) in their Pacific Northwest forest habitat. A new study in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecological Applications explores the reasons why spotted owls are losing a foothold in their habitat, forecasts future habitat conditions and species interactions, and suggests best management practices

2h

1 in 3 students with ADHD receive no school interventions, study finds

One in three students with ADHD received no school-based interventions and two of three received no classroom management, researchers found in the largest study of children and teens with ADHD ever conducted. At least one in five students with ADHD who experience significant academic and social impairment – those most in need of services – received no school intervention. The gap was particularly

2h

HIV remission achieved in second patient

A second person has experienced sustained remission from HIV-1 after ceasing treatment, reports a paper led by researchers at UCL and Imperial College London.The case report, published in Nature and carried out with partners at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford, comes ten years after the first such case, known as the 'Berlin Patient.'

2h

Sacrificing accuracy to see the big picture

Humans have a knack for finding patterns in the world around them. Researchers are building a model that shows how this ability might work, which they will describe at the 2019 APS March Meeting. The brain does more than just process incoming information, the researchers say. It constantly tries to predict what's coming next. The new model attempts to explain how people can make such predictions.

2h

SwRI-developed satellites enter second phase of operations

NASA has extended the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission for an additional year and a half. The constellation of microsatellites designed and built at Southwest Research Institute has made history over the last two years, penetrating thick clouds and heavy rains to accurately assess wind speeds and better understand hurricane intensification. Assessments confirmed that all

2h

The first planet Kepler spotted has finally been confirmed 10 years later

Astronomers had dismissed the first exoplanet candidate spotted by the Kepler space telescope as a false alarm.

2h

HIV-1 remission following CCR5Δ32/Δ32 haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation

HIV-1 remission following CCR5Δ32/Δ32 haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation HIV-1 remission following CCR5Δ32/Δ32 haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1027-4 HIV-1 remission following CCR5Δ32/Δ32 haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation

2h

Researchers study Alaska forest fires over past 450 years

In a recent study, University of Montana researchers explored the ways forest succession and climate variability interacted and influenced fires in Alaska's boreal forests over the past four centuries—from 1550 to 2015.

2h

Scaling up innovative sensor installation on the Mighty Mac

The first 20 prototype infrastructure sensors installed in 2016 on the Mackinac Bridge, powered solely by vibrations from traffic, have proven their durability and performed as intended. Now researchers from Michigan State University and Washington University in St. Louis are ready to roll out the next phase of testing, installing up to 2,000 of the tiny devices to explore the logistics of a large

2h

Distracted drivers 29 times more likely to wreck in a highway work zone

A vehicle traveling at 55 mph covers a distance greater than a football field in five seconds. With the average text taking approximately five seconds to read, that's at least a football field's worth of driver inattention. Texting while driving is dangerous, and possibly even fatal, especially in a highway work zone.

2h

New reactor-liner alloy material offers strength, resilience

A new tungsten-based alloy developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory can withstand unprecedented amounts of radiation without damage. Essential for extreme irradiation environments such as the interiors of magnetic fusion reactors, previously explored materials have thus far been hobbled by weakness against fracture, but this new alloy seems to defeat that problem.

2h

NASA's infrared vision reveals Tropical Cyclone Haleh's power

Tropical Cyclone Haleh maintained an eye as NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead and collected temperature information on the storm and the ocean waters it was moving through.

2h

Infection control technique may reduce infections in patients with catheters, drains

Each year, approximately 5 million patients in the United States receive treatment that includes the insertion of a medical device such as a catheter, which puts them at increased risk of potentially life-threatening infection. Researchers have found a strategy that greatly reduced both overall infection and infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a group of these patients. The results of

2h

Scientists levitate particles with sound to find out how they cluster together

Scientists have used sound waves to levitate particles, revealing new insights about how materials cluster together in the absence of gravity — principles which underlie everything from how molecules assemble to the very early stages of planet formation from space dust.

3h

Long-term measles vaccine study shows no link with autism — again

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The Countdown to Day Zero

What happens when a major metropolitan area runs out of water? The 4.5 million residents of Cape Town are hoping they won’t have to find out. The South African city has been experiencing a severe water crisis since early 2017, when the municipal government began pleading with residents to conserve water. In October of that year, as the situation worsened, the city enforced water restrictions and

3h

The Piracy Wars Are Over. Let's Talk about Data Incumbency

Big tech and big content have more in common than the copyright battles suggest—and that’s a problem for artists.

3h

Megapixels: Check out the moon’s gnarly sunburn

Space Solving the centuries-long mystery of the moon's swirled tattoos. For quite some time, a dappling of light gray swirls on the surface of the moon has perplexed professional and amateur astronomers alike. First identified during the…

3h

Nuclear medicine imaging monitors effectiveness of therapy for melanoma patients

Nuclear medicine imaging with PET/CT can monitor the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment for metastatic melanoma and predict outcome. In this way, a patient's therapy can be more effectively tailored to his or her personal response.

3h

Distracted drivers 29 times more likely to wreck in a highway work zone

The study uses data from the Transportation Research Board's second Strategic Highway Research Program's Naturalistic Driving Study. During 2006 – 2015, researchers collected data from more than 3,000 drivers traveling more than 50 million miles. With this information, researchers can now see a detailed firsthand account of a driver's interaction with the vehicle, roadway and surrounding environme

3h

BU conducts first experimental evaluation of pharmaceutical industry-led access program

A new study led by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researchers is the first to use a randomized trial design to generate rigorous evidence on the impact of a pharmaceutical industry-led medicines access program.

3h

New reactor-liner alloy material offers strength, resilience

A new tungsten-based alloy developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory can withstand unprecedented amounts of radiation without damage. Essential for extreme irradiation environments such as the interiors of magnetic fusion reactors, previously explored materials have thus far been hobbled by weakness against fracture, but this new alloy seems to defeat that problem.

3h

NASA's infrared vision reveals Tropical Cyclone Haleh's power

Tropical Cyclone Haleh maintained an eye as NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead and collected temperature information on the storm and the ocean waters it was moving through.

3h

UM researchers study Alaska forest fires over past 450 years

In a recent study, University of Montana researchers explored the ways forest succession and climate variability interacted and influenced fires in Alaska's boreal forests over the past four centuries — from 1550 to 2015.

3h

This Road-Legal Electric “Hypercar” Is as Fast as a Bullet Train

The Battista The BBC calls it “the fastest road car in the world.” Italian automaker Pininfarina just revealed a monster of an electric car at this year’s Geneva Motor Show: the Battista — a road-legal electric supercar as fast as some bullet trains. 2019 #GenevaMotorShow : 1,900PS #Pininfarina #Battista can touch 100kmph in less than 2s! Has a driving range of 450km. Will be launched in 2020. Re

3h

Greek myths have some scary ideas about robots and A.I.

Thousands of years before machine learning and self-driving cars became reality, the tales of giant bronze robot Talos, artificial woman Pandora, and their creator, the god Hephaestus, filled the imaginations of people in ancient Greece. Historians usually trace the idea of automata to the Middle Ages, when humans first invented self-moving devices, but the concept of artificial, lifelike creatur

3h

Capturing bacteria that eat and breathe electricity

Researchers traveled to Yellowstone National Park to find bacteria that may help solve some of the biggest challenges facing humanity — environmental pollution and sustainable energy.

3h

Scientists levitate particles with sound to find out how they cluster together

Scientists have used sound waves to levitate particles, revealing new insights about how materials cluster together in the absence of gravity — principles which underlie everything from how molecules assemble to the very early stages of planet formation from space dust.

3h

Modern beer yeast emerged from mix of European grape wine, Asian rice wine yeast

For thousands of years brewers made beer using specialized strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The historical origins of brewer's yeast are not well understood, however, as brewing predates the discovery of microbes. A new study publishing March 5 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, led by Justin Fay at the University of Rochester, shows that modern brewing strains were der

3h

Modern beer yeast emerged from mix of European grape wine, Asian rice wine yeast

For thousands of years brewers made beer using specialized strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The historical origins of brewer's yeast are not well understood, however, as brewing predates the discovery of microbes. A new study publishing March 5 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, led by Justin Fay at the University of Rochester, shows that modern brewing strains were der

3h

A study by the UC3M researches the limits of topological insulators using sound waves

Research in which the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) is taking part analyses the future of topological insulators using sound waves, meaning materials that behave like acoustic insulators in their interior, but at the same time allow the movement of sound waves at their surface. This line of research could improve acoustic non-destructive testing and medical diagnostics based on ultrasoun

3h

Modern beer yeast emerged from mix of European grape wine, Asian rice wine yeast

For thousands of years brewers made beer using specialized strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A new study publishing March 5 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, led by Justin Fay at the University of Rochester, shows that modern brewing strains were derived from a mixture of European grape wine and Asian rice wine strains. This finding points to the emergence of beer yeast

3h

Analysis of billions of Wikipedia searches reveals biodiversity secrets

An international team of researchers from the University of Oxford, the University of Birmingham and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have found that the way in which people use the internet is closely tied to patterns and rhythms in the natural world.

3h

Results of trial to stem hospital-acquired bacterial infections published

A trial evaluated whether daily bathing with the antiseptic soap chlorhexidine (CHG) — and in those patients with MRSA, adding the nasal antibiotic mupirocin — more effectively reduced hospital-acquired bacterial infections than bathing with ordinary soap and water. The researchers found that one subset of patients — those with medical devices — experienced a substantial benefit if they receiv

3h

Global analysis of billions of Wikipedia searches reveals biodiversity secrets

An international team of researchers from the University of Oxford, the University of Birmingham and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have found that the way in which people use the internet is closely tied to patterns and rhythms in the natural world. This finding, publishing March 5 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology suggests new ways to monitor changes in the world's biodiversity.

3h

Study confirms and quantifies Zika-microcephaly link in Brazil

Women infected with Zika virus early in pregnancy are almost 17 times more likely to have a child with microcephaly, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Oliver Brady of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK, and colleagues.

3h

Triton is the world’s most murderous malware, and it’s spreading

The rogue code can disable safety systems designed to prevent catastrophic industrial accidents. It was discovered in the Middle East, but the hackers behind it are now targeting companies in North America and other parts of the world, too.

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A never-ending stream of AI art goes up for auction

submitted by /u/izumi3682 [link] [comments]

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The Conference Where Diversity in Tech Is Celebrated

The Lesbians Who Tech summit creates community for folks who can feel marginalized in Silicon Valley.

3h

Free ‘Drought Eye’ maps depict thermal stress

A new monitoring method allows scientists to identify the onset of drought sooner. Early notice would mean conservation or remediation measures could begin sooner to help limit the damage. As a result of drought, more than 2 billion people worldwide face water shortages, wildfires, crop losses, forest diebacks, or other environmental or economic woes. “By combining surface and air temperature mea

3h

A 10-million-pound undersea cable just set an internet speed record

Technology Breaking down, by the numbers, a new submarine data-transfer accomplishment. Undersea cables are the backbone of the internet as we know it.

3h

Scientists at ESS, Swedish Water Research, ORNL use VISION to look at common contaminant for cleaner water applications

Water filtration is essential to maintaining public health. The ability to see how persistent contaminants like harmful bacteria, micropollutants, and microplastics behave at the atomic scale can enable engineers to make improved filters for more effective water treatment methods.

3h

Unique vibrations lead to protein ‘fingerprints’

A new method can rapidly measure proteins’ unique vibrations, researchers report. In the cells of every living organism—humans, birds, bees, roses, and even bacteria—proteins vibrate with microscopic motions that help them perform vital tasks ranging from cell repair to photosynthesis. Measuring these vibrations could open new possibilities in biological research, such as studying the microscopic

3h

Pancreatic cancer: Two-hit treatment approach shows promise

Autophagy inhibitors could be more potent against pancreatic cancer by first applying a drug that makes the cancer cells dependent on autophagy for energy.

3h

Kepler Space Telescope's first exoplanet candidate confirmed, ten years after launch

An international team of astronomers, led by University of Hawaiʻi graduate student Ashley Chontos, announced the confirmation of the first exoplanet candidate identified by NASA's Kepler Mission. The result was presented today at the fifth Kepler/K2 Science Conference held in Glendale, CA.

3h

Global analysis of billions of Wikipedia searches reveals biodiversity secrets

An international team of researchers from the University of Oxford, the University of Birmingham and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have found that the way in which people use the internet is closely tied to patterns and rhythms in the natural world. This finding, publishing March 5 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology suggests new ways to monitor changes in the world's biodiversity. It als

3h

Progressives want the T-Mobile–Sprint merger dead

Progressive freshman Democrat Rep. Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) is leading an effort in the House to block the proposed $26 billion merger deal between T-Mobile and Sprint, according to …

4h

Volvo unveils driverless electric bus in Singapore

Volvo and a Singapore university unveiled a driverless electric bus Tuesday that will soon undergo tests in the city-state, the latest move towards rolling out autonomous vehicles for public …

4h

Molecular puzzle reveals unknown stages of fetal development

By applying gene analysis to individual cells from early mouse embryos, researchers have discovered previously unknown cellular stages of fetal development from fertilized egg to living being.

4h

Robots can detect breast cancer as well as radiologists

A new article suggests that artificial intelligence systems may be able to perform as accurately as radiologists in the evaluation of digital mammography in breast cancer screening.

4h

A Second Person May Be Cured of HIV

A man in the United Kingdom may be the second person ever to be cured of HIV.

4h

Scientists Pin Down Cause of Mysterious 'Icequakes' Shaking Antarctica

Slushy spots in Antarctica quiver with minuscule tremors as the temperature fluctuates.

4h

Global analysis of billions of Wikipedia searches reveals biodiversity secrets

An international team of researchers from the University of Oxford, the University of Birmingham and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have found that the way in which people use the internet is closely tied to patterns and rhythms in the natural world. This finding, publishing March 5 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology suggests new ways to monitor changes in the world's biodiversity. It als

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Team discovers protein, lipid connection that could aid new influenza therapies

The connection between an influenza virus surface protein and a host cell lipid has been discovered by researchers at the University of Maine and the National Institutes of Health. Confirmation of direct interaction between the protein and lipid could lead to new antiviral therapies.

4h

Galactic wind provides clues to evolution of galaxies

The Cigar Galaxy (also known as M82) is famous for its extraordinary speed in making new stars, with stars being born 10 times faster than in the Milky Way. Now, data from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, have been used to study this galaxy in greater detail, revealing how material that affects the evolution of galaxies may get into intergalactic space.

4h

People in Japan Are Worshiping a Cyberpunk-Looking Robot Goddess

Robot Goddess Monks at the ancient Kodaiji temple in Kyoto, Japan, recently gathered for a traditional ceremony in which they chanted and rang bells to a new statue of a deity named Mindar, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy. But the statue isn’t carved out of traditional stone or wood, according to a new story by The Diplomat . Instead, it’s a strange, cyberpunk depiction of a robot deity, with expos

4h

When it comes to hearing words, it's a division of labor between our brain's two hemispheres

Scientists have uncovered a new 'division of labor' between our brain's two hemispheres in how we comprehend the words and other sounds we hear — a finding that offers new insights into the processing of speech and points to ways to address auditory disorders.

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Chemists find method to replace hydrogen with fluorine in organic molecules

Chemists have now reported a facile method for the replacement of hydrogen with fluorine in important drug molecules. This new discovery enables the fine-tuning of existing (and potential new) pharmaceuticals to endow them with improved pharmacological properties.

4h

Team discovers protein, lipid connection that could aid new influenza therapies

The connection between an influenza virus surface protein and a host cell lipid has been discovered by researchers at the University of Maine and the National Institutes of Health. Confirmation of direct interaction between the protein and lipid could lead to new antiviral therapies.

4h

Integrated therapy treating obesity and depression is effective

An intervention combining behavioral weight loss treatment and problem-solving therapy with as-needed antidepressant medication for participants with co-occurring obesity and depression improved weight loss and depressive symptoms compared with routine physician care.

4h

Kids with cochlear implants since infancy more likely to speak, not sign

Researchers present further evidence that deaf children who received cochlear implants (implanted electronic hearing device) before 12 months of age learn to more rapidly understand spoken language and are more likely to develop spoken language as their exclusive form of communication.

4h

A new way to map cell regulatory networks

A new mathematical method may soon make it much easier to conduct more of the complex data analysis needed to drive advances in the exploding field of personalized medicine.

4h

What makes people willing to sacrifice their own self-interest for another person?

Researchers show that people are more willing to sacrifice for a collaborator than for someone working just as hard but working independently.

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Heroin users aware of fentanyl, but at high risk of overdosing

Most heroin users in Baltimore, a city heavily affected by the opioid epidemic, recognize that the heroin they buy is now almost always laced with the highly dangerous synthetic opioid fentanyl, according to a new study.

