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Plastic debris releases potentially harmful chemicals into seabird stomach fluid
A recent study has found that plastic ingested by northern fulmars, a common seabird, could release potentially toxic chemicals in their stomachs. Using plastic waste from the shore and stomach fluid from fulmars, the researchers closely mimicked fulmar plastic consumption. The findings highlight that plastic waste in the sea not only poses physical risks for seabirds, but could also have toxic ef
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Peat's Sake
A team led by Charles Harvey, an MIT professor of civil and environmental engineering, and Alison Hoyt, PhD '17, a postdoc at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, has used precise satellite elevation data gathered from 2007 to 2011 to document the environmentally dangerous effects of peatland drainage in Southeast Asia. Tropical peatlands are permanently flooded forests where fallen leav
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Amina Razvi, MA '02, MArch '02
On childhood drives into Chicago with her parents, noticed large numbers of people living on the streets and vowed to help build homes for them. "That was a significant turning point for me," she recalls. "It just seemed unconscionable." That passion for social justice eventually brought her to MIT to study architecture, with a focus on sustainable development. Now, as executive director of the
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Jenny C. Xu '19
created her first video game at age 12, young enough not to realize how outnumbered she would be as a female in the game developing world. She's glad it worked out that way. "The gender diversity in the industry needs a lot of improvement—I was lucky to have entered at a time when I had no idea what I was getting myself into," says Xu, who designed more than 120 games—most in a genre she calls "
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Guadalupe Hayes-Mota '08, MBA '16, SM '16
, was diagnosed with hemophilia at birth. He had limited access to medication in the small city in Mexico where he grew up, which meant long hospital stays for bleeding episodes. When he was 12, his appendix burst and he underwent emergency surgery, followed by a desperate eight-hour ambulance ride to another hospital in search of better medication to stop the bleeding. Doctors told his parents h
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Brian Brenner '82, SM '84
As a toddler, , jumped with excitement when he saw the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge being built over New York Harbor. As an adult, he courted his wife, Lauren, by taking her to visit bridges, including ones he'd designed, and the first dance at their wedding was to "Bridge Over Troubled Water." He's written a collection of essays on civil engineering life titled Bridginess , and to this day he and L
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Florence (Huang) Sheehan '71
By early February, the health-care system in Washington—the first US state to have a confirmed case of covid-19—was bracing for the spread of the novel coronavirus. When local hospitals began asking for frontline volunteers, felt obliged, but disappointed, to decline. "Being elderly was clearly identified as a risk," explains Sheehan, 70, who is a cardiologist. "But as a physician, I just felt I
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Punching in
As a schoolboy growing up in New York City in the 1870s, Herman Hollerith often managed to sneak out of the schoolroom just before spelling lessons. His teacher noticed and one day locked the door; Hollerith responded by jumping out of the second-floor window. Difficult, easily bored, but clearly brilliant, Hollerith gained admission to the School of Mines of Columbia College (now the School of E
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Crafting our path
The first project we remember working on together was drawing scenes from the picture books that our mom brought with her when she immigrated from the USSR. Working on large CVS poster boards, we drew porcupines crawling in forests and swans swimming in lakes. At six years old, sitting at our two-foot-tall, colored-pencil-covered table, we'd swoosh our hands back and forth to create large expanse
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Virtual Tech Challenge
Since Bonny Kellermann '72 and Bob Ferrara '67 first launched the Tech Challenge Games in 1992, reunion classes have competed in a range of zany contests from a three-legged race to collect pi plates to a 2.007-style design challenge on the Saturday of Tech Reunions. Although in-person challenges weren't possible this year, Kellermann and Ferrara kept the tradition alive with a series of virtual
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Standing together
On June 2, one week after the killing of George Floyd, the MIT community came together for an online vigil. I would like to share with you my remarks from that gathering. But I know that mine is not the voice that is most needed right now. As we intensify our work to combat systemic racism and injustice, I urge you to watch the vigil (at web.mit.edu/webcast/vigil), and listen to the powerful voic
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Migration and dispersal of butterflies have contrasting effect on flight morphology
Butterflies show several types of movement. They can seasonally migrate long distances over hundreds of kilometers. Alternatively, butterflies also disperse over relatively short distances for feeding and breeding over several hours or days.
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Migration and dispersal of butterflies have contrasting effect on flight morphology
Butterflies show several types of movement. They can seasonally migrate long distances over hundreds of kilometers. Alternatively, butterflies also disperse over relatively short distances for feeding and breeding over several hours or days.
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Medical bias poses a deadly threat for Black babies
Nature, Published online: 19 August 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02435-w Hospital records show a link between the doctor's ethnicity and the risk of death for Black newborns.
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New U.S. ethics board rejects most human fetal tissue research proposals
HHS Secretary Azar asked not to fund 13 of 14 applications
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Exploring Connections Between Cosmos & Mind Through Six Interactive Art Installations in "As Above As Below"
Are there parallels between the furthest reaches of our universe, and the foundations of thought, awareness, perception, and emotion? What are the connections between the webs and structures that define both? What are the differences? "As Above As Below" was an exhibition that examined these questions. It consisted of six artworks, each of them the product of a collaboration that included at least
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Aged care homes urge government backing to transfer residents to hospital at first sign of coronavirus
Royal commission heard evidence of a 'standoff' between commonwealth and state health authorities over how to best handle outbreaks Aged care homes must have government backing to transfer residents to hospital at the first sign of Covid-19 infections, non-profit residential care providers have argued. With aged care at the top of the agenda for the next national cabinet meeting on Friday, Aged a
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Smart AI makes all kinds of shapes on its own
POSTECH research team develops an artificial neural network system that recommends plastic molding process conditions.
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Multivitamin, mineral supplement linked to less-severe, shorter-lasting illness symptoms
Older adults who took a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement with zinc and high amounts of vitamin C in a 12-week study experienced sickness for shorter periods and with less severe symptoms than counterparts in a control group receiving a placebo.
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Potential and constraints of reforestation for climate mitigation
A recent study showed that practical considerations, beyond where trees could be planted, may limit the climate change mitigation potential of reforestation. Hence, there is a need to understand how these constraints operate to inform climate policies.
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New building block in plant wall construction
Researchers have uncovered a new biochemical mechanism fundamental to plant life. They have now detailed the enzymatic reaction involving carbohydrates present in plant cell walls, which are essential for their structure.
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The Atlantic Daily: School Is About More Than Education
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox . Katie Martin / The Atlantic The arrival of the fall semester didn't end the debate over school reopenings. It's not even September yet, but some schools have already opened and then closed becaus
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How Covid-19 smell loss differs from the common cold
New research is the first to compare how Covid-19 smell loss differs from what you might experience with a bad cold or flu.The main differences found are that Covid-19 patients can breathe freely, do not tend to have a runny or blocked nose, and they cannot detect bitter or sweet tastes.These findings lend weight to the theory that Covid-19 infects the brain and central nervous system.
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Shrinking Tasmanian tigers: Resizing an Australian icon
The thylacine, that famous extinct Australian icon colloquially known as the Tasmanian Tiger, is revealed to have been only about half as big as once thought – not a "big" bad wolf after all.
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Honey better treatment for coughs and colds than antibiotics, study claims
Research suggests honey also more effective than many over-the-counter medicines Honey may be better than conventional treatments for coughs, blocked noses and sore throats, researchers have said. The substance is cheap, readily available, and has virtually no side-effects. Doctors can recommend it as a suitable alternative to antibiotics, which are often prescribed for such infections, even thou
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Studie af 1 million danske børn: Belastet barndom øger risikoen for tidlig død
Store stressbelastninger i den tidlige barndom ser ud til at være en betydelig risikofaktor for…
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Watch hummingbirds 'dance' through waterfalls
Study suggests waterfall-nesting swifts could use a similar approach
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Tiny asteroid buzzes by Earth — the closest flyby on record
An SUV-size space rock flew past our planet over the weekend and was detected by a NASA-funded asteroid survey as it departed.
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COVID-19 pandemic likely to cause sales tax loss for Ohio municipalities
Small municipalities in Ohio that rely on retail sales taxes from apparel, vehicle sales, restaurants and tourism could see as much as a 50 percent decline in tax revenue because of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new study has found.
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Aging heart cells offer clues to susceptibility of older people to severe COVID-19
Genes that play an important role in allowing SARS-CoV-2 to invade heart cells become more active with age, according to new research.
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New tool improves fairness of online search rankings
Researchers introduce a tool they've developed to improve the fairness of online rankings without sacrificing their usefulness or relevance.
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How protein protects against fatty liver
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, with sometimes life-threatening consequences. A high-protein, calorie-reduced diet can cause the harmful liver fat to melt away — more effectively than a low-protein diet. A new study shows which molecular and physiological processes are potentially involved.
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More fructose in diet during pregnancy impacts metabolism of offspring, animal study finds
An increased level of fructose intake during pregnancy can cause significant changes in maternal metabolic function and milk composition and alter the metabolism of their offspring, according to research in guinea pigs.
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Social connection boosts fitness app appeal
Apps alone don't motivate most people to exercise but interacting with an online exercise community as well provides the impetus for exercisers to do more — and enjoy what they are doing.
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Zebra stripes and their role in dazzling flies
The mystery of why zebras have their characteristic stripes has perplexed researchers for over a century.
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Zebra stripes and their role in dazzling flies
The mystery of why zebras have their characteristic stripes has perplexed researchers for over a century.
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Women's Cervical Mucus Prefers Some Sperm Over Others
In human male-female pairs with a less similar suite of genes for human leukocyte antigens, sperm fare better when exposed to cervical mucus.
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Cold-weather accounts for almost all temperature-related deaths
With the number of extreme weather days rising around the globe in recent years due to global warming, it is no surprise that there has been an upward trend in hospital visits and admissions for injuries caused by high heat over the last several years. But cold temperatures are responsible for almost all temperature-related deaths, according to a new study.
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Police officers face multifaceted, compounding stressors that can lead to adverse events
Repeated exposure to high-stress calls for service and ongoing exposure to stress without relief were two of the contributing factors that could lead law enforcement officers to become susceptible to adverse events while performing their duties, according to a new study.
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School flu vaccine program reduces community-wide influenza hospitalizations
A city-wide school influenza vaccine intervention was associated with a decrease in influenza-associated hospitalizations for all age groups and a decrease in school absence rates among students in seasons with an effective influenza vaccine, according to a new study.
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Half of breast cancer survivors had delays in care due to COVID-19
The results of an online questionnaire of 609 breast cancer survivors in the US suggest that nearly half of patients experienced delays in care during the early weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Why Pooled Testing for the Coronavirus Isn't Working
Combining samples for coronavirus testing, an approach once hailed by U.S. health officials, only works when the vast majority of tests are negative.
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Author Correction: Immunofluorescence can assess the efficacy of mTOR pathway therapeutic agent Everolimus in breast cancer models
Scientific Reports, Published online: 19 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-68553-7
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Author Correction: OutPredict: multiple datasets can improve prediction of expression and inference of causality
Scientific Reports, Published online: 19 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-69883-2
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Author Correction: Evaluation of cell metabolic adaptation in wound and tumour by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy
Scientific Reports, Published online: 19 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-71164-x
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Cerebras Wafer Packs 2.6 Trillion-Transistor CPU With 850,000 Cores
A few years ago, we started to see researchers discussing an old manufacturing idea first explored in the 1980s: Wafer-scale processing. The idea of WSP is straightforward: Instead of dicing a wafer into individual chips and then packaging those chips for resale, build a single core or collection of cores using much, if not all, of the wafer for a single chip. The AI/machine learning startup Cere
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The Paleo Diet: Should Modern Humans Eat the Way Our Ancestors Did?
According to paleo diet literature, eating like our hunter-gatherer ancestors will help people lose weight and avoid diseases. But is this sound nutritional advice?
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The Evolutionary History Of Penguins Is Far From Black And White
New research suggests that penguins' ancestors originated not in frozen Antarctica but, instead, off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, adapting to new climes over 22 million years. (Image credit: Johan Ordonez/AFP via Getty Images)
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We need rapid COVID-19 screening if we want to get back to normal
Many hospitals like this one in Alberta, Canada, have set up screening checkpoints for COVID-19. Other facilities can do the same. (Graham Ruttan/Unsplash/) Zoë McLaren is an associate professor of public policy at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. This story originally featured on The Conversation . Broad access to testing is one of the most powerful tools to keep the COVID-19 pandem
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Songbirds, like people, sing better after warming up
If you've ever been woken up before sunrise by the chirping of birds outside your window, you may have wondered: why do birds sing so loud, so early in the morning? The cacophony is mostly males, whose songs are meant to impress potential mates and rivals. Researchers say there may be a good reason why birds are most vocal at first light. By singing early and often, birds perform better during the
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Influence of vitamin D supplementation on a baby's gut microbiome
New research from the CHILD Cohort Study has shed light on the influence of vitamin D supplementation on a baby's developing gut microbiome. The study, published in the journal Gut Microbes, found that vitamin D supplementation is associated with compositional changes in a baby's microbiome — notably a lower abundance of the bacteria Megamonas — at three months of age.
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Tiny dust particles could help spread viruses like the flu
We're all surrounded by personal clouds of dust and debris smaller than the eye can see. (Pexels/) Scientists have debated the role of droplets both large and small in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. But findings published this week in the journal Nature Communications suggest that researchers who study airborne viruses like SARS-CoV-2 and influenza ne
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Scientists Use Gene-Hacking to Seemingly Cure Herpes in Mice
In a landmark study, researchers have successfully used gene editing to remove the oral herpes virus (HSV-1) in mice. While previous research has mostly focused on treating and suppressing the sometimes painful symptoms of herpes, this study took a more radical approach by attempting to eliminate the virus altogether. "The big jump here is from doing this in test tubes to doing this in an animal,
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'Climate Donors' Flock to Biden to Counter Trump's Fossil Fuel Money
Once nonexistent, campaign cash earmarked as "climate donations" is flowing to Joe Biden as a small but growing counterweight to the monied muscle of fossil fuels.
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Using a public restroom? Mask up!
Researchers report that flushing public restroom toilets can release clouds of virus-laden aerosols for you to potentially inhale. After running additional computer simulations, they've concluded that flushing urinals does likewise.
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Army researchers explore self-healing materials
Army and Texas A&M University researchers developed a new material that can autonomously heal in air and underwater.
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Connecting the DOTS
The four factors that drive contagion
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Cryo-EM study yields new clues to chicken pox infection
Stanford and SLAC scientists studying the varicella zoster virus found that an antibody that blocks infection doesn't work exactly as they'd thought.
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Cover crop mixtures must be 'farm-tuned' to provide maximum ecosystem services
Penn State researchers, in a recent study, were surprised to learn that they could take the exact same number of seeds from the same plants, put them in agricultural fields across the Mid-Atlantic region and get profoundly different stands of cover crops a few months later.
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Alternative cooling strategies could mitigate COVID-19 and climate change
New research has found radiant cooling could keep people cool without conditioning or dehumidifying the air and use much less energy than comparable AC. In this Q&A, the researchers comment on why this research is so relevant not just in a warming world, but also in a contagious one where equipping indoor spaces with outdoor levels of air flow is part of the strategy to contain the spread of the C
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OCT-based technique captures subtle details of photoreceptor function
Researchers have developed a new instrument that has, for the first time, measured tiny light-evoked deformations in individual rods and cones in a living human eye. The new approach could one day improve detection of retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in people over 55 worldwide.
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Surprising coral spawning features revealed
When stony corals have their renowned mass spawning events, in sync with the moon's cycle, colonies simultaneously release an underwater 'cloud' of sperm and eggs for fertilization. But how do the sperm and eggs survive several hours as plankton, given threats from predators, microbes and stresses such as warming waters? A team has discovered some surprising features in coral sperm and eggs (colle
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It's No Pushover: How Researchers Assess World Records
The temperature in Death Valley, Calif., reached 130 degrees over the weekend. It could be a world record for the highest temperature, but first scientists must verify it.
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Enzyme cocktail developed in Brazil powers production of second-generation ethanol
Researchers at the Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM) have genetically engineered a fungus to produce a cocktail of enzymes that break down the carbohydrates in biomass, such as sugarcane trash (tops and leaves) and bagasse, into fermentable sugar for industrially efficient conversion into biofuel.
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Connecting the DOTS
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Enzyme cocktail developed in Brazil powers production of second-generation ethanol
Researchers at the Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM) have genetically engineered a fungus to produce a cocktail of enzymes that break down the carbohydrates in biomass, such as sugarcane trash (tops and leaves) and bagasse, into fermentable sugar for industrially efficient conversion into biofuel.
