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nyheder2019september24

Apparent thinning of human visual cortex during childhood is associated with myelination [Neuroscience]

Human cortex appears to thin during childhood development. However, the underlying microstructural mechanisms are unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), quantitative MRI (qMRI), and diffusion MRI (dMRI) in children and adults, we tested what quantitative changes occur to gray and white matter in ventral temporal cortex (VTC) from childhood…

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Fine control of aerenchyma and lateral root development through AUX/IAA- and ARF-dependent auxin signaling [Plant Biology]

Lateral roots (LRs) are derived from a parental root and contribute to water and nutrient uptake from the soil. Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid protein (AUX/IAA; IAA) and auxin response factor (ARF)-mediated signaling are essential for LR formation. Lysigenous aerenchyma, a gas space created by cortical cell death, aids internal oxygen transport within…

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RNA polymerases as moving barriers to condensin loop extrusion [Cell Biology]

To separate replicated sister chromatids during mitosis, eukaryotes and prokaryotes have structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) condensin complexes that were recently shown to organize chromosomes by a process known as DNA loop extrusion. In rapidly dividing bacterial cells, the process of separating sister chromatids occurs concomitantly with ongoing transcription. How…

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Cell models of lipid-rich {alpha}-synuclein aggregation validate known modifiers of {alpha}-synuclein biology and identify stearoyl-CoA desaturase [Neuroscience]

Microscopy of Lewy bodies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) suggests they are not solely filamentous deposits of α-synuclein (αS) but also contain vesicles and other membranous material. We previously reported the existence of native αS tetramers/multimers and described engineered mutations of the αS KTKEGV repeat motifs that abrogate the multimers. The…

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Dronc-independent basal executioner caspase activity sustains Drosophila imaginal tissue growth [Developmental Biology]

Caspase is best known as an enzyme involved in programmed cell death, which is conserved among multicellular organisms. In addition to its role in cell death, caspase is emerging as an indispensable enzyme in a wide range of cellular functions, which have recently been termed caspase-dependent nonlethal cellular processes (CDPs)….

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Experimental evolution of immunological specificity [Evolution]

Memory and specificity are hallmarks of the adaptive immune system. Contrary to prior belief, innate immune systems can also provide forms of immune memory, such as immune priming in invertebrates and trained immunity in vertebrates. Immune priming can even be specific but differs remarkably in cellular and molecular functionality from…

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DDX5 helicase resolves G-quadruplex and is involved in MYC gene transcriptional activation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

G-quadruplexes (G4) are noncanonical secondary structures formed in guanine-rich DNA and RNA sequences. MYC, one of the most critical oncogenes, forms a DNA G4 in its proximal promoter region (MycG4) that functions as a transcriptional silencer. However, MycG4 is highly stable in vitro and its regulatory role would require active…

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Mast cells are critical for controlling the bacterial burden and the healing of infected wounds [Cell Biology]

Skin wound infections are a significant health problem, and antibiotic resistance is on the rise. Mast cells (MCs) have been shown to contribute to host–defense responses in certain bacterial infections, but their role in skin wound superinfection is unknown. We subjected 2 MC-deficient mouse strains to Pseudomonas aeruginosa skin wound…

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Ca isotopes record rapid crystal growth in volcanic and subvolcanic systems [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Kinetic calcium isotope effects can be used as growth-rate proxies for volcanic and subvolcanic minerals. Here, we analyze Ca isotopic compositions in experimental and natural samples and confirm that large kinetic effects (>2‰) can occur during magmatic plagioclase crystallization. Experiments confirm theoretical predictions that disequilibrium isotope effects depend mainly on…

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Aldh1b1 expression defines progenitor cells in the adult pancreas and is required for Kras-induced pancreatic cancer [Medical Sciences]

The presence of progenitor or stem cells in the adult pancreas and their potential involvement in homeostasis and cancer development remain unresolved issues. Here, we show that mouse centroacinar cells can be identified and isolated by virtue of the mitochondrial enzyme Aldh1b1 that they uniquely express. These cells are necessary…

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Individual and collective encoding of risk in animal groups [Ecology]

The need to make fast decisions under risky and uncertain conditions is a widespread problem in the natural world. While there has been extensive work on how individual organisms dynamically modify their behavior to respond appropriately to changing environmental conditions (and how this is encoded in the brain), we know…

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A distinct lineage of giant viruses brings a rhodopsin photosystem to unicellular marine predators [Environmental Sciences]

Giant viruses are remarkable for their large genomes, often rivaling those of small bacteria, and for having genes thought exclusive to cellular life. Most isolated to date infect nonmarine protists, leaving their strategies and prevalence in marine environments largely unknown. Using eukaryotic single-cell metagenomics in the Pacific, we discovered a…

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SDS22 selectively recognizes and traps metal-deficient inactive PP1 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The metalloenzyme protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which is responsible for ≥50% of all dephosphorylation reactions, is regulated by scores of regulatory proteins, including the highly conserved SDS22 protein. SDS22 has numerous diverse functions, surprisingly acting as both a PP1 inhibitor and as an activator. Here, we integrate cellular, biophysical, and…

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Maize sugary enhancer1 (se1) is a gene affecting endosperm starch metabolism [Plant Biology]

sugary enhancer1 (se1) is a naturally occurring mutant allele involved in starch metabolism in maize endosperm. It is a recessive modifier of sugary1 (su1) and commercially important in modern sweet corn breeding, but its molecular identity and mode of action remain unknown. Here, we developed a pair of near-isogenic lines,…

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Magnetic field-driven quantum criticality in antiferromagnetic CePtIn4 [Physics]

Physics of the quantum critical point is one of the most perplexing topics in current condensed-matter physics. Its conclusive understanding is forestalled by the scarcity of experimental systems displaying novel aspects of quantum criticality. We present comprehensive experimental evidence of a magnetic field-tuned tricritical point separating paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and metamagnetic…

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Early detection and monitoring of cerebral ischemia using calcium-responsive MRI probes [Chemistry]

Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability in infants and adults and its timely diagnosis is essential for an efficient treatment. We present a methodology for fast detection and real-time monitoring of fluctuations of calcium ions associated with focal ischemia using a molecular functional MRI…

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Glioblastoma ablates pericytes antitumor immune function through aberrant up-regulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy [Immunology and Inflammation]

The contractile perivascular cells, pericytes (PC), are hijacked by glioblastoma (GB) to facilitate tumor progression. PC’s protumorigenic function requires direct interaction with tumor cells and contributes to the establishment of immunotolerance to tumor growth. Cancer cells up-regulate their own chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a process that delivers selective cytosolic proteins to…

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Phosphorylation of mitochondrial matrix proteins regulates their selective mitophagic degradation [Cell Biology]

Mitophagy is an important quality-control mechanism in eukaryotic cells, and defects in mitophagy correlate with aging phenomena and neurodegenerative disorders. It is known that different mitochondrial matrix proteins undergo mitophagy with very different rates but, to date, the mechanism underlying this selectivity at the individual protein level has remained obscure….

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NanoSIMS imaging reveals metabolic stratification within current-producing biofilms [Microbiology]

Metal-reducing bacteria direct electrons to their outer surfaces, where insoluble metal oxides or electrodes act as terminal electron acceptors, generating electrical current from anaerobic respiration. Geobacter sulfurreducens is a commonly enriched electricity-producing organism, forming thick conductive biofilms that magnify total activity by supporting respiration of cells not in direct contac

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Crystal structure of cis-aconitate decarboxylase reveals the impact of naturally occurring human mutations on itaconate synthesis [Immunology and Inflammation]

cis-Aconitate decarboxylase (CAD, also known as ACOD1 or Irg1) converts cis-aconitate to itaconate and plays central roles in linking innate immunity with metabolism and in the biotechnological production of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus. We have elucidated the crystal structures of human and murine CADs and compared their enzymological properties…

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Predicting kidney transplant outcomes with partial knowledge of HLA mismatch [Medical Sciences]

We consider prediction of graft survival when a kidney from a deceased donor is transplanted into a recipient, with a focus on the variation of survival with degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch. Previous studies have used data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) to predict survival…

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CRIF1 as a potential target to improve the radiosensitivity of osteosarcoma [Cell Biology]

Resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), which is a conventional treatment for osteosarcoma that cannot be resected, undermines the efficacy of this therapy. However, the mechanism by which IR induces radioresistance in osteosarcoma is not defined. Here, we report that CR6-interacting factor-1 (CRIF1) is highly expressed in osteosarcoma and undergoes nuclear-cytoplasmic…

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Raman interrogation of the ferroelectric phase transition in polar metal LiOsO3 [Physics]

Ferroelectric (FE) distortions in a metallic material were believed to be experimentally inaccessible because itinerant electrons would screen the long-range Coulomb interactions that favor a polar structure. It has been suggested by Anderson and Blount [P. W. Anderson, E. I. Blount, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 217−219 (1965)] that a transition…

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The NMDA receptor activation by d-serine and glycine is controlled by an astrocytic Phgdh-dependent serine shuttle [Neuroscience]

Astrocytes express the 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) enzyme required for the synthesis of l-serine from glucose. Astrocytic l-serine was proposed to regulate NMDAR activity by shuttling to neurons to sustain d-serine production, but this hypothesis remains untested. We now report that inhibition of astrocytic Phgdh suppressed the de novo synthesis of…

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Observation of Rydberg exciton polaritons and their condensate in a perovskite cavity [Applied Physical Sciences]

The condensation of half-light half-matter exciton polaritons in semiconductor optical cavities is a striking example of macroscopic quantum coherence in a solid-state platform. Quantum coherence is possible only when there are strong interactions between the exciton polaritons provided by their excitonic constituents. Rydberg excitons with high principal value exhibit strong…

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Generics designate kinds but not always essences [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

People believe that some categories are kinds with reliable causal structure and high inductive potential (e.g., tigers). Widely endorsed theories propose that people are biased to assume kinds are essential, and so naturally determined by internal causal properties. Generic language (e.g., “men like sports”) is 1 mechanism thought to evoke…

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Variable impacts of contemporary versus legacy agricultural phosphorus on US river water quality [Environmental Sciences]

Phosphorus (P) fertilizer has contributed to the eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems. Watershed-based conservation programs aiming to reduce external P loading to surface waters have not resulted in significant water-quality improvements. One factor that can help explain the lack of water-quality response is remobilization of accumulated legacy (historical) P within the…

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Fibulin-4 exerts a dual role in LTBP-4L-mediated matrix assembly and function [Biochemistry]

Elastogenesis is a hierarchical process by which cells form functional elastic fibers, providing elasticity and the ability to regulate growth factor bioavailability in tissues, including blood vessels, lung, and skin. This process requires accessory proteins, including fibulin-4 and -5, and latent TGF binding protein (LTBP)-4. Our data demonstrate mechanisms in…

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Factors driving the seasonal and hourly variability of sea-spray aerosol number in the North Atlantic [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Four North Atlantic Aerosol and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) field campaigns from winter 2015 through spring 2018 sampled an extensive set of oceanographic and atmospheric parameters during the annual phytoplankton bloom cycle. This unique dataset provides four seasons of open-ocean observations of wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), seawater particle…

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Correction for Lister and Garcia, Reply to Willig et al.: Long-term population trends in the Luquillo Rainforest [Corrections]

LETTER Correction for “Reply to Willig et al.: Long-term population trends in the Luquillo Rainforest,” by Brad Lister and Andres Garcia, which was first published May 29, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1904582116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 12145–12146). The authors wish to note the following: “On page 12145, right column, first paragraph,…

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RNA ligation precedes the retrotransposition of U6/LINE-1 chimeric RNA [Genetics]

Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) amplifies via retrotransposition. Active L1s encode 2 proteins (ORF1p and ORF2p) that bind their encoding transcript to promote retrotransposition in cis. The L1-encoded proteins also promote the retrotransposition of small-interspersed element RNAs, noncoding RNAs, and messenger RNAs in trans. Some L1-mediated retrotransposition events consist…

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Cell division rates decrease with age, providing a potential explanation for the age-dependent deceleration in cancer incidence [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

A new evaluation of previously published data suggested to us that the accumulation of mutations might slow, rather than increase, as individuals age. To explain this unexpected finding, we hypothesized that normal stem cell division rates might decrease as we age. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated cell division rates…

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Selective cadmium regulation mediated by a cooperative binding mechanism in CadR [Chemistry]

Detoxification of the highly toxic cadmium element is essential for the survival of living organisms. Pseudomonas putida CadR, a MerR family transcriptional regulator, has been reported to exhibit an ultraspecific response to the cadmium ion. Our crystallographic and spectroscopic studies reveal that the extra cadmium selectivity of CadR is mediated…

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Correction for Branch and Wulfmeyer, Deliberate enhancement of rainfall using desert plantations [Corrections]

EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for “Deliberate enhancement of rainfall using desert plantations,” by Oliver Branch and Volker Wulfmeyer, which was first published September 3, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1904754116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 18841–18847). The authors note that, due to a printer’s error, the Acknowledgments section was not included…

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A Tmc1 mutation reduces calcium permeability and expression of mechanoelectrical transduction channels in cochlear hair cells [Neuroscience]

Mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) currents were recorded from cochlear hair cells in mice with mutations of transmembrane channel-like protein TMC1 to study the effects on MET channel properties. We characterized a Tmc1 mouse with a single-amino-acid mutation (D569N), homologous to a dominant human deafness mutation. Measurements were made in both Tmc2…

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Single-molecule localization microscopy as nonlinear inverse problem [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

We present a statistical framework to model the spatial distribution of molecules based on a single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) dataset. The latter consists of a collection of spatial coordinates and their associated uncertainties. We describe iterative parameter-estimation algorithms based on this framework, as well as a sampling algorithm to numerically…

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SerpinB1 controls encephalitogenic T helper cells in neuroinflammation [Immunology and Inflammation]

SerpinB1, a protease inhibitor and neutrophil survival factor, was recently linked with IL-17–expressing T cells. Here, we show that serpinB1 (Sb1) is dramatically induced in a subset of effector CD4 cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Despite normal T cell priming, Sb1−/− mice are resistant to EAE with a paucity…

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Parkinson’s disease-associated iPLA2-VIA/PLA2G6 regulates neuronal functions and {alpha}-synuclein stability through membrane remodeling [Medical Sciences]

Mutations in the iPLA2-VIA/PLA2G6 gene are responsible for PARK14-linked Parkinson’s disease (PD) with α-synucleinopathy. However, it is unclear how iPLA2-VIA mutations lead to α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation and dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration. Here, we report that iPLA2-VIA–deficient Drosophila exhibits defects in neurotransmission during early developmental stages and progressive cell loss

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The structure of the colorectal cancer-associated enzyme GalNAc-T12 reveals how nonconserved residues dictate its function [Biochemistry]

Polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferases (GalNAc-Ts) initiate mucin type O-glycosylation by catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to Ser or Thr on a protein substrate. Inactive and partially active variants of the isoenzyme GalNAc-T12 are present in subsets of patients with colorectal cancer, and several of these variants alter nonconserved residues with…

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Future epidemiological and economic impacts of universal influenza vaccines [Population Biology]

The efficacy of influenza vaccines, currently at 44%, is limited by the rapid antigenic evolution of the virus and a manufacturing process that can lead to vaccine mismatch. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) recently identified the development of a universal influenza vaccine with an efficacy of…

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Inhibition of {Delta}24-dehydrocholesterol reductase activates pro-resolving lipid mediator biosynthesis and inflammation resolution [Immunology and Inflammation]

Targeting metabolism through bioactive key metabolites is an upcoming future therapeutic strategy. We questioned how modifying intracellular lipid metabolism could be a possible means for alleviating inflammation. Using a recently developed chemical probe (SH42), we inhibited distal cholesterol biosynthesis through selective inhibition of Δ24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24). Inhibition of DH

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Transferrin receptor binds virus capsid with dynamic motion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important pathogen causing severe diseases in dogs, including acute hemorrhagic enteritis, myocarditis, and cerebellar disease. Cross-species transmission of CPV occurs as a result of mutations on the viral capsid surface that alter the species-specific binding to the host receptor, transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR). The interaction…

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Generation of the configurational ensemble of an intrinsically disordered protein from unbiased molecular dynamics simulation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in eukaryotic proteomes, play a major role in cell signaling, and are associated with human diseases. To understand IDP function it is critical to determine their configurational ensemble, i.e., the collection of 3-dimensional structures they adopt, and this remains an immense challenge in structural…

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Phosphorylation of DEPDC5, a component of the GATOR1 complex, releases inhibition of mTORC1 and promotes tumor growth [Cell Biology]

The Pim and AKT serine/threonine protein kinases are implicated as drivers of cancer. Their regulation of tumor growth is closely tied to the ability of these enzymes to mainly stimulate protein synthesis by activating mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) signaling, although the exact mechanism is not completely understood….

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Transcriptional control of lung alveolar type 1 cell development and maintenance by NK homeobox 2-1 [Developmental Biology]

The extraordinarily thin alveolar type 1 (AT1) cell constitutes nearly the entire gas exchange surface and allows passive diffusion of oxygen into the blood stream. Despite such an essential role, the transcriptional network controlling AT1 cells remains unclear. Using cell-specific knockout mouse models, genomic profiling, and 3D imaging, we found…

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Task-based fMRI predicts response and remission to exposure therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) is an effective first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but only some patients achieve minimal symptoms following EX/RP. Herein, we investigate whether task-based neural activity can predict who responds best to EX/RP. Unmedicated adult patients with OCD (n = 36) and healthy participants (n =…

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A self-assembled Ru-Pt metallacage as a lysosome-targeting photosensitizer for 2-photon photodynamic therapy [Chemistry]

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment procedure that relies on cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the light activation of a photosensitizer. The photophysical and biological properties of photosensitizers are vital for the therapeutic outcome of PDT. In this work a 2D rhomboidal metallacycle and a 3D octahedral metallacage…

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Structural and functional analyses reveal promiscuous and species specific use of ephrin receptors by Cedar virus [Microbiology]

Cedar virus (CedV) is a bat-borne henipavirus related to Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV), zoonotic agents of fatal human disease. CedV receptor-binding protein (G) shares only ∼30% sequence identity with those of NiV and HeV, although they can all use ephrin-B2 as an entry receptor. We demonstrate that…

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Cryptic diversity of a widespread global pathogen reveals expanded threats to amphibian conservation [Applied Biological Sciences]

Biodiversity loss is one major outcome of human-mediated ecosystem disturbance. One way that humans have triggered wildlife declines is by transporting disease-causing agents to remote areas of the world. Amphibians have been hit particularly hard by disease due in part to a globally distributed pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd])….

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Climate cooling and clade competition likely drove the decline of lamniform sharks [Evolution]

Understanding heterogeneity in species richness between closely related clades is a key research question in ecology and evolutionary biology. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to interpret such diversity contrasts across the tree of life, with most studies focusing on speciation rates to explain clades’ evolutionary radiations, while often neglecting extinction…

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Unusual dynamics of the divergent malaria parasite PfAct1 actin filament [Biochemistry]

Gliding motility and host cell invasion by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), the causative agent of malaria, is powered by a macromolecular complex called the glideosome that lies between the parasite plasma membrane and the inner membrane complex. The glideosome core consists of a single-headed class XIV myosin PfMyoA…

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AI equal with human experts in medical diagnosis, study finds

Research suggests AI able to interpret medical images using deep learning algorithm Artificial intelligence is on a par with human experts when it comes to making medical diagnoses based on images, a review has found. The potential for artificial intelligence in healthcare has caused excitement, with advocates saying it will ease the strain on resources, free up time for doctor-patient interactio

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The Lancet Digital Health: First systematic review and meta-analysis suggests artificial intelligence may be as effective as health professionals at diagnosing disease

Artificial intelligence (AI) appears to detect diseases from medical imaging with similar levels of accuracy as health-care professionals, according to the first systematic review and meta-analysis, synthesising all the available evidence from the scientific literature published in The Lancet Digital Health journal.