4h

Concentric organization of A- and B-type lamins predicts their distinct roles in the spatial organization and stability of the nuclear lamina [Cell Biology]

The nuclear lamina is an intermediate filament meshwork adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) that plays a critical role in maintaining nuclear shape and regulating gene expression through chromatin interactions. Studies have demonstrated that A- and B-type lamins, the filamentous proteins that make up the nuclear lamina, form independent…

4h

Fibroblast growth factor receptor influences primary cilium length through an interaction with intestinal cell kinase [Cell Biology]

Vertebrate primary cilium is a Hedgehog signaling center but the extent of its involvement in other signaling systems is less well understood. This report delineates a mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor (FGF) controls primary cilia. Employing proteomic approaches to characterize proteins associated with the FGF-receptor, FGFR3, we identified the…

4h

Reactive oxygen species modulate macrophage immunosuppressive phenotype through the up-regulation of PD-L1 [Cell Biology]

The combination of immune checkpoint blockade with chemotherapy is currently under investigation as a promising strategy for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most prominent component of the breast cancer microenvironment because they influence tumor progression and the response to therapies. Here we…

4h

Early onset preeclampsia in a model for human placental trophoblast [Cell Biology]

We describe a model for early onset preeclampsia (EOPE) that uses induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from umbilical cords of EOPE and control (CTL) pregnancies. These iPSCs were then converted to placental trophoblast (TB) representative of early pregnancy. Marker gene analysis indicated that both sets of cells differentiated at…

4h

Coupling between dynamic 3D tissue architecture and BMP morphogen signaling during Drosophila wing morphogenesis [Developmental Biology]

At the level of organ formation, tissue morphogenesis drives developmental processes in animals, often involving the rearrangement of two-dimensional (2D) structures into more complex three-dimensional (3D) tissues. These processes can be directed by growth factor signaling pathways. However, little is known about how such morphological changes affect the spatiotemporal distribution…

4h

Early lineage specification defines alveolar epithelial ontogeny in the murine lung [Developmental Biology]

During the stepwise specification and differentiation of tissue-specific multipotent progenitors, lineage-specific transcriptional networks are activated or repressed to orchestrate cell specification. The gas-exchange niche in the lung contains two major epithelial cell types, alveolar type 1 (AT1) and AT2 cells, and the timing of lineage specification of these cells is…

4h

Experimental support for alternative attractors on coral reefs [Ecology]

Ecological theory predicts that ecosystems with multiple basins of attraction can get locked in an undesired state, which has profound ecological and management implications. Despite their significance, alternative attractors have proven to be challenging to detect and characterize in natural communities. On coral reefs, it has been hypothesized that persistent…

4h

Extreme diversification of floral volatiles within and among species of Lithophragma (Saxifragaceae) [Evolution]

A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand how complex traits of multiple functions have diversified and codiversified across interacting lineages and geographic ranges. We evaluate intra- and interspecific variation in floral scent, which is a complex trait of documented importance for mutualistic and antagonistic interactions between plants, pollinators,…

4h

Lateral transfers of large DNA fragments spread functional genes among grasses [Evolution]

A fundamental tenet of multicellular eukaryotic evolution is that vertical inheritance is paramount, with natural selection acting on genetic variants transferred from parents to offspring. This lineal process means that an organism’s adaptive potential can be restricted by its evolutionary history, the amount of standing genetic variation, and its mutation…

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Evolution of resilience in protein interactomes across the tree of life [Evolution]

Phenotype robustness to environmental fluctuations is a common biological phenomenon. Although most phenotypes involve multiple proteins that interact with each other, the basic principles of how such interactome networks respond to environmental unpredictability and change during evolution are largely unknown. Here we study interactomes of 1,840 species across the tree…

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White shark genome reveals ancient elasmobranch adaptations associated with wound healing and the maintenance of genome stability [Genetics]

The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias; Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) is one of the most publicly recognized marine animals. Here we report the genome sequence of the white shark and comparative evolutionary genomic analyses to the chondrichthyans, whale shark (Elasmobranchii) and elephant shark (Holocephali), as well as various vertebrates. The 4.63-Gbp white shark…

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Pivotal role for {alpha}V integrins in sustained Tfh support of the germinal center response for long-lived plasma cell generation [Immunology and Inflammation]

CD4+ follicular helper T cells (Tfh) are essential for germinal center (GC) reactions in the lymph node that generate high-affinity, long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). Temporal GC analysis suggests B memory cells (Bmem) are generated early, while LLPCs are generated late in the GC reaction. Distinct roles for Tfh at these…

4h

E-protein regulatory network links TCR signaling to effector Treg cell differentiation [Immunology and Inflammation]

T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling is essential for the differentiation and maintenance of effector regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, the contribution of individual TCR-dependent genes in Treg cells to the maintenance of immunotolerance remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that Treg cells lacking E protein undergo further differentiation into…

4h

CD4+ T help promotes influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell memory by limiting metabolic dysfunction [Immunology and Inflammation]

There is continued interest in developing novel vaccine strategies that induce establish optimal CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) memory for pathogens like the influenza A viruses (IAVs), where the recall of IAV-specific T cell immunity is able to protect against serologically distinct IAV infection. While it is well established that…

4h

Mobile platform for rapid sub-picogram-per-milliliter, multiplexed, digital droplet detection of proteins [Medical Sciences]

Digital droplet assays—in which biological samples are compartmentalized into millions of femtoliter-volume droplets and interrogated individually—have generated enormous enthusiasm for their ability to detect biomarkers with single-molecule sensitivity. These assays have untapped potential for point-of-care diagnostics but are currently mainly confined to laboratory settings, due to the instrumen

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MAP kinase and autophagy pathways cooperate to maintain RAS mutant cancer cell survival [Medical Sciences]

Oncogenic mutations in the small GTPase KRAS are frequently found in human cancers, and, currently, there are no effective targeted therapies for these tumors. Using a combinatorial siRNA approach, we analyzed a panel of KRAS mutant colorectal and pancreatic cancer cell lines for their dependency on 28 gene nodes that…

4h

Podocalyxin is required for maintaining blood-brain barrier function during acute inflammation [Medical Sciences]

Podocalyxin (Podxl) is broadly expressed on the luminal face of most blood vessels in adult vertebrates, yet its function on these cells is poorly defined. In the present study, we identified specific functions for Podxl in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Using electrical cell substrate impedance sensing and live imaging, we…

4h

Ovarian insufficiency and CTNNB1 mutations drive malignant transformation of endometrial hyperplasia with altered PTEN/PI3K activities [Medical Sciences]

Endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs) carry multiple driver mutations even when they are low grade. However, the biological significance of these concurrent mutations is unknown. We explored the interactions among three signature EEC mutations: loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in PTEN, gain-of-function (GOF) mutations of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations,…

4h

NOTCH1 signaling induces pathological vascular permeability in diabetic retinopathy [Medical Sciences]

Diabetic macular edema is a major complication of diabetes resulting in loss of central vision. Although heightened vessel leakiness has been linked to glial and neuronal-derived factors, relatively little is known on the mechanisms by which mature endothelial cells exit from a quiescent state and compromise barrier function. Here we…

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Down-regulation of FZD3 receptor suppresses growth and metastasis of human melanoma independently of canonical WNT signaling [Medical Sciences]

Frizzled 3 receptor (FZD3) plays an important role in the homeostasis of the neural crest and its derivatives, which give rise to pigment-synthesizing cells, melanocytes. While the role for FZD3 in specification of the melanocytic lineage from neural crest is well established, its significance in the formation of melanoma, its…

4h

Blocking CXCR4 alleviates desmoplasia, increases T-lymphocyte infiltration, and improves immunotherapy in metastatic breast cancer [Medical Sciences]

Metastatic breast cancers (mBCs) are largely resistant to immune checkpoint blockade, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Primary breast cancers are characterized by a dense fibrotic stroma, which is considered immunosuppressive in multiple malignancies, but the stromal composition of breast cancer metastases and its role in immunosuppression are largely unknown. Here…

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Mouse and human urothelial cancer organoids: A tool for bladder cancer research [Medical Sciences]

Bladder cancer is a common malignancy that has a relatively poor outcome. Lack of culture models for the bladder epithelium (urothelium) hampers the development of new therapeutics. Here we present a long-term culture system of the normal mouse urothelium and an efficient culture system of human bladder cancer cells. These…

4h

Depletion of regulatory T cells in tumors with an anti-CD25 immunotoxin induces CD8 T cell-mediated systemic antitumor immunity [Medical Sciences]

The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in controlling tumor progression and immune surveillance. We produced an immunotoxin (2E4-PE38) that kills mouse cells expressing CD25 by attaching the Fv portion of monoclonal antibody 2E4 (anti-mouse CD25) to a 38-kDa portion of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. We employed three mouse cancer tumor…

4h

Loss of BOP1 confers resistance to BRAF kinase inhibitors in melanoma by activating MAP kinase pathway [Medical Sciences]

Acquired resistance to BRAF kinase inhibitors (BRAFi) is the primary cause for their limited clinical benefit. Although several mechanisms of acquired BRAFi resistance have been identified, the basis for acquired resistance remains unknown in over 40% of melanomas. We performed a large-scale short-hairpin RNA screen, targeting 363 epigenetic regulators and…

4h

Anti-BCMA immunotoxins produce durable complete remissions in two mouse myeloma models [Medical Sciences]

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy for which new treatments are urgently needed. The B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a lineage-restricted differentiation protein highly expressed on myeloma. Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are proteins composed of the Fv or Fab portion of an antibody fused to a bacterial toxin….

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H5N8 and H7N9 packaging signals constrain HA reassortment with a seasonal H3N2 influenza A virus [Microbiology]

Influenza A virus (IAV) has a segmented genome, which (i) allows for exchange of gene segments in coinfected cells, termed reassortment, and (ii) necessitates a selective packaging mechanism to ensure incorporation of a complete set of segments into virus particles. Packaging signals serve as segment identifiers and enable segment-specific packaging….

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Role of UCHL1 in axonal injury and functional recovery after cerebral ischemia [Neuroscience]

Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a unique brain-specific deubiquitinating enzyme. Mutations in and aberrant function of UCHL1 have been linked to many neurological disorders. UCHL1 activity protects neurons from hypoxic injury, and binding of stroke-induced reactive lipid species to the cysteine 152 (C152) of UCHL1 unfolds the protein and…

4h

Six6 and Six7 coordinately regulate expression of middle-wavelength opsins in zebrafish [Neuroscience]

Color discrimination in the vertebrate retina is mediated by a combination of spectrally distinct cone photoreceptors, each expressing one of multiple cone opsins. The opsin genes diverged early in vertebrate evolution into four classes maximally sensitive to varying wavelengths of light: UV (SWS1), blue (SWS2), green (RH2), and red (LWS)…

4h

Opposite regulation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin and Shh signaling pathways by Rack1 controls mammalian cerebellar development [Neuroscience]

The development of the cerebellum depends on intricate processes of neurogenesis, migration, and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and progenitor cells. Defective cerebellar development often results in motor dysfunctions and psychiatric disorders. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie the complex development of the cerebellum will facilitate the development of…

4h

Role of the striatum in incidental learning of sound categories [Neuroscience]

Humans are born as “universal listeners” without a bias toward any particular language. However, over the first year of life, infants’ perception is shaped by learning native speech categories. Acoustically different sounds—such as the same word produced by different speakers—come to be treated as functionally equivalent. In natural environments, these…

4h

Differential cortical microstructural maturation in the preterm human brain with diffusion kurtosis and tensor imaging [Neuroscience]

During the third trimester, the human brain undergoes rapid cellular and molecular processes that reshape the structural architecture of the cerebral cortex. Knowledge of cortical differentiation obtained predominantly from histological studies is limited in localized and small cortical regions. How cortical microstructure is differentiated across cortical regions in this critical…

4h

Multimodal gradients across mouse cortex [Neuroscience]

The primate cerebral cortex displays a hierarchy that extends from primary sensorimotor to association areas, supporting increasingly integrated function underpinned by a gradient of heterogeneity in the brain’s microcircuits. The extent to which these hierarchical gradients are unique to primate or may reflect a conserved mammalian principle of brain organization…

4h

Motor neuron disease-associated loss of nuclear TDP-43 is linked to DNA double-strand break repair defects [Neuroscience]

Genome damage and their defective repair have been etiologically linked to degenerating neurons in many subtypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients; however, the specific mechanisms remain enigmatic. The majority of sporadic ALS patients feature abnormalities in the transactivation response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), whose nucleo-cytoplasmic mislocalization is…

4h

TRPM7 is the central gatekeeper of intestinal mineral absorption essential for postnatal survival [Physiology]

Zn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ are essential minerals required for a plethora of metabolic processes and signaling pathways. Different categories of cation-selective channels and transporters are therefore required to tightly control the cellular levels of individual metals in a cell-specific manner. However, the mechanisms responsible for the organismal balance of these…

4h

Two E3 ligases antagonistically regulate the UV-B response in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

Photomorphogenesis is a pivotal developmental strategy used by plants to respond to environmental light levels. During emergence from the soil and the establishment of photomorphogenesis, seedlings encounter increasing levels of UV-B irradiation and develop adaptive responses accordingly. However, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate UV-B signaling cascades remain elusive. Here, we…

4h

Pluripotent stem cell-derived myogenic progenitors remodel their molecular signature upon in vivo engraftment [Developmental Biology]

Optimal cell-based therapies for the treatment of muscle degenerative disorders should not only regenerate fibers but provide a quiescent satellite cell pool ensuring long-term maintenance and regeneration. Conditional expression of Pax3/Pax7 in differentiating pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) allows the generation of myogenic progenitors endowed with enhanced regenerative capacity. To identify…

4h

Trilobite evolutionary rates constrain the duration of the Cambrian explosion [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Trilobites are often considered exemplary for understanding the Cambrian explosion of animal life, due to their unsurpassed diversity and abundance. These biomineralized arthropods appear abruptly in the fossil record with an established diversity, phylogenetic disparity, and provincialism at the beginning of Cambrian Series 2 (∼521 Ma), suggesting a protracted but…

4h

Role of forest regrowth in global carbon sink dynamics [Environmental Sciences]

Although the existence of a large carbon sink in terrestrial ecosystems is well-established, the drivers of this sink remain uncertain. It has been suggested that perturbations to forest demography caused by past land-use change, management, and natural disturbances may be causing a large component of current carbon uptake. Here we…

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Photosynthetic adaptation to low iron, light, and temperature in Southern Ocean phytoplankton [Environmental Sciences]

Phytoplankton productivity in the polar Southern Ocean (SO) plays an important role in the transfer of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean’s interior, a process called the biological carbon pump, which helps regulate global climate. SO productivity in turn is limited by low iron, light, and temperature, which restrict…

4h

Molecular mechanism and history of non-sense to sense evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein gene in northern gadids [Evolution]

A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is how genetic novelty arises. De novo gene birth is a recently recognized mechanism, but the evolutionary process and function of putative de novo genes remain largely obscure. With a clear life-saving function, the diverse antifreeze proteins of polar fishes are exemplary adaptive innovations…

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Processing generates 3' ends of RNA masking transcription termination events in prokaryotes [Genetics]

Two kinds of signal-dependent transcription termination and RNA release mechanisms have been established in prokaryotes in vitro by: (i) binding of Rho to cytidine-rich nascent RNA [Rho-dependent termination (RDT)], and (ii) the formation of a hairpin structure in the nascent RNA, ending predominantly with uridine residues [Rho-independent termination (RIT)]. As…

4h

Role for nuclear interleukin-37 in the suppression of innate immunity [Immunology and Inflammation]

The IL-1 family member IL-37 broadly suppresses innate inflammation and acquired immunity. Similar to IL-1α and IL-33, IL-37 is a dual-function cytokine in that IL-37 translocates to the nucleus but also transmits a signal via surface membrane receptors. The role of nuclear IL-37 remains unknown on the ability of this…

4h

Dual AAV-mediated gene therapy restores hearing in a DFNB9 mouse model [Medical Sciences]

Autosomal recessive genetic forms (DFNB) account for most cases of profound congenital deafness. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based gene therapy is a promising therapeutic option, but is limited by a potentially short therapeutic window and the constrained packaging capacity of the vector. We focus here on the otoferlin gene underlying DFNB9, one…

4h

WNK4 kinase is a physiological intracellular chloride sensor [Medical Sciences]

With-no-lysine (WNK) kinases regulate renal sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) to maintain body sodium and potassium homeostasis. Gain-of-function mutations of WNK1 and WNK4 in humans lead to a Mendelian hypertensive and hyperkalemic disease pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII). X-ray crystal structure and in vitro studies reveal chloride ion (Cl−) binds to a hydrophobic…

4h

Vibrio cholerae FeoB contains a dual nucleotide-specific NTPase domain essential for ferrous iron uptake [Microbiology]

The Feo ferrous iron transporter is widely distributed among bacteria and archaea, but its mechanism of transport has not been fully elucidated. In Vibrio cholerae, the transport system requires three proteins: the small cytosolic proteins FeoA and FeoC and a large cytoplasmic-membrane–associated protein FeoB, which has an N-terminal G-protein domain….

4h

A bacteria-based genetic assay detects prion formation [Microbiology]

Prions are infectious, self-propagating protein aggregates that are notorious for causing devastating neurodegenerative diseases in mammals. Recent evidence supports the existence of prions in bacteria. However, the evaluation of candidate bacterial prion-forming proteins has been hampered by the lack of genetic assays for detecting their conversion to an aggregated prion…

4h

Altered neural odometry in the vertical dimension [Neuroscience]

Entorhinal grid cells integrate sensory and self-motion inputs to provide a spatial metric of a characteristic scale. One function of this metric may be to help localize the firing fields of hippocampal place cells during formation and use of the hippocampal spatial representation (“cognitive map”). Of theoretical importance is the…

4h

Priming of microglia with IFN-{gamma} slows neuronal gamma oscillations in situ [Neuroscience]

Type II IFN (IFN-γ) is a proinflammatory T lymphocyte cytokine that serves in priming of microglia—resident CNS macrophages—during the complex microglial activation process under pathological conditions. Priming generally permits an exaggerated microglial response to a secondary inflammatory stimulus. The impact of primed microglia on physiological neuronal function in intact cortical…

4h

Mitochondrial small heat shock protein mediates seed germination via thermal sensing [Plant Biology]

Seed germination is an energy demanding process that requires functional mitochondria upon imbibition. However, how mitochondria fine tune seed germination, especially in response to the dynamics of environmental temperature, remains largely unknown at the molecular level. Here, we report a mitochondrial matrix-localized heat shock protein GhHSP24.7, that regulates seed germination…

4h

Self-regulation and the foraging gene (PRKG1) in humans [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Foraging is a goal-directed behavior that balances the need to explore the environment for resources with the need to exploit those resources. In Drosophila melanogaster, distinct phenotypes have been observed in relation to the foraging gene (for), labeled the rover and sitter. Adult rovers explore their environs more extensively than…

4h

The nature of recollection across months and years and after medial temporal lobe damage [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

We studied the narrative recollections of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage who took a 25-min guided walk during which 11 planned events occurred. The recollections of the patients, recorded directly after the walk, were compared with the recollections of controls tested directly after the walk (C1), after…

4h

Cortical route for facelike pattern processing in human newborns [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Humans are endowed with an exceptional ability for detecting faces, a competence that, in adults, is supported by a set of face-specific cortical patches. Human newborns, already shortly after birth, preferentially orient to faces, even when they are presented in the form of highly schematic geometrical patterns vs. perceptually equivalent…

4h

Social threat learning transfers to decision making in humans [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

In today’s world, mass-media and online social networks present us with unprecedented exposure to second-hand, vicarious experiences and thereby the chance of forming associations between previously innocuous events (e.g., being in a subway station) and aversive outcomes (e.g., footage or verbal reports from a violent terrorist attack) without direct experience….