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More eggs harvested from last 2 northern white rhinos
An international team of scientists said they successfully extracted eggs from the last two remaining northern white rhinos, a step on the way to possibly saving the subspecies from extinction.
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More eggs harvested from last 2 northern white rhinos
An international team of scientists said they successfully extracted eggs from the last two remaining northern white rhinos, a step on the way to possibly saving the subspecies from extinction.
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If Your Kids Love to Learn, This Science Kit Subscription Service Is a Must
Do you have kids cooped up in your house with the itch to perform science experiments ? If so, you have two options: wait for them to carry out their own experiments with the stuff you keep under the sink, or get them a chemistry set. If you opt for option one, we wish you the best of luck. But if you're open to the second, much safer option, MEL Science kits deliver between two and three chemist
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Arctic sea ice is melting faster than anyone thought
Temperatures in the Arctic Ocean between Canada, Russia, and Europe are warming faster than climate models have been able to predict, according to a new study that shows Arctic sea ice is melting more quickly than once assumed. The researchers found that, over the past 40 years, temperatures have risen by one degree Celsius (1.8 degrees F) every decade, and even more so over the Barents Sea and a
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Machine learning unearths signature of slow-slip quake origins in seismic data
Combing through historical seismic data, researchers using a machine learning model have unearthed distinct statistical features marking the formative stage of slow-slip ruptures in the earth's crust months before tremor or GPS data detected a slip in the tectonic plates. Given the similarity between slow-slip events and classic earthquakes, these distinct signatures may help geophysicists underst
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Cold-weather accounts for almost all temperature-related deaths
With the number of extreme weather days rising around the globe in recent years due to global warming, it is no surprise that there has been an upward trend in hospital visits and admissions for injuries caused by high heat over the last several years. But cold temperatures are responsible for almost all temperature-related deaths, according to a new study published in the journal Environmental Re
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COVID-19 pandemic likely to cause sales tax loss for Ohio municipalities
Small municipalities in Ohio that rely on retail sales taxes from apparel, vehicle sales, restaurants and tourism could see as much as a 50 percent decline in tax revenue because of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new study has found.
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Exploding stars may have caused mass extinction on Earth, study shows
Imagine reading by the light of an exploded star, brighter than a full moon—it might be fun to think about, but this scene is the prelude to a disaster when the radiation devastates life as we know it. Killer cosmic rays from nearby supernovae could be the culprit behind at least one mass extinction event, researchers said, and finding certain radioactive isotopes in Earth's rock record could conf
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NASA-NOAA satellite snaps image of tropical storm Higos in South China Sea
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the South China Sea and captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Higos. Higos is headed for landfall in southeastern China.
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Using a public restroom? Mask up!
Think you don't need to worry about COVID-19 while using a public restroom? A group of researchers from Yangzhou University in China recently reported that flushing public restroom toilets can release clouds of virus-laden aerosols for you to potentially inhale.
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Students who get homework answers online do worse on tests
The ease of finding information on the internet is hurting students' long-term retention and resulting in lower grades on exams, according to a new study. The researchers found that smartphones seem to be the culprit. Students who received higher homework but lower exam scores—a half to a full letter grade lower on exams—were more likely to get their homework answers from the internet or another
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Horse skeletons provide clues to preventing racehorse injuries
In an anatomical comparison of the third metacarpal, or cannon bone, among Thoroughbred racehorses, American Quarter Horses and feral Assateague Island ponies, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have found that fostering adaptations in these bones through training might help horses better endure the extreme conditions of racing and prevent serious, often life-ending injuries on the track.
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Concordia student maps global primate habitat endangered by climate change
Stewart began looking at the effects of climate change on primate habitats with spatial data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, which estimates regional and seasonal temperature change per unit of CO2 emission, and range data of 426 separate primate species and subspecies, courtesy of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Using these figures, she was able to proj
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Horse skeletons provide clues to preventing racehorse injuries
In an anatomical comparison of the third metacarpal, or cannon bone, among Thoroughbred racehorses, American Quarter Horses and feral Assateague Island ponies, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have found that fostering adaptations in these bones through training might help horses better endure the extreme conditions of racing and prevent serious, often life-ending injuries on the track.
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Exploding stars may have caused mass extinction on Earth, study shows
Killer cosmic rays from nearby supernovae could be the culprit behind at least one mass extinction event, researchers said, and finding certain radioactive isotopes in Earth's rock record could confirm this scenario.
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Free-roaming dogs prevent giant pandas from thriving in the wild
Dogs are still menacing giant pandas. This is in part, because nature reserves in China are often closely connected to human settlements where dogs roam free. Dogs can roam over 10 km in a night and some feral dogs have even set up permanent residence in the reserves.
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Smartphones are lowering student's grades on closed-book exams
The ease of finding information on the internet is hurting students' long-term retention and resulting in lower grades on exams, according to a new study.
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There is at least 10 times more plastic in the Atlantic than previously thought
Scientists measured 12-21 million tons of three of the most common types of plastic in the top 200 meters of the Atlantic. By assuming the concentration of plastic in the whole Atlantic is the same as that measured at 200 meters deep, the scientists estimated there is around 200 million tons of three of the most common types of plastic alone. Compare this to the previously estimated figure of 17 m
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Publisher Correction: The tuatara genome reveals ancient features of amniote evolution
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2661-6
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3-D Printed Statues in Central Park Shine a Light on Women Scientists – Facts So Romantic
A new exhibit in Central Park features six statues of women scientists—the first statues of real women to be found in the park. Courtesy of Lyda Hill Philanthropies' IF/THEN Initiative Forged in metal or chiseled in stone, statues almost always depict dead men. A recent analysis of 12 major American cities turned up only six physical representations of women. Only one of 23 statues in New York's
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Healing in the Hospital Starts With the Architect
When it comes to hospitals, the right design can speed up recovery — or slow it.
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Machine learning unearths signature of slow-slip quake origins in seismic data
Combing through historical seismic data, researchers using a machine learning model have unearthed distinct statistical features marking the formative stage of slow-slip ruptures in the earth's crust months before tremor or GPS data detected a slip in the tectonic plates.
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NASA-NOAA satellite snaps image of tropical storm Higos in South China Sea
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the South China Sea and captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Higos. Higos is headed for landfall in southeastern China.
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Microplastic in Atlantic Ocean 'could weigh 21 million tonnes'
There are 12-21 million tonnes of tiny plastic fragments floating in the ocean, scientists say.
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The Samsung Galaxy Note20 Ultra 5G has one of the best screens you can cram in your pocket
Pictures of phone screens are boring. Here's the back of the phone. (Stan Horaczek /) You're easily forgiven if you don't know how much RAM your smartphone has inside. No one will judge you if you're not exactly sure which specific version of Qualcomm's Snapdragon processor lives inside your device. In short, diving into a phone's spec sheet means different things to various segments of the smart
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MIT Professor: I Fear Imminent Human Extinction
Final Countdown According to MIT mechanical engineer Asegun Henry, humans are running out of time to stop our own extinction. The challenge comes down to physics: Almost all of our energy consumption involves generating or transferring heat. Coupled with the greenhouse gas emissions that come with that energy use, Henry warns that we are very near the point of no return that would send us on a pa
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Why doesn't Ebola cause disease in bats, as it does in people?
A new study uncovered new information on why the Ebola virus can live within bats without causing them harm, while the same virus wreaks deadly havoc to people.
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Bird skull evolution slowed after the extinction of the dinosaurs
From emus to woodpeckers, modern birds show remarkable diversity in skull shape and size, often hypothesized to be the result of a sudden hastening of evolution following the mass extinction that killed their non-avian dinosaur cousins at the end of the Cretaceous 66 million years ago. But this is not the case according to a new study.
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Cool new worlds found in our cosmic backyard
How complete is our census of the Sun's closest neighbors? Astronomers and a team of data-sleuthing volunteers participating in Backyard Worlds: Planet 9, a citizen science project, have discovered roughly 100 cool worlds near the Sun — objects more massive than planets but lighter than stars, known as brown dwarfs. Several of these newly discovered worlds are among the very coolest known, with a
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Persistence of ADHD into adulthood is an important predictor of car crash risk
A new study reports that the risk of being involved in car crashes increases for those diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study looked specifically at the rate of car crashes by adulthood, which was 1.45 times higher in those with a childhood history of ADHD compared to adults with no ADHD.
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This 'Cold Tube' can beat the summer heat without relying on air conditioning
The 'Cold Tube' can offer relief from the summer heat without relying on air conditioning. It uses half the energy of conventional air conditioners and can be used outdoors or indoors.
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Primate habitat endangered by climate change mapped around the globe
Researchers have projected the effects current and estimated future global temperature increases would have on the precise territories that were home to particular primate species, based on projected emissions of CO2.
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Desire to be in a group leads to harsher judgment of others
In a time where political affiliations can feel like they're leading to tribal warfare, a research team has found that the desire to be part of a group is what makes some of us more likely to discriminate against people outside our groups, even in non-political settings. Some people are just more 'groupy' than others.
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Zebra and other grazers share more when lions are near
Zebras, gazelles, and other grazers in the African Serengeti can be more willing to share food and space if they live in areas lions frequent, according to a new study. Researchers analyzed more than 115,000 camera-trap photos to see where, when, and how often six of the Serengeti's most abundant grazing species—cape buffalo, gazelle, hartebeest, topi, wildebeest, and zebra—formed mixed-species g
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Why Pooled Testing for the Coronavirus Isn't Working in the U.S.
Combining samples for coronavirus testing, an approach once hailed by U.S. health officials, only works when the vast majority of tests are negative.
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Scientists Just Watched Bacteria Evolve in Real Time
Front Row Seats In an unusual experiment, scientists got to watch as bacteria adapted to a new host, evolving to become more infectious over hundreds of generations. While tracking changes over time, the University of Vienna scientists saw two very different evolutionary strategies emerge in bacteria that were subjected to different conditions. The research , published in the journal PNAS , is a
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Oh Great, Now Your Smartphone Can Tell If You're Drunk
Your smartphone is technically capable of telling if you've had one too many drinks using its motion sensors. That's according to a new study published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs . The researchers are hoping that real-time data on just how drunk somebody is could help people reduce their alcohol intake. "We have powerful sensors we carry around with us wherever we go," lead re
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Mathematicians unravel a thread of string theory
Mathematicians are exploring a string duality between F-theory and heterotic string theory in eight dimensions.
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Marine Biologist John Pearse Dies
The retired University of California, Santa Cruz, professor was known for his work on invertebrate reproduction, kelp ecology, and Antarctic marine life.
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Bird skull evolution slowed after the extinction of the dinosaurs
From emus to woodpeckers, modern birds show remarkable diversity in skull shape and size, often hypothesized to be the result of a sudden hastening of evolution following the mass extinction that killed their non-avian dinosaur cousins at the end of the Cretaceous 66 million years ago. But this is not the case according to a study by Ryan Nicholas Felice at University College London, publishing Au
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School flu vaccine program reduces community-wide influenza hospitalizations
A city-wide school influenza vaccine intervention was associated with a decrease in influenza-associated hospitalizations for all age groups and a decrease in school absence rates among students in seasons with an effective influenza vaccine, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Jade Benjamin-Chung of University of California, Berkeley, and colleagues.
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The Guardian view on scrapping Public Health England: not just wrong, but highly risky | Editorial
The government's desire to pass the buck could put more lives in danger The decision to scrap Public Health England in the middle of a pandemic that has claimed 65,000 British lives is cynical and wrong. Few will be persuaded by the attempts of the health secretary, Matt Hancock, to portray it as turning a crisis into an opportunity. The opportunity here is purportedly to better serve the public
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Covid-19 news: WHO calls for an end to 'vaccine nationalism'
The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic
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Coronavirus essential guide: Everything you need to know on covid-19
After more than six months since the new coronavirus emerged, we have learned an incredible amount about the virus and covid-19. Discover our essential guide, bringing you the best, most relevant coverage from New Scientist
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Bird skull evolution slowed after the extinction of the dinosaurs
From emus to woodpeckers, modern birds show remarkable diversity in skull shape and size, often hypothesized to be the result of a sudden hastening of evolution following the mass extinction that killed their non-avian dinosaur cousins at the end of the Cretaceous 66 million years ago. But this is not the case according to a study by Ryan Nicholas Felice at University College London, publishing Au
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Bird skull evolution slowed after the extinction of the dinosaurs
From emus to woodpeckers, modern birds show remarkable diversity in skull shape and size, often hypothesized to be the result of a sudden hastening of evolution following the mass extinction that killed their non-avian dinosaur cousins at the end of the Cretaceous 66 million years ago. But this is not the case according to a study by Ryan Nicholas Felice at University College London, publishing Au
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Police officers face multifaceted, compounding stressors that can lead to adverse events
Repeated exposure to high-stress calls for service and ongoing exposure to stress without relief were two of the contributing factors that could lead law enforcement officers to become susceptible to adverse events while performing their duties, according to a new study published in BMC Public Health by researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
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Under pressure, nontoxic salt-based propellant performs well
In smaller spacecraft such as CubeSat satellites, a salt-based monopropellant is showing promise. It can be used both in high-thrust chemical propulsion for fast time-sensitive maneuvers, and electric mode for slow maneuvers, such as orbit maintenance. Now, researchers in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have more knowledge about how it perf
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Cold-weather accounts for almost all temperature-related deaths
With the number of extreme weather days rising around the globe in recent years due to global warming, it is no surprise that there has been an upward trend in hospital visits and admissions for injuries caused by high heat over the last several years. But cold temperatures are responsible for almost all temperature-related deaths, according to a new study published in the journal Environmental Re
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Here's how to keep California's grid from buckling under the heat
California's electricity system is buckling under the strains of a blistering heat wave that may have established the highest temperature ever reliably recorded. As residents cranked up air conditioning en masse to keep cool, the state's primary grid operator ordered a series of rolling blackouts that have left millions without power in recent days, at least briefly. These were California's first
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This High Tech Fitness Screen Might Put Health Clubs and Gyms Out of Business
When it comes to fitness , it is not easy to go it alone. That's why so many people join gyms. Not only do they offer structure and expert guidance, but gyms also provide a social component that is crucial to keeping you motivated and inspired. Of course, thanks to the pandemic, going to the gym where a bunch of people are breathing heavily all over everything is not a very smart idea. However, t
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The Lonely Work of Performing Funerals in Lima, Peru
Ronald Marin, age 30, left his home in Venezuela in 2018. He moved to Peru for health reasons. Formerly a teacher, he found work at a Catholic church and was soon asked to help comfort mourning families nearby. Marin later took vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, becoming a lay worker for his church. As the current pandemic grew, Catholic churches in Peru began closing their doors and restr
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Wait, How Much Microplastic Is Swirling in the Atlantic?
Scientists calculate that the top 200 meters of ocean alone contains up to 21 million metric tons of plastic. And that wasn't even counting microfibers.
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Covid-19 Live Updates: Pooled Testing, Once Promising, Is Failing in the U.S.
Workers in factories, warehouses and building sites are at especially high risk of infection as U.S. businesses reopen, according to a new report. France announced more mask-wearing requirements.
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The Attack That Broke Twitter Is Hitting Dozens of Companies
"Phone spear phishing" attacks have been on the rise since a bitcoin scam took over the social media platform in July.
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A secret hidden in centuries-old mud reveals a new way to save polluted rivers
Colonial-era farming and logging buried many U.S. rivers beneath thick carpets of mud
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Smaller, cheaper reactor aims to revive nuclear industry, but design problems raise safety concerns
Design approval nears for NuScale Power's small modular reactors, but deployment plans slip 3 years
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Pandemic harms Canadian grad students' research and mental health
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02441-y Survey respondents experience depression, anxiety and programme delays.
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Extreme Heat Exposure Could Really Ramp Up in U.S. Cities
Unchecked climate change, urban development and population rise could all contribute to more people being exposed to punishing heat — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Hundreds of UK ambulances rely on software vulnerable to cyberattack
Ambulances at North East Ambulance Service and Yorkshire Ambulance Service use data terminals that rely on Windows XP, which no longer gets security updates from Microsoft so can be susceptible to hackers
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Sanders Supporters Realize Their Party Is Bigger Than They Are
The messages in the Zoom chat were snide at first, but not despondent. One person observed that the Democrats would rather listen to young people singing the national anthem than to their political opinions. Another noted that the event felt like a highly produced infomercial. Just 30 minutes in, a mustachioed man with a palm-tree Zoom background gave up on the whole production. "I've got to get
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Can you manipulate your brain to stop your food cravings?