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Life-changing gadgets for new parents

Raising a kid just got a tad bit easier. (Jonathan Borba via Unsplash/) Being a new parent is exciting. You’ve been anticipating the arrival of your little bundle of joy for months—but as wonderful as this life change is, your new role can be scary and stressful. Everyday routines are now potentially dangerous situations that must be monitored very closely. But new parenthood should be exciting—i

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Bats use private and social information as they hunt

As some of the most savvy and sophisticated predators out there, bats eavesdrop on their prey and even on other bats to collect a wide variety of information as they hunt.

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Light-activated metal catalyst destroys cancer cells' vital energy source

A space-age metal that formed part of the asteroid that destroyed the dinosaurs could provide a new method of treating cancer tumors selectively using light.

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A healthy diet may help prevent kidney disease

In an analysis of published studies, a healthy dietary pattern was associated with a 30% lower incidence of chronic kidney disease. A healthy dietary pattern was also linked with a 23% lower incidence of albuminuria, an early indicator of kidney damage.

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Bird droppings defy expectations

Prevailing wisdom ranks uric acid as the primary ingredient in bird excrement which is comprised mostly of urine. (Birds release both solid and liquid waste at the same time. The white substance is the urine). But according to new research, uric acid can't be the answer. That's because there is no uric acid in excreted bird urine.

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Light-activated metal catalyst destroys cancer cells' vital energy source

A space-age metal that formed part of the asteroid that destroyed the dinosaurs could provide a new method of treating cancer tumors selectively using light.

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New CRISPR class expands genetic engineering toolbox

Biomedical engineers have used a previously unexplored CRISPR technology to accurately regulate and edit target genes in human cells. With this new approach, the researchers hope to dramatically expand the CRISPR-based tools available to biomedical engineers, opening up a new and diverse frontier of genome engineering technologies.

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Improved mapping of Swedish genes

People — or more specifically just Swedes — are more like chimpanzees than previously known. This is indicated in a genetic mapping of one thousand Swedish individuals, where new DNA sequences that should be included in the reference genome have been identified.

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Apple Watches may soon decide when to administer medications

Recognizing the early signs of acute agitation in people with dementia is key, and some think the Apple Watch and other activity trackers might be able to help. (Shinya Suzuki CC by ND 2.0/) One of the most common psychiatric emergencies is acute agitation, which makes up around 10 percent of all emergency cases. It often occurs in patients with dementia, as well as other conditions like schizoph

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The Mathematical Language of Nature

Physics historian Graham Farmelo talks about his latest book, The Universe Speaks in Numbers: How Modern Math Reveals Nature's Deepest Secrets. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Mysterious Software Problem Is Bricking Mac Pros Across Hollywood

A wave of crashes has hit production studios across Hollywood. Last night, Avid users began posting to user groups warning their fellows that the application had serious problems and could brick a MacBook Pro if rebooted. Several users referred to their “trashcans” being down, but it isn’t actually clear if the problem is confined to the still-shipping Apple Mac Pro that debuted in 2013, or if it

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Expedition 61 Set For Launch to International Space Station

The three crew members in front of the Soyuz MS-15 spacecraft before the launch. (Credit: NASA) Expedition 61, the next mission to the International Space Station, will launch three crew members in a Soyuz MS-15 rocket on September 25 at 9:57 a.m. EDT from Kazakhstan. Heading up to the ISS, the crew includes Jessica Meir, a NASA astronaut, Oleg Skripochka, a Russian cosmonaut, and Hazzaa Al Mansoo

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How US sanctions are crippling science in Iran

Nature, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02795-y Besieged researchers say that currency collapse, scientific isolation and psychological strain are hindering almost every aspect of their work.

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Scientists clash over paper that questions Syrian government’s role in sarin attack

Journal delays publication of controversial forensic study

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‘No One Is Above the Law’

Speaker Nancy Pelosi announced today that the House will launch an impeachment inquiry into President Donald Trump. The move follows a sudden shift in the Democratic caucus over the past week, as allegations that the president pressured Ukraine to boost his reelection prospects swirled. Many previously reticent Democrats, chief among them Pelosi herself, have changed their mind and now support an

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Bird droppings defy expectations

Prevailing wisdom ranks uric acid as the primary ingredient in bird 'poop,' which is comprised mostly of urine. (Birds release both solid and liquid waste at the same time. The white substance is the urine). But according to Nick Crouch, a scientist at The University of Texas at Austin, uric acid can't be the answer. That's because there is no uric acid in excreted bird urine.

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Improved mapping of Swedish genes from 1,000 individuals

People — or more specifically just Swedes — are more like chimpanzees than previously known. This is indicated in a genetic mapping of one thousand Swedish individuals, where new DNA sequences that should be included in the reference genome have been identified.

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Improved mapping of Swedish genes

People — or more specifically just Swedes — are more like chimpanzees than previously known. This is indicated in a genetic mapping of one thousand Swedish individuals, where new DNA sequences that should be included in the reference genome have been identified. The study is published today in the scientific journal Molecular Biology and Evolution.

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A healthy diet may help prevent kidney disease

In an analysis of published studies, a healthy dietary pattern was associated with a 30% lower incidence of chronic kidney disease. A healthy dietary pattern was also linked with a 23% lower incidence of albuminuria, an early indicator of kidney damage.

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Five animals that can sense things you can't

The more we learn about other species, the less impressive even our sharpest sensory powers become. Take sight: Pit vipers have infrared vision, bees can view ultraviolet light, and electric eels use their zaps to “see” through the murky waters of the Amazon. These ani­mals and others have evolved to experience aspects of the world that sit beyond the ­borders of our perception. And some of their

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Improved mapping of Swedish genes from 1,000 individuals

People—or more specifically just Swedes—are more like chimpanzees than previously known. This is indicated in a genetic mapping of one thousand Swedish individuals, where new DNA sequences that should be included in the reference genome have been identified.

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Privacy concerns could derail unprecedented plan to use Facebook data to study elections

Funders of unique data-sharing initiative to pull out at end of month

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Improved mapping of Swedish genes from 1,000 individuals

People—or more specifically just Swedes—are more like chimpanzees than previously known. This is indicated in a genetic mapping of one thousand Swedish individuals, where new DNA sequences that should be included in the reference genome have been identified.

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Diabetes drug study explores cardiovascular risks for patients with kidney disease

Among the 30 million U.S. adults with Type 2 diabetes, 20% have impaired kidney function. In patients like this, metformin, the recommended first-line drug therapy for Type 2 diabetes, is associated in the new study with 20 percent decreased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events when compared to a class of common diabetes drugs called sulfonylureas.

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Bats use private and social information as they hunt

As some of the most savvy and sophisticated predators out there, bats eavesdrop on their prey and even on other bats to collect a wide variety of information as they hunt.

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Andrew Yang Wants Thorium Nuclear Power. Here's What That Means.

submitted by /u/WarOfNoise [link] [comments]

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India Plans to Build Massive Facial Recognition System

submitted by /u/BlueBanisher99 [link] [comments]

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Google Claims to Have Achieved “Quantum Supremacy”

Quantum Supremacy According to a now-deleted paper spotted by the Financial Times on NASA’s Technical Reports Server last week, Google researchers have achieved “quantum supremacy” — in other words, their quantum computer managed to complete a computational task faster than a conventional computer processor. The paper was promptly deleted and Google has yet to confirm the achievement. “To our kno

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A Robot Dog for Rent, Apple’s Secret AR Glasses, and More News

Catch up on the most important news from today in two minutes or less.

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Trump Is Discovering New Powers

Updated on September 24, 2019 at 5:20 p.m. ET Knowing he was new to all this, White House aides took pains early in President Donald Trump’s term to chaperone him when he got on the phone with world leaders. Former National Security Adviser H. R. McMaster, the economic adviser Gary Cohn, and others would sit around the Resolute Desk in the Oval Office and listen to both ends of the conversation.

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Cats Like People! (Some People, Anyway)

Despite apparent aloofness, cats are social creatures capable of relationships with people, a new study suggests.

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Traditional fisherfolk help uncover ancient fish preservation methods

Fish has been a predominant and high-quality protein and oil source in the human diet since ancient times. A new study by researchers from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), the Zinman Institute of Archaeology and the Oranim Academic College examined traditional fish preparation employed by fisherfolk in Panama and Egypt, revealing patterns of modifications to the fishes' skeleton

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Traditional fisherfolk help uncover ancient fish preservation methods

Archaeologists have little insight into the methods used for the long-term processing and preservation of fish in the past. A study of traditional fish preparation employed by fisherfolk in Panama and Egypt, revealed patterns of modifications to the fishes' skeletons which are comparable to those found among fish remains recovered in archaeological sites.

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Situation Improves Slightly for U Alaska, Major Changes Ahead

Funding cuts provoke concerns about job losses, cancelled research programs, and closed departments.

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Traditional fisherfolk help uncover ancient fish preservation methods

Archaeologists have little insight into the methods used for the long-term processing and preservation of fish in the past. A study of traditional fish preparation employed by fisherfolk in Panama and Egypt, revealed patterns of modifications to the fishes' skeletons which are comparable to those found among fish remains recovered in archaeological sites

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Essential power tools every DIYer should own

Want to be the type of person who builds their own picnic table? Here are some quality power tools at the right price. (Vladislav Bulatov via Unsplash/) There are certain jobs that only a power tool can handle. But they also tackle basic tasks in a fraction of the time, and there’s no shame in wanting to projects to move faster. Whether you’re a new homeowner investing in your first set of tools

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Hurricane resilience in the bahamas: Ecosystem

A new study provides information on how to invest in natural coastal ecosystems that the Bahamian government, community leaders and development banks are applying in post-disaster recovery and future storm preparation in the Bahamas.

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Improving Electrical Grids Could Help Protect the Climate

Preventing losses of electricity as it travels from the source to where it's used could cut greenhouse gas emissions by half a billion metric tons a year. power-lines.jpg Image credits: Håkan Dahlström via Flickr Rights information: CC BY 2.0 Earth Tuesday, September 24, 2019 – 16:00 Nala Rogers, Staff Writer (Inside Science) — Climate change discussions tend to focus on how electricity is prod

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A Group of Google Contractors Has Voted to Unionize

Employees of HCL Technologies who do work for Google in Pittsburgh voted to join the United Steelworkers, a rarity for white-collar tech workers.

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Global aviation industry focuses on climate at Montreal talks

Airlines' efforts to reduce their carbon emissions will be front and center at the UN aviation agency's annual conference, which opened on Tuesday days before a major climate protest in Montreal to be attended by teen activist Greta Thunberg.

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Study suggests ecosystem investments to minimize storm damage

As new hurricanes gain strength in the Atlantic, residents of the Bahamas have barely begun recovering from destroyed villages and flooded streets brought by Hurricane Dorian's battering this month. The losses were grim validation of a new Stanford-led study on coastal risk throughout the country.

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Growing a smarter model for brain research in space

Researchers studying neurological diseases face several daunting challenges. For one thing, these conditions may take years or even decades to develop. On top of that, experimenting on the brains of healthy human beings simply is not ethical, and suitable human neurological models have not been readily available.

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Pivotal role found for IgG autoantibodies in IgA nephropathy

A study largely validates the hypothesis that immunoglobulin IgG is a crucial part of the pathogenic immunodeposits in glomeruli of patients with IgA nephropathy. Until now, routine immunofluorescence microscopy — which identifies the presence of IgA in all cases of IgA nephropathy — failed to show IgG in 50 to 80 percent of kidney biopsies. In addition, IgG found in those positive tests had nev

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NASA Hires Lockheed Martin to Build up to 12 Orion Spacecraft

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA NASA is currently on an incredibly ambitious timetable to send the new crewed missions to the moon by 2024. The Artemis Program will use the agency’s Orion spacecraft, which borrows liberally from the old Apollo-era command module. Now, NASA is formalizing its plans with a long-term contract for Lockheed Martin. The long-time government contractor will supply NASA with as m

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Three at-home cold brew systems that’ll save you money

Cold coffee for all seasons. (Matt Hoffman via Unsplash/) There's a reason people love measuring the cost of basically anything in lattes ––it adds up. Buying your own coarsely ground coffee and an at-home coffee-making system not only cuts down on spending, but it also allows you to experiment with adding different flavors . Try adding some mint leaves or sprigs of lavender to the grounds to imp

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New model proposes jets go superluminal in gamma-ray bursts

Blasts that create gamma-ray bursts may actually exceed the speed of light in surrounding gas clouds, but do so without violating Einstein's theory of relativity.

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Model helps choose wind farm locations, predicts output

The wind is always blowing somewhere, but deciding where to locate a wind farm is a bit more complicated than holding up a wet finger. Now a team of researchers has a model that can locate the best place for the wind farm and even help with 24-hour predictions of energy output.

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Quality control in immune communication: Chaperones detect immature signaling molecules

The cells of our immune system constantly communicate with one another by exchanging complex protein molecules. A team has now revealed how dedicated cellular control proteins, referred to as chaperones, detect immature immune signaling proteins and prevent them from leaving the cell.

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Promising prostate cancer drug candidates identified

Cancer researchers have identified some promising drug candidates by using high-throughput screening methods to test tens of thousands of molecules.

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What to Expect From the FDA’s Criminal Investigation into Vaping

On Monday, Kansas health officials announced that yet another person had died from a mysterious vaping-related illness . That brings the total number of fatalities to nine, with an estimated 530 people afflicted by the respiratory sickness. While health officials race to determine the epidemic’s cause before more lives are lost, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has launched a separate

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Hurricane resilience in the Bahamas

A new Stanford-led study provides information on how to invest in natural coastal ecosystems that the Bahamian government, community leaders and development banks are applying in post-disaster recovery and future storm preparation in the Bahamas.

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New model proposes jets go superluminal in gamma-ray bursts

Blasts that create gamma-ray bursts may actually exceed the speed of light in surrounding gas clouds, but do so without violating Einstein's theory of relativity.

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Nancy Pelosi Has Had Enough

Updated on September 24 at 5:35 p.m. ET Nancy Pelosi has spent the first nine months of her second stint as House speaker politely but firmly resisting pressure to impeach President Donald Trump. That ended today. Pelosi announced in a live televised address that the House would open a formal impeachment inquiry that would encompass the many investigations its committees have been pursuing. “The

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Are you mentally well enough for college?

Last spring an 18-year-old college freshman who got straight A's in high school – but was now failing several courses – came to my office on the campus where I work as a psychologist. The student was seeking a medical exception so that he could withdraw from the classes he failed instead of taking the F's and dragging down his GPA. I evaluated the student and determined – based on information fro

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Car jump starters that will bring your auto's battery back to life

An emergency charge, wherever you go. (Erwan Hesry via Unsplash/) There's no good time or place for your car battery to go dead, but there's a way for you to prepare. Not only can these car jump starters charge up your car’s battery, most of them can also charge your phone. Some can even pump air into your tires, too. The Noco touts that it can jump-start your car in seconds. (Amazon/) This kit c

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Switch that kills inactive HIV isolated

Researchers have identified a switch controlling HIV reproduction in immune cells which can eliminate dormant HIV reservoirs.

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Discovery of how colorectal cancer drug works will help more patients

Some colorectal cancer patients with a certain gene mutation benefit from a chemotherapy drug called cetuximab, although the mechanism of how this drug worked was unknown. Scientists have combined computational biology with experimental investigations to discover, for the first time, the mechanism for why these patients respond to cetuximab, which will help doctors identify more effective, targete

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Outcomes of birth options after a previous Cesarean section

A large cohort study of women who have had one or more previous Cesarean sections suggests that attempting a vaginal birth in a subsequent pregnancy is associated with higher health risks to both the mother and the infant than electing for another Cesarean. The research, published in PLOS Medicine on Sept. 24, 2019, addresses a lack of information on the outcomes of birth options after previous ce

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What wolves' broken teeth reveal about their lives

An evolutionary biologist has spent more than three decades studying the skulls of many species of large carnivores — including wolves, lions and tigers — that lived from 50,000 years ago to the present. She reports today the answer to a puzzling question.

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'Treasure trove' of earthquake clues could be unearthed by wavy new technique

Geologists have improved upon methods to map seabed rocks, helping us better understand underwater earthquakes and the tsunamis they can cause.

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New standard of reference for assessing solar forecast proposed

Being able to accurately forecast how much solar energy reaches the surface of the Earth is key to guiding decisions for running solar power plants and new work looks to provide a standard of reference to the field. A researcher proposes an improved way to assess day-ahead solar forecasting, which combines two popular reference methods for weather forecasting, namely persistence and climatology. H

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Missing electrons reveal the true face of a new copper-based catalyst

New research has resulted in a reactive copper-nitrene catalyst that pries apart carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds and transforms them into carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bonds, which are a crucial building block for chemical synthesis, especially in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

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Travel pillows for better sleep while traveling

All of these options are much cheaper than a first-class ticket. (Annie Theby via Unsplash/) If you live life on the move, it’s important to catch up on rest during that dead time between destinations. But it’s not so easy. You hear plenty of people saying they can’t sleep in cars or on planes, but perhaps those people are just lacking the right aid. A supportive travel pillow can transform road

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Are conspiracy theories on the rise in the US?

Have the internet and social media created a climate where Americans believe anything is possible? With headlines citing now as the age of conspiracy, is it really true ? In a word, no. While it may be true that the internet has allowed people who believe in conspiracies to communicate more , it has not increased the number of Americans who believe in conspiracies, according to the data available

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Symbiosis as a tripartite relationship

While viruses are typically known for their pathogenic properties, new research findings now also demonstrate a positive influence of bacteriophages on the interaction of host organisms with bacteria. A new study sheds new light on the symbiosis between multicellular organisms and their microbial communities, which may be regulated by bacteriophages in a tripartite relationship.

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Some parents pass on more mutations to their children than others

Everyone is a mutant but some are prone to diverge more than others, report scientists. A new study shows the number of mutations a child has compared to her parents varies dramatically with some people being born with twice as many as others, and that characteristic runs in families.

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Missing electrons reveal the true face of a new copper-based catalyst

New research has resulted in a reactive copper-nitrene catalyst that pries apart carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds and transforms them into carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bonds, which are a crucial building block for chemical synthesis, especially in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

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Commit a crime? Loved ones got your back

Reading about a child abuse case or someone burglarizing homes often stirs feelings of disgust, anger and disbelief when it's learned the perpetrator's family or friends did nothing to stop it or report it to police.

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Exploring the risk of ALL in children with Down syndrome

Researchers discovered new clues that provide a better understanding of why children with Down syndrome have an increased risk of leukemia.

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Most California wildfire is in wildland-urban interface area with less fuel, more people

Homeowner guidance and fire behavior models are largely based on the idea that natural grass, bushes and trees fuel fire in the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Researchers found that over nearly three decades, half of all buildings destroyed by wildfire in California were located in an area of the WUI with less natural vegetation.

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Could we feed one million people living on Mars?

A provocative new study looks at the resource utilization and technological strategies that would be needed to make a Mars population of one million people food self-sufficient.

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Iridium 'loses its identity' when interfaced with nickel

Hey, physicists and materials scientists: You'd better reevaluate your work if you study iridium-based materials — members of the platinum family — when they are ultra-thin. Iridium 'loses its identity' and its electrons act oddly in an ultra-thin film when interfaced with nickel-based layers, which have an unexpectedly strong impact on iridium ions.

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Science in India's Kashmir Valley in Jeopardy

The country's government has imposed a communication blackout on Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost region in India, effectively cutting off scientists and students from the rest of the world.

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Clay masks to improve skin clarity and make you feel fancy

You, too, could look this glamorous. (Isabell Winter via Unsplash/) Consider clay masks a vacuum cleaner for your skin, drawing out impurities and oils and leaving a more flawless appearance. You’ll probably feel it working, too—most clay masks harden after they set. They take just ten minutes to work their magic: minimizing the appearance of pores and revealing cleansed skin—just don’t forget to

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Trump Administration Escalates Battle Over Environmental Regulations With California

The Trump administration threatens to cut federal highway dollars for California over air pollution. (Image credit: Alex Brandon/AP)

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Is corn a fruit, a vegetable, or a grain?