4h

The global mass and average rate of rubisco [Systems Biology]

Photosynthetic carbon assimilation enables energy storage in the living world and produces most of the biomass in the biosphere. Rubisco (d-ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) is responsible for the vast majority of global carbon fixation and has been claimed to be the most abundant protein on Earth. Here we provide an updated…

4h

Correction for Rentoft et al., Heterozygous colon cancer-associated mutations of SAMHD1 have functional significance [Correction]

BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for “Heterozygous colon cancer-associated mutations of SAMHD1 have functional significance,” by Matilda Rentoft, Kristoffer Lindell, Phong Tran, Anna Lena Chabes, Robert J. Buckland, Danielle L. Watt, Lisette Marjavaara, Anna Karin Nilsson, Beatrice Melin, Johan Trygg, Erik Johansson, and Andrei Chabes, which was first published April 11, 2016; 10.1073/pnas.1519128113…

4h

Correction for Bloomfield et al., Triparental inheritance in Dictyostelium [Correction]

GENETICS Correction for “Triparental inheritance in Dictyostelium,” by Gareth Bloomfield, Peggy Paschke, Marina Okamoto, Tim J. Stevens, and Hideko Urushihara, which was first published January 22, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1814425116 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 116:2187–2192). The authors note that Fig. 4 appeared incorrectly. The corrected figure and its legend appear below….

4h

Correction for Copin et al., Sequential evolution of virulence and resistance during clonal spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [Correction]

MICROBIOLOGY Correction for “Sequential evolution of virulence and resistance during clonal spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” by Richard Copin, William E. Sause, Yi Fulmer, Divya Balasubramanian, Sophie Dyzenhaus, Jamil M. Ahmed, Krishan Kumar, John Lees, Anna Stachel, Jason C. Fisher, Karl Drlica, Michael Phillips, Jeffrey N. Weiser, Paul J….

4h

Correction for Giguere-Croteau et al., North America’s oldest boreal trees are more efficient water users due to increased [CO2], but do not grow faster [Correction]

PLANT BIOLOGY, EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for “North America’s oldest boreal trees are more efficient water users due to increased [CO2], but do not grow faster,” by Claudie Giguère-Croteau, Étienne Boucher, Yves Bergeron, Martin P. Girardin, Igor Drobyshev, Lucas C. R. Silva, Jean-François Hélie, and Michelle Garneau, which…

4h

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Trilobites and end of Cambrian explosion Cambrian trilobite fossil from Utah. The sudden appearance of numerous diverse animals more than 500 million years ago, known as the Cambrian explosion, is one of the most significant events in the history of life. However, the tempo and duration of this evolutionary milestone…

4h

Capturing the multiplicative effect of perseverance and passion: Measurement issues of combining two grit facets [Social Sciences]

Recently in PNAS, Jachimowicz et al. (1) attribute the lack of empirical support for the strong grit–performance relationship to the measurement of grit (2, 3). While the grit scale (2, 3) comprises two facets—“perseverance of effort” (PE) and “consistency of interests” (CI; also sometimes referred to as passion)—Jachimowicz et al….

4h

Total grit scale score does not represent perseverance [Social Sciences]

In PNAS, Jachimowicz et al. (1) claim that the results from a three-study investigation show that passion moderates the perseverance–performance relationship such that the relationship is stronger when passion is high. Their metaanalysis (study 1) is characterized by a series of questionable decisions and coding errors, but my primary concern…

4h

Reply to Guo et al. and Crede: Grit-S scale measures only perseverance, not passion, and its supposed subfactors are merely artifactors [Social Sciences]

We (1) propose that evidence linking grit and performance is mixed because the measure used to assess grit—the Short Grit (Grit-S) scale (2)—captures only perseverance, not passion, whereas the definition of grit encompasses both perseverance and passion (3). Our studies find that the combination of perseverance (measured through the whole…

4h

SNPs deciding the rapid growth of cyanobacteria are alterable [Biological Sciences]

Cyanobacteria researchers are keen to understand why Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 (Synechococcus 2973) can grow more than two times faster than Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (Synechococcus 7942), as their genome sequences share 99.8% identity (1). A recent paper in PNAS by Ungerer et al. (2) gives an answer. The authors…

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Reply to Zhou and Li: Plasticity of the genomic haplotype of Synechococcus elongatus leads to rapid strain adaptation under laboratory conditions [Biological Sciences]

Zhou and Li (1) describe a classic phenomenon in microbiology in which the genotypes of bacteria rapidly evolve to optimize growth under selective conditions. In the original paper describing the fast-growing cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973, Yu et al. (2) described the genome sequence that defines the strain. Since 2015,…

4h

Artificial intelligence to support human instruction [Commentary]

The popular media’s recent interest in artificial intelligence (AI) has focused on autonomous systems that might ultimately replace people in fields as diverse as medicine, customer service, and transportation and logistics. Often neglected is a subfield of AI that focuses on empowering people by improving how we learn, remember, perceive,…

4h

Turbine enzyme’s structure in the crosshairs to target tuberculosis [Biochemistry]

Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease worldwide, killing at least 1.5 million people yearly (1). An increasing challenge has been to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB cases (MDR-TB and XDR-TB, respectively), estimated at 0.5 million in 2017. This has required up to 2 y of…

4h

Nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the actin filament: Subtler than expected [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Actin is one of the most abundant and highly conserved proteins in nature. The cellular pool of actin is roughly evenly divided between monomeric (G-actin) and filamentous (F-actin) forms, with the dynamic transition between these two states being tightly regulated in time and space (1). Most actin functions are linked…

4h

Forest age improves understanding of the global carbon sink [Environmental Sciences]

One-fifth of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are sequestered by the terrestrial biosphere, where forests serve as an important “natural solution” to climate change (1). Forests are expected to persist as a substantial carbon sink, dampening future rises in atmospheric CO2 levels (2–4). However, a significant part of this carbon uptake…

4h

Blockade of RAF and autophagy is the one-two punch to take out Ras [Medical Sciences]

Activating mutations in RAS genes (KRAS, HRAS, and NRAS) are oncogenic drivers arising in about one-third of human malignancies (1, 2). Cancers with oncogenic RAS mutations are among those with the poorest prognosis, the most notorious example being pancreatic cancer with a 95% mutation frequency in KRAS and a 7%…

4h

Fate mapping reveals the age structure of the peripheral T cell compartment [Applied Mathematics]

Accumulating evidence indicates that the immune system does not develop in a linear fashion, but rather as distinct developmental layers formed from sequential waves of hematopoietic stem cells, each giving rise to unique populations of immune cells at different stages of development. Although recent studies have indicated that conventional CD8+…

4h

Three-dimensional optical trapping and orientation of microparticles for coherent X-ray diffraction imaging [Applied Physical Sciences]

Optical trapping has been implemented in many areas of physics and biology as a noncontact sample manipulation technique to study the structure and dynamics of nano- and mesoscale objects. It provides a unique approach for manipulating microscopic objects without inducing undesired changes in structure. Combining optical trapping with hard X-ray…

4h

Local frustration around enzyme active sites [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Conflicting biological goals often meet in the specification of protein sequences for structure and function. Overall, strong energetic conflicts are minimized in folded native states according to the principle of minimal frustration, so that a sequence can spontaneously fold, but local violations of this principle open up the possibility to…

4h

Biosynthesis of magnetic nanoparticles from nano-degradation products revealed in human stem cells [Chemistry]

While magnetic nanoparticles offer exciting possibilities for stem cell imaging or tissue bioengineering, their long-term intracellular fate remains to be fully documented. Besides, it appears that magnetic nanoparticles can occur naturally in human cells, but their origin and potentially endogenous synthesis still need further understanding. In an effort to explore…

4h

Probing the link between residual entropy and viscosity of molecular fluids and model potentials [Chemistry]

This work investigates the link between residual entropy and viscosity based on wide-ranging, highly accurate experimental and simulation data. This link was originally postulated by Rosenfeld in 1977 [Rosenfeld Y (1977) Phys Rev A 15:2545–2549], and it is shown that this scaling results in an approximately monovariate relationship between residual…

4h

Generalizing the effects of chirality on block copolymer assembly [Chemistry]

We explore the generality of the influence of segment chirality on the self-assembled structure of achiral–chiral diblock copolymers. Poly(cyclohexylglycolide) (PCG)-based chiral block copolymers (BCPs*), poly(benzyl methacrylate)-b-poly(d-cyclohexylglycolide) (PBnMA-PDCG) and PBnMA-b-poly(l-cyclohexyl glycolide) (PBnMA-PLCG), were synthesized for purposes of systematic comparison with polylactide

4h

Self-assembled ruthenium (II) metallacycles and metallacages with imidazole-based ligands and their in vitro anticancer activity [Chemistry]

Six tetranuclear rectangular metallacycles were synthesized via the [2+2] coordination-driven self-assembly of imidazole-based ditopic donor 1,4-bis(imidazole-1-yl)benzene and 1,3-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene, with dinuclear half-sandwich p-cymene ruthenium(II) acceptors [Ru2(µ-η4-oxalato)(η6-p-cymene)2](SO3CF3)2, [Ru2(µ-η4-2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzoquinonato)(η6-p-cymene)2](SO3CF3)2 and [Ru2(µ-η4-5,8-dio

4h

Quantum experiments and graphs II: Quantum interference, computation, and state generation [Physics]

We present an approach to describe state-of-the-art photonic quantum experiments using graph theory. There, the quantum states are given by the coherent superpositions of perfect matchings. The crucial observation is that introducing complex weights in graphs naturally leads to quantum interference. This viewpoint immediately leads to many interesting results, some…

4h

Metalearners for estimating heterogeneous treatment effects using machine learning [Statistics]

There is growing interest in estimating and analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects in experimental and observational studies. We describe a number of metaalgorithms that can take advantage of any supervised learning or regression method in machine learning and statistics to estimate the conditional average treatment effect (CATE) function. Metaalgorithms build on…

4h

Genomic evidence for shared common ancestry of East African hunting-gathering populations and insights into local adaptation [Anthropology]

Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa ∼300,000 years ago, but the demographic and adaptive histories of African populations are not well-characterized. Here, we have generated a genome-wide dataset from 840 Africans, residing in western, eastern, southern, and northern Africa, belonging to 50 ethnicities, and speaking languages belonging to four language…

4h

Phosphoregulated FMRP phase separation models activity-dependent translation through bidirectional control of mRNA granule formation [Biochemistry]

Activity-dependent translation requires the transport of mRNAs within membraneless protein assemblies known as neuronal granules from the cell body toward synaptic regions. Translation of mRNA is inhibited in these granules during transport but quickly activated in response to neuronal stimuli at the synapse. This raises an important question: how does…

4h

26S Proteasomes are rapidly activated by diverse hormones and physiological states that raise cAMP and cause Rpn6 phosphorylation [Biochemistry]

Pharmacological agents that raise cAMP and activate protein kinase A (PKA) stimulate 26S proteasome activity, phosphorylation of subunit Rpn6, and intracellular degradation of misfolded proteins. We investigated whether a similar proteasome activation occurs in response to hormones and under various physiological conditions that raise cAMP. Treatment of mouse hepatocytes with…

4h

Assembly and cryo-EM structures of RNA-specific measles virus nucleocapsids provide mechanistic insight into paramyxoviral replication [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Assembly of paramyxoviral nucleocapsids on the RNA genome is an essential step in the viral cycle. The structural basis of this process has remained obscure due to the inability to control encapsidation. We used a recently developed approach to assemble measles virus nucleocapsid-like particles on specific sequences of RNA hexamers…

4h

Mechanism of actin polymerization revealed by cryo-EM structures of actin filaments with three different bound nucleotides [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

We used cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to reconstruct actin filaments with bound AMPPNP (β,γ-imidoadenosine 5′-triphosphate, an ATP analog, resolution 3.1 Å), ADP-Pi (ADP with inorganic phosphate, resolution 3.1 Å), or ADP (resolution 3.6 Å). Subunits in the three filaments have similar backbone conformations, so assembly rather than ATP hydrolysis or phosphate…

4h

Nanometer-accuracy distance measurements between fluorophores at the single-molecule level [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Light microscopy is a powerful tool for probing the conformations of molecular machines at the single-molecule level. Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer can measure intramolecular distance changes of single molecules in the range of 2 to 8 nm. However, current superresolution measurements become error-prone below 25 nm. Thus, new single-molecule…

4h

A mechanism for temporary bioadhesion [Cell Biology]

The flatworm Macrostomum lignano features a duo-gland adhesive system that allows it to repeatedly attach to and release from substrates in seawater within a minute. However, little is known about the molecules involved in this temporary adhesion. In this study, we show that the attachment of M. lignano relies on…

4h

Egg-based influenza split virus vaccine with monoglycosylation induces cross-strain protection against influenza virus infections [Applied Biological Sciences]

Each year influenza virus infections cause hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide and a significant level of morbidity with major economic burden. At the present time, vaccination with inactivated virus vaccine produced from embryonated chicken eggs is the most prevalent method to prevent the infections. However, current influenza vaccines are…

4h

Statistical dynamical model to predict extreme events and anomalous features in shallow water waves with abrupt depth change [Applied Mathematics]

Understanding and predicting extreme events and their anomalous statistics in complex nonlinear systems are a grand challenge in climate, material, and neuroscience as well as for engineering design. Recent laboratory experiments in weakly turbulent shallow water reveal a remarkable transition from Gaussian to anomalous behavior as surface waves cross an…

4h

Enhancing human learning via spaced repetition optimization [Applied Mathematics]

Spaced repetition is a technique for efficient memorization which uses repeated review of content following a schedule determined by a spaced repetition algorithm to improve long-term retention. However, current spaced repetition algorithms are simple rule-based heuristics with a few hard-coded parameters. Here, we introduce a flexible representation of spaced repetition…

4h

Multimillijoule coherent terahertz bursts from picosecond laser-irradiated metal foils [Applied Physical Sciences]

Ultrahigh-power terahertz (THz) radiation sources are essential for many applications, for example, THz-wave-based compact accelerators and THz control over matter. However, to date none of the THz sources reported, whether based upon large-scale accelerators or high-power lasers, have produced THz pulses with energies above the millijoule (mJ) level. Here, we…

4h

Linking plasma formation in grapes to microwave resonances of aqueous dimers [Applied Physical Sciences]

The sparking of cut grape hemispheres in a household microwave oven has been a poorly explained Internet parlor trick for over two decades. By expanding this phenomenon to whole spherical dimers of various grape-sized fruit and hydrogel water beads, we demonstrate that the formation of plasma is due to electromagnetic…

4h

Observation of chiral surface excitons in a topological insulator Bi2Se3 [Applied Physical Sciences]

The protected electron states at the boundaries or on the surfaces of topological insulators (TIs) have been the subject of intense theoretical and experimental investigations. Such states are enforced by very strong spin–orbit interaction in solids composed of heavy elements. Here, we study the composite particles—chiral excitons—formed by the Coulomb…

4h

Amyloid fibril-directed synthesis of silica core-shell nanofilaments, gels, and aerogels [Applied Physical Sciences]

Amyloid fibrils have evolved from purely pathological materials implicated in neurodegenerative diseases to efficient templates for last-generation functional materials and nanotechnologies. Due to their high intrinsic stiffness and extreme aspect ratio, amyloid fibril hydrogels can serve as ideal building blocks for material design and synthesis. Yet, in these gels, stiffness…

4h

The structure of the catalytic domain of the ATP synthase from Mycobacterium smegmatis is a target for developing antitubercular drugs [Biochemistry]

The crystal structure of the F1-catalytic domain of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase has been determined from Mycobacterium smegmatis which hydrolyzes ATP very poorly. The structure of the α3β3-component of the catalytic domain is similar to those in active F1-ATPases in Escherichia coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, its ε-subunit differs…

4h

LHCSR3 is a nonphotochemical quencher of both photosystems in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [Biochemistry]

Photosynthetic organisms prevent oxidative stress from light energy absorbed in excess through several photoprotective mechanisms. A major component is thermal dissipation of chlorophyll singlet excited states and is called nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ is catalyzed in green algae by protein subunits called LHCSRs (Light Harvesting Complex Stress Related), homologous to…

4h

Five computational developability guidelines for therapeutic antibody profiling [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Therapeutic mAbs must not only bind to their target but must also be free from “developability issues” such as poor stability or high levels of aggregation. While small-molecule drug discovery benefits from Lipinski’s rule of five to guide the selection of molecules with appropriate biophysical properties, there is currently no…

4h

Diblock copolymers enhance folding of a mechanosensitive membrane protein during cell-free expression [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The expression and integration of membrane proteins into vesicle membranes is a critical step in the design of cell-mimetic biosensors, bioreactors, and artificial cells. While membrane proteins have been integrated into a variety of nonnatural membranes, the effects of the chemical and physical properties of these vesicle membranes on protein…

4h

Structural basis for activity of TRIC counter-ion channels in calcium release [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Trimeric intracellular cation (TRIC) channels are thought to provide counter-ion currents that facilitate the active release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. TRIC activity is controlled by voltage and Ca2+ modulation, but underlying mechanisms have remained unknown. Here we describe high-resolution crystal structures of vertebrate TRIC-A and TRIC-B channels, both in…

4h

Atomic-level characterization of protein-protein association [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Despite the biological importance of protein–protein complexes, determining their structures and association mechanisms remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we report the results of atomic-level simulations in which we observed five protein–protein pairs repeatedly associate to, and dissociate from, their experimentally determined native complexes using a molecular dynamics (MD)–based sampling

4h

Dimers of mitochondrial ATP synthase induce membrane curvature and self-assemble into rows [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Mitochondrial ATP synthases form dimers, which assemble into long ribbons at the rims of the inner membrane cristae. We reconstituted detergent-purified mitochondrial ATP synthase dimers from the green algae Polytomella sp. and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica into liposomes and examined them by electron cryotomography. Tomographic volumes revealed that ATP synthase…

4h

PGC1A regulates the IRS1:IRS2 ratio during fasting to influence hepatic metabolism downstream of insulin [Cell Biology]

Precise modulation of hepatic glucose metabolism is crucial during the fasting and feeding cycle and is controlled by the actions of circulating insulin and glucagon. The insulin-signaling pathway requires insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2, which are found to be dysregulated in diabetes and obesity. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor…

4h

Tissue self-organization based on collective cell migration by contact activation of locomotion and chemotaxis [Cell Biology]

Despite their central role in multicellular organization, navigation rules that dictate cell rearrangement remain largely undefined. Contact between neighboring cells and diffusive attractant molecules are two of the major determinants of tissue-level patterning; however, in most cases, molecular and developmental complexity hinders one from decoding the exact governing rules of…

4h

Microscopic description of acid-base equilibrium [Chemistry]

Acid–base reactions are ubiquitous in nature. Understanding their mechanisms is crucial in many fields, from biochemistry to industrial catalysis. Unfortunately, experiments give only limited information without much insight into the molecular behavior. Atomistic simulations could complement experiments and shed precious light on microscopic mechanisms. The large free-energy barriers connected to.