A food craving can be described as an intense desire for a specific food. This desire can seem uncontrollable at times. Emerging research suggests it may be possible to "switch off" the pleasure feelings we experience from eating certain foods, which could curb cravings. This could be groundbreaking in terms of new eating disorder treatments. Where do food cravings come from? "We've all experienc
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An Army of Citizen Scientists Found Nearly 100 Nearby Brown Dwarfs
Motherlode An army of 100,000 volunteer citizen scientists just uncovered 95 celestial bodies called brown dwarfs floating around near our Sun. Some of them are pretty bizarre. Brown dwarfs already occupy a weird territory: Too small to be a star and too large to be a planet , they resemble turbulent gas giants. But some of the new ones are a brand new class of brown dwarf altogether, according t
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Why doesn't Ebola cause disease in bats, as it does in people?
A new study by researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston uncovered new information on why the Ebola virus can live within bats without causing them harm, while the same virus wreaks deadly havoc to people.
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Exploding stars may have caused mass extinction on Earth, study shows
Imagine reading by the light of an exploded star, brighter than a full moon. It might be fun to think about, but this scene is the prelude to a disaster when the radiation devastates life as we know it. Killer cosmic rays from nearby supernovae could be the culprit behind at least one mass extinction event, researchers said, and finding certain radioactive isotopes in Earth's rock record could con
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This 'Cold Tube' can beat the summer heat without relying on air conditioning
The "Cold Tube" can offer relief from the summer heat without relying on air conditioning. It uses half the energy of conventional air conditioners and can be used outdoors or indoors.
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Misinformation om mundbind spredes på Facebook
Mundbind virker ikke kun mod bakterier, understreger eksperter.
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WHO urges rich countries to join global Covid-19 vaccine facility
Covax scheme aims to distribute 2bn vaccines but has struggled to raise funds
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Warbler Species Fires Up Song Diversity
Hermit warblers in California have developed 35 different song dialects, apparently as a result of wildfires temporarily driving them out of certain areas.
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Tracking robocalls debunks myths and clears up mysteries
The number of robocalls isn't going up, and answering a robocall doesn't make you more likely to get additional ones, according to a new study. Stories you've heard about individuals getting hundreds of back-to-back unsolicited calls? Those are true. "We made some fundamental advances in tracking robocalls back to their source, and upended a lot of the conventional wisdom regarding robocalls." "T
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Flexible and protected
Coronavirus researchers have focused on the surface structure of SARS-CoV-2 to gain insights they can use for the development of vaccines and effective therapeutics to treat infected patients.
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Hydroxychloroquine ineffective as a preventive antiviral against COVID-19, study finds
Researchers have added to the growing body of understanding about how hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is not a possible defense against COVID-19.
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People who feel their lives are threatened are more likely to experience miracles
People who experience threats to their existence — including economic and political instability — are more likely to experience miracles, according to a Baylor University study.
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Research story tip: Down syndrome mice open door to better understanding of the disorder
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers and their collaborators have created and characterized a new mouse replica of Down syndrome, long considered one of the most challenging disorders to simulate in laboratory animals.
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Naming guides how 12-month-old infants encode and remember objects
Even for infants just beginning to speak their first words, the way an object is named guides infants' encoding, representation and memory for that object, according to new Northwestern research. Encoding objects in memory and recalling them later is fundamental to human cognition and emerges in infancy. Evidence from a new recognition memory task reveals that as they encode objects, infants are s
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Concordia student maps global primate habitat endangered by climate change
In a new paper published in the journal Climatic Change, Brogan Stewart argues that climate change may count as yet another threat. A current PhD candidate studying animal behaviour, Stewart wrote the paper as an undergraduate honours student. She projects the effects current and estimated future global temperature increases may have on the precise territories that are home to particular primate s
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Heart attack damage reduced by shielded stem cells
Bioengineers and surgeons from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have shown in rodents that a four-week shielded stem cell treatment can reduce damage caused by a heart attack.
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Using a public restroom? Mask up!
Think you don't need to worry about COVID-19 while using a public restroom? Researchers from Yangzhou University in China recently reported that flushing public restroom toilets can release clouds of virus-laden aerosols for you to potentially inhale. If that's not cringeworthy enough, after running additional computer simulations, they've concluded that flushing urinals does likewise. In Physics
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Childhood syndrome linked to COVID-19 causes profound immune changes
Researchers have uncovered how the immune system is altered in a rare COVID-19 related illness in children referred to as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS-TS).
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Half of breast cancer survivors had delays in care due to COVID-19
The results of an online questionnaire of 609 breast cancer survivors in the US suggest that nearly half of patients experienced delays in care during the early weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Ratio of two proteins may add kidneys to the transplant donor pool
An investigation by researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine, in collaboration with researchers at 13 other medical institutions in the United States, has shown that two proteins found in deceased donor urine can be measured to define which donor organs — including those with AKI — are the best candidates for saving the lives of patients with kidney failure.
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COVID-19 pandemic likely to cause sales tax loss for Ohio municipalities
Small municipalities in Ohio that rely on retail sales taxes from apparel, vehicle sales, restaurants and tourism could see as much as a 50 percent decline in tax revenue because of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new study has found.
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Research story tip: Horse skeletons provide clues to preventing racehorse injuries
In an anatomical comparison of the third metacarpal, or cannon bone, among Thoroughbred racehorses, American Quarter Horses and feral Assateague Island ponies, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have found that fostering adaptations in these bones through training might help horses better endure the extreme conditions of racing and prevent serious, often life-ending injuries on the track.
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Study maps the roots of global mangrove loss
Using high-resolution data from the joint NASA-U.S. Geological Survey Landsat program, researchers have created the first map of the causes of change in global mangrove habitats between 2000 and 2016—a valuable tool to aid conservation efforts for these vital coastline defenders.
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Analysis shows that political speeches now use simpler language, express more sentiments
Research by Kansas State University shows how politicians from both major parties have changed their political speech from previous centuries.
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Calculating hadrons using supercomputers
Hadrons are elusive superstars of the subatomic world, making up almost all visible matter, and British theoretical physicist Antoni Woss has worked diligently with colleagues at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility to get to know them better.
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The rise and fall of viticulture in the Late Antique Negev Highlands reconstructed from archaeobotanical and ceramic data [Anthropology]
The international scope of the Mediterranean wine trade in Late Antiquity raises important questions concerning sustainability in an ancient international economy and offers a valuable historical precedent to modern globalization. Such questions involve the role of intercontinental commerce in maintaining sustainable production within important supply regions and the vulnerability of…
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Stable isotopes in hair reveal dietary protein sources with links to socioeconomic status and health [Anthropology]
Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in hair sampled from 65 communities across the central and intermountain regions of the United States and more intensively throughout 29 ZIP codes in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, revealed a dietary divergence related to socioeconomic status as measured by cost of living, household income,…
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Social bonds do not mediate the relationship between early adversity and adult glucocorticoids in wild baboons [Anthropology]
In humans and other animals, harsh conditions in early life can have profound effects on adult physiology, including the stress response. This relationship may be mediated by a lack of supportive relationships in adulthood. That is, early life adversity may inhibit the formation of supportive social ties, and weak social…
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Inducers of the endothelial cell barrier identified through chemogenomic screening in genome-edited hPSC-endothelial cells [Applied Biological Sciences]
The blood–retina barrier and blood–brain barrier (BRB/BBB) are selective and semipermeable and are critical for supporting and protecting central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Endothelial cells (ECs) within the BRB/BBB are tightly coupled, express high levels of Claudin-5 (CLDN5), a junctional protein that stabilizes ECs, and are important for proper neuronal…
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A global view on how local muscular fatigue affects human performance [Applied Biological Sciences]
There is a growing interest in scientific literature on identifying how and to what extent interventions applied to a specific body region influence the responses and functions of other seemingly unrelated body regions. To investigate such a construct, it is necessary to have a global multivariate model that considers the…
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Timing social distancing to avert unmanageable COVID-19 hospital surges [Applied Biological Sciences]
Following the April 16, 2020 release of the Opening Up America Again guidelines for relaxing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) social distancing policies, local leaders are concerned about future pandemic waves and lack robust strategies for tracking and suppressing transmission. Here, we present a strategy for triggering short-term shelter-in-place orders when…
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Observing 3-hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase in action through a crystalline lens [Biochemistry]
The synthesis of quinolinic acid from tryptophan is a critical step in the de novo biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in mammals. Herein, the nonheme iron-based 3-hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase responsible for quinolinic acid production was studied by performing time-resolved in crystallo reactions monitored by UV-vis microspectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (E
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JMJD5 couples with CDK9 to release the paused RNA polymerase II [Biochemistry]
More than 30% of genes in higher eukaryotes are regulated by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) promoter proximal pausing. Pausing is released by the positive transcription elongation factor complex (P-TEFb). However, the exact mechanism by which this occurs and whether phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain of Pol II is involved…
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Convergent evolution of processivity in bacterial and fungal cellulases [Biochemistry]
Cellulose is the most abundant biomass on Earth, and many microorganisms depend on it as a source of energy. It consists mainly of crystalline and amorphous regions, and natural degradation of the crystalline part is highly dependent on the degree of processivity of the degrading enzymes (i.e., the extent of…
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Insights into the evolution of regulated actin dynamics via characterization of primitive gelsolin/cofilin proteins from Asgard archaea [Biochemistry]
Asgard archaea genomes contain potential eukaryotic-like genes that provide intriguing insight for the evolution of eukaryotes. The eukaryotic actin polymerization/depolymerization cycle is critical for providing force and structure in many processes, including membrane remodeling. In general, Asgard genomes encode two classes of actin-regulating proteins from sequence analysis, profilins and gels
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Structural basis for carotenoid cleavage by an archaeal carotenoid dioxygenase [Biochemistry]
Apocarotenoids are important signaling molecules generated from carotenoids through the action of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). These enzymes have a remarkable ability to cleave carotenoids at specific alkene bonds while leaving chemically similar sites within the polyene intact. Although several bacterial and eukaryotic CCDs have been characterized, the long-standing goal…
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A TDDFT investigation of the Photosystem II reaction center: Insights into the precursors to charge separation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Photosystem II (PS II) captures solar energy and directs charge separation (CS) across the thylakoid membrane during photosynthesis. The highly oxidizing, charge-separated state generated within its reaction center (RC) drives water oxidation. Spectroscopic studies on PS II RCs are difficult to interpret due to large spectral congestion, necessitating modeling to…
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Direct imaging of liquid domains in membranes by cryo-electron tomography [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Images of micrometer-scale domains in lipid bilayers have provided the gold standard of model-free evidence to understand the domains' shapes, sizes, and distributions. Corresponding techniques to directly and quantitatively assess smaller (nanoscale and submicron) liquid domains have been limited. Researchers commonly seek to correlate activities of membrane proteins with attributes…
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Revealing the origin of multiphasic dynamic behaviors in cyanobacteriochrome [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Cyanobacteriochromes are photoreceptors in cyanobacteria that exhibit a wide spectral coverage and unique photophysical properties from the photoinduced isomerization of a linear tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, we integrate femtosecond-resolved fluorescence and transient-absorption methods and unambiguously showed the significant solvation dynamics occurring at the active site from a few to hundre
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The structure of protein dynamic space [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We use a bioinformatic description of amino acid dynamic properties, based on residue-specific average B factors, to construct a dynamics-based, large-scale description of a space of protein sequences. We examine the relationship between that space and an independently constructed, structure-based space comprising the same sequences. It is demonstrated that structure…
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Direct label-free imaging of nanodomains in biomimetic and biological membranes by cryogenic electron microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The nanoscale organization of biological membranes into structurally and compositionally distinct lateral domains is believed to be central to membrane function. The nature of this organization has remained elusive due to a lack of methods to directly probe nanoscopic membrane features. We show here that cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can…
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Energetics and kinetics of substrate analog-coupled staphylococcal nuclease folding revealed by a statistical mechanical approach [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Protein conformational changes associated with ligand binding, especially those involving intrinsically disordered proteins, are mediated by tightly coupled intra- and intermolecular events. Such reactions are often discussed in terms of two limiting kinetic mechanisms, conformational selection (CS), where folding precedes binding, and induced fit (IF), where binding precedes folding. It…
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Hidden kinetic traps in multidomain folding highlight the presence of a misfolded but functionally competent intermediate [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Although more than 75% of the proteome is composed of multidomain proteins, current knowledge of protein folding is based primarily on studies of isolated domains. In this work, we describe the folding mechanism of a multidomain tandem construct comprising two distinct covalently bound PDZ domains belonging to a protein called…
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Optimizing immunization protocols to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Natural infections and vaccination with a pathogen typically stimulate the production of potent antibodies specific for the pathogen through a Darwinian evolutionary process known as affinity maturation. Such antibodies provide protection against reinfection by the same strain of a pathogen. A highly mutable virus, like HIV or influenza, evades recognition…
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Spatiotemporal mapping of bacterial membrane potential responses to extracellular electron transfer [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Extracellular electron transfer (EET) allows microorganisms to gain energy by linking intracellular reactions to external surfaces ranging from natural minerals to the electrodes of bioelectrochemical renewable energy technologies. In the past two decades, electrochemical techniques have been used to investigate EET in a wide range of microbes, with emphasis on…
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Lysosomal activity regulates Caenorhabditis elegans mitochondrial dynamics through vitamin B12 metabolism [Cell Biology]
Mitochondrial fission and fusion are highly regulated by energy demand and physiological conditions to control the production, activity, and movement of these organelles. Mitochondria are arrayed in a periodic pattern in Caenorhabditis elegans muscle, but this pattern is disrupted by mutations in the mitochondrial fission component dynamin DRP-1. Here we…
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Identification of MYC as an antinecroptotic protein that stifles RIPK1-RIPK3 complex formation [Cell Biology]
The underlying mechanism of necroptosis in relation to cancer is still unclear. Here, MYC, a potent oncogene, is an antinecroptotic factor that directly suppresses the formation of the RIPK1–RIPK3 complex. Gene set enrichment analyses reveal that the MYC pathway is the most prominently down-regulated signaling pathway during necroptosis. Depletion or…
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Genome-wide RNA interference screening reveals a COPI-MAP2K3 pathway required for YAP regulation [Cell Biology]
The transcriptional regulator YAP, which plays important roles in the development, regeneration, and tumorigenesis, is activated when released from inhibition by the Hippo kinase cascade. The regulatory mechanism of YAP in Hippo-low contexts is poorly understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen to identify genes whose loss of…
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Activating KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutants enhance proteasome capacity and reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress in multiple myeloma [Cell Biology]
KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations which activate p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling are found in half of myeloma patients and contribute to proteasome inhibitor (PI) resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We established myeloma cell lines expressing wild-type (WT), constitutively active (CA) (G12V/G13D/Q61H), or dominant-negative (DN)…
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Specific targeting of ovarian tumor-associated macrophages by large, anionic nanoparticles [Chemistry]
Immunotherapy is emerging as one of the most effective methods for treating many cancers. However, immunotherapy can still introduce significant off-target toxicity, and methods are sought to enable targeted immunotherapy at tumor sites. Here, we show that relatively large (>100-nm) anionic nanoparticles administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) selectively accumulate in tumor-associated macrophages..