A humble cob. (Charles/Unsplash/) We all know the is-a-tomato-a-fruit debate (correct answer: yes, but you still shouldn’t put it in a fruit salad). Now we’d like to bring you a whole new botanical question you never knew you had: Is corn a fruit or a vegetable—or is it a grain? The answer is more technical than you might think, and to fully understand it you'll need a little primer on corn biolo

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Donor breastmilk doesn’t contain enough zinc

Levels of zinc in pooled donor breastmilk do not meet the nutritional requirements of preterm infants and term newborns, according to a new study. The finding could have implications for how milk banks prepare milk and distribute it to infants across the country. The study analyzes the nutrient and caloric profile of 138 samples of donated human milk from The Mother’s Milk Bank in Colorado, which

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Facebook Just Bought a Brain-Computer Interface Startup

Assuming CTRL Facebook just acquired mind control interface startup CTRL-labs for a sum that may have approached a billion dollars, according to Bloomberg . The startup was developing a special bracelet that allowed users to control virtual avatars with brain activity alone — a new category of input device that doesn’t rely on a keyboard or mouse. Bloomberg suggested that Facebook may one day pai

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Large-scale enhanced recovery program improves outcomes for bariatric surgery patients

A large-scale implementation of a protocol to improve recovery of patients after weight-loss operations was found to reduce rates of extended hospitalization by almost half at 36 participating accredited bariatric surgery centers nationwide, according to a new study.

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Researchers identify factor essential for tendon growth

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is essential for allowing tendons to adapt to physical activity and grow properly, according to basic science research. The findings provide a strong rationale for pursuing clinical trials to explore IGF1 as a new target for treating tendon injuries in humans.

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Research could help flexible technology last longer, avoid critical failures

A new study uses the topography of human skin as a model not for preventing cracks but for directing them in the best way possible to avoid critical components and make repairs easy.

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Naming of new interstellar visitor: 2I/Borisov

A new object from interstellar space has been found within the Solar System, only the second such discovery of its kind. Astronomers are turning their telescopes towards the visitor, which offers a tantalising glimpse beyond our Solar System and raises some puzzling questions. The object has been given the name 2I/Borisov by the IAU.

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No Plan B: Youth Leading The Charge On Climate

Young people are taking center stage in the fight against climate change.

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French Program That Lampoons Trump's Catchphrase Draws U.S. Scientists

France lures U.S.-based researchers after American withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Model helps choose wind farm locations, predicts output

The wind is always blowing somewhere, but deciding where to locate a wind farm is a bit more complicated than holding up a wet finger. Now a team of Penn State researchers have a model that can locate the best place for the wind farm and even help with 24-hour predictions of energy output.

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Global Promises to Reduce CO2 Are Falling Short of 1.5-Degree-C Warming Goal

U.N. Secretary-General António Guterres is trying to push countries to ratchet up their emissions reduction efforts — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Researchers can now place single ions into solids

New technique enables implantation of individual ions into crystals with an accuracy of 35 nanometers.

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Missing electrons reveal the true face of a new copper-based catalyst

A collaboration between researchers from Cornell, Harvard, Stanford and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has resulted in a reactive copper-nitrene catalyst that pries apart carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds and transforms them into carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bonds, which are a crucial building block for chemical synthesis, especially in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

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What wolves' teeth reveal about their lives

UCLA biologist discovers what wolves' broken teeth reveal about their lives.

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Oncologists respond swiftly to FDA safety alerts, Penn study finds

Within six months of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) move to restrict the label of two immunotherapies, usage of those therapies among oncologists dropped by about 50 percent, according to a new study from researchers in the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania.

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Genome study shows that Iran's population is more heterogeneous than previously believed

An international research endeavour has provided a genome-wide genetic characterization of the Iranian population, enabling further research on genetic diseases and historical migration movements / Publication in 'PLOS Genetics'

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Discovery of how colorectal cancer drug works will help more patients

Some colorectal cancer patients with a certain gene mutation benefit from a chemotherapy drug called cetuximab, although the mechanism of how this drug worked was unknown. Salk scientists have combined computational biology with experimental investigations to discover, for the first time, the mechanism for why these patients respond to cetuximab, which will help doctors identify more effective, ta

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Exercise prior to breast cancer associated with lower risk for heart disease

Older breast cancer patients who exercised before being diagnosed may be at a lower risk for cardiovascular disease compared to those who did not, according to a study published today in the inaugural issue of JACC: CardioOncology.

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Low body-mass index with abdominal obesity is associated with worse heart failure outcomes in Asian

Having a lower body-mass index (BMI), but also having a higher waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), is associated with worse outcomes among Asian patients with heart failure, according to a study published Sept. 24, 2019 in PLOS Medicine by Carolyn Lam of the National Heart Centre Singapore, and colleagues. As noted by the authors, the combined use of BMI and abdominal measures could potentially inform h

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Outcomes of birth options after a previous cesarean section

A large cohort study of women who have had one or more previous cesarean sections suggests that attempting a vaginal birth in a subsequent pregnancy is associated with higher health risks to both the mother and the infant than electing for another cesarean. The research, published in PLOS Medicine on Sept. 24, 2019, addresses a lack of information on the outcomes of birth options after previous ce

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What wolves' teeth reveal about their lives

UCLA evolutionary biologist Blaire Van Valkenburgh has spent more than three decades studying the skulls of many species of large carnivores—including wolves, lions and tigers— that lived from 50,000 years ago to the present. She reports today in the journal eLife the answer to a puzzling question.

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What wolves' teeth reveal about their lives

UCLA evolutionary biologist Blaire Van Valkenburgh has spent more than three decades studying the skulls of many species of large carnivores—including wolves, lions and tigers— that lived from 50,000 years ago to the present. She reports today in the journal eLife the answer to a puzzling question.

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Seeing is believing: Eye-tracking technology could help make driving safer

'Keep your eyes on the road.' With the recent advances in vehicle-assisted safety technology and in-car displays, this old adage has a new meaning, thanks to two new applications of eye-tracking technology.

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For baboons, a mother's history of hardship can have lasting effects on her kids too

Numerous studies show that children who had a rough start in life are more likely to have health problems later on. The pattern isn't unique to humans. But for baboons, the impacts aren't just borne by one generation — the next generation bears the brunt as well. A study finds that a baboon mother's early trauma is linked to shorter lifespans for her kids, even if they grew up more carefree than

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Tale of two climate crises gives clues to the present

Figuring out what lies ahead for our species and our planet is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks for climate scientists. While models are very useful, there is nothing quite like Earth's history to reveal details about how oceans, animals, and plants respond to and recover from a warming world.

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The problem with promoting 'responsible dog ownership'

Dog welfare campaigns that tell people to be 'responsible owners' don't help to promote behaviour change, a new report suggests. Dog owners interviewed for a study all considered themselves to be responsible owners, despite there being great variation in key aspects of their dog-owning behavior.

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Biological clock influences immune response efficiency

The biological clock influences immune response efficacy. Indeed, CD8 T cells, which are essential to fight infections and cancers, function very differently according to the time of day.

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Researchers can now place single ions into solids

New technique enables implantation of individual ions into crystals with an accuracy of 35 nanometers.

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The iPhone 11 Pro camera is amazing, but it has a few notable issues

A cereal-covered donut at the Big E in Massachusetts is a perfect subject for the iPhone 11 Pro camera. Bright colors, sharp textures, and subject matter that can handle a little distortion from a wide-angle lens. (Stan Horaczek/) Let's get it out of the way first: The new iPhone 11 Pro has the best overall smartphone camera system I've used. That may change when Google releases the Pixel 4 next

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Remember The Dress? Here’s Why We All See Colors Differently

Watch neuroscientist David Eagleman explain how that internet-shattering visual illusion—and others like it—mess with our perception of color.

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Apple's AR Glasses Are Hiding in Plain Sight

The company’s iOS 13.1, due out today, contains new glimpses of smart glasses currently in progress.

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NASA-NOAA satellite finds Cyclone Hikaa at Oman's coast

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Arabian Sea in the Northern Indian Ocean and provided forecasters with a view of Cyclone Hikaa's structure. Hikaa is at hurricane strength along Oman's coast.

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Oktoberfest 2019: Photos From the Opening Weekend

Over the weekend, the 186th Oktoberfest beer festival opened in Munich, Germany. Once again, organizers are expecting about 6 million visitors over the next two weeks—the last keg will be tapped on October 6. In 2019, the average price one can expect to pay for a one-liter mug of Oktoberfest beer is 11.80 euros ($12.99). Gathered below, some of the scenes of the opening weekend of Oktoberfest 201

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NASA satellite looks at Tropical Storm Kiko's cloud heights, temperatures

NASA's Aqua Satellite provides a variety of data on tropical cyclones including cloud heights and cloud top temperatures. Aqua examined those factors in Tropical Storm Kiko before wind shear began to affect it and weaken the storm.

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Commit a crime? Loved ones got your back

Reading about a child abuse case or someone burglarizing homes often stirs feelings of disgust, anger and disbelief when it's learned the perpetrator's family or friends did nothing to stop it or report it to police.

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We are all mutants, more or less

Everyone is a mutant but some are prone to diverge more than others, report scientists at University of Utah Health. A new study published in eLife shows the number of mutations a child has compared to her parents varies dramatically with some people being born with twice as many as others, and that characteristic runs in families.

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NASA satellite looks at Tropical Storm Kiko's cloud heights, temperatures

NASA's Aqua Satellite provides a variety of data on tropical cyclones including cloud heights and cloud top temperatures. Aqua examined those factors in Tropical Storm Kiko before wind shear began to affect it and weaken the storm.

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NASA-NOAA satellite finds Cyclone Hikaa at Oman's coast

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Arabian Sea in the Northern Indian Ocean and provided forecasters with a view of Cyclone Hikaa's structure. Hikaa is hurricane strength along Oman's coast.

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Sustainable development goals only achievable through cross-disciplinary research

It is not possible to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDG) if science does not contribute with cross-disciplinary knowledge and understanding of how systems are interconnected.

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Using light to speed up computation

Researchers have developed a type of processor called PAXEL, a device that can potentially bypass Moore's Law and increase the speed and efficiency of computing. Researchers looked at using light for the data transport step in integrated circuits, since photons are not subject to Moore's Law. Instead of integrated electronic circuits, much new development now involves photonic integrated circuits.

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UC San Diego researchers isolate switch that kills inactive HIV

University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers have identified a switch controlling HIV reproduction in immune cells which can eliminate dormant HIV reservoirs.

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Symbiosis as a tripartite relationship

While viruses are typically known for their pathogenic properties, new research findings now also demonstrate a positive influence of bacteriophages on the interaction of host organisms with bacteria. A study published today in the renowned journal Cell Host & Microbe sheds new light on the symbiosis between multicellular organisms and their microbial communities, which may be regulated by bacteri

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New mechanisms that regulate pluripotency in embryonic stem cells are discovered

A study by researchers at the Center for Cell-Based Therapy, which is supported by FAPESP, identified microRNAs involved in pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation.

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Exploring the risk of ALL in children with Down syndrome

Researchers discovered new clues that provide a better understanding of why children with Down syndrome have an increased risk of leukemia.

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Seeing is believing: Eye-tracking technology could help make driving safer

'Keep your eyes on the road.' With the recent advances in vehicle-assisted safety technology and in-car displays, this old adage has a new meaning, thanks to two new applications of eye-tracking technology developed by researchers at the University of Missouri.

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Hardy scientists trek to Venezuela's last glacier amid chaos

Blackouts shut off the refrigerators where the scientists keep their lab samples. Gas shortages mean they sometimes have to work from home. They even reuse sheets of paper to record field data because fresh supplies are so scarce.

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Canada, if Trudeau wins, to hit net zero emissions by 2050: minister

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's Liberal government pledged on Tuesday to achieve net zero carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, if re-elected in an upcoming ballot.

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Six Galaxies Just Suddenly Ignited Into Voracious Quasars

Speed Run Researchers have spotted not one but six previously quiet galaxies suddenly transforming into voracious quasars — a transition that could force astronomers to revisit what they thought they knew about one of the brightest, most energetic types of objects in the universe. “Theory suggests that a quasar should take thousands of years to turn on,” researcher Suvi Gezari of the University o

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First Arab set for ISS says voyage will make 'history'

The Emirati astronaut who will make history by becoming the first Arab on the International Space Station said Tuesday he had received support from around the world before his "dream" mission.

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Unmanned Japan craft launched toward space station: operator

Japan on Wednesday launched an unmanned spacecraft towards the International Space Station, the operator said, after a fire early this month delayed the mission.

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This protein slows the healing of broken bones

A protein more prevalent in older people interferes with bone healing, report researchers. Broken bones are a bigger deal the older you are: even after they’ve healed, the bones of older people are weaker and more likely to re-fracture. And since more than 6 million Americans break a bone each year, figuring out how to help people heal better would make a big difference, researchers say. “When we

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New Woes for MIT Media Lab

Researchers say the Open Agricultural Initiative promoted a high-profile project with misleading claims, and documents show it violated state environmental regulations.

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Here’s what quantum supremacy does—and doesn’t—mean for computing

And no, super-powerful computers are not about to take over

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Three years ago he could barely walk. Now Atlas the humanoid robot is doing gymnastics.

Three years ago it was barely walking. Now, Atlas, the humanoid robot from Boston Dynamics is performing gymnastic routines that mimic professional athletes.

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Quality control in immune communication: Chaperones detect immature signaling molecules

The cells of our immune system constantly communicate with one another by exchanging complex protein molecules. A team led by researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now revealed how dedicated cellular control proteins, referred to as chaperones, detect immature immune signaling proteins and prevent them from leaving the cell.

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UN researchers: Sustainable development goals only achievable through cross-disciplinary research

It is not possible to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDG) if science does not contribute with cross-disciplinary knowledge and understanding of how systems are interconnected. This is emphasised by a UN appointed panel of international researchers with the University of Copenhagen represented in Nature Sustainability in connection with the SDG Global Summit in New York.

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The Disparate Reactions to a New Woody Allen Film

PARIS—At an art house on the Left Bank, a cinephile’s paradise thick with revival houses, moviegoers spilled out onto the sidewalk after the premiere of Woody Allen’s latest film, A Rainy Day in New York . The movie, which stars Timothée Chalamet and Elle Fanning, is a throwback—carriage rides through Central Park, cocktail piano at the Carlyle, older men falling for the naive blond coed. The cro

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Why the Myth of Period Syncing Won’t Go Away

There are pretty much only two reasons periods ever get discussed on prime-time television: first, to draw attention to their lateness, thus introducing a pregnancy story line. And second, to note that two characters’ menstrual cycles have synced, indicating that they’ve been bonding or spending a lot of time together. In an episode of Jane the Virgin that aired earlier this year , for example, J

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An 'Orbital Gateway' Can Guide Comets to the Inner Solar System

Centaur Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has a chance to get funneled into the inner solar system in the not-so-distant future. This artist's concept shows what the comet would look like if it were 0.2 AU (19 million miles, 30 million kilometers) from Earth. Note the Moon at upper right for scale. (Credit: University of Arizona/Heather Roper) Astronomers have discovered an orbital region just beyond Jupiter

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Skeptical Science New Research for Week #38, 2019

36 articles with 8 as open access Natural variability With search variables held constant, our collection of articles this week is relatively small compared to others. It's likely not a secular trend. Could it be the time of year? Given how journal editors must hound reviewers for comments on papers, the chronological smearing effect of procrastination means seasonality is an unlikely candidate f

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Nuclear energy too slow, too expensive to save climate: report

submitted by /u/Hyric89 [link] [comments]

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Boston Dynamics Spot hands-on: new dog, new tricks

submitted by /u/cAtloVeR9998 [link] [comments]

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Boston dynamics are finally advertising their robots!

submitted by /u/Pedro-Afonso [link] [comments]

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Tale of two climate crises gives clues to the present

Figuring out what lies ahead for our species and our planet is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks for climate scientists. While models are very useful, there is nothing quite like Earth's history to reveal details about how oceans, animals, and plants respond to and recover from a warming world.

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For baboons, a mother's history of hardship can have lasting effects on her kids too

Numerous studies show that children who had a rough start in life are more likely to have health problems later on.

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NASA-NOAA satellite finds Tropical Storm Lorenzo organizing

Tropical Storm Lorenzo continued to strengthen and appeared more organized on visible imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite.

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Most California wildfire is in wildland-urban interface area with less fuel, more people

In California, the state with more building destruction by wildfire than all of the other states combined, new research by a U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service scientist and University of Wisconsin-Madison partners found something surprising. Over nearly three decades, half of all buildings destroyed by wildfire in California were located in an area that is described as having less of t

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Do satellite mega-constellations really have to be so big?

Maybe we need a cap on how many satellites internet firms are allowed to send into orbit.

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For baboons, a mother's history of hardship can have lasting effects on her kids too

Numerous studies show that children who had a rough start in life are more likely to have health problems later on.

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'Treasure trove' of quake clues could be unearthed by wavy new technique

Geologists have improved upon methods to map seabed rocks, helping us better understand underwater earthquakes and the tsunamis they can cause.

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NASA sees Karen regain tropical storm status

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Caribbean Sea and used infrared light to obtain temperature information about Karen's cloud tops. Data showed powerful thunderstorms re-developed in around the storm's center as it strengthened back into a tropical storm.

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NASA-NOAA satellite finds wind shear taking a toll on tropical storm Jerry

Tropical Storm Jerry continued to weaken as warnings were in effect for Bermuda on Sept. 24. Jerry appeared less organized on visible imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite because wind shear was taking its toll on the storm.

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Did Venus, Earth's 'Twisted Sister' Hellscape Planet, Once Harbor Water — and Life?

Venus, our solar system's broiling, radiation-bombarded, sulfuric-acid-raining, toxic hellscape of a planet, may once have been quite nice, actually.

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For baboons, a mother's history of hardship can have lasting effects on her kids too

Numerous studies show that children who had a rough start in life are more likely to have health problems later on. The pattern isn't unique to humans. But for baboons, the impacts aren't just borne by one generation — the next generation bears the brunt as well. A study finds that a baboon mother's early trauma is linked to shorter lifespans for her kids, even if they grew up more carefree than

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Eyeballing a black hole's mass

There are no scales for weighing black holes. Yet astrophysicists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have devised a new way for indirectly measuring the mass of a black hole, while also confirming its existence. They tested the new method on the Messier 87 active galaxy.

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NASA-NOAA satellite finds Tropical Storm Lorenzo organizing

Tropical Storm Lorenzo continued to strengthen and appeared more organized on visible imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite.

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UMass Amherst climate scientist contributes to IPCC session

This week, representatives of 195 member governments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are meeting in Monaco with dozens of climate scientists who have prepared a draft 'Summary for Policymakers' of their 'Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC).' UMass Amherst climate scientist Robert DeConto, one of the lead authors and contributor to the report, i

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NASA-NOAA satellite finds wind shear taking a toll on tropical storm Jerry

Tropical Storm Jerry continued to weaken as warnings were in effect for Bermuda on Sept. 24. Jerry appeared less organized on visible imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite because wind shear was taking its toll on the storm.

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Tale of 2 climate crises gives clues to the present

Figuring out what lies ahead for our species and our planet is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks for climate scientists. While models are very useful, there is nothing quite like Earth's history to reveal details about how oceans, animals, and plants respond to and recover from a warming world.

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Using light to speed up computation

A group of researchers in Japan has developed a new type of processor known as PAXEL, a device that can potentially bypass Moore's Law and increase the speed and efficiency of computing. PAXEL, which stands for photonic accelerator, is placed at the front end of a digital computer and optimized to perform specific functions but with less power consumption than is needed for fully electronic device

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Car Show Organizer Begged Gas Guzzlers Not to ICE Tesla Chargers

Courtesy Check On Sunday, images of a car show that blocked every Tesla Supercharger in Yorktown Heights, New York circulated the web , with Tesla drivers complaining about how trolls were preventing them from charging their cars. It turns out that the organizers of the meetup, called Cars & Coffee Yorktown, NY, had issued a reminder in advance telling participants to leave the Superchargers open

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Research could help flexible technology last longer, avoid critical failures

Whether from regular use, overuse or abuse, every device is bound to develop cracks at some point. That's just the nature of things.

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Could we feed one million people living on Mars?