4h

Compatibility of quantitative X-ray spectroscopy with continuous distribution models of water at ambient conditions [Chemistry]

The phase diagram of water harbors controversial views on underlying structural properties of its constituting molecular moieties, its fluctuating hydrogen-bonding network, as well as pair-correlation functions. In this work, long energy-range detection of the X-ray absorption allows us to unambiguously calibrate the spectra for water gas, liquid, and ice by…

4h

Single-molecule excitation-emission spectroscopy [Chemistry]

Single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS) provides a detailed view of individual emitter properties and local environments without having to resort to ensemble averaging. While the last several decades have seen substantial refinement of SMS techniques, recording excitation spectra of single emitters still poses a significant challenge. Here we address this problem by…

4h

Impact of abrupt sea ice loss on Greenland water isotopes during the last glacial period [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Greenland ice cores provide excellent evidence of past abrupt climate changes. However, there is no universally accepted theory of how and why these Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) events occur. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain DO events, including sea ice, ice shelf buildup, ice sheets, atmospheric circulation, and meltwater changes. DO…

4h

Changing available energy for extratropical cyclones and associated convection in Northern Hemisphere summer [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The circulation of the Northern Hemisphere extratropical troposphere has changed over recent decades, with marked decreases in extratropical cyclone activity and eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in summer and increases in the fraction of precipitation that is convective in all seasons. Decreasing EKE in summer is partly explained by a weakening…

4h

Form and function of F-actin during biomineralization revealed from live experiments on foraminifera [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Although the emergence of complex biomineralized forms has been investigated for over a century, still little is known on how single cells control morphology of skeletal structures, such as frustules, shells, spicules, or scales. We have run experiments on the shell formation in foraminifera, unicellular, mainly marine organisms that can…

4h

From 2D to 3D: Strain- and elongation-free topological transformations of optoelectronic circuits [Engineering]

Optoelectronic circuits in 3D shapes with large deformations can offer additional functionalities inaccessible to conventional planar electronics based on 2D geometries constrained by conventional photolithographic patterning processes. A light-sensing focal plane array (FPA) used in imagers is one example of a system that can benefit from fabrication on curved surfaces….

4h

Deep elastic strain engineering of bandgap through machine learning [Engineering]

Nanoscale specimens of semiconductor materials as diverse as silicon and diamond are now known to be deformable to large elastic strains without inelastic relaxation. These discoveries harbinger a new age of deep elastic strain engineering of the band structure and device performance of electronic materials. Many possibilities remain to be…

4h

Solving matrix equations in one step with cross-point resistive arrays [Engineering]

Conventional digital computers can execute advanced operations by a sequence of elementary Boolean functions of 2 or more bits. As a result, complicated tasks such as solving a linear system or solving a differential equation require a large number of computing steps and an extensive use of memory units to…

4h

Beating the reaction limits of biosensor sensitivity with dynamic tracking of single binding events [Engineering]

The clinical need for ultrasensitive molecular analysis has motivated the development of several endpoint-assay technologies capable of single-molecule readout. These endpoint assays are now primarily limited by the affinity and specificity of the molecular-recognition agents for the analyte of interest. In contrast, a kinetic assay with single-molecule readout could distinguish…

4h

Opinion: Why science needs philosophy [Physics]

A knowledge of the historic and philosophical background gives that kind of independence from prejudices of his generation from which most scientists are suffering. This independence created by philosophical insight is—in my opinion—the mark of distinction between a mere artisan or specialist and a real seeker after truth. Albert Einstein,…

4h

Unraveling materials Berry curvature and Chern numbers from real-time evolution of Bloch states [Physics]

Materials can be classified by the topological character of their electronic structure and, in this perspective, global attributes immune to local deformations have been discussed in terms of Berry curvature and Chern numbers. Except for instructional simple models, linear response theories have been ubiquitously used in calculations of topological properties…

4h

Observing a previously hidden structural-phase transition onset through heteroepitaxial cap response [Physics]

Characterization of the onset of a phase transition is often challenging due to the fluctuations of the correlation length scales of the order parameters. This is especially true for second-order structural-phase transition due to minute changes involved in the relevant lattice constants. A classic example is the cubic-to-tetragonal second-order phase…

4h

Emergence of analogy from relation learning [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

By middle childhood, humans are able to learn abstract semantic relations (e.g., antonym, synonym, category membership) and use them to reason by analogy. A deep theoretical challenge is to show how such abstract relations can arise from nonrelational inputs, thereby providing key elements of a protosymbolic representation system. We have…

4h

The changing career trajectories of new parents in STEM [Social Sciences]

The gender imbalance in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields has remained constant for decades and increases the farther up the STEM career pipeline one looks. Why does the underrepresentation of women endure? This study investigated the role of parenthood as a mechanism of gender-differentiated attrition from STEM employment….

4h

Crop variety management for climate adaptation supported by citizen science [Sustainability Science]

Crop adaptation to climate change requires accelerated crop variety introduction accompanied by recommendations to help farmers match the best variety with their field contexts. Existing approaches to generate these recommendations lack scalability and predictivity in marginal production environments. We tested if crowdsourced citizen science can address this challenge, producing empirical…

4h

Defining the economic scope for ecosystem-based fishery management [Sustainability Science]

The emergence of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) has broadened the policy scope of fisheries management by accounting for the biological and ecological connectivity of fisheries. Less attention, however, has been given to the economic connectivity of fisheries. If fishers consider multiple fisheries when deciding where, when, and how much to…

4h

Four steps to global management of space traffic

Four steps to global management of space traffic Four steps to global management of space traffic, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00732-7 Jamie Morin sets out the elements required to track satellites and avoid crashes.

4h

London patient ‘free’ of HIV after stem cell transplant

Man treated in UK is only the second person ever to go into remission from the virus

4h

Temperature- and rigidity-mediated rapid transport of lipid nanovesicles in hydrogels [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Lipid nanovesicles are widely present as transport vehicles in living organisms and can serve as efficient drug delivery vectors. It is known that the size and surface charge of nanovesicles can affect their diffusion behaviors in biological hydrogels such as mucus. However, how temperature effects, including those of both ambient…

4h

Symbolic labeling in 5-month-old human infants [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Humans’ ability to create and manipulate symbolic structures far exceeds that of other animals. We hypothesized that this ability rests on an early capacity to use arbitrary signs to represent any mental representation, even as abstract as an algebraic rule. In three experiments, we collected high-density EEG recordings while 150…

4h

RIP1 kinase inhibitor halts the progression of an immune-induced demyelination disease at the stage of monocyte elevation [Immunology and Inflammation]

Demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) underlies many human diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). We report here the findings of our study of the CNS demyelination process using immune-induced [experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)] and chemical-induced [cuprizone (CPZ)] mouse models of demyelination. We found that necroptosis, a receptor-interacting protein 3…

4h

American geography of opportunity reveals European origins [Social Sciences]

A large literature documents how intergenerational mobility—the degree to which (dis)advantage is passed on from parents to children—varies across and within countries. Less is known about the origin or persistence of such differences. We show that US areas populated by descendants to European immigrants have similar levels of income equality…

4h

Spastin is a dual-function enzyme that severs microtubules and promotes their regrowth to increase the number and mass of microtubules [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The remodeling of the microtubule cytoskeleton underlies dynamic cellular processes, such as mitosis, ciliogenesis, and neuronal morphogenesis. An important class of microtubule remodelers comprises the severases—spastin, katanin, and fidgetin—which cut microtubules into shorter fragments. While severing activity might be expected to break down the microtubule cytoskeleton, inhibiting these enzyme

4h

Fast pressure-jump all-atom simulations and experiments reveal site-specific protein dehydration-folding dynamics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

As theory and experiment have shown, protein dehydration is a major contributor to protein folding. Dehydration upon folding can be characterized directly by all-atom simulations of fast pressure drops, which create desolvated pockets inside the nascent hydrophobic core. Here, we study pressure-drop refolding of three λ-repressor fragment (λ6–85) mutants computationally…

4h

Effect of oil spills on infant mortality in Nigeria [Sustainability Science]

Oil spills can lead to irreversible environmental degradation and are a potential hazard to human health. We study how onshore oil spills affect neonatal and infant mortality by combining spatial data from the Nigerian Oil Spill Monitor with Demographic and Health Surveys. To identify a causal effect, we compare siblings…

4h

Activity-dependent visualization and control of neural circuits for courtship behavior in the fly Drosophila melanogaster [Neuroscience]

Males of Drosophila melanogaster exhibit stereotypic courtship behavior through which they assess potential mates by processing multimodal sensory information. Although previous studies revealed important neural circuits involved in this process, the full picture of circuits that participate in male courtship remains elusive. Here, we established a genetic tool to visualize…

4h

Control of hearing sensitivity by tectorial membrane calcium [Neuroscience]

When sound stimulates the stereocilia on the sensory cells in the hearing organ, Ca2+ ions flow through mechanically gated ion channels. This Ca2+ influx is thought to be important for ensuring that the mechanically gated channels operate within their most sensitive response region, setting the fraction of channels open at…

4h

cOAlition S: Response to PNAS [Letters (Online Only)]

We thank Marcia McNutt (1) for her opinion piece in PNAS where she supports the goal of open access (OA). We agree with her assertion that further changes in scholarly publishing are inevitable as it “aspires to serve science and society.” This ambition is at the heart of the Plan…

4h

Reply to Kiley and Smits: Meeting Plan S’s goal of maximizing access to research [Letters (Online Only)]

Thank you for recognizing the value that scholarly societies bring to the research ecosystem and the scientific enterprise as a whole—and for recognizing the importance of their financial viability (1). And thank you for clearly stating your goal for Plan S (2). A much simpler route toward achieving your goal…

4h

Weevil pgrp-lb prevents endosymbiont TCT dissemination and chronic host systemic immune activation [Evolution]

Long-term intracellular symbiosis (or endosymbiosis) is widely distributed across invertebrates and is recognized as a major driving force in evolution. However, the maintenance of immune homeostasis in organisms chronically infected with mutualistic bacteria is a challenging task, and little is known about the molecular processes that limit endosymbiont immunogenicity and…

4h

Correction for Dai et al., Mechanisms underlying contrast-dependent orientation selectivity in mouse V1 [Corrections]

NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Mechanisms underlying contrast-dependent orientation selectivity in mouse V1,” by Wei P. Dai, Douglas Zhou, David W. McLaughlin, and David Cai, which was first published October 18, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1719044115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:11619–11624). The authors note that several statements made in their Abstract, Significance Statement, and…

4h

Chloroplast competition is controlled by lipid biosynthesis in evening primroses [Genetics]

In most eukaryotes, organellar genomes are transmitted preferentially by the mother, but molecular mechanisms and evolutionary forces underlying this fundamental biological principle are far from understood. It is believed that biparental inheritance promotes competition between the cytoplasmic organelles and allows the spread of so-called selfish cytoplasmic elements. Those can be,…

4h

Renal control of disease tolerance to malaria [Immunology and Inflammation]

Malaria, the disease caused by Plasmodium spp. infection, remains a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. Host protection from malaria relies on immune-driven resistance mechanisms that kill Plasmodium. However, these mechanisms are not sufficient per se to avoid the development of severe forms of disease. This is accomplished instead…

4h

Identifying spinon excitations from dynamic structure factor of spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the Kagome lattice [Physics]

A spin-1/2 lattice Heisenberg Kagome antiferromagnet (KAFM) is a prototypical frustrated quantum magnet, which exhibits exotic quantum spin liquids that evade long-range magnetic order due to the interplay between quantum fluctuation and geometric frustration. So far, the main focus has remained on the ground-state properties; however, the theoretical consensus regarding…

4h

Correction for Goyal et al., Persistent metabolic youth in the aging female brain [Corrections]

NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Persistent metabolic youth in the aging female brain,” by Manu S. Goyal, Tyler M. Blazey, Yi Su, Lars E. Couture, Tony J. Durbin, Randall J. Bateman, Tammie L.-S. Benzinger, John C. Morris, Marcus E. Raichle, and Andrei G. Vlassenko, which was first published February 4, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1815917116…

4h

Mapping cultural tightness and its links to innovation, urbanization, and happiness across 31 provinces in China [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

We conduct a 3-y study involving 11,662 respondents to map cultural tightness—the degree to which a society is characterized by rules and norms and the extent to which people are punished or sanctioned when they deviate from these rules and norms—across 31 provinces in China. Consistent with prior research, we…

4h

Constitutive signaling activity of a receptor-associated protein links fertilization with embryonic patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]

In flowering plants, the asymmetrical division of the zygote is the first hallmark of apical-basal polarity of the embryo and is controlled by a MAP kinase pathway that includes the MAPKKK YODA (YDA). In Arabidopsis, YDA is activated by the membrane-associated pseudokinase SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) through an unusual parent-of-origin effect:…

4h

Profile of Paul E. Olsen [Profiles]

Geologist Paul E. Olsen follows a simple guiding principle: obtain information from the geological record that is not available from other sources. Doing so has enabled Olsen, a professor of earth and environmental sciences at the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO), to illuminate the history of the Solar…

4h

The relationship between implicit intergroup attitudes and beliefs [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Intergroup attitudes (evaluations) are generalized valence attributions to social groups (e.g., white–bad/Asian–good), whereas intergroup beliefs (stereotypes) are specific trait attributions to social groups (e.g., white–dumb/Asian–smart). When explicit (self-report) measures are used, attitudes toward and beliefs about the same social group are often related to each other but can also be…

4h

Renal reabsorption in 3D vascularized proximal tubule models [Engineering]

Three-dimensional renal tissues that emulate the cellular composition, geometry, and function of native kidney tissue would enable fundamental studies of filtration and reabsorption. Here, we have created 3D vascularized proximal tubule models composed of adjacent conduits that are lined with confluent epithelium and endothelium, embedded in a permeable ECM, and…

4h

PERIOD-controlled deadenylation of the timeless transcript in the Drosophila circadian clock [Neuroscience]

The Drosophila circadian oscillator relies on a negative transcriptional feedback loop, in which the PERIOD (PER) and TIMELESS (TIM) proteins repress the expression of their own gene by inhibiting the activity of the CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC) transcription factors. A series of posttranslational modifications contribute to the oscillations of…

4h

Correction for Moore et al., Robust predictions of specialized metabolism genes through machine learning [Corrections]

PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for “Robust predictions of specialized metabolism genes through machine learning,” by Bethany M. Moore, Peipei Wang, Pengxiang Fan, Bryan Leong, Craig A. Schenck, John P. Lloyd, Melissa D. Lehti-Shiu, Robert L. Last, Eran Pichersky, and Shin-Han Shiu, which was first published February 5, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1817074116 (Proc Natl…

4h

Physical immobilization of particles inspired by pollination [Engineering]

Biomimetic systems often exhibit striking designs well adapted to specific functions that have been inspiring the development of new technologies. Herein, we explored the remarkable ability of honey bees to catch and release large quantities of pollen grains. Hair spacing and height on bees are crucial for their ability to…

4h

Critical symbiont signals drive both local and systemic changes in diel and developmental host gene expression [Microbiology]

The colonization of an animal’s tissues by its microbial partners creates networks of communication across the host’s body. We used the natural binary light-organ symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous bacterial partner, Vibrio fischeri, to define the impact of colonization on transcriptomic networks in the host. A…

4h

Assessment of extreme heat and hospitalizations to inform early warning systems [Environmental Sciences]

Heat early warning systems and action plans use temperature thresholds to trigger warnings and risk communication. In this study, we conduct multistate analyses, exploring associations between heat and all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations, to inform the design and development of heat–health early warning systems. We used a two-stage analysis to estimate…

4h

Seedling traits predict drought-induced mortality linked to diversity loss [Ecology]

Trait-based approaches are increasingly used to predict ecological consequences of climate change, yet seldom have solid links been established between plant traits and observed climate-driven community changes. Most analyses have focused on aboveground adult plant traits, but in warming and drying climates, root traits may be critical, and seedlings may…

4h

Correction for Musco et al., Ant-inspired density estimation via random walks [Corrections]

COMPUTER SCIENCES, SYSTEMS BIOLOGY Correction for “Ant-inspired density estimation via random walks,” by Cameron Musco, Hsin-Hao Su, and Nancy A. Lynch, which was first published September 19, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1706439114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:10534–10541). The authors note that the original publication contains a technical error. The proof of Corollary…

4h

Evolution of nitric oxide regulation of gut function [Evolution]

Although morphologies are diverse, the common pattern in bilaterians is for passage of food in the gut to be controlled by nerves and endodermally derived neuron-like cells. In vertebrates, nitric oxide (NO) derived from enteric nerves controls relaxation of the pyloric sphincter. Here, we show that in the larvae of…

4h

AAV cis-regulatory sequences are correlated with ocular toxicity [Neuroscience]

Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) have become popular for gene therapy, given their many advantages, including their reduced inflammatory profile compared with that of other viruses. However, even in areas of immune privilege such as the eye, AAV vectors are capable of eliciting host-cell responses. To investigate the effects of such…

4h

Correction for Sato et al., Chiral intertwined spirals and magnetic transition dipole moments dictated by cylinder helicity [Corrections]

CHEMISTRY Correction for “Chiral intertwined spirals and magnetic transition dipole moments dictated by cylinder helicity,” by Sota Sato, Asami Yoshii, Satsuki Takahashi, Seiichi Furumi, Masayuki Takeuchi, and Hiroyuki Isobe, which was first published November 27, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1717524114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:13097–13101). The authors wish to note the following:…

4h

Transcranial alternating current stimulation entrains single-neuron activity in the primate brain [Neuroscience]

Spike timing is thought to play a critical role in neural computation and communication. Methods for adjusting spike timing are therefore of great interest to researchers and clinicians alike. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a noninvasive technique that uses weak electric fields to manipulate brain activity. Early results have suggested…