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Dielectric response with short-ranged electrostatics [Chemistry]
The dielectric nature of polar liquids underpins much of their ability to act as useful solvents, but its description is complicated by the long-ranged nature of dipolar interactions. This is particularly pronounced under the periodic boundary conditions commonly used in molecular simulations. In this article, the dielectric properties of a…
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RNA sectors and allosteric function within the ribosome [Chemistry]
The ribosome translates the genetic code into proteins in all domains of life. Its size and complexity demand long-range interactions that regulate ribosome function. These interactions are largely unknown. Here, we apply a global coevolution method, statistical coupling analysis (SCA), to identify coevolving residue networks (sectors) within the 23S ribosomal…
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Differences in the free energies between the excited states of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 monomers encode their aggregation propensities [Chemistry]
The early events in the aggregation of the intrinsically disordered peptide, amyloid-β (Aβ), involve transitions from the disordered free energy ground state to assembly-competent states. Are the fingerprints of order found in the amyloid fibrils encoded in the conformations that the monomers access at equilibrium? If so, could the enhanced…
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Two distinct pathways of pregranulosa cell differentiation support follicle formation in the mouse ovary [Developmental Biology]
We sequenced more than 52,500 single cells from embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) postembryonic day 5 (P5) gonads and performed lineage tracing to analyze primordial follicles and wave 1 medullar follicles during mouse fetal and perinatal oogenesis. Germ cells clustered into six meiotic substages, as well as dying/nurse cells. Wnt-expressing bipotential…
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Global snow drought hot spots and characteristics [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Snow plays a fundamental role in global water resources, climate, and biogeochemical processes; however, no global snow drought assessments currently exist. Changes in the duration and intensity of droughts can significantly impact ecosystems, food and water security, agriculture, hydropower, and the socioeconomics of a region. We characterize the duration and…
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Three-dimensional reconstructions of the putative metazoan Namapoikia show that it was a microbial construction [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Strata from the Ediacaran Period (635 million to 538 million years ago [Ma]) contain several examples of enigmatic, putative shell-building metazoan fossils. These fossils may provide insight into the evolution and environmental impact of biomineralization on Earth, especially if their biological affinities and modern analogs can be identified. Recently, apparent…
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Plant richness, turnover, and evolutionary diversity track gradients of stability and ecological opportunity in a megadiversity center [Ecology]
Research on global patterns of diversity has been dominated by studies seeking explanations for the equator-to-poles decline in richness of most groups of organisms, namely the latitudinal diversity gradient. A problem with this gradient is that it conflates two key explanations, namely biome stability (age and area) and productivity (ecological…
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Global patterns and climatic controls of belowground net carbon fixation [Ecology]
Carbon allocated underground through belowground net primary production represents the main input to soil organic carbon. This is of significant importance, because soil organic carbon is the third-largest carbon stock after oceanic and geological pools. However, drivers and controls of belowground productivity and the fraction of total carbon fixation allocated…
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Popular repugnance contrasts with legal bans on controversial markets [Economic Sciences]
We study popular attitudes in Germany, Spain, the Philippines, and the United States toward three controversial markets—prostitution, surrogacy, and global kidney exchange (GKE). Of those markets, only prostitution is banned in the United States and the Philippines, and only prostitution is allowed in Germany and Spain. Unlike prostitution, majorities support…
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Changes in life history and population size can explain the relative neutral diversity levels on X and autosomes in extant human populations [Evolution]
In human populations, the relative levels of neutral diversity on the X and autosomes differ markedly from each other and from the naïve theoretical expectation of 3/4. Here we propose an explanation for these differences based on new theory about the effects of sex-specific life history and given pedigree-based estimates…
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Genomic analysis of inherited hearing loss in the Palestinian population [Genetics]
The genetic characterization of a common phenotype for an entire population reveals both the causes of that phenotype for that place and the power of family-based, population-wide genomic analysis for gene and mutation discovery. We characterized the genetics of hearing loss throughout the Palestinian population, enrolling 2,198 participants from 491…
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Regulatory T cells suppress Th17 cell Ca2+ signaling in the spinal cord during murine autoimmune neuroinflammation [Immunology and Inflammation]
T lymphocyte motility and interaction dynamics with other immune cells are vital determinants of immune responses. Regulatory T (Treg) cells prevent autoimmune disorders by suppressing excessive lymphocyte activity, but how interstitial motility patterns of Treg cells limit neuroinflammation is not well understood. We used two-photon microscopy to elucidate the spatial…
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Lsh/HELLS is required for B lymphocyte development and immunoglobulin class switch recombination [Immunology and Inflammation]
Mutation of HELLS (Helicase, Lymphoid-Specific)/Lsh in human DNA causes a severe immunodeficiency syndrome, but the nature of the defect remains unknown. We assessed here the role of Lsh in hematopoiesis using conditional Lsh knockout mice with expression of Mx1 or Vav Cre-recombinase. Bone marrow transplantation studies revealed that Lsh depletion…
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Necroptosis-based CRISPR knockout screen reveals Neuropilin-1 as a critical host factor for early stages of murine cytomegalovirus infection [Immunology and Inflammation]
Herpesviruses are ubiquitous human pathogens that cause a wide range of health complications. Currently, there is an incomplete understanding of cellular factors that contribute to herpesvirus infection. Here, we report an antiviral necroptosis-based genetic screen to identify novel host cell factors required for infection with the β-herpesvirus murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)….
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Multidimensional study of the heterogeneity of leukemia cells in t(8;21) acute myelogenous leukemia identifies the subtype with poor outcome [Medical Sciences]
t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is morphologically characterized by a continuum of heterogeneous leukemia cells from myeloblasts to differentiated myeloid elements. Thus, t(8;21) AML is an excellent model for studying heterogeneous cell populations and cellular evolution during disease progression. Using integrative analyses of immunophenotype, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), and singl
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Modeling SHH-driven medulloblastoma with patient iPS cell-derived neural stem cells [Medical Sciences]
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Here we describe a medulloblastoma model using Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived human neuroepithelial stem (NES) cells generated from a Gorlin syndrome patient carrying a germline mutation in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) receptor PTCH1. We found that Gorlin NES cells…
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An ErbB2 splice variant lacking exon 16 drives lung carcinoma [Medical Sciences]
Lung cancer causes more deaths annually than any other malignancy. A subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is driven by amplification and overexpression or activating mutation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ERBB2. In some contexts, notably breast cancer, alternative splicing of ERBB2 causes skipping of exon 16, leading…
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Hypothalamic extended synaptotagmin-3 contributes to the development of dietary obesity and related metabolic disorders [Medical Sciences]
The C2 domain containing protein extended synaptotagmin (E-Syt) plays important roles in both lipid homeostasis and the intracellular signaling; however, its role in physiology remains largely unknown. Here, we show that hypothalamic E-Syt3 plays a critical role in diet-induced obesity (DIO). E-Syt3 is characteristically expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei. Whole-body…
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ALKBH5 regulates anti-PD-1 therapy response by modulating lactate and suppressive immune cell accumulation in tumor microenvironment [Medical Sciences]
Although immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, many patients do not respond or develop resistance to ICB. N6-methylation of adenosine (m6A) in RNA regulates many pathophysiological processes. Here, we show that deletion of the m6A demethylase Alkbh5 sensitized tumors to cancer immunotherapy. Alkbh5 has effects on m6A…
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ChiS is a noncanonical DNA-binding hybrid sensor kinase that directly regulates the chitin utilization program in Vibrio cholerae [Microbiology]
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) represent a major mechanism that bacteria use to sense and respond to their environment. Prototypical TCSs are composed of a membrane-embedded histidine kinase, which senses an environmental stimulus and subsequently phosphorylates a cognate partner protein called a response regulator that regulates gene expression in a…
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A Zika virus envelope mutation preceding the 2015 epidemic enhances virulence and fitness for transmission [Microbiology]
Arboviruses maintain high mutation rates due to lack of proofreading ability of their viral polymerases, in some cases facilitating adaptive evolution and emergence. Here we show that, just before its 2013 spread to the Americas, Zika virus (ZIKV) underwent an envelope protein V473M substitution (E-V473M) that increased neurovirulence, maternal-to-fetal transmission,…
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Haplotype networks of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the Diamond Princess cruise ship outbreak [Microbiology]
The Diamond Princess cruise ship was put under quarantine offshore Yokohama, Japan, after a passenger who disembarked in Hong Kong was confirmed as a coronavirus disease 2019 case. We performed whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) directly from PCR+ clinical specimens and conducted a phylogenetic analysis…
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Temporal encoding of bacterial identity and traits in growth dynamics [Microbiology]
In biology, it is often critical to determine the identity of an organism and phenotypic traits of interest. Whole-genome sequencing can be useful for this but has limited power for trait prediction. However, we can take advantage of the inherent information content of phenotypes to bypass these limitations. We demonstrate,…
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Molecular biology and structure of a novel penaeid shrimp densovirus elucidate convergent parvoviral host capsid evolution [Microbiology]
The giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) is a decapod crustacean widely reared for human consumption. Currently, viruses of two distinct lineages of parvoviruses (PVs, family Parvoviridae; subfamily Hamaparvovirinae) infect penaeid shrimp. Here, a PV was isolated and cloned from Vietnamese P. monodon specimens, designated Penaeus monodon metallodensovirus (PmMDV). This is…
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Symbiosis between nanohaloarchaeon and haloarchaeon is based on utilization of different polysaccharides [Microbiology]
Nano-sized archaeota, with their small genomes and limited metabolic capabilities, are known to associate with other microbes, thereby compensating for their own auxotrophies. These diminutive and yet ubiquitous organisms thrive in hypersaline habitats that they share with haloarchaea. Here, we reveal the genetic and physiological nature of a nanohaloarchaeon–haloarchaeon association,…
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Small proteins regulate Salmonella survival inside macrophages by controlling degradation of a magnesium transporter [Microbiology]
All cells require Mg2+ to replicate and proliferate. The macrophage protein Slc11a1 is proposed to protect mice from invading microbes by causing Mg2+ starvation in host tissues. However, the Mg2+ transporter MgtB enables the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to cause disease in mice harboring a functional Slc11a1…
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Heuristics and optimal solutions to the breadth-depth dilemma [Neuroscience]
In multialternative risky choice, we are often faced with the opportunity to allocate our limited information-gathering capacity between several options before receiving feedback. In such cases, we face a natural trade-off between breadth—spreading our capacity across many options—and depth—gaining more information about a smaller number of options. Despite its broad…
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Global enhancement of cortical excitability following coactivation of large neuronal populations [Neuroscience]
Correlated activation of cortical neurons often occurs in the brain and repetitive correlated neuronal firing could cause long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and intrinsic excitability. We found that repetitive optogenetic activation of neuronal populations in the mouse cortex caused enhancement of optogenetically evoked firing of local coactivated neurons as well…
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Loss of Hap1 selectively promotes striatal degeneration in Huntington disease mice [Neuroscience]
Huntington disease (HD) is an ideal model for investigating selective neurodegeneration, as expanded polyQ repeats in the ubiquitously expressed huntingtin (HTT) cause the preferential neurodegeneration in the striatum of the HD patient brains. Here we report that adeno-associated virus (AAV) transduction-mediated depletion of Hap1, the first identified huntingtin-associated protein, in…
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A temporal record of the past with a spectrum of time constants in the monkey entorhinal cortex [Neuroscience]
Episodic memory is believed to be intimately related to our experience of the passage of time. Indeed, neurons in the hippocampus and other brain regions critical to episodic memory code for the passage of time at a range of timescales. The origin of this temporal signal, however, remains unclear. Here,…
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Synthetic nanobodies as angiotensin receptor blockers [Pharmacology]
There is considerable interest in developing antibodies as functional modulators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling for both therapeutic and research applications. However, there are few antibody ligands targeting GPCRs outside of the chemokine receptor group. GPCRs are challenging targets for conventional antibody discovery methods, as many are highly conserved…
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Nonreciprocity as a generic route to traveling states [Physics]
We examine a nonreciprocally coupled dynamical model of a mixture of two diffusing species. We demonstrate that nonreciprocity, which is encoded in the model via antagonistic cross-diffusivities, provides a generic mechanism for the emergence of traveling patterns in purely diffusive systems with conservative dynamics. In the absence of nonreciprocity, the…
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Nanoscale force sensing of an ultrafast nonlinear optical response [Physics]
The nonlinear optical response of a material is a sensitive probe of electronic and structural dynamics under strong light fields. The induced microscopic polarizations are usually detected via their far-field light emission, thus limiting spatial resolution. Several powerful near-field techniques circumvent this limitation by employing local nanoscale scatterers; however, their…
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Geometric renormalization unravels self-similarity of the multiscale human connectome [Physics]
Structural connectivity in the brain is typically studied by reducing its observation to a single spatial resolution. However, the brain possesses a rich architecture organized over multiple scales linked to one another. We explored the multiscale organization of human connectomes using datasets of healthy subjects reconstructed at five different resolutions….
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NFAT5, which protects against hypertonicity, is activated by that stress via structuring of its intrinsically disordered domain [Physiology]
Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) is a transcription factor (TF) that mediates protection from adverse effects of hypertonicity by increasing transcription of genes, including those that lead to cellular accumulation of protective organic osmolytes. NFAT5 has three intrinsically ordered (ID) activation domains (ADs). Using the NFAT5 N-terminal…
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A folding reaction at the C-terminal domain drives temperature sensing in TRPM8 channels [Physiology]
In mammals, temperature-sensitive TRP channels make membrane conductance of cells extremely temperature dependent, allowing the detection of temperature ranging from noxious cold to noxious heat. We progressively deleted the distal carboxyl terminus domain (CTD) of the cold-activated melastatin receptor channel, TRPM8. We found that the enthalpy change associated with channel…
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Parkinson's disease-related phosphorylation at Tyr39 rearranges {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibril structure revealed by cryo-EM [Physiology]
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of α-synuclein (α-syn), e.g., phosphorylation, play an important role in modulating α-syn pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD) and α-synucleinopathies. Accumulation of phosphorylated α-syn fibrils in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is the histological hallmark of these diseases. However, it is unclear how phosphorylation relates to α-syn pathology….
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The synthesis of xyloglucan, an abundant plant cell wall polysaccharide, requires CSLC function [Plant Biology]
Xyloglucan (XyG) is an abundant component of the primary cell walls of most plants. While the structure of XyG has been well studied, much remains to be learned about its biosynthesis. Here we employed reverse genetics to investigate the role of Arabidopsis cellulose synthase like-C (CSLC) proteins in XyG biosynthesis….
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Alternative splicing of DSP1 enhances snRNA accumulation by promoting transcription termination and recycle of the processing complex [Plant Biology]
Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are the basal components of the spliceosome and play crucial roles in splicing. Their biogenesis is spatiotemporally regulated. However, related mechanisms are still poorly understood. Defective in snRNA processing (DSP1) is an essential component of the DSP1 complex that catalyzes plant snRNA 3′-end maturation by cotranscriptional…
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An obȷective evaluation of the beholder's response to abstract and figurative art based on construal level theory [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Does abstract art evoke a different cognitive state than figurative art? To address this question empirically, we bridged art theory and cognitive research and designed an experiment leveraging construal level theory (CLT). CLT is based on experimental data showing that psychologically distant events (i.e., occurring farther away in space or…
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Historically rice-farming societies have tighter social norms in China and worldwide [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Data recently published in PNAS mapped out regional differences in the tightness of social norms across China [R. Y. J. Chua, K. G. Huang, M. Jin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 6720–6725 (2019)]. Norms were tighter in developed, urbanized areas and weaker in rural areas. We tested whether historical…
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Gaze deflection reveals how gaze cueing is tuned to extract the mind behind the eyes [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Suppose you are surreptitiously looking at someone, and then when they catch you staring at them, you immediately turn away. This is a social phenomenon that almost everyone experiences occasionally. In such experiences—which we will call gaze deflection—the "deflected" gaze is not directed at anything in particular but simply away…
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The creative cliff illusion [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Across eight studies, we tested whether people understand the time course of their own creativity. Prior literature finds that creativity tends to improve across an ideation session. Here we compared people's beliefs against their actual creative performance. Consistent with prior research, we found that people's creativity, on aggregate, remained constant…
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Interdependence and the cost of uncoordinated responses to COVID-19 [Social Sciences]
Social distancing is the core policy response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). But, as federal, state and local governments begin opening businesses and relaxing shelter-in-place orders worldwide, we lack quantitative evidence on how policies in one region affect mobility and social distancing in other regions and the consequences of uncoordinated…
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Revealing the intersectoral material flow of plastic containers and packaging in Japan [Sustainability Science]
The Japanese government developed a strategy for plastics and laid out ambitious targets including the reduction of 25% for single-use plastic waste and the reuse/recycling of 60% for plastic containers and packaging by 2030. However, the current usage situation of single-use plastics including containers and packaging, which should be a…
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Correction for Song et al., Flat latitudinal diversity gradient caused by the Permian-Triassic mass extinction [Correction]
EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES, EVOLUTION Correction for "Flat latitudinal diversity gradient caused by the Permian–Triassic mass extinction," by Haijun Song, Shan Huang, Enhao Jia, Xu Dai, Paul B. Wignall, and Alexander M. Dunhill, which was first published July 6, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1918953117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 17578–17583). The…
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Correction for MacDonald and Mordecai, Amazon deforestation drives malaria transmission, and malaria burden reduces forest clearing [Correction]
ECOLOGY Correction for "Amazon deforestation drives malaria transmission, and malaria burden reduces forest clearing," by Andrew J. MacDonald and Erin A. Mordecai, which was first published October 14, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1905315116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 22212–22218). The authors note that the following statement should be added to the Acknowledgments:…
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Correction for Johansson et al., An open challenge to advance probabilistic forecasting for dengue epidemics [Correction]
MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for "An open challenge to advance probabilistic forecasting for dengue epidemics," by Michael A. Johansson, Karyn M. Apfeldorf, Scott Dobson, Jason Devita, Anna L. Buczak, Benjamin Baugher, Linda J. Moniz, Thomas Bagley, Steven M. Babin, Erhan Guven, Teresa K. Yamana, Jeffrey Shaman, Terry Moschou, Nick Lothian, Aaron…
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Correction to Supporting Information for Fushimi et al., Evolution-inspired design of multicolored photoswitches from a single cyanobacteriochrome scaffold [SI Correction]
BIOCHEMISTRY Correction to Supporting Information for "Evolution-inspired design of multicolored photoswitches from a single cyanobacteriochrome scaffold," by Keiji Fushimi, Masumi Hasegawa, Takeru Ito, Nathan C. Rockwell, Gen Enomoto, Ni-Ni -Win, J. Clark Lagarias, Masahiko Ikeuchi, and Rei Narikawa, which was first published June 22, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2004273117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci….