A provocative new study looks at the resource utilization and technological strategies that would be needed to make a Mars population of one million people food self-sufficient. A detailed model of population growth, caloric needs, land use, and potential food sources showed that food self-sufficiency could be achieved within 100 years. The study is published in New Space: The Journal of Space Ent

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Sprint Took Millions in Federal Subsidies for Service It Didn't Provide, FCC Says

In news that seems to have soured Sprint’s bid for a mega-merger with T-Mobile, the Federal Communications Commission announced this week that it’s investigating the company over millions in …

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Trump’s Transactional. And Estonia’s President Is Cool With It.

The tiny nation of Estonia literally tests the limits of NATO, perched as it is on the military bloc’s border with Russia. It’s a precarious place to be when President Donald Trump has repeatedly expressed reluctance to defend members of the alliance in the event of an attack. And its people are all too familiar with attacks: The Soviet Union occupied the country during World War II, and Russia i

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Watch Boston Dynamics’ Humanoid Nail a Tricky Gymnastics Routine

10/10 A new video uploaded by Boston Dynamics shows the robotics company’s humanoid robot, Atlas, performing an impressive gymnastics routine — including a handstand, a somersault, and even a 360 jump — all in one fluid motion. It’s a spectacular display of agility by the nimble, two-legged robot. Previous videos have shown it go for a jog , master parkour , and even play “the floor is lava.” Rob

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An ensemble of cryo-EM structures of TRiC reveal its conformational landscape and subunit specificity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

TRiC/CCT assists the folding of ∼10% of cytosolic proteins through an ATP-driven conformational cycle and is essential in maintaining protein homeostasis. Here, we determined an ensemble of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of yeast TRiC at various nucleotide concentrations, with 4 open-state maps resolved at near-atomic resolutions, and a closed-state map…

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Lgr5+ pericentral hepatocytes are self-maintained in normal liver regeneration and susceptible to hepatocarcinogenesis [Cell Biology]

Emerging evidence suggests that hepatocytes are primarily maintained by self-renewal during normal liver homeostasis, as well as in response to a wide variety of hepatic injuries. However, how hepatocytes in distinct anatomic locations within the liver lobule are replenished under homeostasis and injury-induced regeneration remains elusive. Using a newly developed…

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Development and utilization of human decidualization reporter cell line uncovers new modulators of female fertility [Cell Biology]

Failure of embryo implantation accounts for a significant percentage of female infertility. Exquisitely coordinated molecular programs govern the interaction between the competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus. Decidualization, the rapid proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into decidual cells, is required for implantation. Decidualization defects can cause poor pla

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Human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein targets RNF168 to hijack the host DNA damage response [Cell Biology]

High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) promote cervical cancer as well as a subset of anogenital and head and neck cancers. Due to their limited coding capacity, HPVs hijack the host cell’s DNA replication and repair machineries to replicate their own genomes. How this host–pathogen interaction contributes to genomic instability is unknown….

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Immunogenicity of a rheumatoid arthritis protective sequence when acquired through microchimerism [Immunology and Inflammation]

HLA class II genes provide the strongest genetic contribution to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the sequence DERAA are RA-protective. Paradoxically, RA risk is increased in women with DERAA+ children born prior to onset. We developed a sensitive qPCR assay specific for DERAA, and found 53% of DERAA−/− women…

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p53 prevents doxorubicin cardiotoxicity independently of its prototypical tumor suppressor activities [Medical Sciences]

Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent that causes dose-dependent cardiotoxicity in a subset of treated patients, but the genetic determinants of this susceptibility are poorly understood. Here, we report that a noncanonical tumor suppressor activity of p53 prevents cardiac dysfunction in a mouse model induced by doxorubicin administered in…

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Neurokinin-1 receptor is an effective target for treating leukemia by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial calcium overload [Medical Sciences]

Substance P (SP) regulates multiple biological processes through its high-affinity neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). While the SP/NK-1R signaling axis is involved in the pathogenesis of solid cancer, the role of this signaling pathway in hematological malignancy remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that NK-1R expression is markedly elevated in the white blood…

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Phase variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis glpK produces transiently heritable drug tolerance [Microbiology]

The length and complexity of tuberculosis (TB) therapy, as well as the propensity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to develop drug resistance, are major barriers to global TB control efforts. M. tuberculosis is known to have the ability to enter into a drug-tolerant state, which may explain many of these impediments to…

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Revealing the metabolic capacity of Streblomastix strix and its bacterial symbionts using single-cell metagenomics [Microbiology]

Lower termites harbor in their hindgut complex microbial communities that are involved in the digestion of cellulose. Among these are protists, which are usually associated with specific bacterial symbionts found on their surface or inside their cells. While these form the foundations of a classic system in symbiosis research, we…

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Large-scale identification of pathogen essential genes during coinfection with sympatric and allopatric microbes [Microbiology]

Recent evidence suggests that the genes an organism needs to survive in an environment drastically differ when alone or in a community. However, it is not known if there are universal functions that enable microbes to persist in a community and if there are functions specific to interactions between microbes…

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Distinct intraspecies virulence mechanisms regulated by a conserved transcription factor [Microbiology]

Tailoring transcriptional regulation to coordinate the expression of virulence factors in tandem with the core genome is a hallmark of bacterial pathogen evolution. Bacteria encode hundreds of transcription factors forming the base-level control of gene regulation. Moreover, highly homologous regulators are assumed to control conserved genes between members within a…

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RNA editing alterations define manifestation of prion diseases [Neuroscience]

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by misfolding of the normal prion protein into an infectious cellular pathogen. Clinically characterized by rapidly progressive dementia and accounting for 85% of human prion disease cases, sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) is the prevalent human prion disease. Although sCJD neuropathological hallmarks are well-known,…

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Oligogalacturonide production upon Arabidopsis thaliana-Botrytis cinerea interaction [Plant Biology]

Despite an ever-increasing interest for the use of pectin-derived oligogalacturonides (OGs) as biological control agents in agriculture, very little information exists—mainly for technical reasons—on the nature and activity of the OGs that accumulate during pathogen infection. Here we developed a sensitive OG profiling method, which revealed unsuspected features of the…

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Intracellular redox potential is correlated with miRNA expression in MCF7 cells under hypoxic conditions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Hypoxia is a ubiquitous feature of cancers, encouraging glycolytic metabolism, proliferation, and resistance to therapy. Nonetheless, hypoxia is a poorly defined term with confounding features described in the literature. Redox biology provides an important link between the external cellular microenvironment and the cell’s response to changing oxygen pressures. In this…

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Regulation of GSK3 cellular location by FRAT modulates mTORC1-dependent cell growth and sensitivity to rapamycin [Cell Biology]

The mTORC1 pathway regulates cell growth and proliferation by properly coupling critical processes such as gene expression, protein translation, and metabolism to the availability of growth factors and hormones, nutrients, cellular energetics, oxygen status, and cell stress. Although multiple cytoplasmic substrates of mTORC1 have been identified, how mTORC1 signals within…

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Hydrologic variability contributes to reduced survival through metamorphosis in a stream salamander [Ecology]

Changes in the amount, intensity, and timing of precipitation are increasing hydrologic variability in many regions, but we have little understanding of how these changes are affecting freshwater species. Stream-breeding amphibians—a diverse group in North America—may be particularly sensitive to hydrologic variability during aquatic larval and metamorphic stages. Here, we…

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Evolution of the vomer and its implications for cranial kinesis in Paraves [Evolution]

Most living birds exhibit cranial kinesis—movement between the rostrum and braincase—in which force is transferred through the palatal and jugal bars. The palate alone distinguishes the Paleognathae from the Neognathae, with cranial kinesis more developed in neognaths. Most previous palatal studies were based on 2D data and rarely incorporated data…

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Chestnut-crowned babbler calls are composed of meaningless shared building blocks [Evolution]

A core component of human language is its combinatorial sound system: meaningful signals are built from different combinations of meaningless sounds. Investigating whether nonhuman communication systems are also combinatorial is hampered by difficulties in identifying the extent to which vocalizations are constructed from shared, meaningless building blocks. Here we present…

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Diversification of giant and large eukaryotic dsDNA viruses predated the origin of modern eukaryotes [Evolution]

Giant and large eukaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses from the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Virus (NCLDV) assemblage represent a remarkably diverse and potentially ancient component of the eukaryotic virome. However, their origin(s), evolution, and potential roles in the emergence of modern eukaryotes remain subjects of intense debate. Here we present robust phylogenetic…

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Evolution-based screening enables genome-wide prioritization and discovery of DNA repair genes [Genetics]

DNA repair is critical for genome stability and is maintained through conserved pathways. Traditional genome-wide mammalian screens are both expensive and laborious. However, computational approaches circumvent these limitations and are a powerful tool to identify new DNA repair factors. By analyzing the evolutionary relationships between genes in the major DNA…

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Proteomic analyses of ECM during pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression reveal different contributions by tumor and stromal cells [Medical Sciences]

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has prominent extracellular matrix (ECM) that compromises treatments yet cannot be nonselectively disrupted without adverse consequences. ECM of PDAC, despite the recognition of its importance, has not been comprehensively studied in patients. In this study, we used quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to characterize ECM proteins…

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The single-cell transcriptomic landscape of early human diabetic nephropathy [Medical Sciences]

Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by damage to both the glomerulus and tubulointerstitium, but relatively little is known about accompanying cell-specific changes in gene expression. We performed unbiased single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) on cryopreserved human diabetic kidney samples to generate 23,980 single-nucleus transcriptomes from 3 control and 3 early diabetic nephropathy…

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Mode-of-action profiling reveals glutamine synthetase as a collateral metabolic vulnerability of M. tuberculosis to bedaquiline [Microbiology]

Combination chemotherapy can increase treatment efficacy and suppress drug resistance. Knowledge of how to engineer rational, mechanism-based drug combinations, however, remains lacking. Although studies of drug activity have historically focused on the primary drug–target interaction, growing evidence has emphasized the importance of the subsequent consequences of this interaction. Bedaquiline (B

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Targeted mobilization of Lrig1+ gastric epithelial stem cell populations by a carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system [Microbiology]

Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis is the strongest risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, a malignancy preceded by a series of well-defined histological stages, including metaplasia. One microbial constituent that augments cancer risk is the cag type 4 secretion system (T4SS), which translocates the oncoprotein CagA into host cells. Aberrant stem cell activation…

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Rickettsia conorii O antigen is the target of bactericidal Weil-Felix antibodies [Microbiology]

Rickettsial diseases have long been diagnosed with serum antibodies cross-reactive against Proteus vulgaris (Weil–Felix reaction). Although Weil–Felix antibodies are associated with the development of immunity, their rickettsial target and contribution to disease pathogenesis are not established. Here, we developed a transposon for insertional mutagenesis of Rickettsia conorii, isolating variants

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Neurodevelopmental mutation of giant ankyrin-G disrupts a core mechanism for axon initial segment assembly [Neuroscience]

Giant ankyrin-G (gAnkG) coordinates assembly of axon initial segments (AISs), which are sites of action potential generation located in proximal axons of most vertebrate neurons. Here, we identify a mechanism required for normal neural development in humans that ensures ordered recruitment of gAnkG and β4-spectrin to the AIS. We identified…

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NEEDLE1 encodes a mitochondria localized ATP-dependent metalloprotease required for thermotolerant maize growth [Plant Biology]

Meristems are highly regulated structures ultimately responsible for the formation of branches, lateral organs, and stems, and thus directly affect plant architecture and crop yield. In meristems, genetic networks, hormones, and signaling molecules are tightly integrated to establish robust systems that can adapt growth to continuous inputs from the environment….

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Preserved capacity for learning statistical regularities and directing selective attention after hippocampal lesions [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Prior knowledge about the probabilistic structure of visual environments is necessary to resolve ambiguous information about objects in the world. Expectations based on stimulus regularities exert a powerful influence on human perception and decision making by improving the efficiency of information processing. Another type of prior knowledge, termed top-down attention,…

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Subcortical connectivity correlates selectively with attention’s effects on spatial choice bias [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Neural mechanisms of attention are extensively studied in the neocortex; comparatively little is known about how subcortical regions contribute to attention. The superior colliculus (SC) is an evolutionarily conserved, subcortical (midbrain) structure that has been implicated in controlling visuospatial attention. Yet how the SC contributes mechanistically to attention remains unknown….

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Correction for Sever et al., SLAMF9 regulates pDC homeostasis and function in health and disease [Correction]

IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for “SLAMF9 regulates pDC homeostasis and function in health and disease,” by Lital Sever, Lihi Radomir, Kristin Strim, Anna Weiner, Nofar Shchottlender, Hadas Lewinsky, Avital F. Barak, Gilgi Friedlander, Shifra Ben-Dor, Shirly Becker-Herman, and Idit Shachar, which was first published July 25, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1900079116 (Proc. Natl….

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Correction for Seo et al., TOX and TOX2 transcription factors cooperate with NR4A transcription factors to impose CD8+ T cell exhaustion [Correction]

IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for “TOX and TOX2 transcription factors cooperate with NR4A transcription factors to impose CD8+ T cell exhaustion,” by Hyungseok Seo, Joyce Chen, Edahí González-Avalos, Daniela Samaniego-Castruita, Arundhoti Das, Yueqiang H. Wang, Isaac F. López-Moyado, Romain O. Georges, Wade Zhang, Atsushi Onodera, Cheng-Jang Wu, Li-Fan Lu, Patrick…

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

Cranial kinesis and avian palate evolution S. chaoyangensis specimen IVPP V19058. Cranial kinesis—relative movement between the braincase and the upper jaw—occurs in most living birds. The origin of this ability is poorly understood due to a lack of palatal elements preserved in the fossil record. Han Hu et al. (pp….

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Distributional semantics as a source of visual knowledge [Social Sciences]

In PNAS Kim et al. (1) detail congenitally blind individuals’ extensive knowledge of the visual appearance of animals. This is exciting and important work speaking directly to long-standing questions about the role of direct perceptual experience in semantic knowledge. Despite lacking visual input, blind people show substantial alignment with one…

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Reply to Lewis et al.: Inference is key to learning appearance from language, for humans and distributional semantic models alike [Social Sciences]

Two major ways in which humans learn is by direct sensory observation and gathering information from other minds through language. In our original paper, we attempt to tease apart the contributions of sensory experience from other sources of information, including linguistic communication, by comparing knowledge of appearance among individuals blind…

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Take a deep breath: Multiecho fMRI denoising effectively removes head motion artifacts, obviating the need for global signal regression [Biological Sciences]

Power et al. (1) provide convincing evidence that multiecho independent components analysis (ME-ICA) effectively differentiates blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) from non-BOLD, or artifactual, signals in functional MRI (fMRI) data. Critically, ME-ICA removes spurious, distance-dependent effects caused by head motion in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses, which have confounded

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Reply to Spreng et al.: Multiecho fMRI denoising does not remove global motion-associated respiratory signals [Biological Sciences]

In 2 human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets (89 “ME” subjects; 12 “NA” subjects), we used signal decay properties to separate 2 kinds of signals: S0 artifacts, which were spatially specific, and T2* modulations, which occurred over the whole brain (1). We established that whole-brain (global) fMRI signals were…

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Production of hydrogen peroxide enabled by microdroplets [Chemistry]

Geometry and dimensionality of a reaction system are known to play an important role in determining the yield as well as the rate of the reaction, especially in simple bimolecular reactions (1–8). Recently, several results have been reported for reactions in small droplets, which include charged microdroplets (3), microdiameter emulsions…

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Slippery ribosomes prefer shapeshifting mRNAs [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The variety of structures available to an individual RNA molecule through Watson/Crick and nonclassical interactions causes them to be conformationally dynamic; that is, any single RNA may exist in and transition among multiple configurations. Recently, single-molecule methodologies have made it possible to determine the number of RNA structures present in…

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An unfolding role for ankyrin-G at the axon initial segment [Neuroscience]

The ability of neurons to integrate convergent inputs and generate action potentials, the physiological currency of activity, relies on the axon initial segment (AIS). This specialized segment of the proximal axon is the site of electrogenesis in neurons (1), reflecting its striking enrichment in voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). The AIS…

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Fluid pumping and active flexoelectricity can promote lumen nucleation in cell assemblies [Applied Physical Sciences]

We discuss the physical mechanisms that promote or suppress the nucleation of a fluid-filled lumen inside a cell assembly or a tissue. We discuss lumen formation in a continuum theory of tissue material properties in which the tissue is described as a 2-fluid system to account for its permeation by…

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The first day of the Cenozoic [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Highly expanded Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary section from the Chicxulub peak ring, recovered by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP)–International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Expedition 364, provides an unprecedented window into the immediate aftermath of the impact. Site M0077 includes ∼130 m of impact melt rock and suevite deposited the first…

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Atmosphere-ocean oxygen and productivity dynamics during early animal radiations [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The proliferation of large, motile animals 540 to 520 Ma has been linked to both rising and declining O2 levels on Earth. To explore this conundrum, we reconstruct the global extent of seafloor oxygenation at approximately submillion-year resolution based on uranium isotope compositions of 187 marine carbonates samples from China,…

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Quantifying the contribution of sequence variants with regulatory and evolutionary significance to 34 bovine complex traits [Agricultural Sciences]

Many genome variants shaping mammalian phenotype are hypothesized to regulate gene transcription and/or to be under selection. However, most of the evidence to support this hypothesis comes from human studies. Systematic evidence for regulatory and evolutionary signals contributing to complex traits in a different mammalian model is needed. Sequence variants…

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The composition of a Neandertal social group revealed by the hominin footprints at Le Rozel (Normandy, France) [Anthropology]

Footprints represent a unique snapshot of hominin life. They provide information on the size and composition of groups that differs from osteological and archeological remains, whose contemporaneity is difficult to establish. We report here on the discovery of 257 footprints dated to 80,000 y from the Paleolithic site at Le…

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Mechanism of activation of the human cysteine desulfurase complex by frataxin [Biochemistry]

The function of frataxin (FXN) has garnered great scientific interest since its depletion was linked to the incurable neurodegenerative disease Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA). FXN has been shown to be necessary for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biosynthesis and proper mitochondrial function. The structural and functional core of the Fe-S cluster assembly complex…

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PHF2 histone demethylase prevents DNA damage and genome instability by controlling cell cycle progression of neural progenitors [Biochemistry]

Histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) is essential for cellular homeostasis; however, its contribution to development is not well established. Here, we demonstrate that the H3K9me2 demethylase PHF2 is essential for neural progenitor proliferation in vitro and for early neurogenesis in the chicken spinal cord. Using genome-wide analyses and biochemical…

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Three archetypical classes of macromolecular regulators of protein liquid-liquid phase separation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Membraneless organelles, corresponding to the droplet phase upon liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) of protein or protein–RNA mixtures, mediate myriad cellular functions. Cells use a variety of biochemical signals such as expression level and posttranslational modification to regulate droplet formation and dissolution, but the physical basis of the regulatory mechanisms remains…

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Polymer effects modulate binding affinities in disordered proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Structural disorder is widespread in regulatory protein networks. Weak and transient interactions render disordered proteins particularly sensitive to fluctuations in solution conditions such as ion and crowder concentrations. How this sensitivity alters folding coupled binding reactions, however, has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that salt jointly modulates polymer…

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Signaling the trustworthiness of science [Social Sciences]

Trust in science increases when scientists and the outlets certifying their work honor science’s norms. Scientists often fail to signal to other scientists and, perhaps more importantly, the public that these norms are being upheld. They could do so as they generate, certify, and react to each other’s findings: for…

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Relief food subsistence revealed by microparticle and proteomic analyses of dental calculus from victims of the Great Irish Famine [Anthropology]

Food and diet were class markers in 19th-century Ireland, which became evident as nearly 1 million people, primarily the poor and destitute, died as a consequence of the notorious Great Famine of 1845 to 1852. Famine took hold after a blight (Phytophthora infestans) destroyed virtually the only means of subsistence—the…

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Engineering energetically efficient transport of dicarboxylic acids in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Applied Biological Sciences]

Biobased C4-dicarboxylic acids are attractive sustainable precursors for polymers and other materials. Commercial scale production of these acids at high titers requires efficient secretion by cell factories. In this study, we characterized 7 dicarboxylic acid transporters in Xenopus oocytes and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for dicarboxylic acid production. Among the…

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Revealing angular momentum transfer channels and timescales in the ultrafast demagnetization process of ferromagnetic semiconductors [Applied Physical Sciences]

Ultrafast control of magnetic order by light provides a promising realization for spintronic devices beyond Moore’s Law and has stimulated intense research interest in recent years. Yet, despite 2 decades of debates, the key question of how the spin angular momentum flows on the femtosecond timescale remains open. The lack…

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A safe and sustainable bacterial cellulose nanofiber separator for lithium rechargeable batteries [Biochemistry]

Bacterial cellulose nanofiber (BCNF) with high thermal stability produced by an ecofriendly process has emerged as a promising solution to realize safe and sustainable materials in the large-scale battery. However, an understanding of the actual thermal behavior of the BCNF in the full-cell battery has been lacking, and the yield…

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Chromatin conformation remains stable upon extensive transcriptional changes driven by heat shock [Biochemistry]

Heat shock (HS) initiates rapid, extensive, and evolutionarily conserved changes in transcription that are accompanied by chromatin decondensation and nucleosome loss at HS loci. Here we have employed in situ Hi-C to determine how heat stress affects long-range chromatin conformation in human and Drosophila cells. We found that compartments and…

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CMT disease severity correlates with mutation-induced open conformation of histidyl-tRNA synthetase, not aminoacylation loss, in patient cells [Biochemistry]

Aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases (aaRSs) are the largest protein family causatively linked to neurodegenerative Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease. Dominant mutations cause the disease, and studies of CMT disease-causing mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) showed their mutations create neomorphic structures consistent with a gain-of-function mechanism.