4h

Genomic and molecular characterization of preterm birth [Systems Biology]

Preterm birth (PTB) complications are the leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality in children. By using whole blood samples, we integrated whole-genome sequencing (WGS), RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and DNA methylation data for 270 PTB and 521 control families. We analyzed this combined dataset to identify genomic variants associated with…

4h

Mapping Solar System chaos with the Geological Orrery [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The Geological Orrery is a network of geological records of orbitally paced climate designed to address the inherent limitations of solutions for planetary orbits beyond 60 million years ago due to the chaotic nature of Solar System motion. We use results from two scientific coring experiments in Early Mesozoic continental…

4h

Correction for Shneiderman, Creativity and collaboration: Revisiting cybernetic serendipity [Corrections]

COLLOQUIUM Correction for “Creativity and collaboration: Revisiting cybernetic serendipity,” by Ben Shneiderman, which was first published February 5, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1807200116 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 116:1837–1843). The author notes that, on page 1840, left column, second full paragraph, lines 4–5, Jeffrey Heer should have been included in the list of…

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Jet stream dynamics, hydroclimate, and fire in California from 1600 CE to present [Environmental Sciences]

Moisture delivery in California is largely regulated by the strength and position of the North Pacific jet stream (NPJ), winter high-altitude winds that influence regional hydroclimate and forest fire during the following warm season. We use climate model simulations and paleoclimate data to reconstruct winter NPJ characteristics back to 1571…

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Patterns of genome-wide allele-specific expression in hybrid rice and the implications on the genetic basis of heterosis [Genetics]

Utilization of heterosis has greatly increased the productivity of many crops worldwide. Although tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the genetic basis of heterosis using genomic technologies, molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic components are much less understood. Allele-specific expression (ASE), or imbalance between the expression levels of two parental…

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Time-dependent manufacturing processes lead to a new class of inverse problems [Engineering]

The control of time-dependent, energy beam manufacturing processes has been achieved in the past through trial-and-error approaches. We identify key research gaps and generic challenges related to inverse problems for these processes that require a multidisciplinary problem-solving approach to tackle them. The generic problems that we identify have a wide…

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Dynamics of bed bug infestations and control under disclosure policies [Population Biology]

Bed bugs have reemerged in the United States and worldwide over recent decades, presenting a major challenge to both public health practitioners and housing authorities. A number of municipalities have proposed or initiated policies to stem the bed bug epidemic, but little guidance is available to evaluate them. One contentious…

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Almost partition identities [Mathematics]

An almost partition identity is an identity for partition numbers that is true asymptotically 100% of the time and fails infinitely often. We prove a kind of almost partition identity, namely that the number of parts in all self-conjugate partitions of n is almost always equal to the number of…

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Self-Driving Cars May Hit People With Darker Skin More Often

Biased Self-Driving Cars We already knew that some facial recognition systems struggle to accurately identify people with darker skin. Now we know that many of the artificially intelligent systems designed to help autonomous cars navigate roads have the same problem — and the result could disproportionately endanger pedestrians with darker skin, a troubling sign of how AI can inadvertently reprod

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Israel's first moon mission spacecraft sends back selfie

Image shows part of Beresheet spacecraft with Earth in background An Israeli spacecraft on its maiden mission to the moon has sent its first selfie back to Earth, mission chiefs said on Tuesday. The image showing part of the Beresheet spacecraft with Earth in the background was beamed to mission control in Yehud, Israel – 23,360 miles (37,600km) away, the project’s lead partners said. Continue re

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The Covington Catholic Case Could Turn on ‘Actual Malice’

N icholas Sandmann was an ordinary 16-year-old student at Covington Catholic High School, a school for boys in northern Kentucky, when he found himself standing at the foot of the Lincoln Memorial on January 18. He was wearing a red Make America Great Again hat that he’d purchased as a souvenir, and standing face to face with a Native American protester named Nathan Phillips. Sandmann smiled at P

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30 years later, Berners-Lee sees mission to fix internet's ills

Worldwide web inventor Tim Berners-Lee said Tuesday he is on a mission to fix the problems of online abuse, misinformation and data protection that were not envisioned when the system was created decades earlier.

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After years of promise, battery cars about to go mainstream

For years, there have been lots of electric cars proudly rolled out at auto shows but few on the streets or at dealers. That could be about to change.

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Israel's first spacecraft to moon sends selfie

An Israeli spacecraft on its maiden mission to the moon has sent its first selfie back to Earth, mission chiefs said on Tuesday.

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How Amazon's Algorithms Curated a Dystopian Bookstore

How gameable recommendation systems mislead customers about health information.

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45 percent off chargers and power banks, plus other great deals happening today

Gadgets A quick guide to getting the goods for cheaper. PopSci is always on the lookout for today's best deals. Our lists will be updated throughout the day, so check back to see if stumbled upon any awesome new discounts.

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How Bone Connects Life's Past, Present and Future

A new book dives into the history of osteology, the study of bones, and everything we can learn from the skeletons life leaves behind

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Nuclear medicine imaging monitors effectiveness of therapy for melanoma patients

Nuclear medicine imaging with PET/CT can monitor the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment for metastatic melanoma and predict outcome. In this way, a patient's therapy can be more effectively tailored to his or her personal response.

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Scientists levitate particles with sound to find out how they cluster together

Scientists from the University of Chicago and the University of Bath used sound waves to levitate particles, revealing new insights about how materials cluster together in the absence of gravity — principles which underlie everything from how molecules assemble to the very early stages of planet formation from space dust.

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Capturing bacteria that eat and breathe electricity

WSU researchers traveled to Yellowstone National Park to find bacteria that may help solve some of the biggest challenges facing humanity — environmental pollution and sustainable energy.

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A step closer to an HIV cure

Scientists found no rebound of HIV in two patients who stopped taking their HIV medication after they received stem cell transplants for a hematological [blood] disease. Both patients underwent stem cell transplantation as part of their cancer treatment.

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Chemists find method to replace hydrogen with fluorine in organic molecules

Chemists have now reported a facile method for the replacement of hydrogen with fluorine in important drug molecules. This new discovery enables the fine-tuning of existing (and potential new) pharmaceuticals to endow them with improved pharmacological properties.

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Training beyond exhaustion can prevent learning

Researchers have found that muscle fatigue caused by overexertion when practicing a skill can affect the task in hand and impair learning afterwards.

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The Ugly History of Dual-Loyalty Charges

When Representative Ilhan Omar recently complained about “the political influence in this country that says it is okay to push for allegiance to a foreign country,” many noted accurately that she had deployed a trope—dual loyalty—that had been used against Jews for years. But this accusation has a broader history in the United States, having been used against several religious minorities—includin

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The Schools That Tried—But Failed—to Make Native Americans Obsolete

Two centuries ago, Congress passed a law that kicked into high gear the U.S. government’s campaign to assimilate Native Americans to Western culture—to figuratively “kill the Indian,” as one general later put it , and “save the man.” The Civilization Fund Act of 1819, passed 200 years ago this week, had the purported goal of infusing the country’s indigenous people with “good moral character” and

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Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, March 2019

Neutrons used to study how an antibacterial peptide fights bacteria; decade-long study finds higher CO2 levels caused 30 percent more wood growth in U.S. trees; ultrasonic additive manufacturing to embed fiber optic sensors in heat- and radiation-resistant materials could yield safer reactors; ORNL analyzes 'dark spots' where informal neighborhoods may lack power access; new Transportation Energy

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Heroin users aware of fentanyl, but at high risk of overdosing

Most heroin users in Baltimore, a city heavily affected by the opioid epidemic, recognize that the heroin they buy is now almost always laced with the highly dangerous synthetic opioid fentanyl, according to a new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

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Old age care crisis: Are migrant care workers a suitable solution for state and families?

Germany is facing an old age care crisis. A certain amount of support can be obtained by employing foreign care staff. However, this arrangement can be problematic for various reasons. A research team at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz has been looking at such care arrangements and is planning to hold an international conference on the subject of the care crisis on March 11-12, 2019.

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A CRISPR spin-off causes unintended typos in DNA

One type of CRISPR gene editor makes frequent and widespread mistakes, studies in mice and rice reveal.

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Luke Perry’s Career-Long Act of Generosity

There’s a character, in a 2005 episode of Will & Grace , who makes a cameo appearance for a brief plot line involving Jack, Karen, and, improbably, the wildlife of New York City. Aaron, the character is named, wears a khaki-colored vest studded with a comically large number of pockets. He has thick glasses and speaks into a voice recorder, observing his surroundings in a tone of hushed wonderment

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Finalists From Smithsonian Magazine’s 2018 Photo Contest

The editors of Smithsonian magazine have just announced the 60 finalists in their 16th annual photo contest, selected from more than 48,000 entries sent in from 207 countries and territories. They have once again let me make a selection of these images to share here from the competition’s six categories: The Natural World, The American Experience, Travel, People, Altered Images, and Mobile. Capti

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Tracker is a boon for innovation in peer review

Tracker is a boon for innovation in peer review Tracker is a boon for innovation in peer review, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00786-7 Nature welcomes a registry that supports experiments to improve refereeing.

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More Fragment Binding In Cells – Now With Less Confusion

The Cravatt group (in collaboration with partners from Harvard and Bristol-Myers Squibb) has a paper out on Chemrxiv that’s a followup to a 2017 paper of theirs which (I will freely admit) is one of my favorites. That was on taking fragment-sized compounds (and a slightly higher-MW collection), each labeled with a diazirene (for photoaffinity binding to proteins) and an alkyne (to report in later

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Integrated therapy treating obesity and depression is effective

An intervention combining behavioral weight loss treatment and problem-solving therapy with as-needed antidepressant medication for participants with co-occurring obesity and depression improved weight loss and depressive symptoms compared with routine physician care, according to an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Updated dietary reference intakes for sodium and potassium

A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine reviews current evidence and updates intake recommendations known as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for sodium and potassium that were established in 2005.

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Social and behavioral sciences for the intelligence community

The social and behavioral sciences (SBS) offer an essential contribution to the mission of the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC), a mission that requires an understanding of what human beings do, how, and why, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

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What makes people willing to sacrifice their own self-interest for another person?

Researchers show that people are more willing to sacrifice for a collaborator than for someone working just as hard but working independently.

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UMaine-led team discovers protein, lipid connection that could aid new influenza therapies

For the first time, a connection is shown between influenza virus surface protein HA and host cell lipid PIP2. PIP2 controls cellular functions through signaling pathways it modulates. Many of these pathways control the actin cytoskeleton, a structural framework for cell shape, motility and membrane organization. Many proteins seen with HA are known to control the actin cytoskeleton and have known

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A new way to map cell regulatory networks

A new mathematical method developed by researchers at Cincinnati Children's and New York University may soon make it much easier to conduct more of the complex data analysis needed to drive advances in the exploding field of personalized medicine. Proof-of-principle results for the method are reported this month in Genome Research.

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China Announces “Imminent Launch” of New Space Station

Imminent Launch China has announced the “imminent launch” of the first mission to build its new orbital space station, according to the Hong Kong newspaper The South China Morning Post . The country’s space program is training astronauts and planning to move the first module to a launch site — and though details are still scarce, it’s the latest sign that China’s leadership is investing heavily i

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Bone Marrow Transplant Renders Second Patient Free Of HIV

British doctors report the apparent eradication of HIV from a patient who was undergoing treatment for cancer. It's only the second time this has been accomplished, despite many attempts. (Image credit: SCIENCE SOURCE)

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AIDS-Fondet om kureret hiv-patient: 'Der er lang vej igen, før vi ser en egentlig kur'

Vi skal huske, at der er tale om kræftbehandling – ikke hiv-behandling, siger direktør i AIDS-Fondet ovenpå nyhed om hiv-kureret patient.

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Broken-Heart Syndrome May Stem from the Brain

The brain decreases its chatter, the heart weakens and balloons up

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6 advances in robot grippers for robotics developers to watch

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Forty percent of ‘AI startups’ in Europe don’t really use AI, says report

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Microsoft Unveils Website for Creating Art with AI

submitted by /u/mhamilton723 [link] [comments]

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Quantum Monism Could Save the Soul of Physics

The multiverse may be an artifact of a deeper reality that is comprehensible and unique — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Feedback makes us more certain of what we know

Feedback, rather than hard evidence, boosts people’s sense of certainty when learning new things or trying to tell right from wrong, according to new research. Developmental psychologists have found that the positive or negative reactions people receive in response to an opinion, task, or interaction are more likely to reinforce their beliefs than are logic, reasoning, and scientific data. Their

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Is This The End of Recycling?

After decades of earnest public-information campaigns, Americans are finally recycling . Airports, malls, schools, and office buildings across the country have bins for plastic bottles and aluminum cans and newspapers. In some cities, you can be fined if inspectors discover you haven’t recycled appropriately. But now, much of that carefully sorted recycling is ending up in the trash. For decades,

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'Game of Thrones' Season 8 Trailer: HBO Plays to Its Meme Base

It's also dishing out all the dragons you can handle.

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Humanity's Footprint is Encroaching on Antarctica

Scattered on the coasts of Antarctica's empty and icy expanse are research stations that resemble villages. The largest of them is McMurdo Station, a research hamlet that houses scientists studying the continent's glaciers, climate and biological life as well as artists, writers and support staff. As the logistics hub for the U.S. Antarctic program, McMurdo has a landing strip and 85 buildings inc

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Why I joined an international mentorship programme

Why I joined an international mentorship programme Why I joined an international mentorship programme , Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00782-x Structured support with clear objectives helped me to move my degree forward in style, says Sanam Mirwani.

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Kids with cochlear implants since infancy more likely to speak, not sign

Researchers from Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago present further evidence that deaf children who received cochlear implants (implanted electronic hearing device) before 12 months of age learn to more rapidly understand spoken language and are more likely to develop spoken language as their exclusive form of communication.

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Molecular puzzle reveals unknown stages of fetal development

By applying gene analysis to individual cells from early mouse embryos, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered previously unknown cellular stages of fetal development from fertilized egg to living being. The study is published in the scientific journal Cell Reports.

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Goodyear’s New Concept Tire Doubles as a Flying Car Propeller

Ready for Liftoff The relationship between vehicles and roads will change dramatically if cars start to take to the skies, as many predict they will . So what’s a tire manufacturer to do if it seems tires might not be as vital in the future? Goodyear has an idea: create tires that double as propellers. “With mobility companies looking to the sky for the answer to the challenges of urban transport

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5 definitive books on Leonardo da Vinci

Over 7,000 pages have survived of Leonardo da Vinci's personal notebook collection. Leonardo da Vinci's sketches, ruminations and theories make for a thrilling read. Many biographers have attempted to figure out what made da Vinci such a great artist. Centuries have passed and yet we still sing the praises of the quintessential Renaissance man , Leonardo da Vinci. The historic figure, the legend

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NSA quietly stops controversial mass phone surveillance program after public outcry and widespread technical issues

News of the program's cancellation was just made public a few days ago when House aide Luke Murry discussed the issue in a podcast. Exact details of the program are still highly classified, …

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New hurdle cleared in race toward quantum computing

Researchers have created a new device that allows them to probe the interference of quasiparticles, potentially paving the way for the development of topological qubits.

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Quantum Monism Could Save the Soul of Physics

The multiverse may be an artifact of a deeper reality that is comprehensible and unique — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Toxic tyre waste turned into electronic treasure

Toxic tyre waste turned into electronic treasure Toxic tyre waste turned into electronic treasure, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00774-x By-product of rubber tyres is transformed into valuable organic semiconductors.

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Daily briefing: Archaeologists discover trove of Maya artifacts untouched for 1,000 years

Daily briefing: Archaeologists discover trove of Maya artifacts untouched for 1,000 years Daily briefing: Archaeologists discover trove of Maya artifacts untouched for 1,000 years, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00799-2 Archaeologists brought to tears of joy, second person free of HIV after transplant and the debated legacy of Mileva Marić, Einstein’s first wife.

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Scientists Invent Biodegradable Mardi Gras Beads

Bio-Beads Mardi Gras adds about $5.1 billion to the economy of the state of Louisiana — but also produces massive amounts of trash, including almost 1,300 tons in the city of New Orleans alone, with tens of thousands of pounds consisting of plastic Mardi Gras beads. Now, researchers at Louisiana State University (LSU) have developed biodegradable Mardi Gras beads , produced from algae, that they

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A second HIV patient has gone into remission after a stem cell transplant

A second person with HIV has gone into remission after receiving blood stem cells from a donor unable to make a protein needed by the virus.

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Embracing Thunderbolt 3 Will Make Next-Gen USB4 Twice as Fast

For years, your dongle life has been a confusing mess. The comingling of USB4 and Thunderbolt 3 will (mostly) fix that for you.

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NREL pioneers cleaner route to upcycle plastics into superior products

Researchers at the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have discovered a method of plastics upcycling — transforming discarded products into new, high-value materials of better quality and environmental value — that could economically incentivize the recycling of waste plastics and help solve one of the world's most looming pollution problems.

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Study shows success of measles vaccine campaigns in India

A mass measles vaccination campaign saved tens of thousands of children's lives in India between 2010 and 2013, according to a report published today in eLife.

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Attitudes about health affect how older adults engage with negative health news

To get older adults to pay attention to important health information, preface it with the good news about their health. That's one takeaway from a study that found older adults are more willing to engage with negative health information when they have a positive attitude about their health.

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Gladsaxe vil bruge fordampning som klimatilpasning

En boligafdeling bliver laboratorium for forsøg med planter og overflader, der øger fordampningen ved regnskyl.

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A fungus usually found on skin might play a role in Crohn's disease

A fungus commonly found in human hair follicles also resides in the gut, where it may worsen intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with a certain genetic makeup, researchers report.

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Attitudes about health affect how older adults engage with negative health news

To get older adults to pay attention to important health information, preface it with the good news about their health. That's one takeaway from a study that found older adults are more willing to engage with negative health information when they have a positive attitude about their health.

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Electrical signals kick off flatworm regeneration

Scientists report that electrical activity is the first known step in the tissue-regeneration process of planarian flatworms, starting before the earliest known genetic machinery kicks in and setting off the downstream activities of gene transcription needed to construct new heads or tails.