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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
How cellulose textiles undergo fossilization Mineralized textile fragment on the surface of a thin copper-based plate from the Nausharo site (Kachi-Bolan region, Balochistan, Pakistan), dated to the first half of the 3rd millennium BCE. How textiles fossilize in archeological settings remains poorly understood. Cellulose textiles found buried next to metallic…
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No waves of intelligent design [Biological Sciences]
In PNAS, Phillips (1) attempts to explore the evolution of dynein, a major motor protein of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, using different hydropathy scales, and comes to several dramatic conclusions. The results of this analysis are taken to indicate that self-organized criticality (SOC) is integral to evolutionary optimization, that evolution of…
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Reply to Koonin et al.: Evolution of proteins is Darwinian [Biological Sciences]
I am grateful to Koonin et al. (1) for highlighting the question of whether positive Darwinian evolution occurs at the molecular level, or only neutral evolution (generally accepted). In a series of papers, I have displayed evidence for positive Darwinian evolution of proteins, using a new hydropathic method based on…
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FROG/B reporter gives bright insights into redox biology [Plant Biology]
Fluorescence spectroscopy has contributed to advances in biochemistry that we now take for granted. Many biological and chemical processes of great importance in both nature and technology were uncovered using this versatile technique. The finding of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) has revolutionized cell labeling and molecular…
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Complex self-assembled lattices from simple polymer blends [Applied Physical Sciences]
Block copolymers having two or more polymer chains linked covalently have been extensively studied for various nanostructure fabrications. Highly symmetric body-centered cubic (bcc) packing lattice has been the only observed supramolecular spherical phase in compositionally asymmetric AB diblock copolymers for a long time. After 2010, the Frank−Kasper (F-K) σ (1)…
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The heart of the HIV RNA packaging signal? [Biochemistry]
Mechanisms ensuring faithful reproduction are enforced for viruses, as for all other organisms, by natural selection. As a virus particle is a package containing the viral genome (RNA or DNA, as the case may be) for replication and transmission to the next generation, it is essential that the genome be…
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Linking neurons to immunity: Lessons from Hydra [Developmental Biology]
According to the Greek mythology (1), Heracles' second labor was the destruction of the Lernaean Hydra, a fearsome fire-breathing monster with a dog-like body and nine snake heads. Many had tried to slay the Lernaean Hydra but in vain: Any head that was cut off regrew and multiplied. It is…
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Metformin treatment of the C9orf72 ALS/FTD mouse: Almost too good for words [Genetics]
The regulation of protein synthesis is critically important for the normal development and function of the brain. Protein synthesis misregulation accompanies and in some cases underlies a diverse set of developmental and neurodegenerative diseases. They include Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (1). Although…
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Shedding new light on the generation of the visual chromophore [Cell Biology]
The visual phototransduction cascade begins with a cis–trans photoisomerization of a retinylidene chromophore associated with the visual pigments of rod and cone photoreceptors. Visual opsins release their all-trans-retinal chromophore following photoactivation, which necessitates the existence of pathways that produce 11-cis-retinal for continued formation of visual pigments and sustained vision.
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In-place molecular preservation of cellulose in 5,000-year-old archaeological textiles [Anthropology]
The understanding of fossilization mechanisms at the nanoscale remains extremely challenging despite its fundamental interest and its implications for paleontology, archaeology, geoscience, and environmental and material sciences. The mineralization mechanism by which cellulosic, keratinous, and silk tissues fossilize in the vicinity of archaeological metal artifacts offers the most exquisite pres
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Geometric anomaly detection in data [Applied Mathematics]
The quest for low-dimensional models which approximate high-dimensional data is pervasive across the physical, natural, and social sciences. The dominant paradigm underlying most standard modeling techniques assumes that the data are concentrated near a single unknown manifold of relatively small intrinsic dimension. Here, we present a systematic framework for detecting…
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Explaining the low-frequency shear elasticity of confined liquids [Applied Physical Sciences]
Experimental observations of unexpected shear rigidity in confined liquids, on very low frequency scales on the order of 0.01 to 0.1 Hz, call into question our basic understanding of the elasticity of liquids and have posed a challenge to theoretical models of the liquid state ever since. Here we combine…
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Surface polarization effects in confined polyelectrolyte solutions [Applied Physical Sciences]
Understanding nanoscale interactions at the interface between two media with different dielectric constants is crucial for controlling many environmental and biological processes, and for improving the efficiency of energy storage devices. In this contributed paper, we show that polarization effects due to such dielectric mismatch remarkably influence the double-layer structure…
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Superconductivity enhancement in phase-engineered molybdenum carbide/disulfide vertical heterostructures [Applied Physical Sciences]
Stacking layers of atomically thin transition-metal carbides and two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides, could lead to nontrivial superconductivity and other unprecedented phenomena yet to be studied. In this work, superconducting α-phase thin molybdenum carbide flakes were first synthesized, and a subsequent sulfurization treatment induced the formation of vertical h
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Acetylated histone H4 tail enhances histone H3 tail acetylation by altering their mutual dynamics in the nucleosome [Biochemistry]
The structural unit of eukaryotic chromatin is a nucleosome, comprising two histone H2A-H2B heterodimers and one histone (H3-H4)2 tetramer, wrapped around by ∼146 bp of DNA. The N-terminal flexible histone tails stick out from the histone core and have extensive posttranslational modifications, causing epigenetic changes of chromatin. Although crystal and…
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Structures of filamentous viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea explain DNA stabilization in extreme environments [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Living organisms expend metabolic energy to repair and maintain their genomes, while viruses protect their genetic material by completely passive means. We have used cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to solve the atomic structures of two filamentous double-stranded DNA viruses that infect archaeal hosts living in nearly boiling acid: Saccharolobus solfataricus rod-shaped…
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Social distancing responses to COVID-19 emergency declarations strongly differentiated by income [Economic Sciences]
In the absence of a vaccine, social distancing measures are one of the primary tools to reduce the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We show that social distancing following US state-level emergency declarations substantially varies by income. Using…
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RCP8.5 tracks cumulative CO2 emissions [Environmental Sciences]
Climate simulation-based scenarios are routinely used to characterize a range of plausible climate futures. Despite some recent progress on bending the emissions curve, RCP8.5, the most aggressive scenario in assumed fossil fuel use for global climate models, will continue to serve as a useful tool for quantifying physical climate risk,…
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Eco-evolutionary control of pathogens [Evolution]
Control can alter the eco-evolutionary dynamics of a target pathogen in two ways, by changing its population size and by directed evolution of new functions. Here, we develop a payoff model of eco-evolutionary control based on strategies of evolution, regulation, and computational forecasting. We apply this model to pathogen control…
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Opinion: Here's how we restore productivity and vigor to the biomedical research workforce in the midst of COVID-19 [Social Sciences]
The first known case of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in China in November 2019; in the United States, the first reported case was on January 22.* Essential stay-at-home mandates worldwide have helped mitigate the exponential growth in hospitalizations and death and have led to gradual reopenings in China,…
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Single-molecule diffusometry reveals no catalysis-induced diffusion enhancement of alkaline phosphatase as proposed by FCS experiments [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Theoretical and experimental observations that catalysis enhances the diffusion of enzymes have generated exciting implications about nanoscale energy flow, molecular chemotaxis, and self-powered nanomachines. However, contradictory claims on the origin, magnitude, and consequence of this phenomenon continue to arise. To date, experimental observations of catalysis-enhanced enzyme diffusion have r
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The glutathione peroxidase 8 (GPX8)/IL-6/STAT3 axis is essential in maintaining an aggressive breast cancer phenotype [Cell Biology]
One of the emerging hallmarks of cancer illustrates the importance of metabolic reprogramming, necessary to synthesize the building blocks required to fulfill the high demands of rapidly proliferating cells. However, the proliferation-independent instructive role of metabolic enzymes in tumor plasticity is still unclear. Here, we provide evidence that glutathione peroxidase…
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Light-induced psbA translation in plants is triggered by photosystem II damage via an assembly-linked autoregulatory circuit [Plant Biology]
The D1 reaction center protein of photosystem II (PSII) is subject to light-induced damage. Degradation of damaged D1 and its replacement by nascent D1 are at the heart of a PSII repair cycle, without which photosynthesis is inhibited. In mature plant chloroplasts, light stimulates the recruitment of ribosomes specifically to…
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Membrane-assisted radiant cooling for expanding thermal comfort zones globally without air conditioning [Engineering]
We present results of a radiant cooling system that made the hot and humid tropical climate of Singapore feel cool and comfortable. Thermal radiation exchange between occupants and surfaces in the built environment can augment thermal comfort. The lack of widespread commercial adoption of radiant-cooling technologies is due to two…
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Supernova triggers for end-Devonian extinctions [Astronomy]
The Late Devonian was a protracted period of low speciation resulting in biodiversity decline, culminating in extinction events near the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary. Recent evidence indicates that the final extinction event may have coincided with a dramatic drop in stratospheric ozone, possibly due to a global temperature rise. Here we study…
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Enamel synthesis explained [Commentaries]
Tooth enamel, the protective outer layer of the dental crown, is the hardest and most mineralized tissue in the human body. Enamel's unique mechanical properties arise from the hierarchical organization of inorganic and organic matter across length scales. Unlike other biomaterials, such as bone or carapace, the structure of enamel…
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Intrinsically disordered linkers control tethered kinases via effective concentration [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Kinase specificity is crucial to the fidelity of signaling pathways, yet many pathways use the same kinases to achieve widely different effects. Specificity arises in part from the enzymatic domain but also from the physical tethering of kinases to their substrates. Such tethering can occur via protein interaction domains in…
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Autoantibodies against central nervous system antigens in a subset of B cell-dominant multiple sclerosis patients [Immunology and Inflammation]
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), with characteristic inflammatory lesions and demyelination. The clinical benefit of cell-depleting therapies targeting CD20 has emphasized the role of B cells and autoantibodies in MS pathogenesis. We previously introduced an enzyme-linked immunospot spot (ELISpot)-based assay to…
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Significant Zr isotope variations in single zircon grains recording magma evolution history [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Zircons widely occur in magmatic rocks and often display internal zonation finely recording the magmatic history. Here, we presented in situ high-precision (2SD <0.15‰ for δ94Zr) and high–spatial-resolution (20 µm) stable Zr isotope compositions of magmatic zircons in a suite of calc-alkaline plutonic rocks from the juvenile part of the…
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Global epigenomic analysis of KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma identifies functional MYC superenhancers and enhancer RNAs [Microbiology]
Enhancers play indispensable roles in cell proliferation and survival through spatiotemporally regulating gene transcription. Active enhancers and superenhancers often produce noncoding enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) that precisely control RNA polymerase II activity. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human oncogenic gamma-2 herpesvirus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lym
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Psychological foundations of human status allocation [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Competing theories of status allocation posit divergent conceptual foundations upon which human status hierarchies are built. We argue that the three prominent theories of status allocation—competence-based models, conflict-based models, and dual-pathway models—can be distinguished by the importance that they place on four key affordance dimensions: benefit-generation ability, benefit-generation w
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Deconstructing bias in social preferences reveals groupy and not-groupy behavior [Economic Sciences]
Group divisions are a continual feature of human history, with biases toward people's own groups shown in both experimental and natural settings. Using a within-subject design, this paper deconstructs group biases to find significant and robust individual differences; some individuals consistently respond to group divisions, while others do not. We…
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Draining the FEN1s for cancer therapy [Commentaries]
Breast and ovarian cancer are among the most frequent causes of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Genomic instability is prevalent in these cancer types, and it has been associated with mutations in DNA repair genes, including the BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes. FEN1 and Homologous Recombination Defects A synthetic…
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Cdc48 cofactor Shp1 regulates signal-induced SCFMet30 disassembly [Biochemistry]
Organisms can adapt to a broad spectrum of sudden and dramatic changes in their environment. These abrupt changes are often perceived as stress and trigger responses that facilitate survival and eventual adaptation. The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is involved in most cellular processes. Unsurprisingly, components of the UPS also play crucial…
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Defined microbiota transplant restores Th17/ROR{gamma}t+ regulatory T cell balance in mice colonized with inflammatory bowel disease microbiotas [Immunology and Inflammation]
The building evidence for the contribution of microbiota to human disease has spurred an effort to develop therapies that target the gut microbiota. This is particularly evident in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), where clinical trials of fecal microbiota transplantation have shown some efficacy. To aid the development of novel microbiota-targeted…
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The historical partnership that revolutionized battery research at Argonne
Argonne battery scientist Michael Thackeray highlights the ongoing research into manganese-based lithium-ion batteries, and how his work with Nobel Prize winner John B. Goodenough in the 80s has informed today's studies.
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Enzyme cocktail developed in Brazil powers production of second-generation ethanol
Brazilian researchers used genetic engineering to develop a low-cost platform for the production of enzymes that break down sugarcane trash and bagasse for conversion into biofuel. The novel molecules have many potential industrial applications.
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NASA study maps the roots of global mangrove loss
Using high-resolution data from the joint NASA-U.S. Geological Survey Landsat program, researchers have created the first map of the causes of change in global mangrove habitats between 2000 and 2016 – a valuable tool to aid conservation efforts for these vital coastline defenders.
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NIH study suggests opioid use linked to pregnancy loss, lower chance of conception
Opioid use among women trying to conceive may be associated with a lower chance of pregnancy, suggests a National Institutes of Health study. Moreover, opioid use in early pregnancy may be associated with a greater chance of pregnancy loss.
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Analysis shows that political speeches now use simpler language, express more sentiments
Research by Kansas State University shows how politicians from both major parties have changed their political speech from previous centuries.
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Signs of depression and anxiety soar among US graduate students during pandemic
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02439-6 As coronavirus infection and death rates explode across the nation, a survey reveals a marked increase in graduate and undergraduate students' mental-health struggles.
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Differences in Antibody Responses Linked to COVID-19 Outcomes
In a small study of patients hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, researchers report distinct early differences between the antibody responses of patients who recovered and those who died, possibly paving the way for a tool to predict disease prognosis.
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This map of a Grand-Canyon-sized chasm off California took 15 years to create
Just offshore from the small town of Moss Landing, Calif.—once an important West Coast fishing hub and now a center of oceanographic research—stretches one of the country's most magnificent but little-known geologic features: Monterey Canyon. Please visit our website to discover the latest advances in science and technology: http://bit.ly/30Z4ZpZ Discover world-changing science with a subscriptio
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Data omission in key EPA insecticide study shows need for review of industry studies
For nearly 50 years, a statistical omission tantamount to data falsification sat undiscovered in a critical study at the heart of regulating one of the most controversial and widely used pesticides in America.
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New 'nanopores' technique offers proof-of-concept of earlier, safer tumor detection
In recent years, a non-invasive biopsy method called liquid biopsy has shown promise as a potential alternative to tissue biopsy, currently the gold standard in cancer detection and diagnosis. A tissue biopsy sample—traditionally collected through a surgical procedure that may require general anesthesia, accompanied by the risk of complications that may occur from any surgery, from pain through to
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COVID-19 has major impact on psycho-social care of cancer patients
Psychosocial needs of people affected by cancer are not being adequately met due to the disruption in services caused by Covid-19, according to a new report.
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Food safety model may help pandemic management
No precedent exists for managing the COVID-19 pandemic, although a plan for working through major public food scares may point to the best ways of alerting and communicating with the public.
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Cold-Causing Coronaviruses Don't Seem to Confer Lasting Immunity
Studies on SARS-CoV-2's milder cousins hint that our immune systems are quick to forget the viruses, but it's unclear whether the same is true for the agent that causes COVID-19.