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Chemical and structural analysis of a photoactive vertebrate cryptochrome from pigeon [Biochemistry]

Computational and biochemical studies implicate the blue-light sensor cryptochrome (CRY) as an endogenous light-dependent magnetosensor enabling migratory birds to navigate using the Earth’s magnetic field. Validation of such a mechanism has been hampered by the absence of structures of vertebrate CRYs that have functional photochemistry. Here we present crystal structures…

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Energetics of the exchangeable quinone, QB, in Photosystem II [Biochemistry]

Photosystem II (PSII), the light-driven water/plastoquinone photooxidoreductase, is of central importance in the planetary energy cycle. The product of the reaction, plastohydroquinone (PQH2), is released into the membrane from the QB site, where it is formed. A plastoquinone (PQ) from the membrane pool then binds into the QB site. Despite…

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Water follows polar and nonpolar protein surface domains [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The conformation of water around proteins is of paramount importance, as it determines protein interactions. Although the average water properties around the surface of proteins have been provided experimentally and computationally, protein surfaces are highly heterogeneous. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the correlations of water to the local distributions…

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A computational framework for DNA sequencing microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

We describe a method whereby microscale spatial information such as the relative positions of biomolecules on a surface can be transferred to a sequence-based format and reconstructed into images without conventional optics. Barcoded DNA “polymerase colony” (polony) amplification techniques enable one to distinguish specific locations of a surface by their…

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Revisiting the protomotive vectorial motion of F0-ATPase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The elucidation of the detailed mechanism used by F0 to convert proton gradient to torque and rotational motion presents a major puzzle despite significant biophysical and structural progress. Although the conceptual model has advanced our understanding of the working principles of such systems, it is crucial to explore the actual…

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Spatial transcriptome profiling by MERFISH reveals subcellular RNA compartmentalization and cell cycle-dependent gene expression [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The expression profiles and spatial distributions of RNAs regulate many cellular functions. Image-based transcriptomic approaches provide powerful means to measure both expression and spatial information of RNAs in individual cells within their native environment. Among these approaches, multiplexed error-robust fluorescence in situ hybridization (MERFISH) has achieved spatially resolved RNA quant

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Complex dynamics under tension in a high-efficiency frameshift stimulatory structure [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Specific structures in mRNA can stimulate programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF). PRF efficiency can vary enormously between different stimulatory structures, but the features that lead to efficient PRF stimulation remain uncertain. To address this question, we studied the structural dynamics of the frameshift signal from West Nile virus (WNV), which stimulates…

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Spontaneous generation of hydrogen peroxide from aqueous microdroplets [Chemistry]

We show H2O2 is spontaneously produced from pure water by atomizing bulk water into microdroplets (1 μm to 20 µm in diameter). Production of H2O2, as assayed by H2O2-sensitve fluorescence dye peroxyfluor-1, increased with decreasing microdroplet size. Cleavage of 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid and conversion of phenylboronic acid to phenols in microdroplets…

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Collective multipole oscillations direct the plasmonic coupling at the nanojunction interfaces [Chemistry]

We present a systematic study of the effect of higher-multipolar order plasmon modes on the spectral response and plasmonic coupling of silver nanoparticle dimers at nanojunction separation and introduce a coupling mechanism. The most prominent plasmonic band within the extinction spectra of coupled resonators is the dipolar coupling band. A…

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Unbiased atomistic insight in the competing nucleation mechanisms of methane hydrates [Chemistry]

Methane hydrates have important industrial and climate implications, yet their formation via homogeneous nucleation under natural, moderate conditions is poorly understood. Obtaining such understanding could lead to improved control of crystallization, as well as insight into polymorph selection in general, but is hampered by limited experimental resolution. Direct molecular dynamics…

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Core Concept: To improve weather and climate models, researchers are chasing atmospheric gravity waves [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

On September 3, 2018, an unpowered experimental sailplane made history by flying into the stratosphere. After leaving from El Calafate, a town near the Southern Patagonian Ice Field in Argentina, glider pilots Jim Payne and Tim Gardner surfed on enormous airborne waves emanating from the Andes Mountains. They achieved a…

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Decadal increase in Arctic dimethylsulfide emission [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Dimethylsulfide (DMS), a gas produced by marine microbial food webs, promotes aerosol formation in pristine atmospheres, altering cloud radiative forcing and precipitation. Recent studies suggest that DMS controls aerosol formation in the summertime Arctic atmosphere and call for an assessment of pan-Arctic DMS emission (EDMS) in a context of dramatic…

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Intermediate-scale horizontal isoprene concentrations in the near-canopy forest atmosphere and implications for emission heterogeneity [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The emissions, deposition, and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are thought to be influenced by underlying landscape heterogeneity at intermediate horizontal scales of several hundred meters across different forest subtypes within a tropical forest. Quantitative observations and scientific understanding at these scales, however, remain lacking, in large part due…

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Phase transitions beyond post-perovskite in NaMgF3 to 160 GPa [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Neighborite, NaMgF3, is used as a model system for understanding phase transitions in ABX3 systems (e.g., MgSiO3) at high pressures. Here we report diamond anvil cell experiments that identify the following phases in NaMgF3 with compression to 162 GPa: NaMgF3 (perovskite) → NaMgF3 (post-perovskite) → NaMgF3 (Sb2S3-type) → NaF (B2-type)…

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A round Earth for climate models [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Sunlight drives the Earth’s weather, climate, chemistry, and biosphere. Recent efforts to improve solar heating codes in climate models focused on more accurate treatment of the absorption spectrum or fractional clouds. A mostly forgotten assumption in climate models is that of a flat Earth atmosphere. Spherical atmospheres intercept 2.5 W⋅m−2…

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Spherical tarball particles form through rapid chemical and physical changes of organic matter in biomass-burning smoke [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Biomass burning (BB) emits enormous amounts of aerosol particles and gases into the atmosphere and thereby significantly influences regional air quality and global climate. A dominant particle type from BB is spherical organic aerosol particles commonly referred to as tarballs. Currently, tarballs can only be identified, using microscopy, from their…

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What network motifs tell us about resilience and reliability of complex networks [Engineering]

Network motifs are often called the building blocks of networks. Analysis of motifs has been found to be an indispensable tool for understanding local network structure, in contrast to measures based on node degree distribution and its functions that primarily address a global network topology. As a result, networks that…

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Inner Workings: Lyme disease vaccines face familiar challenges, both societal and scientific [Immunology and Inflammation]

Just over 20 years ago, a Lyme disease vaccine called LYMErix was approved for sale in the United States. Researchers designed the vaccine to prevent the transmission of the tick-borne pathogen Borellia burgdorferi, which spurs a bacterial infection that can cause fever, headaches, and joint pain if left untreated. The…

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Interesting identities involving weighted representations of integers as sums of arbitrarily many squares [Mathematics]

We consider the number of ways to write an integer as a sum of squares, a problem with a long history going back at least to Fermat. The previous studies in this area generally fix the number of squares which may occur and then either use algebraic techniques or connect…

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Digital-resolution detection of microRNA with single-base selectivity by photonic resonator absorption microscopy [Medical Sciences]

Circulating exosomal microRNA (miR) represents a new class of blood-based biomarkers for cancer liquid biopsy. The detection of miR at a very low concentration and with single-base discrimination without the need for sophisticated equipment, large volumes, or elaborate sample processing is a challenge. To address this, we present an approach…

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Autism spectrum traits predict higher social psychological skill [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Social-cognitive skills can take different forms, from accurately predicting individuals’ intentions, emotions, and thoughts (person perception or folk psychology) to accurately predicting social phenomena more generally. Past research has linked autism spectrum (AS) traits to person perception deficits in the general population. We tested whether AS traits also predict poor…

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Scleral pigmentation leads to conspicuous, not cryptic, eye morphology in chimpanzees [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Gaze following has been argued to be uniquely human, facilitated by our depigmented, white sclera [M. Tomasello, B. Hare, H. Lehmann, J. Call, J. Hum. Evol. 52, 314–320 (2007)]—the pale area around the colored iris—and to underpin human-specific behaviors such as language. Today, we know that great apes show diverse…

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Measuring actual learning versus feeling of learning in response to being actively engaged in the classroom [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

We compared students’ self-reported perception of learning with their actual learning under controlled conditions in large-enrollment introductory college physics courses taught using 1) active instruction (following best practices in the discipline) and 2) passive instruction (lectures by experienced and highly rated instructors). Both groups received identical class content and handouts,…

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Despite high objective numeracy, lower numeric confidence relates to worse financial and medical outcomes [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

People often laugh about being “no good at math.” Unrecognized, however, is that about one-third of American adults are likely too innumerate to operate effectively in financial and health environments. Two numeric competencies conceivably matter—objective numeracy (ability to “run the numbers” correctly; like literacy but with numbers) and numeric self-efficacy…

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The long-term impact of the Communist Revolution on social stratification in contemporary China [Social Sciences]

The Chinese Communist Revolution that culminated in the 1949 founding of the People’s Republic of China fundamentally transformed class relations in China. With data from a nationally representative, longitudinal survey between 2010 and 2016, this study documents the long-term impact of the Communist Revolution on the social stratification order in…

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Large-scale enhanced recovery program improves outcomes for bariatric surgery patients

A large-scale implementation of a protocol to improve recovery of patients after weight-loss operations was found to reduce rates of extended hospitalization by almost half at 36 participating accredited bariatric surgery centers nationwide, according to a study published online ahead of print in the current issue of the journal Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.

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HSS researchers identify factor essential for tendon growth

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is essential for allowing tendons to adapt to physical activity and grow properly, according to basic science research by investigators at Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). The findings provide a strong rationale for pursuing clinical trials to explore IGF1 as a new target for treating tendon injuries in humans.

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NASA sees Karen regain tropical storm status

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Caribbean Sea and used infrared light to obtain temperature information about Karen's cloud tops. Data showed powerful thunderstorms re-developed in around the storm's center as it strengthened back into a tropical storm.

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Using light to speed up computation

Researchers in Japan have developed a type of processor called PAXEL, a device that can potentially bypass Moore's Law and increase the speed and efficiency of computing. In APL Photonics, the researchers looked at using light for the data transport step in integrated circuits, since photons are not subject to Moore's Law. Instead of integrated electronic circuits, much new development now involve

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Study shows the biological clock influences immune response efficiency

According to a recent study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, the biological clock influences immune response efficacy. Indeed, CD8 T cells, which are essential to fight infections and cancers, function very differently according to the time of day. The study was carried out by a team of researchers led by Nicolas Cermakian, PhD, of the D

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Tool kit provides real world guidelines for counseling for weight loss in primary care

Healthcare practitioners and researchers have a new tool to combat obesity in primary care settings, according to a study published in Obesity, the flagship journal of The Obesity Society.

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The problem with promoting 'responsible dog ownership'

Dog welfare campaigns that tell people to be 'responsible owners' don't help to promote behaviour change, a new University of Liverpool report suggests. Dog owners interviewed for a study published in Anthrozoös all considered themselves to be responsible owners, despite there being great variation in key aspects of their dog-owning behaviour.

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Most California wildfire is in wildland-urban interface area with less fuel, more people

Homeowner guidance and fire behavior models are largely based on the idea that natural grass, bushes and trees fuel fire in the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Researchers found that over nearly three decades, half of all buildings destroyed by wildfire in California were located in an area of the WUI with less natural vegetation.

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Wistar receives over $12M for clinical research on opioid use in HIV-infected people

Wistar was awarded 2 major grants totaling more than $12 million from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health, to fund an international multidisciplinary clinical research consortium spearheaded by Wistar's HIV Research Program.

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'Treasure trove' of quake clues could be unearthed by wavy new technique

Geologists have improved upon methods to map seabed rocks, helping us better understand underwater earthquakes and the tsunamis they can cause.

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Stay warm and dry with these improvised tarp shelters

A kayak, tarp, and a break-down paddle are all you need for a great paddling shelter. (Craig Caudill/) This article was originally featured on Field & Stream . With careful consideration, we must ask ourselves what sort of items we should take that will help us in outdoor adventure. One thing is for certain. Creating adequate shelter is a must-have in austere conditions. There are dozens of items

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Tinder Wants to Pair People Based on Their Apocalypse Strategy

Game Plan Coming soon to the matchmaking app Tinder: the end of the world as we know it. In October, Tinder plans to launch a weekly choose-your-own-adventure story called Swipe Night. In it, lovelorn users will be faced with tough choices set in a fictional end-of-the-world scenario, Wired reports — and the app will use the choices to pair people up based on their apocalypse survival strategies.

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Could we feed one million people living on mars?

A provocative new study looks at the resource utilization and technological strategies that would be needed to make a Mars population of one million people food self-sufficient.

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Naming of new interstellar visitor: 2I/Borisov

A new object from interstellar space has been found within the Solar System, only the second such discovery of its kind. Astronomers are turning their telescopes towards the visitor, which offers a tantalising glimpse beyond our Solar System and raises some puzzling questions. The object has been given the name 2I/Borisov by the IAU.

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Research could help flexible technology last longer, avoid critical failures

A new study from a Binghamton University research team uses the topography of human skin as a model not for preventing cracks but for directing them in the best way possible to avoid critical components and make repairs easy.

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Forskare ska driva med isflak i Arktis

Isbrytaren Polarstern ska under ett års tid driva fastfrusen i isen i Arktis. Fyra andra isbrytare, varav svenska Oden är en, helikoptrar och flygplan kommer att utrusta expeditionen under resans gång. Expeditionen har 600 deltagare från 17 länder, varav hälften är forskare. I omgångar ska de vara ombord på fartyget för att forska och samla data för att bättre kunna förstå klimatförändringarna. D

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Researchers Strapped a Nail Gun to an Autonomous Drone

Danger Zone Experts predict that autonomous systems will take over three types of jobs first: ones that are dull, dirty, or dangerous . To that end, a team of researchers decided to see if they could build a robot that would save humans from the perilous task of climbing on top of houses to install new shingles. And they succeeded — by strapping a nail gun to a drone. Nailed It Once you put aside

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Cats truly bond to their people

Nature, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02878-w A test shows that a majority of felines are well attached to their caregivers.

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New discoveries map out CRISPR-Cas defense systems in bacteria

For the first time ever, researchers have mapped how bacterial cells trigger their defense against outside attacks. This could affect how diseases are fought in the future.

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'Report card' on diet trends: Low-quality carbs account for 42 percent of a day's calories

An 18-year 'report card' on the American diet shows adults are eating too many low-quality carbohydrates and more than the recommended daily amount of saturated fat.

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Cellular senescence is associated with age-related blood clots

Cells that become senescent irrevocably stop dividing under stress, spewing out a mix of inflammatory proteins that lead to chronic inflammation as more and more of the cells accumulate over time. Researchers have identified 44 specific senescence-associated proteins that are involved in blood clotting, marking the first time that cellular senescence has been associated with age-related blood clot

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Tidal barriers bring more benefits than producing clean energy

When designed holistically, tidal barrage schemes can provide additional transport links for commuters, become tourism destinations, mitigate wildlife habitat loss, as well as provide opportunities to boost people's health and wellbeing with additional options for cycling and walking, say researchers.

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Converting absorbed photons into twice as many excitons

A group of researchers found that when light was exposed to the surface of a tetracene alkanethiol-modified gold nanocluster, which they developed themselves, twice as many excitons could be converted compared to the number of photons absorbed by the tetracene molecules. These findings are expected to contribute to areas such as solar energy conversion, electronics, life sciences, and medical care

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Iridium 'loses its identity' when interfaced with nickel

Hey, physicists and materials scientists: You'd better reevaluate your work if you study iridium-based materials—members of the platinum family—when they are ultra-thin.

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Tapeworms need to keep their head to regenerate

Scientists have identified the stem cells that allow tapeworms to regenerate and found that their location in proximity to the head is essential, according to a new study in eLife.

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Promising prostate cancer drug candidates identified

Cancer researchers from the University of Bath have identified some promising drug candidates by using high-throughput screening methods to test tens of thousands of molecules.

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Outer hair cells regulate ear's sensitivity to sound

The ear's tiny outer hair cells adjust the sensitivity of neighboring inner hair cells to sound levels rather than acting like an amplifier, suggests a new study published today in eLife.

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Tapeworms need to keep their head to regenerate

Scientists have identified the stem cells that allow tapeworms to regenerate and found that their location in proximity to the head is essential, according to a new study in eLife.

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Iridium 'loses its identity' when interfaced with nickel

Hey, physicists and materials scientists: You'd better reevaluate your work if you study iridium-based materials — members of the platinum family — when they are ultra-thin. Iridium 'loses its identity' and its electrons act oddly in an ultra-thin film when interfaced with nickel-based layers, which have an unexpectedly strong impact on iridium ions, according to Rutgers University-New Brunswick

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Tapeworms need to keep their head to regenerate

Scientists have identified the stem cells that allow tapeworms to regenerate and found that their location in proximity to the head is essential, according to a new study in eLife.

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Volvo Plans Big Electric Trucks for Local, Regional Hauls

Volvo Trucks will ship electric trucks in California shortly, in a plan to showcase what big trucks can do when they’re running solely on big batteries. Over the next year, the California-focused program for the VNR Electric full-size regional truck will expand to more EV truck types, up to and including the largest tractors for 80,000 tractor-trailer rigs. Volvo’s rollout includes recharging sys

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Promising prostate cancer drug candidates identified

Cancer researchers from the University of Bath have identified some promising drug candidates by using high-throughput screening methods to test tens of thousands of molecules.

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Nerf’s New DRM’d Ultra Blaster Won’t Fire Knockoff Darts

Nerfed! Remember when Keurig used digital rights management (DRM) to force its coffee machines to only accept company-approved coffee pods? Now, foam dart toy brand Nerf, by Hasbro, is trying something similar. A new line of foam dart blasters called Nerf Ultra promise to launch specially-designed darts 120 feet — but the system won’t work with knockoff darts, The Wall Street Journal reports . Ho

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Hook-on drugs: New delivery strategy for K-Ras disruption

Scientists have succeeded in designing a compound to hook onto the pocket of the enzyme FTase and GGTase I, thereby inhibiting K-Ras. Scientists have worked to concoct an effective drug to target K-Ras proteins which cause cancer when they mutate. It is difficult to infiltrate K-Ras due to a lack of interactive pockets, so a strategy was devised to attack the necessary enzyme in the lipid modifica

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You may want to fund this backpack for camping and commuting

Kammok has a history of making high-performance outdoor gear, and this pack looks sophisticated enough to wear just about anywhere. (Kammok/) The quest for the perfect bag is never over, and here's another temptation along your path. Kammok's new Burro Pack camping packs —a first for the outdoor gear company—are lightweight and made of durable ripstop nylon material. Waterproof seams keep your ge

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Daimler says to pay 870 mn euro fine over diesel recalls

German car giant Daimler said Tuesday it will not contest an order from Stuttgart prosecutors to pay an 870 million euro ($957 million) fine over hundreds of thousands of diesel vehicles that …

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Daily briefing: Google claims quantum supremacy breakthrough

Nature, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02896-8 Leaked paper hints at computing milestone, a journal club to fix science and the quest to save the banana with CRISPR.