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3D simulation of bone densitometry predict better the risk of fracture due to osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease in which there is a decrease in bone mass density. The bones become more porous and fragile making them more susceptible to fracture. This disease reduces bone density and weakens the bone. The weakening of the bone increases the risk of fracture. Among all possible osteoporotic fractures, hip fractures are a major problem in Western countries. In fact, it is est

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Scientists study neutron scattering for researching magnetic materials

Physicists have demonstrated for the first time in a comprehensive study how different magnetic materials can be examined using neutron scattering techniques.

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Drug focused approach insufficient to manage ICU delirium

The results of two new trials underscore and confirm the need to look to options other than medication to lower the duration or severity of delirium in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.

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New hurdle cleared in race toward quantum computing

Researchers have created a new device that allows them to probe the interference of quasiparticles, potentially paving the way for the development of topological qubits.

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Climate change: Which airline is best for carbon emissions?

New analysis suggests EasyJet is doing a better job of reducing emissions than its airline rivals.

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Tornado Activity Is Shifting, But Is It Due to Warming?

The timing and frequency of tornadoes has changed, and events are becoming costlier — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Vaccines don't cause autism, another massive study confirms

Health Maybe the more pressing issue is whether anyone will be convinced. Now, in the face of some of the worst outbreaks the world has seen in recent years, Danish researchers have published one of the largest studies of autism and MMR to…

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Overcoming cardiovascular disease with a magnetically-steerable guidewire microrobot

Scientists have developed an attachable guidewire that can move and steer towards a desired direction inside complicated blood vessels. It is expected to contribute to increasing the success rate of heart disease treatment with a shorter cardiovascular disease surgery time and higher accuracy.

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Creating more potent cancer therapy using 'theranostics'

Scientists have developed a user-friendly approach to creating 'theranostics' — therapy combined with diagnostics — that target specific tumors and diseases. They have developed a novel method to prepare cell-penetrating nanoparticles called 'metallocorrole/protein nanoparticles.' The theranostics could both survive longer in the body and better snipe disease targets.

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A temporary low-calorie diet may reduce inflammatory bowel disease

An intermittent low-calorie diet eased inflammatory bowel disease in mice and it may do the same for people with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis

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'Test and Treat' reduces new HIV infections by a third in southern Africa communities

Results from largest ever HIV prevention trial suggest strategy could make a significant contribution to controlling epidemic.

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Menstrual cycle phase influences cocaine craving

Menstrual cycle may influence addiction risk in women, according to a new study.

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Nanotechnology and sunlight clear the way for better visibility

A new coating prevents fogging on transparent surfaces. Rather than using electricity, the coating relies on sunlight to heat the surface.

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Overcoming cardiovascular disease with a magnetically-steerable guidewire microrobot

Scientists have developed an attachable guidewire that can move and steer towards a desired direction inside complicated blood vessels. It is expected to contribute to increasing the success rate of heart disease treatment with a shorter cardiovascular disease surgery time and higher accuracy.

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Source of citrus' sour taste is identified

Scientists have identified the genes responsible for the hallmark sour taste of many citrus fruits.

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Creating more potent cancer therapy using 'theranostics'

Scientists have developed a user-friendly approach to creating 'theranostics' — therapy combined with diagnostics — that target specific tumors and diseases. They have developed a novel method to prepare cell-penetrating nanoparticles called 'metallocorrole/protein nanoparticles.' The theranostics could both survive longer in the body and better snipe disease targets.

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New Video Shows Japanese Probe Shooting Asteroid With Bullet

Bullseye! On Feb. 22, JAXA’s Hayabusa2 spacecraft successfully landed on a kilometer-wide asteroid called Ryugu and shot its surface with a metal bullet . Now the footage of the groundbreaking maneuver has finally arrived back on Earth. The new footage shows the mission to collect and return small rock samples to explore the nature of the Solar System’s inner planets and find clues about the orig

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Training beyond exhaustion can prevent learning

Researchers have found that muscle fatigue caused by overexertion when practicing a skill can affect the task in hand and impair learning afterwards.

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When changing one atom makes molecules better

The group of Nuno Maulide, recently named the Scientist of the Year 2018 in Austria, in collaboration with the group of Harald Sitte, has now reported a facile method for the replacement of hydrogen with fluorine in important drug molecules. This new discovery enables the fine-tuning of existing (and potential new) pharmaceuticals to endow them with improved pharmacological properties. The results

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Study finds robots can detect breast cancer as well as radiologists

A new paper published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute suggests that artificial intelligence systems may be able to perform as accurately as radiologists in the evaluation of digital mammography in breast cancer screening.

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New Regenstrief studies report drug focused approach insufficient to manage ICU delirium

The results of two new Regenstrief Institute trials published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society underscore and confirm the need to look to options other than medication to lower the duration or severity of delirium in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.

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Scientists study neutron scattering for researching magnetic materials

Physicists from the University of Luxembourg and their research partners have demonstrated for the first time in a comprehensive study how different magnetic materials can be examined using neutron scattering techniques. The scientists have published their insights in 'Reviews of Modern Physics,' the renowned science journal of the American Physical Society.

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3D simulation of bone densitometry predict better the risk of fracture due to osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease in which there is a decrease in bone mass density. The bones become more porous and fragile making them more susceptible to fracture. This disease reduces bone density and weakens the bone. The weakening of the bone increases the risk of fracture. Among all possible osteoporotic fractures, hip fractures are a major problem in Western countries. In fact, it is est

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Women scientists get less federal funding than men

First-time women principal investigator scientists received considerably less funding from the National Institutes of Health compared to first-time male principal investigators, even at top research institutions. Women scientists are disadvantaged at the start of their careers. Women also can't buy as much lab equipment or recruit as many grad students for their research.

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Daily intake of nutritional supplements cannot prevent depression

Researcher Mariska Bot from Amsterdam UMC reported: 'Daily intake of nutritional supplements over a year does not effectively prevent onset of a major depressive episode in this sample. Nutritional supplements were not better than placebo. Therapeutic sessions aimed at making changes towards a healthy dietary behaviour didn't convincingly prevent depression'. Dr. Bot is first author of a paper sho

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Nutritional supplements cannot prevent depression, research shows

A daily intake of nutritional supplements won't help stave off the onset of depression, a new study has revealed.

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Tissue model reveals how RNA will act on the liver

MIT researchers have shown an engineered model of human liver tissue can be used to investigate nucleic acid-based therapies, such as RNA interference, before testing them in patients.

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Fasting-mimicking diet holds promise for treating people with inflammatory bowel disease

Fasting-mimicking diet holds promise for treating people with inflammatory bowel disease, a USC study finds. A clinical trial shows reduction of inflammation in humans and in mice, the diet appears to reverse Crohn's and colitis pathology.

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Sleep tight! Researchers identify the beneficial role of sleep

Why do animals sleep? Why do humans 'waste' a third of their lives sleeping? Researchers now reveal a novel and unexpected function of sleep that they believe could explain how sleep and sleep disturbances affect brain performance, aging and various brain disorders. Using 3D time-lapse imaging techniques in live zebrafish, they were able to define sleep in a single chromosome resolution and show t

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Clinical trial examines nutritional strategies to prevent major depressive disorder among overweight, obese adults

A randomized clinical trial examined the effects of two nutritional strategies (multinutrient supplementation and food-related behavioral activation therapy) and their combination on preventing new episodes of major depressive disorder in overweight and obese adults over one year. About 1,000 overweight and obese adults with elevated depressive symptoms from four European countries were included.

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Can changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior in people with type 2 diabetes last?

The American Diabetes Association recommends people with type 2 diabetes regularly do physical activity that is moderate to vigorous in intensity and reduce their time being sedentary. This was a randomized clinical trial of 300 physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes at three outpatient diabetes clinics in Rome, Italy.

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Vegan-based fasting diet reduces inflammatory bowel disease pathology in mice

Dietary modifications are frequently used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In new research in mice, researchers from the University of Southern California have shown that one strategy, known as the fasting-mimicking diet (FMD), changes the gut microbiota in a manner that reduces IBD pathology. The results of the murine study were published March 5 in the journal Cell Reports.

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A fungus usually found on skin might play a role in Crohn's disease

A fungus commonly found in human hair follicles also resides in the gut, where it may worsen intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with a certain genetic makeup, researchers report March 5 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe.

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Electrical signals kick off flatworm regeneration

In a study publishing March 5 in Biophysical Journal, scientists report that electrical activity is the first known step in the tissue-regeneration process of planarian flatworms, starting before the earliest known genetic machinery kicks in and setting off the downstream activities of gene transcription needed to construct new heads or tails.

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Sleep helps to repair damaged DNA in neurons, scientists find

Chromosomes’ movement when the brain is resting allows cells to mend DNA Ernest Hemingway prized sleep for good reason. Not one to dwell on rest and recuperation, the novelist saw snoozing as a form of damage limitation. “I love sleep,” he once said. “My life has the tendency to fall apart when I’m awake.” The author’s observation may be truer than he imagined. Scientists have discovered that bro

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Quantum Computing Can Soon Help Secure the Power Grid

Quantum Computing is still in its infancy but holds great promises for solving one of the trickiest issues in cryptography — the secure exchange of keys. Two National Labs have begun demonstrating how that can help secure the US power grid against hackers. The post Quantum Computing Can Soon Help Secure the Power Grid appeared first on ExtremeTech .

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These falling drops don’t splash—they spin

Unique surface makes water drops do the twist

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Hitting the Books: The Second Kind of Impossible

submitted by /u/_Jess_B [link] [comments]

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Justitsministeren udskyder forslag om digital forvaltning efter kritik

Et forslag til ændring af forvaltningsloven vakte i januar kritik, fordi det lagde op til, at midlertidige afgørelser om borgere permanente uden at give borgeren besked. Nu har justitsministeren foreløbigt droppet at fremsætte lovforslaget.

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Supplements Don't Prevent Depression, Study Finds

Preventing depression isn't as simple as taking a dietary supplement every day, a new study suggests.

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Nanotechnology and sunlight clear the way for better visibility

A new coating developed by ETH researchers prevents fogging on transparent surfaces. Rather than using electricity, the coating relies on sunlight to heat the surface.

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Menstrual cycle phase influences cocaine craving

Menstrual cycle may influence addiction risk in women, according to a new study in Biological Psychiatry by researchers at the National Institute on Drug Abuse and University of Maryland School of Medicine.

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Electrical signals kick off flatworm regeneration

Unlike most multicellular animals, planarian flatworms can regrow all their body parts after they are removed. This makes them a good model for studying the phenomenon of tissue regeneration. They are also useful for exploring fundamental questions in developmental biology about what underlies large-scale anatomical patterning.

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2D vs 3D: Battle of the Dimensions

Depiction of a 2D image stack with 3D reconstruction from data for Neo, a new brain mapping game from the creators of Eyewire coming in 2019 / Amy Sterling It’s time to choose! Do you you prefer the perspective that 3D objects give you, or do you opt for the beautiful simplicity of 2D? Eyewire combines a stack of 2D images together to create the 3D neurons that you see in the game. The 3D allows

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Doctors Say They’ve Permanently Cured a Patient’s HIV

H.I.V. Cure European scientists say that a bone marrow transplant has permanently cured a patient’s infection with H.I.V., the virus that causes AIDS, according to the New York Times . If the results hold up, it will be the second time in history that doctors have reportedly cured H.I.V. — though the procedure remains so prohibitively expensive, complex, and dangerous that it might not lead to a

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A bold idea to replace politicians | César Hidalgo

César Hidalgo has a radical suggestion for fixing our broken political system: automate it! In this provocative talk, he outlines a bold idea to bypass politicians by empowering citizens to create personalized AI representatives that participate directly in democratic decisions. Explore a new way to make collective decisions and expand your understanding of democracy.

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Electrical signals kick off flatworm regeneration

Unlike most multicellular animals, planarian flatworms can regrow all their body parts after they are removed. This makes them a good model for studying the phenomenon of tissue regeneration. They are also useful for exploring fundamental questions in developmental biology about what underlies large-scale anatomical patterning.

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Wildfire risk in California no longer coupled to winter precipitation

Wet winters no longer predict possible relief from severe wildfires for California. Now, fuel buildup from decades of fire suppression in the 20th century plus rising temperatures from climate change means any year may have large fires, no matter how wet the previous winter, according to a new study.

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Researchers uncover new facets of HIV's 'arms race' with human defense system

A new study reveals details about the evolutionary contest between HIV and the human immune system that could one day improve treatment.

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Dingoes should remain a distinct species in Australia

Since the arrival of British settlers over 230 years ago, most Australians have assumed dingoes are a breed of wild dog. But 20 leading researchers have confirmed in a new study that the dingo is actually a unique, Australian species in its own right.

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Dingoes should remain a distinct species in Australia

Since the arrival of British settlers over 230 years ago, most Australians have assumed dingoes are a breed of wild dog. But 20 leading researchers have confirmed in a new study that the dingo is actually a unique, Australian species in its own right.

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The Universe’s Ultimate Complexity Revealed by Simple Quantum Games

One of the biggest and most basic questions in physics involves the number of ways to configure the matter in the universe. If you took all that matter and rearranged it, then rearranged it again, then rearranged it again, would you ever exhaust the possible configurations, or could you go on reconfiguring forever? Physicists don’t know, but in the absence of certain knowledge, they make assumpti

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Motion cameras more effective than fences and wolf culling at saving caribou

New research suggests there may be more effective and less invasive strategies to reduce the ability of wolves to encounter caribou: motion-triggered cameras capture photographs of wolves, caribou, and other wildlife species in the Canadian Oil Sands to study the habitat use patterns of the animals and test management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts of the linear developments on caribou.

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'Test and Treat' reduces new HIV infections by a third in southern Africa communities

Results from largest ever HIV prevention trial suggest strategy could make a significant contribution to controlling epidemic.

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Here’s How We’ll Know an AI Is Conscious – Facts So Romantic

Zombies are supposed to be capable of asking any question about the nature of experience. It’s worth wondering, though, how a person or machine devoid of experience could reflect on experience it doesn’t have. Photograph by Ars Electronica / Flickr The Australian philosopher David Chalmers famously asked whether “philosophical zombies” are conceivable—people who behave like you and me yet lack su

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A new technology developed to detect and analyze colorless and transparent biomaterials

Scientists have developed a technology that generates colorless and transparent biomaterials.

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Successful development of high-performance color filter-free image sensor

A technology that has maximized space intensity by eliminating color filter from an image sensor has been developed. The research team developed a color filter-free full-color image sensor using an interferometer electrode.

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Self-sterilizing microneedles revolutionizing vaccination and drug delivery

New technology is revolutionizing safe vaccination practices through antibacterial, silver-loaded dissolvable microneedle patches, which not only sterilize the injection site to inhibit the growth of bacteria, but also physically dissolve after administration.

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Physicists analyze rotational dynamics of galaxies and influence of the photon mass

The rotation of stars in galaxies such as our Milky Way is puzzling. The orbital speeds of stars should decrease with their distance from the center of the galaxy, but in fact they all have the same rotational speed. The physicists have hypothesized that the rotational dynamics of galaxies might be explained by the mass of photons, which are particles of light.

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Australian dingo is a unique Australian species in its own right

Since the arrival of British settlers over 230 years ago, most Australians have assumed dingoes are a breed of wild dog. But 20 leading researchers have confirmed in a new study that the dingo is actually a unique, Australian species in its own right.

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Nanoparticles help realize 'spintronic' devices

For the first time researchers have demonstrated a new way to perform functions essential to future computation three orders of magnitude faster than current commercial devices. The team created a nanoscale spintronic semiconductor device that can partially switch between specific magnetic states trillions of times a second (terahertz — THz), far beyond frequencies of devices at present.

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Discovering the next generation of catalysts

The use of solar and wind energy must be doubled to meet the world's demand for clean energy over the next 30 years. Catalysts that can ensure the storage of solar and wind energy in fuels and chemicals will therefore play an increasingly important role. Now researchers have developed a method that makes it easier to find better and cheaper catalysts.

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Operera inte äggstockarna i onödan

– En minskning av antalet kvinnor som opereras för godartade äggstocksförändringar kan leda till att färre kvinnor drabbas av kirurgiska komplikationer, ibland mycket allvarliga, och medföljande obehag. Dessutom skulle sjukvårdskostnaderna minska, säger Lil Valentin, professor vid Lunds universitet och överläkare vid Skånes universitetssjukhus. Risker vid operation Många olika sorters tumörer kan

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Sensors free NICU babies from a nest of wires

Soft, flexible wireless body sensors could replace the tangle of wire-based sensors that currently monitor babies in the NICU and pose a barrier to parent-baby cuddling and physical bonding. The research team that created them recently completed a collection of first human studies on premature babies at Prentice Women’s Hospital and the Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital in Chicago and con

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High levels of potentially harmful bacteria found in raw meat dog food products: study

Many raw meat dog food products contain high levels of bacteria that pose potential health risks to both animals and people, finds new research.

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Kidney disease killer vulnerable to targeted nano therapy

By loading a chelation drug into a nano-sized homing device, researchers have reversed in an animal model the deadliest effects of chronic kidney disease, which kills more people in the United States each year than breast or prostate cancer.

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A data-driven prescription for Madagascar’s broken health system

An eclectic group of scientists has taken a data-intensive approach to the challenge of building a health care system in Madagascar

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YouTube's paedophile problem is only a small part of the internet's issue with child sexual abuse

YouTube has, yet again, failed to protect children online. Recent investigations by Wired and video blogger Matt Watson have alleged that paedophiles were using the site's comments section to leave predatory messages on videos containing and uploaded by children, and to share links to child sexual abuse material.

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Formand for autisme-forening: Vaccine-myte skader også vores medlemmer

Landsforeningen Autisme bruger mange kræfter på at berolige nervøse danskere, der frygter at give deres børn MFR-vaccinen.

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Honest landlords can cut bedbug infestations

Policies requiring landlords to disclose a rental unit’s history with bedbugs are an effective way to reduce infestations and lower costs over the long term, research finds. That’s even if they may raise costs to landlords in the short term, according to a new study. A mathematical model says disclosure is an effective control policy to reduce the prevalence of infestations. The policy can lead t

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Autonomous drones can help search and rescue after disasters

When disasters happen – whether a natural disaster like a flood or earthquake, or a human-caused one like a mass shooting or bombing – it can be extremely dangerous to send first responders in, even though there are people who badly need help.