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Warbler Species Fires Up Song Diversity
Hermit warblers in California have developed 35 different song dialects, apparently as a result of wildfires temporarily driving them out of certain areas. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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An AI built by Facebook could drastically speed up MRI scans
An AI system, built by researchers at Facebook and NYU Langone, can produce MRI scans with only a quarter of the data normally required, which could speed up the scanning process
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Return of covid-19 to New Zealand shows that no one can relax
New Zealand has acted swiftly to contain a new outbreak of covid-19 after going 102 days virus-free, but it's still unclear whether it can stamp it out again
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Species competition and cooperation influence vulnerability to climate change
Organisms need to work together to adapt to climate change, especially in the presence of competitors, suggests a new study published today in eLife.
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Behavioural variability in captive African elephants in the use of the trunk while feeding
The behaviors implied in the manipulation of food items by African elephants were correlated with the shape and size of these items. Despite a common ethogram, all the elephants showed different frequencies in the use of at least one behavior.
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Study shows how a single gene drives aggression in wild songbird
A new study shows how differentiation of a single gene changes behavior in a wild songbird, determining whether the white-throated sparrow displays more, or less, aggression. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) published the research, led by neuroscientists at Emory University.
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Surprising coral spawning features revealed
When stony corals have their renowned mass spawning events, in sync with the moon's cycle, colonies simultaneously release an underwater 'cloud' of sperm and eggs for fertilization. But how do the sperm and eggs survive several hours as plankton, given threats from predators, microbes and stresses such as warming waters?
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Species competition and cooperation influence vulnerability to climate change
Organisms need to work together to adapt to climate change, especially in the presence of competitors, suggests a new study published today in eLife.
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Behavioural variability in captive African elephants in the use of the trunk while feeding
The behaviors implied in the manipulation of food items by African elephants were correlated with the shape and size of these items. Despite a common ethogram, all the elephants showed different frequencies in the use of at least one behavior.
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Study shows how a single gene drives aggression in wild songbird
A new study shows how differentiation of a single gene changes behavior in a wild songbird, determining whether the white-throated sparrow displays more, or less, aggression. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) published the research, led by neuroscientists at Emory University.
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Surprising coral spawning features revealed
When stony corals have their renowned mass spawning events, in sync with the moon's cycle, colonies simultaneously release an underwater 'cloud' of sperm and eggs for fertilization. But how do the sperm and eggs survive several hours as plankton, given threats from predators, microbes and stresses such as warming waters?
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Low 'good' cholesterol levels found in Latin America and the Caribbean
Low levels of HDL cholesterol, the so-called 'good' cholesterol, are the most common lipid disorder in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, a new meta-analysis published in eLife shows.
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Persistence of ADHD into adulthood is an important predictor of car crash risk
A new study reports that the risk of being involved in car crashes increases for those diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), published by Elsevier, looked specifically at the rate of car crashes by adulthood, which was 1.45 times higher in those with a childhood history of ADHD c
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Escape artists: How vibrio bacteria break out of cells
As soon as the foodborne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus infects a human intestinal cell, the bacteria are already planning their escape. After all, once it is in and multiplies, the bacterium must find a way out to infect new cells.
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Native Hawaiian tiger cowries eat alien invasive species
Researchers at the University of Hawai'i (UH) at Mānoa's Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) have just discovered that the Hawaiian tiger cowrie (Leho-kiko in Hawaiian) is a voracious predator of alien sponges such as the Orange Keyhole sponge, which can overgrow native corals and has become a concern as it spread across reefs within Kāne'ohe Bay. In the study published recently, researcher
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Smartphones are lowering student's grades, study finds
The ease of finding information on the internet is hurting students' long-term retention and resulting in lower grades on exams, according to a Rutgers University-New Brunswick study.
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Escape artists: How vibrio bacteria break out of cells
As soon as the foodborne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus infects a human intestinal cell, the bacteria are already planning their escape. After all, once it is in and multiplies, the bacterium must find a way out to infect new cells.
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Native Hawaiian tiger cowries eat alien invasive species
Researchers at the University of Hawai'i (UH) at Mānoa's Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) have just discovered that the Hawaiian tiger cowrie (Leho-kiko in Hawaiian) is a voracious predator of alien sponges such as the Orange Keyhole sponge, which can overgrow native corals and has become a concern as it spread across reefs within Kāne'ohe Bay. In the study published recently, researcher
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Recent global warming trends are inconsistent with very high climate sensitivity
Research published this week in Earth System Dynamics reports that the most sensitive climate models overestimate global warming during the last 50 years.
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Encouraging News About Coronavirus Immunity
We've had some good news on coronavirus immunity recently – good because it gives us some more clarity on the whole situation, and because it suggests that both people who have already recovered from the infection and people who will be getting vaccinated can have good protection. We have this preprint from several of the Boston/Cambridge area institutions, comparing antibody levels in 259 infect
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Opinion: The Politics of Science and Racism
Race has been used to segment humanity and, by extension, establish and enforce a hierarchy in science. Individual and institutional commitments to racial justice in the sciences must involve political activity.
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Ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics of liquid water revealed by THz-induced Kerr effect
Liquid water is considered the cornerstone of life and has many extraordinary physical and biochemical properties. The hydrogen bond network of liquid water is widely recognized to play a crucial role in these properties. Due to the complexity of intermolecular interactions and the large spectral overlap of relevant modes, the study of hydrogen bond dynamics is challenging. In recent years, exciti
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The MOF-based multicolor single-mode microlaser
Since different tissues, cells or biochemicals have different (such as optical, thermal and acoustic) responses to different wavelengths of light, a light source with visible to near-infrared (NIR) multi-color output provides the fundamentals for multi-modal/multi-dimensional sensing/imaging. On the other hand, the polarization properties of light provide an opportunity for the analysis and proces
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Dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography: 3-D live-imaging of retinal organoids
Optical coherence tomography offers astounding opportunities to image the complex structure of living tissue but lacks functional information. We present dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography as a technique to noninvasively image living human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal organoids. Colored images with an endogenous contrast linked to organelle motility are genera
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Cops Are Buying Your Social Media Location Data Without a Warrant
Data Brokers A shocking number of apps on your phone, ranging from sports to weather , are probably quietly selling your location data to the highest bidder. And according to documents obtained by Motherboard , that bidder is sometimes federal law enforcement. The Secret Service paid millions of dollars to a company called Babel Street for its "Locate X" product, which tracks mobile devices using
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Nearly 50% of parents and grandparents clash over raising kids
For some families, disagreements over parenting choices and enforcing parents' rules can cause major strife between a child's parents and grandparents, a national poll suggests. Nearly half of parents describe arguments with one or more grandparent about their parenting, with one in seven going so far as to limit the amount of time their child sees certain grandparents. Disputes most commonly inv
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Longterm polyamory seems to work just fine for these frogs
Goat frogs, which are native to Brazil's Atlantic rainforest, are the first known case of an amphibian species in which males maintain lasting relationships with more than one female mate. (Credit: Fábio de Sá/) For male members of the tropical frog species Thoropa taophora , also known as goat frogs, the breeding season is filled with responsibilities. During this ten-month long period, males mu
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A stepping stone for measuring quantum gravity
A group of theoretical physicists, including two physicists from the University of Groningen, have proposed a 'table-top' device that could measure gravity waves. However, their actual aim is to answer one of the biggest questions in physics: is gravity a quantum phenomenon? The key element for the device is the quantum superposition of large objects. Their design was published in New Journal of P
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Den giftige fjæsing stikker badegæster: 'Den er enormt aggressiv'
Både livreddere og ekspert vurderer, at der er flere fjæsinger på spil i år.
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Warbler Species Fires Up Song Diversity
Hermit warblers in California have developed 35 different song dialects, apparently as a result of wildfires temporarily driving them out of certain areas. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Cool new worlds found in our cosmic backyard
How complete is our census of the Sun's closest neighbors? Astronomers using NSF's NOIRLab facilities and a team of data-sleuthing volunteers participating in Backyard Worlds: Planet 9, a citizen science project, have discovered roughly 100 cool worlds near the Sun — objects more massive than planets but lighter than stars, known as brown dwarfs. Several of these newly discovered worlds are among
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Decline in milk consumption by children in school lunch programs may affect future health
Fluid milk consumption among children is vital, as adequate consumption of dairy products, especially during childhood, has beneficial health outcomes later in life. These benefits include reduced risk of osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity, and cancer in adulthood. Milk consumption among children has been declining for decades, so understanding and fulfilling the needs of children is crucial to r
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Surprising coral spawning features revealed
When stony corals have their renowned mass spawning events, in sync with the moon's cycle, colonies simultaneously release an underwater 'cloud' of sperm and eggs for fertilization. But how do the sperm and eggs survive several hours as plankton, given threats from predators, microbes and stresses such as warming waters? A Rutgers-led team has discovered some surprising features in coral sperm and
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Harvard Astronomers Propose That Our Star System Used to Be Binary
A team of Harvard astronomers have a wild new theory: the Sun used to have a companion star, making our solar system a binary one during its ancient history. The astronomers say the theory could explain the formation of the Oort cloud, a theoretical cloud of dust and smaller objects in the distant regions of our solar system that many believe was created out of the left overs from the early solar
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Pothole repair made eco-friendly using grit from wastewater treatment
Potholes are aggravating to drive over, and they can cause billions of dollars of damage every year to automobiles. Now, scientists report a brand-new way to repair roads that's also eco-friendly — by using a remnant of wastewater treatment called grit that's usually disposed of in landfills.
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Smartphones can tell when you're drunk by analyzing your walk
Your smartphone can tell when you've had too much to drink by detecting changes in the way you walk, according to a new study.
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Airborne viruses can spread on dust, non-respiratory particles
Influenza viruses can spread through the air on dust, fibers and other microscopic particles, according to new research. The findings have obvious implications for coronavirus transmission as well as influenza.
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Women less likely to receive pay for college internships
The odds of women receiving pay for a college internship are 34% lower than for men, according to new research.
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Bee neighborly — sharing bees helps more farmers
A new article shows the benefits of cost-sharing the conservation of wild bee habitats on agricultural lands, especially in nearby farming communities, can help overcome the tragedy of the commons.
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Novel method of heat conduction could be a game changer for server farms and aircraft
A mechanical engineer has developed an aircraft thermal management technology that stands ready for adaptation into other areas.
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New gene therapy approach eliminates at least 90% latent herpes simplex virus 1
Infectious disease researchers have used a gene editing approach to remove latent herpes simplex virus 1, or HSV-1, also known as oral herpes. In animal models, the findings show at least a 90 percent decrease in the latent virus, enough researchers expect that it will keep the infection from coming back.
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The Racist Legacy of Computer-Generated Humans
Moviemakers have perfected the art of rendering skin and hair—but only for white people — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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The best double-burner griddles that use your whole stovetop
A bigger, easier, lovelier breakfast. (Amazon/) You can do a lot with a stovetop and a couple nice pans, but there are some dishes that just land better when they're cooked on a griddle. Flat-top cooking appliances are a favorite in restaurant kitchens thanks to their large surface area, even heat distribution, and easy-to-clean design, but most home cooks simply don't have the space or budget fo
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Public Health England rolled into new agency to tackle pandemics
National Institute for Health Protection will take in NHS tracing programme and biosecurity centre
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Novel method of heat conduction could be a game changer for server farms and aircraft
A mechanical engineer has developed an aircraft thermal management technology that stands ready for adaptation into other areas.
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Current lung cancer public health screening guidelines under count African Americans
Public health screening guidelines for lung cancer followed by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) undercount African Americans, contributing to disparities in lung cancer screening and treatment, according to a study published today in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology. The JTO is the official journal of the Internationa
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Species competition and cooperation influence vulnerability to climate change
Organisms need to work together to adapt to climate change, especially in the presence of competitors, suggests a new study published today in eLife.
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Species competition and cooperation influence vulnerability to climate change
Organisms need to work together to adapt to climate change, especially in the presence of competitors, suggests a new study published today in eLife.
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Biomedical scientists piece together how medication paralyzes parasitic worms
A new study upends the widely held belief that a medication used to treat lymphatic filariasis doesn't directly target the parasites that cause the disease. The research shows the medication, diethylcarbamazine, temporarily paralyzes the parasites.
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Drugs against alpha-ketoglutarate may combat deadly childhood brain tumor
Every year, 150 to 300 children in the United States are diagnosed with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), aggressive and lethal tumors that grow deep inside the brain, for which there are no cures. In a study funded by the National Institutes of Health, researchers showed that experimental drugs designed to lower the body's natural production of alpha-ketoglutarate extended the lives of m
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Breast cancer multidisciplinary management during COVID-19 pandemic
Breast Cancer Multidisciplinary Management during COVID-19 Pandemic: Experiences and Strategies Used by a Singapore Breast Surgical Unithttps://doi.org/10.15212/bioi-2020-0012Announcing a new article publication for BIO Integration journal. In this commentary article the authors Chi Wei Mok, Yert Li Melissa Seet and Su-Ming Tan from Changi General Hospital, Singapore and Singhealth Duke-NUS Breast
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SpaceX Just Reused a Single Booster for the 6th Time
Sixth Time's the Charm SpaceX just beat its own record by reusing a single Falcon first stage for the sixth time. The rocket was part of the company's 11th Starlink mission, carrying 58 internet-beaming satellites, as well as three SkySats for private Earth imaging company Planet, into orbit. It took off at exactly 10:31 ET from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Then the veteran first
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Recent global warming trends are inconsistent with very high climate sensitivity
New research reports that the most sensitive climate models overestimate global warming during the last 50 years.
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Swans reserve aggression for each other
Swans display more aggression to fellow swans than other birds, new research shows.
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Filling the void in ammonia synthesis: The role of nitrogen vacancies in catalysts
In new research, scientists explore how nitrogen vacancies in catalysts participate in the synthesis of ammonia, a pivotal chemical in the fertilizer industry. They have devised a general rule for the smart design of nitride-based catalysts based on their nitrogen vacancy formation energy and created a high performing catalyst for ammonia synthesis using cerium, an abundant transition metal.
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Listen: How close is a safe COVID-19 vaccine that works?
The COVID-19 vaccine is on track to become the fastest-developed vaccine in history, but that doesn't mean critical steps are being skipped, Ruth Karron argues. Ruth Karron, who leads the Center for Immunization Research at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, is one of the top vaccine experts in the world, serving on vaccine committees for the US Centers for Disease Control and P
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Project breathes new life into Early Irish and Old Norse
Musicians, historians and literary scholars hope to find a soundtrack to the world of the Vikings.
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Covid-19: How can we travel abroad safely during the pandemic?
Many countries have seen an increase in coronavirus cases, making going abroad more of a gamble. But there are options for managing the current risks from foreign travel
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Behavioural variability in captive African elephants in the use of the trunk while feeding
The behaviours implied in the manipulation of food items by captive African elephants were correlated with the shape and size of these items. Despite a common ethogram, all the elephants showed different frequencies in the use of at least one behaviour.
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Ageing heart cells offer clues to susceptibility of older people to severe COVID-19
Genes that play an important role in allowing SARS-CoV-2 to invade heart cells become more active with age, according to research published today in the Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. The findings could help explain why age is major risk factor for dying from COVID-19, with people over 70 years at greatest risk, and why the disease can cause heart complications in severe cases, incl
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Study identifies optimal timing for phone calls after skin surgery
A new study from the University of Missouri School of Medicine provides insight into how the timing of post-operative phone calls can address pain, bleeding and overall patient satisfaction after Mohs micrographic surgery.
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Stress overload and pain common among patients with traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Post-injury distress is common, with many individuals experiencing chronic anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as chronic pain. In this collection of articles in the journal NeuroRehabilitation, experts report on findings that shed light on the relationship between stress and pain following a TBI and implications for reha
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New 'nanopores' technique offers proof-of-concept of earlier, safer tumor detection
Liquid biopsies–identifying the presence of tumor DNA fragments or cells circulating in bodily fluids–have taken off in the last few years as a non-invasive and more accurate way to detect cancers. Unfortunately, the short-lived nature of these fragments remains a challenge for identifying mutations, particularly for early tumor detection. But a new technique incorporating nanopore technology co
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Free-roaming dogs prevent giant pandas from thriving in the wild
Dogs are still menacing giant pandas. This is in part, because nature reserves in China are often closely connected to human settlements where dogs roam free. Dogs can roam over 10 km in a night and some feral dogs have even set up permanent residence in the reserves.
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Study shows how a single gene drives aggression in wild songbird
A new study shows how differentiation of a single gene changes behavior in a wild songbird, determining whether the white-throated sparrow displays more, or less, aggression.
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Genetics: Romantic relationship dynamics may be in our genes
Variations in a gene called CD38, which is involved in attachment behaviour in non-human animals, may be associated with human romantic relationship dynamics in daily life, according to a study published in Scientific Reports.