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New class of antibiotic candidates for fighting against superbugs

Scientists have developed a new class of antibiotic drug candidates which has high potential to be developed into a new generation of antibiotics fighting against multi-drug resistant superbugs including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

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Battery with a twist

A team of researchers has used stretchable materials to develop a battery that can be bent, stretched and twisted. For applications in bendable electronic devices, this is precisely the kind of battery they need.

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Safe solution to mop up oil spills

Researchers have come up with a new, safe way to clean up oil spills using compounds equally useful as common household cleaning products.

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Non-viral gene therapy to speed up cancer research

A new treatment method promises to speed up gene therapy research and could bring new, patient friendly cancer treatments to market faster.

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Hook-on drugs: New delivery strategy for K-Ras disruption

Scientists have succeeded in designing a compound to hook onto the pocket of the enzyme FTase and GGTase I, thereby inhibiting K-Ras. Scientists have worked to concoct an effective drug to target K-Ras proteins which cause cancer when they mutate. It is difficult to infiltrate K-Ras due to a lack of interactive pockets, so a strategy was devised to attack the necessary enzyme in the lipid modifica

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Breakthrough in understanding enzymes that make antibiotic for drug-resistant pathogen

One of the WHO's 3 critical priority pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii, for which new antibiotics are urgently needed is one step closer to being tackled, as researchers have made a breakthrough in understanding the enzymes that assemble the antibiotic enacyloxin.

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How and when was carbon distributed on Earth?

A magma ocean existing during the core formation is thought to have been highly depleted in carbon due to its high-siderophile (iron loving) behavior. Thus, most of the carbon forming the atmosphere and life on Earth may have been delivered by a carbon-rich embryo after the core formation. However, a new high-pressure experiment has shown that previous studies may have overestimated the amount of

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Evolution experiment: Specific immune response of beetles adapts to bacteria

The memory of the immune system is able to distinguish a foreign protein with which the organism has already come into contact from another and to react with a corresponding antibody. Researchers have now discovered in flour beetles that the immune system's ability to specifically fend off pathogens can adapt in the course of evolution.

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Exploring a strategy that leads to mutual cooperation without non-cooperative actions

A research team has analyzed which strategies would be effective in the prisoner's dilemma game, into which a new behavior of not participating in the game was introduced.

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Earnings of private european firms are more reliable than those of public firms

Conventional wisdom indicates that market discipline and transparency ensures that financial data of public firms are more reliable for potential investors than financial reports from private companies. Contrary to this widely-held belief, new research from Bocconi University , NYU Stern School of Business and University of Bolzano finds that when comparing European public firms against private fi

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Do children's brains really get thinner?

The brains of young children get thinner as they grow. At least that's what scientists used to believe. For decades, the debate has been about how and why that happens. Now, an international collaboration of leading neuroscientists suggest, in Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, it may be partly an illusion.

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Quantum destabilization of a water sandwich

When a thin layer of water is squeezed between two hydrophobic surfaces, the laws of classical physics break down.

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Bill Burr Knows Better

When a comedian gets in trouble, Bill Burr believes he knows who’s to blame. “This is fucking Millennials! You’re a bunch of rats, all of you!” he yelled , to audience cheers, on the talk show Lights Out With David Spade last week. The stand-up was offering his perspective on Saturday Night Live ’s hiring and rapid firing of Shane Gillis due to a plethora of racist material the latter had recorde

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What young people around the world want most in a partner

A new study from the UK looked at dating preferences of 2,700 international students. The study found that kindness was the top trait preferred by both men and women in a lifelong partner. Looks, financial stability and a sense of humor were also important but with differences across cultures. None We often have unrealistic expectations of our partners, wanting them to fulfill us in a multitude o

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Job sharing can boost number of women in senior higher education roles

Job sharing offers a route to increase the number of women in senior leadership roles in higher education.

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Crappy news for the dung beetle and those who depend on them

You mightn't think that the life of a dung beetle, a creature who eats poop every day of its short life, could get any worse, but you'd be wrong. Dung beetles, also known as rollers, pretty much live in manure. They can be found in a variety of environments-deserts, prairies, forests-and they subsist on poop. Dung beetles provide a highly useful service to the environment and to us. How? By simply

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Crappy news for the dung beetle and those who depend on them

You mightn't think that the life of a dung beetle, a creature who eats poop every day of its short life, could get any worse, but you'd be wrong. Dung beetles, also known as rollers, pretty much live in manure. They can be found in a variety of environments-deserts, prairies, forests-and they subsist on poop. Dung beetles provide a highly useful service to the environment and to us. How? By simply

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Finally, an App That Turns Your Selfie into an Anime Character

Anime-ted There are countless uses for neural networks: one composes terrifying jazz , and another dreams up an entire text adventure game in real time. So it should come as no surprise that a smartphone app called TwinFACE, now available on the Google Play store , is designed to transform your selfie into an anime character. Caveat Emptor TwinFACE uses the same open-source UGATIT code as an AI d

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West Africa: human-induced air pollution is higher than expected

Emissions of volatile organic pollutants in West Africa are 100 to 150 times higher than current estimates for the region. The study, which took place in Côte d'Ivoire and focused on emissions from road traffic, waste combustion and domestic fires, shows that they far exceed those of all the European countries combined.

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Tobacco giants still marketing cigarettes despite plain packaging legislation

The study from Bath's Tobacco Control Research Group suggests governments implementing legislation for plain packaging for cigarettes need to close loopholes.

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Reconstructing the first successful lunar farside landing

A research team, headed by Prof. LI Chunlai from the National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences has published a full reconstruction of the Chang'E-4's landing. Due to the location of the landing, Chang'E-4 had to navigate autonomously, without the guidance of scientists on Earth.

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Predicting epileptic seizures might be more difficult than previously thought

By studying the brain dynamics of 28 subjects with epilepsy, scientists demonstrated there is no evidence for a previously suspected warning sign for seizures known as 'critical slowing down,' which refers to characteristic changes in the behavior of a complex system that approaches a theoretical tipping point; when this point is exceeded, there can be impactful and devastating changes. The resear

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New standard of reference for assessing solar forecast proposed

Being able to accurately forecast how much solar energy reaches the surface of the Earth is key to guiding decisions for running solar power plants and new work in the Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy looks to provide a standard of reference to the field. Dazhi Yang proposes an improved way to assess day-ahead solar forecasting, which combines two popular reference methods for weather f

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Mice, like humans, fidget when deep in thought

By measuring the brain activity of mice during decision making, neuroscientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory observed that like humans, mice also seemed to fidget, or make uninstructed movements unrelated to the trained task.

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USPSTF recommendation on screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening people who are pregnant for asymptomatic bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine without signs or symptoms of a urinary tract infection) using urine culture and not screening other adults. The condition is present in an estimated 2% to 10% of pregnant women and is associated with pyelonephritis, a kidney infection that is a common reas

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Modest improvements in diets of US adults but still too much sugar, saturated fat

US adults made modest improvements to their diets in recent years but still eat too much low-quality carbohydrates and saturated fat based on an analysis of nationally representative survey data. The study included data from nearly 44,000 adults who reported their dietary intake in a 24-hour period.

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'Report card' on diet trends: Low-quality carbs account for 42 percent of a day's calories

An 18-year 'report card' on the American diet shows adults are eating too many low-quality carbohydrates and more than the recommended daily amount of saturated fat. The study of dietary trends, from researchers at Tufts and Harvard, is published today in JAMA.

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Cellular senescence is associated with age-related blood clots

Cells that become senescent irrevocably stop dividing under stress, spewing out a mix of inflammatory proteins that lead to chronic inflammation as more and more of the cells accumulate over time. Publishing in the Sept. 24 edition of Cell Reports, researchers at the Buck Institute identified 44 specific senescence-associated proteins that are involved in blood clotting, marking the first time tha

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Analog hobbies for when you want to escape the digital maelstrom

Knit a sweater! Build a birdhouse! (Giulia Bertelli via Unsplash/) When our professional and digital lives start to encroach on our happiness, the things we do for recreation become that much more essential. Hobbies let us relax, learn new things, and take ourselves far away from the daily grind. They challenge us in unfamiliar ways and make us more interesting people. The best activities are one

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Descent trajectory reconstruction and landing site positioning of Chang’E-4 on the lunar farside

Nature Communications, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12278-3 The Chang’E-4 mission in January 2019 had the major challenge to land on the lunar far side without traditional radiometric techniques due to the missing line-of-sight. The authors here describe landing trajectory reconstruction and positioning techniques based upon the Moon’s digital terrain model that all

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Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived vocal fold mucosa mimics development and responses to smoke exposure

Nature Communications, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12069-w There is a lack of human models to study vocal fold epithelia making it difficult to provide therapies for vocal fold disease. Here, the authors generate a human-based model of vocal fold mucosa that mimics in utero development and shows inflammation on exposure to cigarette smoke abstract.

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More Parkour Atlas

submitted by /u/cAtloVeR9998 [link] [comments]

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Boston Dynamics Spot Launch Video

submitted by /u/GedankenGod [link] [comments]

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Doctors? Nah; Most Millennials Get Medical Advice Online

submitted by /u/izumi3682 [link] [comments]

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Here's how 6 countries are stepping up to meet the Paris climate goals

World leaders are gathering in New York for Monday's Climate Action Summit. The summit's goal, according to United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, is to encourage countries to get serious about climate change.

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Transportminister gør nye vejprojekter billigere på papiret

De statslige vejprojekter er i en årrække gået så langt under budget, at transportministeren nu har besluttet at skære op til 50 procent af budgetreserverne på nye vejprojekter

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These Bacteria-Powered Robots May One Day Swim Through Your Bloodstream

The bacterium Escherichia coli, illustrated here, moves itself with propeller-like structures called flagella; it is one of the mobile microbes scientists have linked to cargo-carrying structures to form biohybrid microrobots. (Credit: supergalactic/Shutterstock) In the universe of TV's Doctor Who, the scariest adversaries of all are the hybrid robot-organic life-forms known as the Daleks. Each Da

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Nonviral gene therapy to speed up cancer research

The nonviral, bioinspired gene delivery method developed by researchers at RMIT University has proven effective in laboratory tests and is safer than standard viral approaches.

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In a close race, the less popular candidate has a 45% chance of winning

If the 2020 election is within a 1% margin, the less popular candidate has a 45% chance of becoming president, and the odds favor Republicans, according to the University of Texas Electoral College Study. The results raise questions about the manner in which the U.S. Electoral College represents the voice of the U.S. electorate.

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The impact of consumer finance reforms since the Great Recession

In an important new article, University of Pennsylvania Law School Professor Natasha Sarin deploys original empirical research to examine the impact of key consumer finance reforms implemented in the wake of The Great Recession. "Making Consumer Finance Work," forthcoming in the Columbia Law Review, details her findings about the successes and failures of reforms aimed at debit and credit cards an

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Reconstructing the first successful lunar farside landing

In January of this year, China's Chang'E-4—the fourth version of a lunar spacecraft named for the Chinese goddess of the Moon—landed on the far side of the Moon. Due to the location of the landing, Chang'E-4 had to navigate autonomously, without the guidance of scientists on Earth.

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Palaeontologists evaluate fossil color reconstruction methods to propose new study framework

Dr. Michael Pittman of the Vertebrate Palaeontology Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong led an international study with his Ph.D. student Mr Arindam Roy that evaluates fossil color reconstruction methods to propose a new study framework that improves and expands current practice. The paper was recently published in the journal Biological Reviews.

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These newly discovered iridescent bees are already at risk of extinction

Scientists identified nine previously unknown bee species on the island of Fiji. (James Dorey, Flinders University/) The native bees of Fiji don't bear much resemblance to their black-and-yellow cousins in the West. Instead, these southwest Pacific insects are colorful and metallic, adorned in brassy tones of green, blue, black, and bronze. They're also much more biodiverse than scientists origin

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Hook-on drugs: New delivery strategy for K-Ras disruption

"The strategy was to design the drug to be able to hook into the hole of the FTase and GGTase I, otherwise the surface of the proteins are too large and slippery," Dr. Junko Ohkanda of Shinshu University explains her strategy behind her paper chosen by Chemistry—A European Journal as a "Hot Paper."

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Hook-on drugs: New delivery strategy for K-Ras disruption

"The strategy was to design the drug to be able to hook into the hole of the FTase and GGTase I, otherwise the surface of the proteins are too large and slippery," Dr. Junko Ohkanda of Shinshu University explains her strategy behind her paper chosen by Chemistry—A European Journal as a "Hot Paper."

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SpaceX Starship gets some fins

https://www.universetoday.com/143500/spacex-starship-gets-some-fins/

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Can neutrinos help explain what's the matter with antimatter?

In physics, antimatter is simply the "opposite" of matter. Antimatter particles have the same mass as their counterparts but with other properties flipped; for example, protons in matter have a positive charge while antiprotons are negative. Antimatter can be made in a lab using high-energy particle collisions, but these events almost always create equal parts of both antimatter and matter and, wh

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Predicting epileptic seizures might be more difficult than previously thought

By studying the brain dynamics of 28 subjects with epilepsy, scientists demonstrated there is no evidence for a previously suspected warning sign for seizures known as "critical slowing down."

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Crappy news for the dung beetle and those who depend on them

You mightn't think that the life of a dung beetle, a creature who eats poop every day of its short life, could get any worse, but you'd be wrong. Dung beetles are one of the most threatened terrestrial animal species; and one of the main threats is the excessive use of veterinary medical products that are excreted in dung.

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Job sharing can boost number of women in senior higher education roles

Research from Lancaster University Management School, shows job sharing offers a route to increase the number of women in senior leadership roles in higher education.

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New Mersey designs show tidal barriers bring more benefits than producing clean energy

When designed holistically, tidal barrage schemes can provide additional transport links for commuters, become tourism destinations, mitigate wildlife habitat loss, as well as provide opportunities to boost people's health and wellbeing with additional options for cycling and walking, say researchers from Lancaster University and the University of Liverpool.

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Researchers can now place single ions into solids

New technique enables implantation of individual ions into crystals with an accuracy of 35 nanometers.

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Brain stimulation prevents anxiety-induced decrease in motor performances

Researchers in the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology and the Centre national de la recherché scientifique used fMRI to discover a new neural mechanism involving the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to explain how anxiety deteriorates physical performance. Moreover, the performance deterioration was rescued by suppressing brain activity with transcranial magnetic stimu

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A new member in AIE family

Three molecules based on tetraphenyl-1,3-butadienes (TPBs) showed aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics and sensitive conformational properties, in which the emission wavelengths could be changed in different states, attributed to the phenyl groups at the 4-position of the 1,3-butadienes. Furthermore, the TPBs could be used for sensitively probing some weak interactions by changing th

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New discoveries map out CRISPR-Cas defence systems in bacteria

For the first time ever, researchers at the University of Copenhagen have mapped how bacterial cells trigger their defense against outside attacks. This could affect how diseases are fought in the future.

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Geography impacts pika distribution

Not genetic variability as previously thought. Tanya Loos reports.

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Growing 3D vocal cords in a dish

The model could provide insights into treating damaged tissue. Paul Biegler reports.

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Bees are nearly lost before they’re found

Researchers discover new Fijian species and evidence of extinction risk. Natalie Parletta reports.

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Spacecraft’s descent on the dark side of the moon is revealed

Chinese scientists have ingeniously worked out where Chang’e-4 landed. Richard A Lovett reports.

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Living cancer cell captured in real time

Researchers improve super-resolving microscopy to view minuscule cell particles

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Amazon's Alexa-Enabled AirPods Rival Expected To Include Integrated Fitness Tracking Features

Do not fret about that voice you are hearing in your head, it is just Alexa, the helpful digital assistant that dutifully works for Amazon. Oh, what's that, there aren't any voices in your …

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Microsoft issues patch for Internet Explorer zero-day

Yesterday, Microsoft published CVE-2019-1367, a remote code execution vulnerability that exists in the way that the scripting engine handles objects in memory in Internet Explorer.

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How couples can sustain a strong sexual connection for a lifetime | Emily Nagoski

As a sex educator, Emily Nagoski is often asked: How do couples sustain a strong sexual connection over the long term? In this funny, insightful talk, she shares her answer — drawing on (somewhat surprising) research to reveal why some couples stop having sex while others keep up a connection for a lifetime.

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Trump’s Ukraine Mess Feels a Little Too Familiar

The unfolding drama ties two key threads of the Trump era: foreign interference in US elections and the president's distrust of his own intel agencies.

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More efficient drug delivery within the brain by utilizing LAT1

According to a new study the distribution of drug molecules within the brain can be improved by utilizing LAT1, which is expressed highly in the brain.

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Tripling shelf life of macaroni and cheese

Scientists have developed a way to triple the shelf life of ready-to-eat macaroni and cheese, a development that could have benefits for everything from space travel to military use.

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Scientists observe how acoustic interactions change materials at the atomic level

By using sound waves, scientists have begun to explore fundamental stress behaviors in a crystalline material that could form the basis for quantum information technologies.

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Neurotoxin lead sometimes added to turmeric for brighter color

Some spice processors in Bangladesh use an industrial lead chromate pigment to imbue turmeric with a bright yellow color prized for curries and other traditional dishes, elevating blood lead levels in Bangladeshis.

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Promising prostate cancer drug candidates identified by Bath scientists

Cancer researchers from the University of Bath have identified some promising drug candidates by using high-throughput screening methods to test tens of thousands of molecules.

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Exploring a strategy that leads to mutual cooperation without non-cooperative actions

A research team led by Hitoshi Yamamoto from Rissho University analyzed which strategies would be effective in the prisoner's dilemma game, into which a new behavior of not participating in the game was introduced. The study was carried out in collaboration with colleagues Isamu Okada (Soka University), Takuya Taguchi (Shibaura Institute of Technology), and Masayoshi Muto (Shibaura Institute of Te

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Evolution experiment: Specific immune response of beetles adapts to bacteria

The memory of the immune system is able to distinguish a foreign protein with which the organism has already come into contact from another and to react with a corresponding antibody. Researchers have now discovered in flour beetles that the immune system's ability to specifically fend off pathogens can adapt in the course of evolution. The study has been published in the journal 'PNAS'.

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How and when was carbon distributed in the Earth?

A magma ocean existing during the core formation is thought to have been highly depleted in carbon due to its high-siderophile (iron loving) behavior. Thus, most of the carbon forming the atmosphere and life on Earth may have been delivered by a carbon-rich embryo after the core formation. However, a new high-pressure experiment has shown that previous studies may have overestimated the amount of

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Breakthrough in understanding enzymes that make antibiotic for drug-resistant pathogen

One of the WHO's 3 critical priority pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii, for which new antibiotics are urgently needed is one step closer to being tackled, as researchers from the Department of Chemistry — University of Warwick have made a breakthrough in understanding the enzymes that assemble the antibiotic enacyloxin.

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Survey reveals low levels of awareness in men about prostate health and function

Awareness of prostate health is alarmingly low in men over 50, a new survey commissioned by the European Association of Urology (EAU) has revealed, despite the fact that at the age of 60 and over, 40 percent of men suffer from an enlarged prostate.

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Converting absorbed photons into twice as many excitons: Successful high-efficiency energy conversion with organic monolayer on gold nanocluster surface

A group of researchers from Kobe and Keio universities found that when light was exposed to the surface of a tetracene alkanethiol-modified gold nanocluster, which they developed themselves, twice as many excitons could be converted compared to the number of photons absorbed by the tetracene molecules. These findings are expected to contribute to areas such as solar energy conversion, electronics,

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Safe solution to mop up oil spills: QUT research breakthrough

QUT researchers have come up with a new, safe way to clean up oil spills using compounds equally useful as common household cleaning products.