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Hayabusa-2: Movie shows moment of asteroid landing

A movie captured by Japan's Hayabusa-2 spacecraft shows the moment it touched down on an asteroid.

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The Gene Therapy Trial Aiming to Fend Off Alzheimer’s

submitted by /u/izumi3682 [link] [comments]

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Climate rewind: Scientists turn carbon dioxide back into coal

submitted by /u/MinutePhrase [link] [comments]

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Author Correction: Hundred-fold enhancement in far-field radiative heat transfer over the blackbody limit

Author Correction: Hundred-fold enhancement in far-field radiative heat transfer over the blackbody limit Author Correction: Hundred-fold enhancement in far-field radiative heat transfer over the blackbody limit, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1017-6 Author Correction: Hundred-fold enhancement in far-field radiative heat transfer over the blackbody limit

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Author Correction: Trade-offs in using European forests to meet climate objectives

Author Correction: Trade-offs in using European forests to meet climate objectives Author Correction: Trade-offs in using European forests to meet climate objectives, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1023-8 Author Correction: Trade-offs in using European forests to meet climate objectives

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Parker Shatters His Season Goal | Gold Rush

With the season coming to a close, Parker and team smash their 6,000 ounce season goal. Stream Full Episodes of Gold Rush: https://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/gold-rush/ Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Join us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/GoldRush/ https://www.facebook.com/Discovery Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Gold_Rush https://twitter.com/Discovery

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The Gene Therapy Trial Aiming to Fend Off Alzheimer’s

There’s a test for Alzheimer’s risk that genetic counselors don’t like to talk about. It’s not that they’re hiding the information—rather, it’s because Alzheimer’s has no cure. There are no consensus methods to actively prevent it, treat it, or even delay the symptoms. And losing one’s treasured memories, mind, and eventually, sense of self is perhaps a more terrifying prospect than cancer. The t

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Discovering the next generation of catalysts

The use of solar and wind energy must be doubled to meet the world's demand for clean energy over the next 30 years. Catalysts that can ensure the storage of solar and wind energy in fuels and chemicals will therefore play an increasingly important role. Now researchers at the University of Copenhagen and DTU have developed a method that makes it easier to find better and cheaper catalysts, with t

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Nanoparticles help realize 'spintronic' devices

For the first time researchers have demonstrated a new way to perform functions essential to future computation three orders of magnitude faster than current commercial devices. The team lead by Associate Professor Shinobu Ohya, created a nanoscale spintronic semiconductor device that can partially switch between specific magnetic states trillions of times a second (terahertz — THz), far beyond f

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Dingoes should remain a distinct species in Australia

Since the arrival of British settlers over 230 years ago, most Australians have assumed dingoes are a breed of wild dog. But 20 leading researchers have confirmed in a new study that the dingo is actually a unique, Australian species in its own right.

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Physicists analyze rotational dynamics of galaxies and influence of the photon mass

The rotation of stars in galaxies such as our Milky Way is puzzling. The orbital speeds of stars should decrease with their distance from the center of the galaxy, but in fact they all have the same rotational speed. The physicists Dmitri Ryutov, Dmitry Budker, and Victor Flambaum have hypothesized that the rotational dynamics of galaxies might be explained by the mass of photons, which are partic

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Successful development of high-performance color filter-free image sensor by DGIST

A technology that has maximized space intensity by eliminating color filter from an image sensor has been developed. The National Research Foundation of Korea (Chairman Jung Hye Rho) announced that DGIST Professor Dae Sung Chung's research team developed a color filter-free full-color image sensor using an interferometer electrode.

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The secret behind maximum plant height: water!

Ecologists from the South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences concluded that such coordination plays an important role in determining global sorting of plant species, and can be useful in predicting future species distribution under climate change scenarios.

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Copper catalyst distinguishing two different carbonyl compounds — synthesis of 1,2-diols

Reductive coupling of two different carbonyl compounds A and B was known to yield three kinds of 1,2-diol, i.e. AB, AA and BB. We have successfully cross-coupled two such compounds to yield AB only, using a new copper catalyst that could distinguish between two different carbonyl compounds. This success is expected to enable selective synthesis of various 1,2-diols, important scaffold chemicals in

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Source of citrus' sour taste is identified

A team of researchers, including two from the University of California, Riverside, has identified the genes responsible for the hallmark sour taste of many citrus fruits.

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August View wireless video doorbell supports 1440p recording, launches this month for $229

Home automation company August on Tuesday announced a new doorbell camera boasting multiple compelling features.

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Machine learning used to identify high-performing solar materials

Thanks to a study that combines the power of supercomputing with data science and experimental methods, researchers have developed a novel 'design to device' approach to identify promising materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

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Team finds greener source for your phone’s rare earth elements

Researchers have discovered a possible new source of rare earth elements—phosphate rock waste—and an environmentally friendly way to get them out. Rare earth elements like neodymium and dysprosium are essential for technologies such as solar and wind energy, advanced vehicles, and modern electronics like smartphones. But a shortage of rare earth element production in the United States puts our en

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Three kitchen appliances that make cooking for one easier

Gadgets Make interesting meals without spending a lot of time by the stove. When I’m bored of oatmeal and omelettes, I turn to three kitchen appliances that opened up a bigger, world of culinary possibilities, while still minimizing my…

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Low-dose aspirin does not seem to improve survival after prostate cancer diagnosis

Low-dose aspirin use does not seem to reduce the overall risk for prostate cancer death at the population level, according to a new study. However, results for extended exposure periods suggest that low-dose aspirin might be inversely associated with prostate cancer mortality after 5 years from cancer diagnosis.

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Life-threatening birth complication rate increasing across US racial, ethnic groups

Racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity — life-threatening maternal complications associated with childbirth — have persisted and increased at high rates among U.S. women, according to an analysis of nearly 20 years of California hospital records. Known risk factors for these complications — such as blood pressure disorders, asthma and Caesarean birth — do not fully explain

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Weather-responsive intersections could ease traffic congestion

Cities could ease congestion and improve safety during snowstorms by tweaking the timing of traffic lights to take road conditions into account.

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Limiting secondhand smoke in homes with children

Researchers found at least some smokers with kids will modify their behavior with an electronic push.

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Large and branched root systems can speed up growth of spruces

The growth rate of trees varies: some trees grow slower and others faster by nature. The amount of nutrients and water a tree receives depends on its root system and the symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi growing in the root system. Earlier studies have determined that fast-growing spruce clones have more diverse selection of symbiotic fungi in their root systems. One cannot determine based on this resul

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Adders are facing near extinction in Britain according to study of national adder population trends

The adder could all but disappear from the UK countryside by 2032, according to new research conducted with the help of citizen scientists.

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Large and branched root systems can speed up growth of spruces

The growth rate of trees varies: some trees grow slower and others faster by nature. The amount of nutrients and water a tree receives depends on its root system and the symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi growing in the root system. Earlier studies have determined that fast-growing spruce clones have more diverse selection of symbiotic fungi in their root systems. One cannot determine based on this resul

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ESA gives go-ahead for SMILE mission with China

The Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer, SMILE, has been given the green light for implementation by ESA's Science Programme Committee. The announcement clears the way for full development of this new mission to explore the sun-Earth connection, which will be conducted in collaboration with China.

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Adders are facing near extinction in Britain according to study of national adder population trends

The adder could all but disappear from the UK countryside by 2032, according to new research conducted with the help of citizen scientists.

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Nanotechnology and sunlight clear the way for better visibility

A new coating developed by ETH researchers prevents fogging on transparent surfaces. Rather than using electricity, the coating relies on sunlight to heat the surface.

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Sundhedsstyrelsen: AUH har lagt en god plan for opbygning af den gynækologiske onkologi

Nyansatte inden for behandling af bl.a. cervix- og ovariecancer og samarbejdsaftaler med andre universitetshospitaler får Sundhedsstyrelsen til at vurdere, at AUH i er stand til at håndtere højtspecialiserede funktioner inden for gynækologisk onkologi.

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Official Brain Awareness Week Hashtags

Are you ready for Brain Awareness Week? With less than one week left before it begins, there are still plenty of ways to get involved. The global campaign takes place every March, but the evolving ideas, growing number of partners, and new ways to share information continue to make each year a little different. Social media plays a huge role in how the world sees the creative ways our partners ar

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Creating more potent cancer therapy using 'theranostics'

A City of Hope scientist and his colleagues have developed a user-friendly approach to creating 'theranostics' — therapy combined with diagnostics — that target specific tumors and diseases. City of Hope's John Termini, Ph.D., and his colleagues at the California Institute of Technology and the Israel Institute of Technology developed a novel method to prepare cell-penetrating nanoparticles call

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A new technology developed to detect and analyze colorless and transparent biomaterials

DGIST Professor Jae Eun Jang's team, plasmonic nano structure developed a technology that generates colorless and transparent biomaterials. Will contribute to biomaterial detection for brain disease research & treatment.

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Overcoming cardiovascular disease with a magnetically-steerable guidewire microrobot

DGIST Professor Hongsoo Choi's team developed an attachable guidewire that can move and steer towards a desired direction inside complicated blood vessels. Will contribute to increasing the success rate of heart disease treatment with a shorter cardiovascular disease surgery time and higher accuracy.

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Nitric acid and ammonia electrosynthesis

The commercial synthesis methods for HNO3 and NH3 chemicals is Ostwald and Haber-Bosch process, respectively, but both of them are energy-intensive and high-emission. Thus, developing novel and green alternative strategies are crucial to solve the global energy and environmental crisis. Recently, researchers in Tianjin University reported electrochemical strategies to realize the production of HNO

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A silver lining like no other

New technology from the University of South Australia is revolutionizing safe vaccination practices through antibacterial, silver-loaded dissolvable microneedle patches, which not only sterilize the injection site to inhibit the growth of bacteria, but also physically dissolve after administration.

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SDSU study looks to limit secondhand smoke in homes with children

SDSU researchers found at least some smokers with kids will modify their behavior with an electronic push.

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A Second Person Has Been Effectively "Cured" of HIV

10 years after the so-called “Berlin Patient,” a second man has been put into sustained remission — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Machine learning used to identify high-performing solar materials

Thanks to a study that combines the power of supercomputing with data science and experimental methods, researchers have developed a novel 'design to device' approach to identify promising materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

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Surveillance Capitalism in the Age of the Unprecedented

submitted by /u/Bizkitgto [link] [comments]

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Zymography shows only 20% of soil ferments—biologists report solution

RUDN pedologists improved the method of zymography used to evaluate the activity of ferments in the soil. The researchers found out that the standard method was imprecise and suggested improvements to it. The development would broaden the range of tasks that can be solved using zymography. The results of the experiments were described in Soil Biology and Biochemistry.

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Caught in the crossfire – Tapirs in tiger territory

When we hear scientists talking about accidental bycatch, we tend to think of turtles entangled in fishing nets, or an albatross impaled on a longline trawler's fish hook.

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Forced sterilizations of Indigenous women: One more act of genocide

Last fall, a group of Indigenous women in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan brought a class-action suit against the Saskatoon Health Authority. They also sued the provincial and federal governments and some medical professionals.

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Zymography shows only 20% of soil ferments—biologists report solution

RUDN pedologists improved the method of zymography used to evaluate the activity of ferments in the soil. The researchers found out that the standard method was imprecise and suggested improvements to it. The development would broaden the range of tasks that can be solved using zymography. The results of the experiments were described in Soil Biology and Biochemistry.

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Engineers develop education kit to teach students practical skills in integrated photonics

Engineers at the University of California San Diego, in collaboration with Tyndall National Institute in Cork, Ireland, are developing an educational toolkit to bring integrated photonics into the college engineering and science curriculum.

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Mining the moon

If you were transported to the Moon this very instant, you would surely and rapidly die. That's because there's no atmosphere, the surface temperature varies from a roasting 130 degrees Celsius (266 F) to a bone-chilling minus 170 C (minus 274 F). If the lack of air or horrific heat or cold don't kill you then micrometeorite bombardment or solar radiation will. By all accounts, the Moon is not a h

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Caught in the crossfire – Tapirs in tiger territory

When we hear scientists talking about accidental bycatch, we tend to think of turtles entangled in fishing nets, or an albatross impaled on a longline trawler's fish hook.

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Cells in a tight spot

Migrating cells must overcome physical barriers such as tight pores in finely meshed tissues. A recent study by a team of LMU biophysicists provides a new theory to describe how cells manoeuvre such confining environments.

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Startup Says Its Electric Car Charges to 80 Percent in 5 Minutes

Mark Zero European startup Piëch Automotive just unveiled a high-end electric car called the Mark Zero — and it’s claiming the vehicle can charge in almost as little time as it would take to gas up a vehicle with a combustion engine. According to the company, the Mark Zero’s “special” batteries can suck up an 80 percent charge in just four minutes and forty seconds. If that stat holds up in the r

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Google Is Still Working on Chinese Search Engine, Say Employees

Dragonfly on the Wall Google’s Chinese search engine project that would censor parts of the web — codenamed Dragonfly — might not be dead just yet. In December, Google CEO Sundar Pichai told the House Judiciary Committee that the company had “ no plans to launch in China ,” seemingly putting an end to the controversial project. But on Monday, The Intercept published a report detailing a group of

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Roku Devices Can Now Be Controlled With Alexa

Roku has added support for yet another voice assistant to its streaming hardware. The company announced support for the Google Assistant just last fall and it has now done the same for …

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Apple Quietly Fixed MacBook Pro Flexgate Woes With Longer Display Cable

Back in January, we reported on an issue that is starting to afflict recent MacBook Pro laptops (2016 and 2017 models). The problem is labeled "flexgate" and refers to the stage light effect that …

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Tunable bio-imaging device from terahertz plasmonics

Researchers have developed an easy-to-use, tunable biosensor tailored for the terahertz range. Images of mouse organs obtained using their new device verify that the sensor is capable of distinguishing between different tissues. The achievement expands possibilities for terahertz applications in biological analysis and future diagnostics.

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Nano-bio-computing lipid nanotablet

Nanoparticles can be used as substrates for computation, with algorithmic and autonomous control of their unique properties. However, scalable architecture to form nanoparticle-based computing systems is lacking at present. In a recent study published in Science Advances, Jinyoung Seo and co-workers in the Department of Chemistry at Seoul National University in South Korea, reported on a nanoparti

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New research shows quality early childhood education reduces need for later special ed

If a formula existed for giving children something that reduced the need for, or intensity of, later special education that can be both emotionally and financially costly, wouldn't it be excellent?

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Weather-responsive intersections could ease traffic congestion

Cities could ease congestion and improve safety during snowstorms by tweaking the timing of traffic lights to take road conditions into account.

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Scientists use machine learning to identify high-performing solar materials

Finding the best light-harvesting chemicals for use in solar cells can feel like searching for a needle in a haystack. Over the years, researchers have developed and tested thousands of different dyes and pigments to see how they absorb sunlight and convert it to electricity. Sorting through all of them requires an innovative approach.

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Protein chains that self-form into helical braids

A team of researchers from Durham University in the U.K. and Shaanxi Normal University in China has discovered a type of protein that forms naturally into two main types of helical braids. In their paper published in the journal Nature Chemistry, the group describes extracting an achiral oligo peptidomimetic compound from a urine sample and observing its unique properties.

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Weather-responsive intersections could ease traffic congestion

Cities could ease congestion and improve safety during snowstorms by tweaking the timing of traffic lights to take road conditions into account.

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Life-threatening birth complication rate increasing across US racial, ethnic groups

Racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity–life-threatening maternal complications associated with childbirth–have persisted and increased at high rates among U.S. women, according to an analysis of nearly 20 years of California hospital records funded by the National Institutes of Health. Known risk factors for these complications–such as blood pressure disorders, asthma and Ca

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Fast, simple new assessment of earthquake hazard

Geophysicists at Caltech have created a new method for determining earthquake hazards by measuring how fast energy is building up on faults in a specific region, and then comparing that to how much is being released through fault creep and earthquakes.

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The blue economy – ocean of opportunity or sea of troubles?

For centuries, we have thought of the ocean as unimaginably vast and unchangeable, as a sea of opportunity, spawning fishing fleets and shipping lines, building the wealth of maritime nations. The ocean fundamentally underpins the populations and food of many coastal and island states, and always has done.

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Protein chains that self-form into helical braids

A team of researchers from Durham University in the U.K. and Shaanxi Normal University in China has discovered a type of protein that forms naturally into two main types of helical braids. In their paper published in the journal Nature Chemistry, the group describes extracting an achiral oligo peptidomimetic compound from a urine sample and observing its unique properties.

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Could genetic breakthrough finally help take the sting out of mouth ulcers?

A large breakthrough has been made in the genetic understanding of mouth ulcers which could provide potential for a new drug to prevent or heal the painful lesions. Mouth ulcers affect up to 25 percent of young adults and a higher proportion of children. Previous research has shown that mouth ulcers are partially heritable, but until now there has been little evidence linking specific genes or gen

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Risikabel kræftbehandling har formentlig kureret hiv-patient

For anden gang nogensinde har en stamcelletransplantation hos en kræftpatient tilsyneladende også kureret patienten for hiv.

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London Patient Cleared Of HIV

Doctors in London say they've successfully treated an HIV patient, but the treatment is dangerous and expensive. The news comes 12 years after a different patient was declared cured of AIDS.

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Efter to uger: Lægeprotest kræver mere arbejde for gøre en forskel

Underskriftindsamlingen #voresvirkelighedjeresansvar er med lidt over 4.000 underskrifter langt fra sidste års lægeprotest. Vi har ikke ramt potentialet endnu, mener en af lægerne bag indsamlingen.

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Seemingly dormant geologic fault damaged famous Roman buildings 1,500 years ago

A geologic fault system in central Italy that produced a deadly earthquake in 2016 is also responsible for a fifth-century earthquake that damaged many Roman monuments, including the Colosseum, according to new research.

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Astronomers detect deep, long asymmetric occultation in a newly found low-mass star

An international team of astronomers has observed a deep, day-long asymmetric occultation in a recently detected low-mass star known as EPIC 204376071. In a research paper published February 21 on arXiv.org, the scientists detail their finding and ponder various theories that could explain such peculiar occultation.