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Federal and state websites flunk COVID-19 reading-level review
Information about COVID-19 offered by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the White House, and state health departments failed to meet recommendations for communicating with the public.
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100 cool worlds found near the sun
Citizen scientists helped astrophysicists discover 100 cool brown dwarfs near the Sun. Follow-up observations, including from W. M. Keck Observatory on Maunakea in Hawaii, reveal some of the them are among the coolest brown dwarfs ever discovered with temperatures nearly as cool as Earth's – cool enough to harbor water clouds.
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Assessment of simulated respiratory droplet spread during ophthalmologic slitlamp exam
Respiratory droplet spread during an ophthalmologic slitlamp exam was simulated to help establish risk of infectious disease contagion in this setting.
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There is at least 10 times more plastic in the Atlantic than previously thought
Scientists measured 12-21 million tonnes of three of the most common types of plastic in the top 200 metres of the Atlantic. By assuming the concentration of plastic in the whole Atlantic is the same as that measured at 200 metres deep, the scientists estimated there is around 200 million tonnes of three of the most common types of plastic alone. Compare this to the previously estimated figure of
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Constructing odor objects in the brain
A research team at RIKEN in Japan found how odors can be generalized into categories by combining brain imaging and models of brain activity. They examined a region of the fly brain that plays a central role in forming olfactory memories and discovered clustered representations of mixtures and groups of odors that are conserved across individual flies.
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LJI team gets first-ever look at a rare but vital stem cell in humans
Scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) have tracked down the rare stem cells that generate neutrophils in human bone marrow. This research, published August 18, 2020, in Immunity, gives researchers a potential path for intervening in diseases where neutrophil development goes awry.
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Depression and use of marijuana among US adults
This study examined the association of depression with cannabis use among US adults and the trends for this association from 2005 to 2016.
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Assessing SARS-CoV-2 transmission on an international flight
This case series describes SARS-CoV-2 transmission on an international commercial airline flight and among a tourist group.
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Readability of public health information on COVID-19 from governments, international agencies
The readability of information about COVID-19 was evaluated on websites of public health agencies and governments of 15 countries.
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Examining association of race with death among patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Researchers looked at the association between race and death among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at 92 hospitals in 12 states.
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USPSTF recommendation on behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk. Sexually transmitted infections are on the rise across the United States, with approximately 20 million new cases each year.
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These drugs carry risks and may not help, but many dementia patients get them anyway
Nearly three-quarters of older adults with dementia have filled prescriptions for medicines that act on their brain and nervous system, but aren't designed for dementia, a new study shows. That's despite the special risks that such drugs carry for older adults — and the lack of evidence that they actually ease the dementia-related behavior problems that often prompt a doctor's prescription in pat
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Researchers identify enzyme linked to colitis
An enzyme that usually stops bacterial growth in the large intestine stimulates inflammation in some people, resulting in ulcerative colitis – a chronic digestive disease. The gut enzyme lysozyme which normally functions to restrain bacterial growth, instead stimulates inflammation and results in the formation of ulcers and sores.
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Climate change impact on green energy production
As the climate of the planet is changing, many researchers are looking to more renewable energy sources. In the Journal of Sustainable and Renewable Energy, researchers investigate whether the power generated by solar and wind farms would differ between current and future climates. The researchers focused on sites in Australia where variable renewable generators are located or are likely to be loc
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Humid air can extend lifetime of virus-laden aerosol droplets
The coronavirus that causes COVID-19 is thought to spread through natural respiratory activities, but little is known about how the virus is transported through air. Scientists report in Physics of Fluids on how airflow and fluid flow affect exhaled droplets containing the virus. Their model includes a more accurate description of air turbulence that affects an exhaled droplet's trajectory. Calcul
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Trace vapor generator for detecting explosives, narcotics
Trace vapor detection technologies are crucial for ensuring reliable and safe detection of explosives and illegal drugs. Researchers have developed a compact testing device called the Trace Vapor Generator for Explosives and Narcotics, which is portable and can be used for non-contact sampling of these vapors. In Review of Scientific Instruments, the team reports the TV-Gen can accurately generate
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COVID-19 Outbreaks Occur as Students Return to Campus
Following a string of outbreaks, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill will move to an online-only semester.
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Pilotprojekt ska aktivera elever med funktionsnedsättning
Stöd för att komma i gång och att fortsätta, och möjlighet att själv se sina framsteg. Det är några framgångsfaktorer för att öka fysisk aktivitet bland personer med funktionsnedsättning, visar forskning. Ungefär var tionde svensk har en stillasittande fritid, men bland personer med funktionsnedsättning är siffran betydligt högre. Där är det omkring var fjärde person som inte rör sig på fritiden,
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Jeweled Orb-Web Spiders Mimic Flowers to Catch Pollinating Insects
The bright flowerlike symmetry of Australia's northern jeweled orb-web spider lures in hungry prey. Jewel-Orb-Webbed-spider.jpg A spider of the species Gasteracantha fornicata sits in its web in the Australian rainforest. Image credits: Thomas White Rights information: This image may only be reproduced with this Inside Science article. Creature Tuesday, August 18, 2020 – 14:00 Veronica Tremblay,
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The Women Making Conspiracy Theories Beautiful
Illustrations by Charlotte Fos A blush-colored square filled with the all-caps advice SHOW UP EVERY DAY FOR SOMETHING YOU BELIEVE IN belongs to one of the least remarkable categories of Instagram content: visually unchallenging, impossible to disagree with, pink. Even if people do not exactly know how to show up every day for something they believe in—particularly during a pandemic—the basic spir
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MIT Scientists Suggest Life Could Thrive in the Clouds of Venus
Cloud City A team of MIT scientists has proposed an outlandish idea: that the sulfur-rich clouds of Venus could be teeming with microbial life. It's not a new idea — As Air & Space Magazine reports , Carl Sagan first floated the hypothesis more than 50 years ago. But MIT planetary scientist Sara Seager and her team have new ideas about how these microbes might survive, lending new credibility to
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There is at least 10 times more plastic in the Atlantic than previously thought
The mass of 'invisible' microplastics found in the upper waters of the Atlantic Ocean is approximately 12- 21 million tons, according to research published in the journal Nature Communications today.
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Trace vapor generator for detecting explosives, narcotics
Trace vapor detection technologies are crucial for ensuring reliable and safe detection of explosives and illegal drugs. Researchers from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have developed a compact testing device called the Trace Vapor Generator for Explosives and Narcotics (TV-Gen), which is portable and can be used for non-contact sampling of these vapors.
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Humid air can extend lifetime of virus-laden aerosol droplets
The novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 is thought to spread through natural respiratory activities, such as breathing, talking and coughing, but little is known about how the virus is transported through the air.
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100 cool worlds found near the Sun
How complete is our census of the Sun's closest neighbors? Astronomers and a team of data-sleuthing volunteers participating in Backyard Worlds: Planet 9, a citizen science project, have discovered roughly 100 cool worlds near the Sun—objects more massive than planets but lighter than stars, known as brown dwarfs.
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Insect wings inspire new ways to fight superbugs
The wings of cicadas and dragonflies are natural bacteria killers, inspiring scientists who are searching for new ways to defeat drug-resistant superbugs. They've now revealed how bioinspired nanomaterials physically destroy bacteria. It's a vital step on the way to delivering precisely engineered anti-bacterial surfaces, and powerful new weapons in the fight against deadly superbugs.
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Low humidity increases COVID-19 risk: Another reason to wear a mask
A new study from Australia confirms a link between COVID-19 cases and lower humidity.
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Unraveling the initial molecular events of respiration
Physicists from Switzerland, Japan and Germany have unveiled the mechanism by which the first event of respiration takes place in heme proteins.
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The tropics are expanding, and climate change is the primary culprit
Earth's tropics are expanding poleward and that expansion is driven by human-caused changes to the ocean, according to new research.
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Wide variation across hospitals in nurse staffing is threat to public's health
According to a new study, many hospitals in New York and Illinois were understaffed right before the first surge of critically ill Covid-19 patients. The study documented staffing ratios that varied from 3 to 10 patients for each nurse on general adult medical and surgical units. ICU nurse staffing was better but also varied significantly across hospitals.
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Low-cost home air quality monitors prove useful for wildfire smoke
A new study by air quality scientists tested four models of low-cost air quality monitors during actual wildfire pollution events and found that their readings of PM2.5 – or particulate matter under 2.5 microns, which has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular issues – were consistently higher than the reference monitor used by the regulatory agencies; however, since each monitor had a rela
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Cashew shell compound appears to mend damaged nerves
In laboratory experiments, a chemical compound found in the shell of the cashew nut promotes the repair of myelin, a team reports today.
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Researchers discover protective factor against psychological trauma
The endogenous regulation of a specific gene is associated with a reduced risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder following a terrifying experience. In particular, traumatic memories of the experience are less severe.
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Transparent solar panels for windows hit record 8 percent efficiency
In a step closer to skyscrapers that serve as power sources, researchers have set a new efficiency record for color-neutral, transparent solar cells.
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New tool improves fairness of online search rankings
In a new paper, Cornell University researchers introduce a tool they've developed to improve the fairness of online rankings without sacrificing their usefulness or relevance.
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New landmine detection method to reduce false alarm rates
Landmines pose a serious threat in conflict areas, yet modern detection systems struggle to discriminate between explosives and clutter. A project funded by the Army developed a new method for landmine identification that will greatly reduce false alarm rates.
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Huddersfield research predicted anti-COVID steroid benefits
Huddersfield researchers publish study that found that dexamethasone could reduce death rates in hospitalized COVID-19 patients early in the pandemic.
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Evolution in real-time: How bacteria adapt to their hosts
Bacteria that invade animal cells in order to multiply are widespread in nature. Some of these are pathogens of humans and animals.
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Green apple e-cigarette flavorant triggers reward-related behavior in the brain
A common green apple vape flavor enhances nicotine reward, which could heighten reward and drug-seeking behavior, according to researchers at Marshall University.
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Smartphones are lowering student's grades, study finds
The ease of finding information on the internet is hurting students' long-term retention and resulting in lower grades on exams, according to a Rutgers University-New Brunswick study.
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Researchers discover novel molecular mechanism that enables conifers to adapt to winter
In boreal forest during late winter, freezing temperatures are typical but at the same time the sun can already shine very brightly. This combination is especially dangerous to evergreen plants, such as conifers. The chlorophyll pigment-proteins in their needles absorbs light, but the enzyme activity, stopped by the cold, prevents the plants from using the light for photosynthesis. This exposes th
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Insect wings inspire new ways to fight superbugs
Scientists have revealed how nanomaterials inspired by insect wings are able to destroy bacteria on contact.
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Researchers discover novel molecular mechanism that enables conifers to adapt to winter
In boreal forest during late winter, freezing temperatures are typical but at the same time the sun can already shine very brightly. This combination is especially dangerous to evergreen plants, such as conifers. The chlorophyll pigment-proteins in their needles absorbs light, but the enzyme activity, stopped by the cold, prevents the plants from using the light for photosynthesis. This exposes th
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Insect wings inspire new ways to fight superbugs
Scientists have revealed how nanomaterials inspired by insect wings are able to destroy bacteria on contact.
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Airing commercials after political ads actually helps sell nonpolitical products
About $7 billion reportedly will be spent this fall on television and digital commercials from political campaigns and political action committees, filling the airwaves with political ads many viewers dislike. Companies running ads immediately afterward have been concerned about the potential of a negative spillover effect on how they and their products and services are perceived.
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A new design for flow batteries
In 2020, China plans to launch the largest battery complex in the world with a capacity of 800 MW*h (approximately this amount of energy per year is consumed by a household with 200 apartments). This complex is based not on the usual lithium-ion or lead-acid batteries, but on the redox flow battery where the electricity is stored in the form of chemical energy of solutions—electrolytes. Battery co
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COVID-19 hits U.S. mink farms after ripping through Europe
Researchers confirm outbreak on Utah fur ranches
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Art in the age of machine intelligence | Refik Anadol
What does it look like inside the mind of a machine? Inspired by the architectural vision of a futuristic Los Angeles in "Blade Runner," media artist Refik Anadol melds art with artificial intelligence in his studio's collaborations with architects, data scientists, neuroscientists, musicians and more. Witness otherworldly installations that might make you rethink the future of tech and creativity
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Insect wings inspire new ways to fight superbugs
The wings of cicadas and dragonflies are natural bacteria killers, inspiring scientists who are searching for new ways to defeat drug-resistant superbugs. They've now revealed how bioinspired nanomaterials physically destroy bacteria. It's a vital step on the way to delivering precisely engineered anti-bacterial surfaces, and powerful new weapons in the fight against deadly superbugs.
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Transparent solar panels for windows hit record 8 percent efficiency
In a step closer to skyscrapers that serve as power sources, researchers have set a new efficiency record for color-neutral, transparent solar cells.
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New findings on SARS-CoV-2 protein shed light on virus's ability to infect cells
At the start of a COVID-19 infection, the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 docks onto human cells using the spike-like proteins on its surface. The spike protein is at the centre of vaccine development because it triggers an immune response in humans. A group of German scientists, including members of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, the
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Acidic niche keeps lymphatic system in check during immune response
In a new article published in Nature Communications, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers describe a novel acidic niche within lymph nodes that plays an integral role in regulating T cell activation.
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A stepping stone for measuring quantum gravity
A group of theoretical physicists, including two physicists from the University of Groningen, have proposed a 'table-top' device that could measure gravity waves. However, their actual aim is to answer one of the biggest questions in physics: is gravity a quantum phenomenon? The key element for the device is the quantum superposition of large objects. Their design was published in New Journal of P
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Airing commercials after political ads actually helps sell nonpolitical products
About $7 billion reportedly will be spent this fall on television and digital commercials from political campaigns and political action committees. Companies running ads immediately afterward have been concerned about the potential of a negative spillover effect on how they and their products and services are perceived. But new research from the Indiana University Kelley School of Business finds t
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Researchers discover novel molecular mechanism that enables conifers to adapt to winter
Unlike broadleaf trees, conifers are evergreen and retain their photosynthesis structure throughout the year. Especially in late winter, the combination of freezing temperatures and high light intensity exposes the needles to oxidative damage that could lead to the destruction of molecules and cell structures that contribute to photosynthesis. Researchers from the University of Turku have discover
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Study debunks robocall myths, lays groundwork for stopping them
New research finds that the number of robocalls isn't going up, and that answering a robocall doesn't make you more likely to get additional robocalls. However, stories you've heard about individuals getting hundreds of back-to-back unsolicited calls? Those are true.
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Insect wings inspire new ways to fight superbugs
The wings of cicadas and dragonflies are natural bacteria killers, inspiring scientists who are searching for new ways to defeat drug-resistant superbugs.They've now revealed how bioinspired nanomaterials physically destroy bacteria. It's a vital step on the way to delivering precisely engineered anti-bacterial surfaces, and powerful new weapons in the fight against deadly superbugs.
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Risk of diabetes complications increases with elevated levels of NT-proBNP
Healthy people – especially women – with elevated levels of the heart failure marker NT-proBNP have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, if these people develop diabetes nonetheless, they are more likely to suffer from macro- and microvascular complications such as heart attack, stroke, or severe damage to eyes, kidneys, or nerves. These are the findings of a recent study by DZD re
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What Biden Can Learn From Sanders About the Young Latino Vote
Nine years ago, frustrated with the lack of thoughtful coverage of Latino issues, I started a website to dig into the nuances of what I believe is the most important and misunderstood electorate of our time. I then watched as Bernie Sanders courted this vote through two presidential-election cycles—in particular, younger Latinos—tapping into a group that will likely change the face of the Democra
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New findings on SARS-CoV-2 protein shed light on virus's ability to infect cells
At the start of a COVID-19 infection, the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 docks onto human cells using the spike-like proteins on its surface. The spike protein is at the centre of vaccine development because it triggers an immune response in humans. A group of German scientists, including members of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, the
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Shigella prevents infected cells from sacrificing themselves for the greater good
Enteric pathogens, such as the bacterium Shigella, can cause severe intestinal disease with bloody diarrhea. In a new study, researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) discovered a novel molecular survival strategy by which Shigella is able to cause damage to the intestines despite two elaborate protective mechanisms used by host cells.
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Shigella prevents infected cells from sacrificing themselves for the greater good
Enteric pathogens, such as the bacterium Shigella, can cause severe intestinal disease with bloody diarrhea. In a new study, researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) discovered a novel molecular survival strategy by which Shigella is able to cause damage to the intestines despite two elaborate protective mechanisms used by host cells.