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To Pay Attention, the Brain Uses Filters, Not a Spotlight

We can pick out a conversation in a loud room, amid the rise and fall of other voices or the hum of an air conditioner. We can spot a set of keys in a sea of clutter, or register a raccoon darting into the path of our onrushing car. Somehow, even with massive amounts of information flooding our senses, we’re able to focus on what’s important and act on it. Attentional processes are the brain’s wa

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Scientists decode DNA of coral and all its microscopic supporters

Scientists have seen for the first time how corals collaborate with other microscopic life to build and grow.

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Benefits and safety of FODMAP diet in children

The low FODMAP diet, a diet low in carbohydrates that trigger digestive symptoms like bloating and stomach pain, is a useful treatment in children and adolescents with gastrointestinal problems, new research confirms.

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What color were fossil animals?

Scientists have evaluated fossil color reconstruction methods and proposed a new study framework that improves and expands current practice.

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Potential therapeutic target for prostate cancers with PTEN mutation

PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene mutated in about 20% of prostate cancers, relies on another gene, ARID4B, to function.

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We ignore the past at our peril

Nature, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02845-5 To navigate the present, we must heed the lessons of history.

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Researchers find lead in turmeric

It's billed as a health booster and healing agent, but it may be the source of cognitive defects and other severe ailments. A new Stanford-led study reveals that turmeric—a commonly used spice throughout South Asia—is sometimes adulterated with a lead-laced chemical compound in Bangladesh, one of the world's predominant turmeric-growing regions.

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Your browser doesn't have to be boring

Your surroundings might be dark, bland, or uninteresting, but your browser doesn't have to be. (Wesson Wang via Unsplash/) You probably use your web browser daily for both work and play, but you don't have to just accept your window onto the web as it was when you first installed it. Each popular browser actually offers fairly extensive customization options you should really be taking advantage

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Xiaomi's Mi Mix Alpha concept has a crazy display that wraps around the entire phone

One can never have too much screen real estate. That's what smartphone manufactures like to think who, over the years, have given us phones with shrinking bezels, notches, all-screen displays …

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Fortnite will add ‘bots’ to help players improve. But how will skill be measured?

The world's most popular game is finally adding skill-based matchmaking, along with a bot army.

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Battery with a twist

Markus Niederberger's team of researchers at ETH has used stretchable materials to develop a battery that can be bent, stretched and twisted. For applications in bendable electronic devices, this is precisely the kind of battery they need.

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Hook-on drugs: New delivery strategy for K-Ras disruption

Dr. Ohkanda succeeded in designing a compound to hook onto the pocket of the enzyme FTase and GGTase I, thereby inhibiting K-Ras. Scientists have worked to concoct an effective drug to target K-Ras proteins which cause cancer when they mutate. It is difficult to infiltrate K-Ras due to a lack of interactive pockets, so a strategy was devised to attack the necessary enzyme in the lipid modification

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More efficient drug delivery within the brain by utilizing LAT1

According to a new study carried out at the University of Eastern Finland, the distribution of drug molecules within the brain can be improved by utilizing LAT1, which is expressed highly in the brain.

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PolyU develops a new class of antibiotic candidates for fighting against superbugs

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) has developed a new class of antibiotic drug candidates which has high potential to be developed into a new generation of antibiotics fighting against multi-drug resistant superbugs including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

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West Nile virus in the New World: Reflections on 20 years in pursuit of an elusive foe

Though eradication of West Nile virus remains beyond our capability, the body of knowledge built since its arrival in the Americas in 1999 is now powering efforts to minimize its impact and prepare for the invasion of other mosquito-borne diseases. A new special collection in the Journal of Medical Entomology takes stock of lessons learned and progress made over the past 20 years of West Nile viru

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What color were fossil animals?

Dr. Michael Pittman of the Vertebrate Palaeontology Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong led an international study with his PhD student Mr. Arindam Roy that evaluates fossil color reconstruction methods to propose a new study framework that improves and expands current practice. The paper was recently published in the journal Biological Reviews.

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Otago study first to report benefits and safety of FODMAP diet in children

The low FODMAP diet, a diet low in carbohydrates that trigger digestive symptoms like bloating and stomach pain, is a useful treatment in children and adolescents with gastrointestinal problems, new University of Otago research confirms.

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Non-viral gene therapy to speed up cancer research

A new treatment method promises to speed up gene therapy research and could bring new, patient friendly cancer treatments to market faster.

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Därför vinner AI-författare inga nobelpris

En dator har skrivit det här. Det vill säga datorn har översatt mina knapptryckningar till de bokstäver du nu läser. Men skulle datorn kunna göra mig överflödig? För enklare journalistiska texter är det redan ett faktum. Skulle den även kunna ersätta en romanförfattare? ”Catching me off guard, he slams me against the doorway. He’s pinning me to the doorway using his hips, and it’s so hot. He plan

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Antibody could fine-tune recovery from heart attack

An antibody initially developed for rheumatoid arthritis may offer a way to fine-tune recovery after a heart attack and decrease the risk for heart failure, research with mice shows. More than one million Americans per year experience myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, and the healing and rebuilding phase that begins shortly thereafter—a complicated process which involves re

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The child’s toy that helps to make valuable electronic circuits

Nature, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02877-x Balloon technique throws circuit manufacturers a curve.

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Deepfake Tech Can Now Anonymize Your Face to Protect Privacy

Deepfake videos have demonstrated their applications in entertainment—both acceptably and controversially—but these general adversarial networks (GANs) still have a long way to go before they offer convincing results. This has led to a lack of practical applications and plenty of paranoia, but we’re beginning to see efforts to employ deepfake technology in ways that can help people protect themse

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Fighting for Coral Reefs in a Warming World

Climate change is putting them in danger, but there’s still hope they can be saved — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Spot, the Internet’s Wildest 4-Legged Robot, Is Finally Here

A select few can now lease the famous robot, formerly known as SpotMini, from Boston Dynamics. But what exactly is it good for?

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Getting mac and cheese to Mars

Washington State University scientists have developed a way to triple the shelf life of ready-to-eat macaroni and cheese, a development that could have benefits for everything from space travel to military use.

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Visible from outer space, Detroit's unofficial pathways could play important role in land redevelopment

As neighborhood and city planners design ways to reuse vacant land in cities like Detroit, a researcher at the University of Michigan is urging them to look at the footpaths of people who already live there—literally.

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New AI Systems Are Here to Personalize Learning

The narratives about automation and its impact on jobs go from urgent to hopeful and everything in between. Regardless where you land, it’s hard to argue against the idea that technologies like AI and robotics will change our economy and the nature of work in the coming years. A recent World Economic Forum report noted that some estimates show automation could displace 75 million jobs by 2022, wh

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TDC aktiverer 5G-mast: Fjernstyrer hænder i ambulancer

PLUS. TDC har hen over forsommeren aktiveret sin første 5G-mobilmast på toppen af hovedkvarteret i Københavns Sydhavn. Nu tester de sammen med Ericsson, hvordan 5G kan bruges til fjernstyring i realtid i ambulancer

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Scientists observe how acoustic interactions change materials at the atomic level

By using sound waves, scientists have begun to explore fundamental stress behaviors in a crystalline material that could form the basis for quantum information technologies.

5d

Stanford researchers find lead in turmeric

Some spice processors in Bangladesh use an industrial lead chromate pigment to imbue turmeric with a bright yellow color prized for curries and other traditional dishes, elevating blood lead levels in Bangladeshis.

5d

Getting mac and cheese to Mars

Washington State University scientists have developed a way to triple the shelf life of ready-to-eat macaroni and cheese, a development that could have benefits for everything from space travel to military use.

5d

Scientists decode DNA of coral and all its microscopic supporters

Scientists have seen for the first time how corals collaborate with other microscopic life to build and grow.

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Fighting for Coral Reefs in a Warming World

Climate change is putting them in danger, but there’s still hope they can be saved — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Quantum observers may be entitled to their own facts

Science is based on facts that are established by independent observations agreed by everyone.

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Google's next laptop is reportedly the 4K Pixelbook Go – CNET

The device apparently has a 13.3-inch display and will be unveiled at the Oct. 15 "Made by Google" event.

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Gigantic Chinese telescope opens to astronomers worldwide

Nature, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02790-3 FAST has superior sensitivity to detect cosmic phenomena, including fast radio bursts and pulsars.

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A new class of antibiotic candidates for fighting against superbugs

The novel small molecules, based on new target, new chemical structure and new antimicrobial mechanism, are different from those of existing antibiotics. The new drug candidates demonstrate much effective abilities of inhibiting bacterial growth than commonly used antibiotics, yet with no toxicity to human cells.

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How to best leverage being a self-directed learner on your resume

Self directed learning is the process paving your own path toward an educational experience. There are more opportunities today than there ever was to learn on your own. Self-directed learners can play a diverse role in a job position. If you look at some of the most successful and innovative people of the world, you'll find a common similarity. They have all taken the initiative to teach themsel

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A new class of antibiotic candidates for fighting against superbugs

The novel small molecules, based on new target, new chemical structure and new antimicrobial mechanism, are different from those of existing antibiotics. The new drug candidates demonstrate much effective abilities of inhibiting bacterial growth than commonly used antibiotics, yet with no toxicity to human cells.

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Process for making ductile glass discovered

If you've ever dropped your smartphone on a concrete floor, you know that dreaded feeling as you turn it over to see how badly the screen has cracked—but that stress may soon be a thing of the past. Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have discovered a way to make glass less brittle and less likely to break.

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Seeing sound: Scientists observe how acoustic interactions change materials at the atomic level

When exposed to stress and strain, materials can display a wide range of different properties. By using sound waves, scientists have begun to explore fundamental stress behaviors in a crystalline material that could form the basis for quantum information technologies. These technologies involve materials that can encode information in a number of states simultaneously, allowing for more efficient

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Study sheds new light on how the Earth's crust was formed

A new international study led by a Monash geoscientist has found that more crust was formed on the early Earth than previously thought.

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New algorithm expands neurologists' ability to assess for clot-removing procedure

An algorithm developed by faculty at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) can help physicians outside of major stroke treatment centers assess whether a patient suffering from ischemic stroke would benefit from an endovascular procedure to remove a clot blocking an artery.

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Crystal growth kinetics and its link to evolution

The research group of Dr. Igor Zlotnikov from the Center for Molecular Bioengineering (B CUBE) of TU Dresden demonstrate in its latest publication that the physics of materials has a strong impact on the possible structures that molluscan shells can produce. This research shows how fundamental physical laws, such as crystal growth kinetics and thermodynamics, can constrain the outcome of evolution

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How raising tax for high-income earners would reduce inequality, improve social welfare in New Zealand

If we asked people in New Zealand what they think the best income tax reform would be, we would expect a range of responses. People will no doubt have different views about which of the four income tax rates and corresponding income thresholds should be lowered or increased.

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Gesture as language: why we point with a finger

Pointing at an object… in one sense you might say that this simple gesture doesn't just replace a word, but that it is a word—perhaps the first word. We know that it and other such gestures play a fundamental role in human language, but until now, we have not known where these gestures come from. To find out more, my colleagues and I investigated the hypothesis that pointing originates from touch.

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5 perfect mugs for tea lovers

Hot mugs for warm beverages. (Kelly Sikkema via Unsplash/) For connoisseurs of hot beverages made with dried herbs, any season is tea season. Whether your favorite tea drinker consumes on the go or creates a ritual around tea time, having the right mug is essential. Help them make the most of their sipping experience with these mugs. The perfect mug for infusing loose leaf tea. (Amazon/) This 15-

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Engineered killer T cells could provide long-lasting immunity against cancer

In experiments with mice, researchers have shown they can harness the power of iNKT cells to attack tumor cells and treat cancer. The new method suppressed the growth of multiple types of human tumors that had been transplanted into the animals.

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Visible from outer space, Detroit's unofficial pathways could play important role in land redevelopment

As neighborhood and city planners design ways to reuse vacant land in cities like Detroit, a researcher is urging them to look at the footpaths of people who already live there — literally.

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Quantum Hall-based superconducting interference device

In a recent report published on Science Advances, Andrew Seredinski and co-workers presented a graphene-based Josephson junction with dedicated side gates fabricated from the same sheet of graphene as the junction itself. The interdisciplinary research team in the departments of physics, astronomy and advanced materials in the U.S. and Japan found the side gates to be highly efficient, allowing th

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Just 4 nights with less sleep can alter fat storage

Restricting sleep for just four days alters how the body metabolizes fats and changes how satisfying meals seem, according to a new study with 15 healthy men. When we don’t get enough sleep, we want to eat more than we need, and store it as excess energy, says Orfeu Buxton, professor of biobehavioral health at Penn State. “While this was a good mechanism in evolutionary terms, to store energy for

5d

Want to Dig For Dinosaur Bones? Join the Pros at These Spots

These museums and companies around the country pair the public with paleontologists to uncover buried bones

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To See or Not to See

Researchers are one step closer to determining how heavy the universe’s lightest matter particle might be — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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China’s New Weapon: A Sonic Gun That Vibrates Your Brain

Sonic Shake-Up Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences have created a handheld sonic gun designed to help the nation’s military and law enforcement agencies disperse crowds, according to a new South China Morning Post story . All the wielder of the device has to do is point it at a crowd and shoot — and focused waves of sound will cause the targets’ eardrums, eyeballs, and brains to vibr

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Adobe's Fantastic iPad App for Drawing and Painting is Finally Available

Today Adobe has officially released Fresco for the iPad bringing an impressive set of drawing and interactive painting tools to Apple’s tablet, which will further help legitimize its use as …

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Messaging app Kik to shut down amid cryptocurrency battle

Kik, a popular messaging app for young smartphone users, is shutting down as the company focuses on a legal battle over its cryptocurrency funding round.

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We’ve Reached the Breaking Point

In June, President Donald Trump was enjoying a rare respite from scandal. He had successfully squelched Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation. Mueller had agreed to abide by Department of Justice guidance that the president could not be indicted for violating any criminal law. Since Mueller had also limited his examination of “collusion” to potential violations of criminal law, the Muell

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Another Nail in Boris Johnson’s Brexit Coffin

The judgment was soberly delivered, but its contents were brutal. Wearing a black dress with a large spider brooch, the president of Britain’s Supreme Court, Brenda Hale, announced that Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s decision to suspend Parliament this month was “unlawful, void, and of no effect.” All 11 judges agreed. There is no possibility of appeal. Hale and her colleagues ruled that Johnson’

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Study: Geography, not genetics, influences American pika's response to climate change

A very large team of researchers from across the U.S. along with a few from Canada and Australia has found that geography is playing more of a role in how the American pika is responding to climate change than genetics. In their paper published in the journal Nature Climate Change, the group describes their exhaustive study of the small animal and what they found. Meagan Oldfather with the Univers

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Study finds potential therapeutic target for prostate cancers with PTEN mutation

PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene mutated in about 20% of prostate cancers, relies on another gene, ARID4B, to function. These findings were published by George Washington University Cancer Center researchers in Nature Communications.

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Visible from outer space, Detroit's unofficial pathways could play important role in land redevelopment

As neighborhood and city planners design ways to reuse vacant land in cities like Detroit, a researcher at the University of Michigan is urging them to look at the footpaths of people who already live there — literally.

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Study: Geography, not genetics, influences American pika's response to climate change

A very large team of researchers from across the U.S. along with a few from Canada and Australia has found that geography is playing more of a role in how the American pika is responding to climate change than genetics. In their paper published in the journal Nature Climate Change, the group describes their exhaustive study of the small animal and what they found. Meagan Oldfather with the Univers

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From the archive

Nature, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02852-6 How Nature reported political support for European union in 1969, and early studies of the effects of sewage on fish from 1919.

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Why dads are happier than moms

How and when parents split childcare activities may explain why dads are often often happier, less stressed, and less tired than moms when taking care of kids, researchers report. Researchers looked at childcare through the lens of a “care context.” Going beyond measuring how much time mothers and fathers spend taking care of their children, the researchers also looked at the type of childcare ac

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Discovery of an endangered species in a well-known cave raises questions

You'd think there'd be no way someone could newly discover an endangered species hanging out in Fern Cave in the Paint Rock River valley of Jackson County, so close to Huntsville, home to thousands of spelunkers exploring every cave, nook and cranny.

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A New Theory of Obesity

“Ultraprocessed” foods seem to trigger neural signals that make us want more and more calories, unlike other foods in the Western diet — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

5d

Discovery of an endangered species in a well-known cave raises questions

You'd think there'd be no way someone could newly discover an endangered species hanging out in Fern Cave in the Paint Rock River valley of Jackson County, so close to Huntsville, home to thousands of spelunkers exploring every cave, nook and cranny.

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Vanished Google Paper Claims Company Has Achieved ‘Quantum Supremacy’

A paper published — and then removed — from NASA’s website claims that Google has established so-called quantum supremacy. If true, it would be a significant achievement for quantum computing as a whole. The impact on the general-purpose world of computing from this specific breakthrough is minimal, but it’s an important milestone towards the practical, real-world use of quantum computing. First,

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Reading's best language

New study shows early reading in any language helps children learn to read English.

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West Africa: Human-induced air pollution is higher than expected

Emissions of volatile organic pollutants in West Africa are 100 to 150 times higher than current estimates for the region, according to a study by researchers from the CNRS and Université Clermont-Auvergne, in collaboration with the Institut Mines Télécom Lille-Douai and Université Felix Houphouët-Boigny (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire).

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Plasmonic silver nanoparticles advance toward ultrafast single-molecule detection

Detection of ultralow concentrations of substances requires devices that can provide ultrafast information processing and offer high detection limits. Plasmonic metal nanoparticles, especially those made of gold and silver, offer significant promise to detect substances rapidly and down to the single-molecule level.

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Prominent German Neuroscientist Committed Misconduct in "Brain Reading" Research

A German funding agency imposes strict sanctions on Niels Birbaumer, whose studies, it says, contained incomplete data—but Birbaumer stands by his work — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

5d

A New Theory of Obesity

“Ultraprocessed” foods seem to trigger neural signals that make us want more and more calories, unlike other foods in the Western diet — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

5d

In “Ad Astra,” Off-World Colonies Are Crumbling Strip Malls

Let’s get the obvious thing out of the way: If you’ve seen “Apocalypse Now” or read “Heart of Darkness” — or you’re familiar with “2001: A Space Odyssey,” “Solaris,” “Interstellar,” or even “Gravity” — then the sulky new Brad Pitt flick “ Ad Astra ” is going to feel pretty familiar. And that’s fine. If it ain’t broke, as they say, don’t fix it. What is broke, by any reasonable definition of the t

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Researchers suggest better communication needed to convince public of findings

A team of researchers from several institutions in the U.S. has published a Perspective piece in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences discussing the growing problem of acceptance of findings by scientists by the general public. They suggest several possible approaches that researchers could use to promote more effective signals of trustworthiness to the public.

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Unusual Type II supernova discovered in NGC 1068

An international team of astronomers reports the discovery of an unusual Type II supernova in the galaxy NGC 1068, as part of the DLT40 survey. The newly detected event, designated SN 2018ivc, exhibits rapidly changing light curve, what is uncommon for stellar explosions of this type. The findings are detailed in a paper published September 16 on the arXiv preprint server.

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Safe solution to mop up oil spills

There have been more than 700 oil spills worldwide in the past 20 years, polluting oceans and coastlines as well as endangering marine ecology and other wildlife.

5d

How to Share Audio on an iPhone Using iOS 13.1

A new feature in iOS 13.1 lets you share your iPhone's audio across two pairs of Apple-made wireless headphones.

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All the Code Connections Between Russia’s Hackers, Visualized

A sort of constellation chart for Kremlin malware, made by two cybersecurity firms, demonstrates the scale of Russia's distinct hacking operations.

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Advanced Alien Civilizations May Produce 'Technosignatures' That We Could Find, Experts Say

If life evolved the same way elsewhere in the cosmos as it did on our planet, could we find it by the technological traces such civilizations might leave behind?

5d

Engineered killer T cells could provide long-lasting immunity against cancer

In experiments with mice, UCLA researchers have shown they can harness the power of iNKT cells to attack tumor cells and treat cancer. The new method, described in the journal Cell Stem Cell, suppressed the growth of multiple types of human tumors that had been transplanted into the animals.