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How new species arise in the sea

For a new species to evolve, two things are essential: a characteristic—such as a colour—unique to one species and a mating preference for this characteristic. For example, individuals from a blue fish species prefer blue mates and individuals from a red fish species prefer red mates. If the two species interbreed, the process of sexual recombination is expected to destroy the coupling between col

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Minnesota seeks 100 percent carbon-free electricity by 2050

submitted by /u/pnewell [link] [comments]

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Pocket Offers a Glimpse Into a 15-Year-Old’s iPhone

Imagine you’ve hacked into someone else’s phone and are consuming all his texts, videos, Snapchats, and Instagrams in real time. Now imagine that someone is a 15-year-old boy, and you’re watching his life unfold entirely through the lens of an iPhone. That’s the premise behind Pocket , a captivating new short film starring the former Nickelodeon actor Mace Coronel. ( Editor’s note: Pocket contain

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The Greatest Strength of Captain Marvel Is Also Its Biggest Weakness

In recent years, the ever-expanding Marvel Cinematic Universe has seemed to keep finding exciting new territory to explore. As the long-running, multiheaded collection of superhero franchises rolled on, it exhibited inventive comedy in Thor: Ragnarok and Ant-Man and the Wasp , staggering scale in Avengers: Infinity War , and a genuine cultural-paradigm shift with Black Panther . With Captain Marv

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Leaving Neverland Asks: What About the Parents?

“He should sue his mom for letting him go sleep with Michael Jackson when he was 7 years old.” That’s what one TMZ staffer quipped about Wade Robson’s 2013 lawsuit alleging sexual abuse by the late King of Pop. Shown in the second part of Leaving Neverland —HBO’s calmly devastating documentary about Robson and James Safechuck, another alleged victim of Jackson’s—the TMZ clip not only highlights t

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How new species arise in the sea

For a new species to evolve, two things are essential: a characteristic—such as a colour—unique to one species and a mating preference for this characteristic. For example, individuals from a blue fish species prefer blue mates and individuals from a red fish species prefer red mates. If the two species interbreed, the process of sexual recombination is expected to destroy the coupling between col

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IBM announces that its System Q One quantum computer has reached its 'highest quantum volume to date'

IBM has announced at this year's American Physical Society meeting that its System Q One quantum computer has reached its "highest quantum volume to date"—a measure that the computer has doubled in performance in each of the past two years, the company reports.

8h

Disappearing rice fields threaten more global warming

All over China, a huge change has been taking place without any of us noticing. Rice paddies have been (and are being) converted at an astonishing rate into aquaculture ponds to produce more protein for the worlds growing populations. This change risks creating an unexpected impact on global warming.

8h

Maximising influence in a network

Finding ways to maximize influence on social networks is a significant endeavour for a wide range of people including those involved in marketing, election campaigns, and outbreak detection, for instance. Technically in a network scenario, "Influence maximisation deals with the problem of finding a subset of nodes called seeds in the social network such that these nodes will eventually spread maxi

8h

Male dolphins swim in family bachelor groups

When it comes to wooing the 'ladies," it turns out male bottlenose dolphins seem to employ similar tactics to some human groups.

8h

Bacteria-killing glass offers hope in fight against hospital infections

Scientists at Aston University have discovered a technique similar to medieval stained glass-making that can completely eradicate the deadliest hospital infections within hours.

8h

Singing for science: How the arts can help students who struggle most

Incorporating the arts — rapping, dancing, drawing — into science lessons can help low-achieving students retain more knowledge and possibly help students of all ability levels be more creative in their learning, finds a new study.

8h

Climate change is leading to unpredictable ecosystem disruption for migratory birds

Using data on 77 North American migratory bird species from the eBird citizen-science program, scientists at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology say that, in as little as four decades, it may be very difficult to predict how climate change will affect migratory bird populations and the ecosystems they inhabit. Their conclusions are presented in a paper published in the journal Ecography.

8h

Tunable bio-imaging device from terahertz plasmonics

Researchers have developed an easy-to-use, tunable biosensor tailored for the terahertz range. Images of mouse organs obtained using their new device verify that the sensor is capable of distinguishing between different tissues. The achievement expands possibilities for terahertz applications in biological analysis and future diagnostics.

8h

From the archive

From the archive From the archive, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00745-2 How Nature reported a chalk ‘mammoth’ in 1919, and musical physics in 1969.

8h

Male dolphins swim in family bachelor groups

When it comes to wooing the 'ladies," it turns out male bottlenose dolphins seem to employ similar tactics to some human groups.

8h

Scientists use machine learning to identify high-performing solar materials

Thanks to a study that combines the power of supercomputing with data science and experimental methods, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Cambridge in England have developed a novel 'design to device' approach to identify promising materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

8h

"Mole" on InSight Mars Lander Begins Burrowing, but the Going Is Rough

Small stones have impeded progress on landmark efforts to study the Red Planet’s subsurface activity — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

9h

MIT’s Mini Cheetah Robot Can Do Backflips

Creating a nigh-unstoppable robot seems like a mistake, but luckily the new cheetah is small and (currently) harmless. The post MIT’s Mini Cheetah Robot Can Do Backflips appeared first on ExtremeTech .

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Beaches are banning sunscreens to save coral reefs

Many families will soon escape the winter to seek warmer, sunnier climes. Swimsuits and sunglasses will invariably find their way into suitcases, but one common item might be giving people a little more pause than it once did: sunscreen.

9h

Regionerne skal redegøre for afviste UTH’er

Efter medieomtalen af Rigshospitalets håndtering af afviste UTH’er har Styrelsen for Patientsikkerhed bedt de danske regioner om en redegørelse af praksis på området.

9h

New fuel cell has enough juice for drones and subs

A new high-power fuel cell operates at double the voltage of today’s commercial fuel cells, according to new research. The transportation industry is one of the largest consumers of energy in the US economy, and there is increasing demand to make it cleaner and more efficient. While more people are using electric cars, designing electric-powered planes, ships, and submarines is much harder due to

9h

For the first time, we can measure the human footprint on Antarctica

Most people picture Antarctica as a frozen continent of wilderness, but people have been living – and building – there for decades. Now, for the first time, we can reveal the human footprint across the entire continent.

9h

Suffering in the heat—the rise in marine heatwaves is harming ocean species

In the midst of a raging heatwave, most people think of the ocean as a nice place to cool down. But heatwaves can strike in the ocean as well as on land. And when they do, marine organisms of all kinds – plankton, seaweed, corals, snails, fish, birds and mammals – also feel the wrath of soaring temperatures.

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Lakseopdræt går offshore: 24 personer skal sove hos fiskene

PLUS. Smart Fish Farm bliver det første fiskeopdræt, som placeres på åbent hav. Her skal fisk og medarbejdere kunne modstå bølger på 30 meter.

9h

Svenska Ran tar tempen på ”Domedagsglaciären”

Thwaites glaciär i västra Antarktis kallas för ”Domedagsglaciären” eftersom en del forskare hävdat att klimatkatastrofen kommer att börja med att denna glaciärtunga ger vika. Thwaites är en av jordens största glaciärer och ger den sig av försvinner en stor del av västantarktiska halvöns is, vilket skulle leda till tre meters havsytehöjning. Glaciären Thwaites är obefolkad Thwaites Glacier är en g

9h

World's oldest tattooist's toolkit found in Tonga contains implements made of human bone

Four small artefacts found on the island of Tongatapu, Tonga are among the earliest tattooing equipment known. Two have been found to be made from human bone.

9h

German market puts brakes on high-frequency traders

German stock market operator Deutsche Boerse plans to slow down some kinds of high-frequency trading by 1,000 times in a pilot project designed to reduce "aggressive" behaviour, it told AFP Tuesday.

9h

Baseball Commish Talks Big Data

At a sports technology conference, baseball commissioner Rob Manfred addressed issues including an automated strike zone and advanced analytics.

9h

The Creativity of ADHD

More insights on a positive side of a “disorder” — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

9h

The Creativity of ADHD

More insights on a positive side of a “disorder” — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

9h

Droughts, extreme weather and empowered consumers mean tough choices for farmers

The National Farmers Federation wants to lift the value of Australian agricultural production to $100 billion by 2030.

9h

Optical clocks started the calibration of the international atomic time

Optical clocks of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) and LNE-SYRTE (Systemes de Reference Temps-Espace, Observatoire de Paris, Universite PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Universite, France) evaluated the latest "one second" tick of the International Atomic Time (TAI) and provided these data to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) to be referred fo

9h

The expanding universe of methane metabolisms in archaea

Methane is a greenhouse gas 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Billions of years ago, methane-producing archaea likely played a key role in determining the composition of the Earth's atmosphere and regulating the global climate for life to flourish.

9h

Harnessing synthetic biology to co-produce high-value terpenoid biomaterials and biofuel in plants

Michigan State University scientists have developed synthetic biology tools to co-produce high-value compounds in plants. The study is published today in the journal Nature Communications.

9h

The expanding universe of methane metabolisms in archaea

Methane is a greenhouse gas 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Billions of years ago, methane-producing archaea likely played a key role in determining the composition of the Earth's atmosphere and regulating the global climate for life to flourish.

9h

Harnessing synthetic biology to co-produce high-value terpenoid biomaterials and biofuel in plants

Michigan State University scientists have developed synthetic biology tools to co-produce high-value compounds in plants. The study is published today in the journal Nature Communications.

9h

When changing one atom makes molecules better

The development and improvement of pharmaceuticals plays the central role in the ongoing battle against human disease. Organic synthesis is the field that enables these developments as it offers the toolbox to diversify chemical structures. The group of Nuno Maulide, recently named the Scientist of the Year 2018 in Austria, in collaboration with the group of Harald Sitte, has now reported a facile

9h

No link found between MMR vaccine and autism, even among children with other risk factors for autism

A nationwide cohort study of all children born in Denmark to Danish-born mothers between 1999 through 2010 concluded that the mumps, measles, and rubella (MMR) vaccine does not increase the risk of autism, does not trigger autism in susceptible children, and is not associated with clustering of autism cases following vaccination.

9h

How megalodon's teeth evolved into the 'ultimate cutting tools'

Megalodon, the largest shark that ever lived, is known only from its gigantic bladelike teeth. But these teeth took millions of years to evolve into their final, iconic form.

9h

When changing one atom makes molecules better

The development and improvement of pharmaceuticals plays the central role in the ongoing battle against human disease. Organic synthesis is the field that enables these developments as it offers the toolbox to diversify chemical structures. The group of Nuno Maulide, recently named the Scientist of the Year 2018 in Austria, in collaboration with the group of Harald Sitte, has now reported a facile

9h

Absurd at få evidens-debat til at handle om min person

Jeg prøvede at leve op til ‘ny politisk kultur’, hvor man ikke angriber sin modpart, forholder sig til substansen og prøver at finde fælles grund. Jeg er ked af, at Pernille Schnoor ikke gør det samme. Her er, hvad jeg er enig og uenig med hende i. Og noget om min baggrund

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9h

Chlorinated chicken: How safe is it?

Is there any evidence that US meat products are less safe than UK products?

9h

The Biggest Consequence of Trump’s New Abortion Rule Won’t Be for Abortion

In late February, the Trump administration dropped a new rule that has alarmed doctors’ groups and brought conservatives closer to achieving their long quest to defund Planned Parenthood. Clinics that receive funds from the federal family-planning grant program Title X will no longer be able to perform abortions in the same space where they see other patients. Abortion and other health-care servi

9h

Bernie Sanders’s Staffers Want Him to Be Less Grumpy

G rumpy has always been Bernie Sanders’s brand. But now that he’s running for president to win, his advisers keep pushing him to soften up. The senator from Vermont fought his staff for weeks as they pushed him to get more personal, and be a little less gruff, as he launched his second presidential campaign. He didn’t think talking about himself was just stupid—he thought it risked undermining th

9h

The human bone trade is legal—and booming on Instagram

Health Excerpt: Skeleton Keys: The Secret Life of Bone Brian Switek's new book, Skeleton Keys: The Secret Life of Bone , explores the calcium that keeps us together. In this excerpt, Switek documents the booming human bone…

9h

Small brains, big picture: Study unveils C. elegans' microscopic mysteries

It's the small pieces that make the big picture, and in this case, the pieces can't be seen by the naked eye. New research at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) used microscopy techniques to piece together the brain of the millimeter-long Caenorhabditis elegans, revealing that their neurons fire action potentials—a spike in voltage when neurons transmit sens

9h

Conversion of renewable raw materials on platinum shows unexpected behaviour

The electrochemical reduction of a group of organic compounds on platinum is strongly dependent on the arrangement of the atoms in the platinum surface. Christoph Bondue, postdoc in Marc Koper's group, published this in Nature Catalysis on 4 March. The reduction of such compounds is an important process in making chemical raw materials more sustainable.

9h

Virtual reality adds to tourism through touch, smell and real people's experiences

Back in 2001, an acquaintance who worked for Lonely Planet told me about a surprise discovery. The travel guide business had an audience of people who would buy their travel books, but never travel. Lonely Planet dubbed them "virtual tourists".

9h

Research on the wisdom of crowds: Making the bandwagon better

With a web browser or a cellphone, consumers today are making decisions about causes to fund, stocks to pick, movies to watch, restaurants to visit, products to buy and music to hear partly based on the answer to a single question:

9h

Why is customer service so bad? Because it's profitable

It's a familiar scenario: A service provider fails to live up to your expectations and you feel some restitution may be in order. Yet, when you call customer service to voice a complaint, you're faced with an automated voice menu, put on hold, or told that the agent is not authorized to refund your money.

9h

Small brains, big picture: Study unveils C. elegans' microscopic mysteries

It's the small pieces that make the big picture, and in this case, the pieces can't be seen by the naked eye. New research at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) used microscopy techniques to piece together the brain of the millimeter-long Caenorhabditis elegans, revealing that their neurons fire action potentials—a spike in voltage when neurons transmit sens

9h

Chinese crew extract first rock from beneath East Antarctic ice in 60 years

Chinese crew extract first rock from beneath East Antarctic ice in 60 years Chinese crew extract first rock from beneath East Antarctic ice in 60 years, Published online: 05 March 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00659-z The experiment is a test for a plan to extract rock from a buried mountain range.

9h

Poetry, science and comedy meet at the Adelaide Fringe

Hilarity ensues as scepticism and research collide in a pub ballroom.

9h

Deciphering the ancient mysteries of ‘marine snow’

The planet’s largest carbon sink is deep underwater and little understood. Kaya Wilson reports.

9h

Think we can nuke away an incoming asteroid? Think again

NASA-funded research finds big space rocks are much tougher that previously thought. Andrew Masterson reports.

9h

Amoebas diversified much earlier than thought

Genetic study challenges standard view on ancient diversity. Tanya Loos reports.

9h

Passing Stars May Have Kept a Distant Alien World Tethered to Its Sun

A near-miss with a pair of binary stars may have kept an exoplanet tethered to its primary star rather than rocketing out into the void. The post Passing Stars May Have Kept a Distant Alien World Tethered to Its Sun appeared first on ExtremeTech .

9h

How not to science: Lessons from flat earthers and climate change deniers

Science is an amazingly powerful tool for disentangling fact and fiction. When done correctly, it is a systematic, objective, unbiased, and self-correcting method for understanding our universe. Unfortunately, many people don’t appreciate the objectivity that science requires, and instead view … Continue reading →

9h

Study – Still No Link Between Autism and MMR Vaccine

I know this is old news – or at least it should be – but it bears repeating, especially as we are in the midst of a resurgence of measles. There is no link between the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and autism, or any neurological disorder. A new study confirms this lack of association. This should go a long way to reassure the vaccine hesitant that the MMR vaccine at least is safe and

9h

Biodiversity crisis: Technological advances in agriculture are not a sufficient response

Rapid population and economic growth are destroying biological diversity—especially in the tropics. This was reported by a research team led by the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) in Nature Ecology & Evolution. A growing demand for agricultural products requires new cultivated areas. Even though technological advanc

9h

Scientists develop a tunable bio-imaging device using terahertz plasmonics

Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have developed an easy-to-use, tunable biosensor tailored for the terahertz range. Images of mouse organs obtained using the new device verify that the sensor is capable of distinguishing between different tissues. The achievement expands possibilities for terahertz applications in biological analysis and future diagnostics.

9h

Biodiversity crisis: Technological advances in agriculture are not a sufficient response

Rapid population and economic growth are destroying biological diversity—especially in the tropics. This was reported by a research team led by the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) in Nature Ecology & Evolution. A growing demand for agricultural products requires new cultivated areas. Even though technological advanc

9h

Chemists 'print' sensors for nano-objects

Young scientists from ITMO University proposed a new type of optical nano-sensors. Their operating principle is based on the interaction of light in thin films: a similar effect can be observed in soap bubbles. Such sensors can be quickly manufactured using an inkjet printer and special ink made of titanium dioxide. In the future, the sensors can be used for rapid biomedical analysis. The results

9h

Baseball Commish Talks Big Data

At a sports technology conference, baseball commissioner Rob Manfred addressed issues including an automated strike zone and advanced analytics. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

9h

Image of the Day: Under the Microscope

A virtual exhibition of C.R. Percival’s slides reveals the natural world up close.

10h

Meteorite impact craters found in Australia, Central America

Two studies identify massive structures form by single object collisions. Andrew Masterson reports.

10h

A mathematician, idolised

GPS collaborator depicted in beautiful artwork.

10h

Android TV photo sharing disabled as Google examines privacy issue

On Saturday evening, users began reporting on Twitter that they could access other people's accounts trough their Android TV's photo screensaver. While this was the first time the bug was mentioned …

10h

Google denies it's still working on censored China search engine – CNET

Employees reportedly found code that suggests Google is still trying to get Project Dragonfly off the ground.

10h

The random anti-laser

The laser is the perfect light source—as long as it is provided with energy, it generates light of a specific, well-defined colour. However, it is also possible to create its opposite—an object that perfectly absorbs light of a particular colour and dissipates the energy almost completely.

10h

Scientists develop printable water sensor

A new, versatile plastic-composite sensor can detect tiny amounts of water. The 3-D printable material, developed by a Spanish-Israeli team of scientists, is cheap, flexible and non-toxic and changes its colour from purple to blue in wet conditions. The researchers, led by Pilar Amo-Ochoa from the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM), used DESY's X-ray light source PETRA III to understand the str

10h

Landmark study finds tackling inequality is key to realising UN goals

A landmark study of the relationship between each of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has found that tackling inequality in rich countries could unlock the prize of a better and more sustainable future for all.

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