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Prominent German Neuroscientist Committed Misconduct in "Brain Reading" Research

A German funding agency imposes strict sanctions on Niels Birbaumer, whose studies, it says, contained incomplete data—but Birbaumer stands by his work — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Nanowire Spectroscopy

I’ve said this before, but if I had to pick one general feature of the current scientific literature versus that of (say) 30 years ago, I would vote for the ability to obtain data at far smaller scales (higher resolution) and the corresponding ability to more fully characterize structures and species that are far larger and more complex than the homogeneous-small-molecules-in-solution of classic

5d

Det nytter ikke at flytte bilopladningen til natten

Elnettet vil ikke kunne klare, at alle fremtidens elbil-ejere oplader samtidig, uanset tidspunkt på døgnet.

5d

Chronic insomnia can be cured in cancer survivors with a basic sleep education class

Investigators report that a single-session sleep education program for survivors can cure insomnia in many participants, and that those who don't benefit from this approach are often helped by a more extensive, but still modest, three-session program.

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Boosting daily nut consumption linked to less weight gain and lower obesity risk

Increasing nut consumption by just half a serving (14 g or ½ oz) a day is linked to less weight gain and a lower risk of obesity, suggests a large, long term observational study.

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Older adults with COPD more likely to use synthetic cannabinoids

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease that's often associated with a variety of health problems, including chronic muscle pain and insomnia. Psychoactive drug classes, like cannabinoids, are often prescribed to help reduce pain, promote sleep and decrease breathlessness. A study has found that older adults with COPD were twice as likely to use prescription synt

5d

Google scores major victory in EU ‘right to be forgotten’ case

The European Court of Justice ruling means Google is not obligated to scrub links to people’s sensitive data beyond the bloc’s 28 member states.

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Current and former VW bosses face 'market manipulation' charges

Weeks after its latest attempted new start with an all-electric car, Volkswagen is again in the legal weeds over its years-old "dieselgate" scandal, as charges against top executives pile on …

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London keeps Uber on short license as it scrutinizes firm

London transport authorities on Tuesday gave Uber two months to continue operating in the city rather than the full five-year license the ride-hailing company had sought.

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Honda aims to phase out diesel vehicles in Europe by 2021

The backlash against diesel following the Dieselgate scandal continues, especially in Europe. With a ruling in a German court that cities have the right to ban diesel motors all together, …

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This “Anti-Solar Panel” Could Generate Power From Darkness

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Crystal growth kinetics and its link to evolution: New findings about biomineralization in molluscan shells

The research group of Dr. Igor Zlotnikov from the Center for Molecular Bioengineering (B CUBE) of TU Dresden demonstrate in its latest publication that the physics of materials has a strong impact on the possible structures that molluscan shells can produce. This research shows how fundamental physical laws, such as crystal growth kinetics and thermodynamics, can constrain the outcome of evolution

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Crystal growth kinetics and its link to evolution: New findings about biomineralization in molluscan shells

The research group of Dr. Igor Zlotnikov from the Center for Molecular Bioengineering (B CUBE) of TU Dresden demonstrate in its latest publication that the physics of materials has a strong impact on the possible structures that molluscan shells can produce. This research shows how fundamental physical laws, such as crystal growth kinetics and thermodynamics, can constrain the outcome of evolution

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How and when was carbon distributed in the Earth?

It is generally accepted that planetary surfaces were covered with molten silicate, a "magma ocean," during the formation of terrestrial planets. In a deep magma ocean, iron would separate from silicate, sink, and eventually form a metallic core. In this stage, elemental partitioning between a metallic core and a magma ocean would have occurred and siderophile elements would be removed from the ma

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A battery with a twist

Markus Niederberger's team of researchers at ETH has used stretchable materials to develop a battery that can be bent, stretched and twisted. For applications in bendable electronic devices, this is precisely the kind of battery they need.

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Why there's no such thing as a 'responsible dog owner'

Dog welfare campaigns that tell people to be "responsible owners" don't help to promote behavior change, a new University of Liverpool report suggests.

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Too many bank mergers can hurt small businesses

Banks in the United States have been merging at a rapid pace in recent years, with regulators speeding up the approval process and making few or no denials.

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The problem with promoting 'responsible dog ownership'

Dog welfare campaigns that tell people to be "responsible owners" don't help to promote behaviour change, a new University of Liverpool report suggests.

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Machine learning could offer faster, more precise results for cardiac MRI scans

Cardiac MRI scans can be read by AI (artificial intelligence) 186 times faster than humans, with comparable precision to experts. Because the greatest source of measurement errors are human factors, AI has the potential to improve future clinical decision making.

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Some high-cholesterol genes differ between countries

Some of the genes that predict the risk of high cholesterol don't apply to people from Uganda the same as they do in European populations, finds a new study.

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Cheaper drug just as effective protecting heart in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

A new clinical trial found a cost-effective generic drug works just as well as a more expensive drug in preserving heart function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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Menopausal night sweats linked with cognitive dysfunction

Experts frequently tout the value of a good night's sleep. However, a new study casts doubt on the value of sleep time suggesting that women who experience night sweats are more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction as their sleep duration increases.

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Vitamin D and fish oil show promise in prevention of cancer death and heart attacks

The VITamin D and OmegA-3 Trial (VITAL) is the largest and most recent to test whether vitamin D or fish oil can effectively prevent cancer or cardiovascular disease. Results to date have been mixed but show promise for some outcomes, now confirmed by updated pooled (meta) analyses.

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Gum disease linked with higher risk of hypertension

People with gum disease (periodontitis) have a greater likelihood of high blood pressure (hypertension), according to a new study.

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New technique to improve ductility of ceramic materials for missiles, engines

Researchers have developed a new process to help overcome the brittle nature of ceramics and make it more ductile and durable. The team calls the process 'flash sintering,' which adds an electric field to the conventional sintering process used to form bulk components from ceramics.

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Impostor syndrome is more common than you think; Study finds best way to cope with it

A new study from researchers reveals that perceptions of impostorism are quite common both in the workplace and the classroom and uncovers one of the best ways to cope with such feelings: seeking social support from those outside their academic program.

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Study shows facial features track with intonation of words

Even though they are not needed to make the specific sounds, parts of Mandarin Chinese speakers' faces—their eyebrows and lips—mimic the rising and falling pitch that distinguishes one word spelled exactly the same from another.

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Record-fast neutron tomography tracks water pathways into plants

For the first time, researchers have captured neutron tomography images in about a second, nearly an order of magnitude faster than previously reported attempts. Until recently, long image acquisition times have been the major obstacle to using this non-invasive technique to study dynamic 3-D processes such as the water exchange between roots and soil.

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Oceans, climate report approved after all-night standoff: delegates

A major report detailing the dire impact of global warming on oceans and Earth's frozen zones was approved by the UN's 195-nation climate science body Tuesday after an all-night standoff with Saudi Arabia over wording.

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Zimbabwe's capital runs dry as taps cut off for 2M people

The more than 2 million residents of Zimbabwe's capital and surrounding towns are now without water after authorities shut down the city's main treatment plant, raising new fears about disease after a recent cholera outbreak while the economy crumbles further.

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Rocket team: Are solar eruptions messy, or neat?

First all appears quiet. Suddenly, a bright flash lights up the telescope. In an instant, jets of super-heated plasma bloom against the blackness of space.

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Survey suggests elderly patients with diabetes may favor more aggressive blood sugar control

Survey results of a national sample of elderly people with type 2 diabetes suggest that many long-time patients downplay medical and social factors that underpin professional recommendations for fewer medications and less aggressive treatment of high blood sugar.

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Chronic insomnia can be cured in cancer survivors with a basic sleep education class

In a study published online today by the journal Cancer, investigators at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute report that a single-session sleep education program for survivors can cure insomnia in many participants, and that those who don't benefit from this approach are often helped by a more extensive, but still modest, three-session program.

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Snurrig upptäckt ger nya insikter om känt fysikaliskt fenomen

– Den fotoelektriska effekten har studerats i många år och det är exalterande att plötsligt förstå hur det fungerar på ett djupare sätt, säger Marcus Dahlström, docent i matematisk fysik vid LTH, Lunds universitet som skrivit en vetenskaplig artikel tillsammans med kollegor i Lund och på Stockholms universitet. Det forskarna har studerat är hur en elektron, som precis slitits loss från en atom vi

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Blockchain simplified: How it eliminates the middleman

Blockchain is basically a ledger of people's transactions. It is the underlying programming on top of which the cryptocurrency bitcoin was developed. Blockchain doesn't allow for people's transactions to be hacked because everyone has access to a record of the values exchanged. Because of this, it is said to be unhackable. Blockchain has many potential uses, such as in accounting systems. This is

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Stress and sleeplessness has been a problem since the Victorian era

tk (Kinga Cichewicz/Unsplash/) "Sleeplessness is one of the torments of our age and generation." You might presume that this is a quote from a contemporary commentator, and no wonder: the World Health Organisation has diagnosed a global epidemic of sleeplessness , and it is difficult to escape accounts, both popular and scientific, of the dangers to health of our 24/7 lifestyle in the modern digi

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Ice islands on Mars and Pluto could reveal past climate change

Many of the craters of Mars and Pluto feature relatively small ice islands unattached to their polar ice caps.

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Discovery is always political

Nature, Published online: 24 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02848-2 David Kaiser traces the roots of government support for science, in the first of a series of essays on how the past 150 years have shaped the research system, marking Nature’s 150th anniversary.

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Climate Change Is Accelerating

Have you ever traveled with a large group of friends? When a group gets beyond a certain “critical mass” it becomes geometrically more difficult to make decisions. Even going to a restaurant or a movie become laborious. Decision making seems to break down in large groups, especially if there isn’t an established hierarchy or process in place. That’s why the “by committee” cliche exists – group de

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Blockchain simplified: How it eliminates the middleman

Blockchain is the underlying programming on top of which cryptocurrency, bitcoin, has been developed. Blockchain is basically a big, big ledger in which everybody puts down their transactions. Blockchain is already being used in Dubai for their stock exchange, and in the Baltic states for their actual people voting processes. Why Digital Transformations Fail: The Surprising Disciplines of How to

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Hyundai Makes Another Match in the Self-Driving Game

Hyundai will partner with an industry supplier called Aptiv to deliver robotaxis, in addition to an ongoing deal with Aurora.

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New study complicates theory that ancient impact pierced Moon's crust

The moon's largest and oldest impact crater likely doesn't have minerals from below the lunar crust on its surface, complicating a theory that an ancient massive impact event pierced the Moon's crust during the crater's formation, a new study finds.

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Image of the Day: Pika Populations

Geography plays a role in how the small mammals adapt to environmental changes.

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How Curiosity Makes You Crave

The odd connection between a cliff-hanger and a candy bar — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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How Curiosity Makes You Crave

The odd connection between a cliff-hanger and a candy bar — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Greta Thunberg: What climate summit achieved after outburst

Over 60 countries promise tougher action to curb emissions – but Greta Thunberg says it's a failure.

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Theorists discover the 'Rosetta Stone' for neutrino physics

Linear algebra is a field of mathematics that has been thoroughly investigated for many centuries, providing invaluable tools used not only in mathematics, but also across physics and engineering as well as many other fields. For years physicists have used important theorems in linear algebra to quickly calculate solutions to the most complicated problems.

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The US must act now to save its birds

Since 1970, the avian population in North America has dropped by almost 30 per cent

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The shared evolution of the Tasmanian tiger and the wolf

The Tasmanian tiger, or thylacine, was one of Australia's most enigmatic native species.

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A Strange New Higgs Particle May Have Stolen the Antimatter from Our Universe

Physicists have proposed that a trio of particles called Higgs bosons could be responsible for the mysterious vanishing act of antimatter in the universe.

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The shared evolution of the Tasmanian tiger and the wolf

The Tasmanian tiger, or thylacine, was one of Australia's most enigmatic native species.

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I Used to Clean Houses. Then I Hired a Maid.

Exactly one month before we got married, my fiancé and I made the final steps in combining our families. We were both full-time single parents—his kids 18 and 14, mine 12 and 5, with some dogs, fish, and a tortoise—moving into a house I described to acquaintances as “too big to clean” and to my close friends as, somewhat fondly, “a shithole.” “It’s worse than any house I’ve ever had to clean,” I

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Onions and garlic linked to lower cancer risk in Puerto Rico

There’s a link between eating onions and garlic and lower breast cancer risk among Puerto Rican women, according to a new study. The two ingredients are key in sofrito, a staple condiment in Puerto Rican cuisine. “We found that among Puerto Rican women, the combined intake of onion and garlic, as well as sofrito, was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer,” says lead author Gauri Desai,

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How to Get Evangelicals to Care About Climate Change – Facts So Romantic

It’s not that evangelicals don’t care about the environment. It’s that they care about people more.Photo Illustration by OFC Pictures / Shutterstock Last year was among the four warmest years ever recorded , 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit above the 20th century average. The three years prior were warmer (2016 the warmest). “The six warmest years on record for the planet have all occurred since 2010,” the

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Scientists decode DNA of coral and all its microscopic supporters

Scientists have seen for the first time how corals collaborate with other microscopic life to build and grow.

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When disease threatens animals, predators might provide the remedy

When disease shows up in wild animal populations, there aren't pharmacies or vets to turn to. The best solution might actually be the one thing they spend their lives avoiding—predators.

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Brewed coffee grounds offer sustainable alternative for clothing dye

Iowa State University researchers have found a natural way to add color to clothing using the leftover grounds from your daily cup of coffee.

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2000 atoms in two places at once: A new record in quantum superposition

The quantum superposition principle has been tested on a scale as never before in a new study by scientists at the University of Vienna in collaboration with the University of Basel. Hot, complex molecules composed of nearly two thousand atoms were brought into a quantum superposition and made to interfere. By confirming this phenomenon—"the heart of quantum mechanics," in Richard Feynman's words—

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Scientists decode DNA of coral and all its microscopic supporters

Scientists have seen for the first time how corals collaborate with other microscopic life to build and grow.

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When disease threatens animals, predators might provide the remedy

When disease shows up in wild animal populations, there aren't pharmacies or vets to turn to. The best solution might actually be the one thing they spend their lives avoiding—predators.

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This Ancient Sea Monster Could Do the Breaststroke

Gigantic ancient sea monsters may have been great at the breaststroke.

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Big Climate Report to Be Released Tomorrow: Here's What to Expect

A new report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change addresses how climate change threatens Earth's oceans and frozen places.

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Team solves decade-old mystery in chemical transformations

Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have solved a mystery for a chemical reaction essential for fuel and fertilizer production. The so-called water-gas shift reaction forms hydrogen fuel and carbon dioxide from carbon monoxide and steam. The research addresses a fundamental question in the chemical transformations that are accomplished using catalysts, chemicals that help s

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Better 'housekeeping' in wood-decomposing fungi

Scientists hope to harness fungi that decompose the most abundant type of biomass in wood, lignocellulose. Lignocellulose could be used to create the building-blocks of polymers for bioproducts. The key to understanding how fungal enzymes break down wood is to examine gene expression patterns. These patterns are typically measured in comparison to so-called 'housekeeping genes.' Housekeeping genes

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Professor og overlæge Preben Homøe har fået ‘den største pris’

Preben Homøe modtog i sidste uge Klein-prisen for sit meget høje faglige niveau, sin bemærkelsesværdige arbejdsindsats i forskningen og for sin store medmenneskelige tilgang til både kolleger og patienter.

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Better 'housekeeping' in wood-decomposing fungi

Scientists hope to harness fungi that decompose the most abundant type of biomass in wood, lignocellulose. Lignocellulose could be used to create the building-blocks of polymers for bioproducts. The key to understanding how fungal enzymes break down wood is to examine gene expression patterns. These patterns are typically measured in comparison to so-called 'housekeeping genes.' Housekeeping genes

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Filmtittande i mobil påverkar empatin för filmkaraktärerna

Det blir allt vanligare att titta på film i sin mobiltelefon, men det har inte forskats mycket på filmupplevelsen i smarta telefoner. Doktoranden Kata Szita har i sin avhandling i filmvetenskap vid Göteborgs universitet kombinerat medieteoretiska och beteendevetenskapliga metoder för att bland annat undersöka interaktiv filmupplevelse, filmkonsumtion och deltagande, samt filmtittande i miljöer so

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As Made-To-Order DNA Gets Cheaper, Keeping It Out Of The Wrong Hands Gets Harder

Labs are churning out more and more synthetic DNA for scientists who want to use it to reprogram cells. Some say the technology has outpaced government safety guidelines put in place a decade ago. (Image credit: Tim Llewellyn/Copperhound Pictures/Ginkgo Bioworks)

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Uncovering the hidden intelligence of collectives

In a group of animals, who deals with new information coming from the environment? Researchers from the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior have discovered that the answer lies not in who, but in where: information can be processed, not only by individual animals, but also in the invisible connections between them. The international team of scientists provides ev

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Male common marmosets smell female fertility

Scientists from the University of Leipzig and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology found that male common marmosets are able to detect the fertile phase of females based on changes in their body odor. Using a combination of chemical analyses and a behavioral test they found that female common marmosets release various substances that produce a specific smell during their fertile

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Virus may jump species through 'rock-and-roll' motion with receptors

Like a janitor thumbing through a keychain to find just the right key to open a lock, the "rock-and-roll" motion of the canine parvovirus during the binding process may help explain how the virus can find the spot on a receptor to infect not just dogs, but multiple species, according to an international team of researchers. The model also could lead to a better understanding of how viruses enter a

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The Paradox of Growth

Average global per capita GDP has skyrocketed since 1950, but damage to the biosphere has increased dramatically as well—and decoupling the two remains an enormous challenge — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Uncovering the hidden intelligence of collectives

In a group of animals, who deals with new information coming from the environment? Researchers from the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior have discovered that the answer lies not in who, but in where: information can be processed, not only by individual animals, but also in the invisible connections between them. The international team of scientists provides ev

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Male common marmosets smell female fertility

Scientists from the University of Leipzig and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology found that male common marmosets are able to detect the fertile phase of females based on changes in their body odor. Using a combination of chemical analyses and a behavioral test they found that female common marmosets release various substances that produce a specific smell during their fertile

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Virus may jump species through 'rock-and-roll' motion with receptors

Like a janitor thumbing through a keychain to find just the right key to open a lock, the "rock-and-roll" motion of the canine parvovirus during the binding process may help explain how the virus can find the spot on a receptor to infect not just dogs, but multiple species, according to an international team of researchers. The model also could lead to a better understanding of how viruses enter a

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Beef-eating consumers are helping drive Amazon deforestation

An investigation of trade flows finds much of the recent Amazon deforestation is down to cattle ranching – and consumers around the world are eating the meat

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The Dark Side of Light

NEUGLOBSOW, GERMANY—Martina Bauchrowitz put her back into it, swinging the oars in a wide arc, and the small boat lurched away from the lakeshore. I gripped the hull, shivering in the early-spring air, and watched our progress toward the rose-shaped metal platform floating on the surface of Lake Stechlin, one of the deepest lakes in northern Germany. After a few minutes of rowing, we bumped again

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Breakthrough in understanding enzymes that make antibiotic for drug-resistant pathogen

One of the WHO's three critical priority pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii, for which new antibiotics are urgently needed is one step closer to being tackled, as researchers from the Department of Chemistry—University of Warwick have made a breakthrough in understanding the enzymes that assemble the antibiotic enacyloxin.

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Tinder Wants Users to Find Love in the Apocalypse

The dating app's new end-of-the-world, choose-your-own-adventure game, called Swipe Night, will generate new matches based on your choices.

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Google’s ‘Quantum Supremacy’ Isn’t the End of Encryption

Google said its quantum computer outperformed conventional models. But it will still be years before you can use one for anything practical.

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Breakthrough in understanding enzymes that make antibiotic for drug-resistant pathogen

One of the WHO's three critical priority pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii, for which new antibiotics are urgently needed is one step closer to being tackled, as researchers from the Department of Chemistry—University of Warwick have made a breakthrough in understanding the enzymes that assemble the antibiotic enacyloxin.

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