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A new two-dimensional carbon allotrope: Semiconducting diamane film synthesized
Atomically thin diamond, also called diamane, is a two-dimensional carbon allotrope and has attracted considerable scientific interest due to its potential physical properties. However, previous studies suggest that atomically thin diamond films are not achievable in a pristine state because diamonds possess a three-dimensional crystalline structure and would lack chemical stability when thinned d
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Unpacking the Genetic Contribution of Glia to Parkinson's Disease
Abby Olsen will discuss how an innovative Drosophila model helps explore the genetic contribution of glia to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis.
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SpaceX Tests Highest Pressure Rocket Engine In History
Under Pressure SpaceX CEO Elon Musk says that his space company's Raptor engine just aced an important pressure test — and set a world record. The company is planning to use six of the engines to eventually get its massive Starship spacecraft off the ground, while a Super Heavy booster itself will likely need closer to 40 . "Raptor engine just reached 330 bar chamber pressure without exploding!"
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Using opioids can cause permanent deafness
Opioid use, particularly in high doses, can cause deafness, according to a new study. Researchers reviewed records from the New Jersey Poison Control Center, based at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, from 1999 to 2018 to determine the association between opioid use and degrees of hearing loss. Their findings appear in the Journal of Medical Technology . Researchers identified 41 people with opi
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Recent global warming trends are inconsistent with very high climate sensitivity
Research published this week in Earth System Dynamics reports that the most sensitive climate models overestimate global warming during the last 50 years.
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RNA as a future cure for hereditary diseases
ETH Zurich scientists have developed an RNA molecule that can be used in bone marrow cells to correct genetic errors that affect protein production. Patients suffering from a rare hereditary disease that causes a painful hypersensitivity to sunlight could benefit in future.
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Native Hawaiian tiger cowries eat alien invasive species
Researchers at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa's Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, have discovered the Hawaiian tiger cowrie is a voracious predator of sponges. Among preferred sponge prey is the invasive Orange Keyhole sponge (Mycale grandis).
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COVID-19 has major impact on psycho-social care of cancer patients
Psychosocial needs of people affected by cancer are not being adequately met due to the disruption in services caused by Covid-19, a new report in the journal Psycho-Oncology reports.
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How protein protects against fatty liver
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, with sometimes life-threatening consequences. A high-protein, calorie-reduced diet can cause the harmful liver fat to melt away – more effectively than a low-protein diet. A new study by DIfE/DZD researchers published in the journal 'Liver International' shows which molecular and physiological processes are po
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Russian chemists proposed a new design of flow batteries
Redox flow batteries are promising long-term energy storage devices in smart power grids. Scientists from Mendeleev University, IPCP RAS and other institutes have proposed a new design of RFB with flow plates made from graphite foil by laser cutting procedure. It will simplify and reduce the cost of research and help to unleash the full potential of new technology. The research article was publish
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Scan for arterial plaque is better at predicting heart attack than stroke
The amount of calcified plaque in the heart's arteries is a better predictor of future heart attacks than of strokes, with similar findings across sex and racial groups, according to new research from UT Southwestern.
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Flexible and protected
In the fight against the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 researchers from multiple research institutions in Germany have combined their resources to study the spike protein on the surface of the virus. With its spikes, the virus binds to human cells and infects them. The study gave surprising insights into the spike protein, including an unexpected freedom of movement and a protective coat to hide it from
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Research finds daily cranberry intake associated with reduced with reduced H. pylori infection rates
A new clinical trial found consuming cranberry juice containing 44 mg of proanthocyanidins (or "PACs") per 240-mL serving twice daily for eight weeks resulted in a 20% reduction in the H. pylori infection rate in Chinese adult participants, when compared to those consuming lower amounts of juice and a placebo.
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COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma Trials
UPenn's Katharine Bar discusses ongoing clinical trials to explore the efficacy of treating patients with plasma from individuals who have recovered from an infection.
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De kikar under älvens is med seismiska signaler
Seismiska signaler kan användas för att mäta vattennivåer och sedimentrörelser under älvens is. Med den nya tekniken kan älvforskare avgöra om islossningen orsakas av långsam smältning eller av issprickning. Älvforskare från Sverige, Finland och Tyskland rapporterar detaljerade mätningar av sedimentrörelser och vattennivåer i en isbelagd älv med en ny teknik – seismiska signaler. – Vi kunde också
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The Physicist Who Slayed Gravity's Ghosts
Ever since Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity recast gravity as curves in space-time, physicists have wondered if his work was the final word. Prodding and tweaking, they've tried to modify or even replace Einstein's gravity, all the while keeping their models within the ever-tighter confines of observation. Many of these ideas attempt to recast gravity in the language of quantum mech
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Long 'lost' elephant shrew found in Horn of Africa
For half a century scientists feared that the Somali elephant shrew had vanished from the face of the Earth. No one had seen so much as a whisker.
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Long 'lost' elephant shrew found in Horn of Africa
For half a century scientists feared that the Somali elephant shrew had vanished from the face of the Earth. No one had seen so much as a whisker.
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COVID-19 Plasma Trials
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Samsung Galaxy Note 20 Ultra Review: Ultimate Android
This phone crams in all the extras you'd want. But the price is steep.
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We Need New, Safer Ways to Treat Pain. Could Electroacupuncture Be One?
In college, I volunteered to have a needle jabbed into the fleshy part between my thumb and forefinger in the name of acupuncture. I had bruised the area earlier in a lab experiment. I went in thinking I was completely crazy to try it out. I left thinking that the treatment probably should've hurt a lot more than it actually did—and that it might have actually helped with the pain. One quirk of s
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Artificial materials for more efficient electronics
The discovery by a team of the University of Geneva of an unprecedented physical effect in a new artificial material marks a significant milestone in the lengthy process of developing "made-to-order" materials and more energy-efficient electronics.
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High intensity physical activity in early life could lead to stronger bones in adulthood
High intensity physical activity in early life might help maximise peak hip strength and prevent osteoporosis in later life, according to a study published today in JAMA Network Open from researchers at the University of Bristol.
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Further details revealed about a highly-efficient anticancer drug delivery system
The majority of drug delivery systems use nano carriers to transport drugs due to their small size and ability to distribute drugs to otherwise inaccessible sites of the body. The downside to this small size, however, is that large quantities are needed to match the required dosage.
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A new two-dimensional carbon allotrope — semiconducting diamane film synthesized
We demonstrate the realization of a pristine diamane through diamondization of mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene via compression. Compared to gapless graphene, semiconducting h-diamane offers exciting possibilities for carbon-based electronic devices.
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New links found between diabetes blood markers and Alzheimer's disease pathology
A new study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease provides insight into the association of blood markers of diabetes with brain beta-amyloid accumulation among older people at risk of dementia. The results suggest a link between Alzheimer's pathology, lower levels of insulin and lower insulin resistance.
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Low-dose real-time X-ray imaging with nontoxic double perovskite scintillators
X-ray imaging is widely used in probing the inside information non-destructively. Towards this goal, Scientist in China realized high-resolution X-ray image with the lowest X-ray dose to date, and demonstrated the first real-time X-ray imaging based on nontoxic Cs2Ag0.6Na0.4In0.85Bi0.15Cl6 double perovskite scintillator. This research unfolds huge potentials to explore scintillators beyond lead ha
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TikTok havde sortliste over børn, de mistænkte var under 13. Alligevel fjernede de dem ikke
Ifølge tysk medie, blev TikToks moderatorer instrueret i ikke at gribe ind ved mistanke.
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Norsk selskab vil levere kæmpe brintanlæg til britisk industriklynge
Industriområde ved Humberfloden vil bruge brint i stedet for kul og gas og dermed reducere deres CO2 udledning. Brintanlægget skal fremstille blå brint af naturgas og rense røgen for CO2.
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Can the world emerge from the pandemic a better place?
The pandemic has caused disruption around the world, but it could also be an opportunity to make some much needed social and environmental changes as countries try to adapt and recover from the crisis.
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WWI changed public attitude about women's suffrage
While American women had been fighting for the right to vote for decades prior to the ratification of the 19th Amendment on August 18, 1920, it was not until World War I that their cause for political independence regained momentum, argues legal scholar Pamela S. Karlan. As women filled jobs vacated by men fighting the war overseas, public attitudes toward women's role in American democracy began
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The sun may have started its life with a binary companion
A new theory published today in the Astrophysical Journal Letters by scientists from Harvard University suggests that the sun may once have had a binary companion of similar mass. If confirmed, the presence of an early stellar companion increases the likelihood that the Oort cloud was formed as observed and that Planet Nine was captured rather than formed within the solar system.
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Magnetized gas flows feed a young star cluster
Observations of magnetic fields in interstellar clouds made of gas and dust indicate that these clouds are strongly magnetized, and that magnetic fields influence the formation of stars within them. A key observation is that the orientation of their internal structure is closely related to that of the magnetic field.
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Scientists slow and steer light with resonant nanoantennas
Light is notoriously fast. Its speed is crucial for rapid information exchange, but as light zips through materials, its chances of interacting and exciting atoms and molecules can become very small. If scientists can put the brakes on light particles, or photons, it would open the door to a host of new technology applications.
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Professors publish paper on gender and racial bias in physics textbooks
Penn State Brandywine faculty members Timothy Lawlor, associate professor of physics and astrophysics, and Timothy Niiler, associate teaching professor of physics, recently published a paper in The Physics Teacher titled "Physics Textbooks from 1960–2016: A History of Gender and Racial Bias," which describes how gender and racial biases are evident in images used in physics textbooks published ove
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Evolution in real-time: How bacteria adapt to their hosts
Bacteria that invade animal cells in order to multiply are widespread in nature. Some of these are pathogens of humans and animals. In the environment, they are often found inside unicellular organisms. A research team led by Matthias Horn at the Center for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science at the University of Vienna has made use of laboratory experiments to gain a better understandi
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Mauritius oil spill: Potential government failures should be investigated, says expert
The stranding of the MV Wakashio is one of the biggest environmental disasters in the history of the western Indian Ocean. While the full scale of the disaster is not yet known, the 1,000 tons of oil and diesel that leaked close to one of the greatest marine treasures of Mauritius threatens to destroy this precious habitat. Recovery will be long and the disaster will occupy Mauritius for years to
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Five ways coronavirus is deepening global inequality
Before coronavirus, inequality was already increasing in many parts of the developing world. But the pandemic is going to greatly heighten existing economic and social inequalities. Here are five of the main ways inequality is heightening around the world.
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Evolution in real-time: How bacteria adapt to their hosts
Bacteria that invade animal cells in order to multiply are widespread in nature. Some of these are pathogens of humans and animals. In the environment, they are often found inside unicellular organisms. A research team led by Matthias Horn at the Center for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science at the University of Vienna has made use of laboratory experiments to gain a better understandi
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New building block in plant wall construction
University of Adelaide researchers as part of a multidisciplinary, international team, have uncovered a new biochemical mechanism fundamental to plant life. The research, published in The Plant Journal details the discovery of the enzymatic reaction involving carbohydrates present in plant cell walls, which are essential for their structure.
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NUS-led study considers potential and constraints of reforestation for climate mitigation
A recent study led by NUS researchers showed that practical considerations, beyond where trees could be planted, may limit the climate change mitigation potential of reforestation. Hence, there is a need to understand how these constraints operate to inform climate policies.
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Dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography: 3D live-imaging of retinal organoids
Optical coherence tomography offers astounding opportunities to image the complex structure of living tissue but lacks functional information. We present dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography as a technique to noninvasively image living human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal organoids. Coloured images with an endogenous contrast linked to organelle motility are gener
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Multivitamin, mineral supplement linked to less-severe, shorter-lasting illness symptoms
Older adults who took a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement with zinc and high amounts of vitamin C in a 12-week study experienced sickness for shorter periods and with less severe symptoms than counterparts in a control group receiving a placebo.
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Shigella prevents infected cells from sacrificing themselves for the greater good
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) investigated how Shigella survive and multiply to cause severe inflammatory colitis. By screening several effector proteins that Shigella inject into colon cells, the researchers identified the effector proteins OspC1 and OspD3 as molecular measures through which Shigella inhibit both apoptosis and necroptosis. These findings help underst
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A bright idea — Genetically engineered proteins for studying neurons using light
In neuroscience, tools for controlling the activation and deactivation of individual nerve cells are crucial to gain insights into their functions and characteristics. Now, scientists from Okayama University, Japan, have produced mutant variants of a membrane protein that can effectively silence neurons when illuminated. The silencing effect can be quickly "toggled" on and off using green and red
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Smart AI makes all kinds of shapes on its own
POSTECH research team develops an artificial neural network system that recommends plastic molding process conditions.
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Ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics of liquid water revealed by THz-induced Kerr effect
Hydrogen bond dynamics in water has always been mysterious, and it is the basis for understanding the behavior of matter in the water environment. Chinese scientists found that applying a broadband terahertz pulse to a free-flowing water film will enhance the relatively weak intermolecular hydrogen bond motion, allowing us to observe ultrafast vibration characteristics on the order of sub-picoseco
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USU mathematicians unravel a thread of string theory
Thomas Hill and Andreas Malmendier of Utah State University, and Adrian Clingher of the University of Missouri-St. Louis, explore a string duality between F-theory and heterotic string theory in eight dimensions in paper published in 'Letters in Mathematical Physics.'
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Swans' reputation for aggression examined
Researchers say their findings allow for a "better-informed judgment" of the birds.
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How to Turn 175 Years of Words in Scientific American into an Image
A data designer explains the art and science of analyzing and charting text from 5,107 issues of this magazine — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Promising strategies to enhance separation selectivity of nanofiltration
Researchers from the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the University of Chicago in the U.S. have searched for, and summarized, recent developments in the field of nanofiltration (NF), and provided guidance for potential future approaches to improve the selectivity of nanofiltration membranes.
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The Convention Has Finally Become What It Always Was
Watching the first session of the world's first live-streamed political convention last night, my mind kept returning to the late American historian Daniel Boorstin, and then to the equally late Canadian philosopher Marshall McLuhan. (My mind has a broom closet where it keeps mid-20th-century public intellectuals.) Almost 60 years have passed since Boorstin coined the term pseudo-event , and near
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The MOF-based multicolor single-mode microlaser
Multi-color single-mode polarized micro-lasers with visible to near-infrared outputs are very potential in photonic integration and multimodal biochemical sensing/imaging and yet to realize. Recently, scientists in China combined methods of in-situ assembly and homogeneous epitaxy to hierarchically assemble dye molecules with different gain bands in a single metal-organic framework (MOF) microcrys
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Data omission in key EPA insecticide study shows need for review of industry studies
For nearly 50 years, a statistical omission tantamount to data falsification sat undiscovered in a critical study at the heart of regulating one of the most controversial and widely used pesticides in America — chlorpyrifos.
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Low-cost home air quality monitors prove useful for wildfire smoke
A new study by Berkeley Lab air quality scientists tested four models of low-cost air quality monitors during actual wildfire pollution events and found that their readings of PM2.5 – or particulate matter under 2.5 microns, which has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular issues – were consistently higher than the reference monitor used by the regulatory agencies; however, since each monit
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High fructose diet in pregnancy impacts metabolism of offspring, study finds
An increased level of fructose intake during pregnancy can cause significant changes in maternal metabolic function and milk composition and alter the metabolism of their offspring, researchers from the University of Otago, Wellington, have found.
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Is turning back the clock in aging fat cells a remedy for lifestyle diseases?
Researchers from Osaka University found that lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, high cholesterol, and fatty liver are caused by age-related changes in fat cells. Loss of a protein called Rubicon in aged adipocytes allows intracellular degradation processes to kick into overdrive, disrupting normal cellular function and causing the onset of lifestyle diseases. By inhibiting this degradation and r
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Escape artists: How vibrio bacteria break out of cells
As soon as the foodborne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus infects a human intestinal cell, the bacteria are already planning their escape. After all, once it is in and multiplies, the bacterium must find a way out to infect new cells.
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New superlattice by CCNY team could lead to sustainable quantum electronics
A team of international physicists led by Lia Krusin-Elbaum of the City College of New York, has created a new topological magnetic superlattice material, that at a high temperature can conduct electrical current without dissipation and lost energy. The finding, detailed in a paper published in "Nature Physics," could be the basis of research leading to an entire new quantum materials class that c
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The easy way to get a square deal
Scientists at Osaka University introduce an easy method for adding cubane molecules to previously synthesized crystals. This work may help lead to much cheaper magnetic cooling materials and designed catalysts.
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Social connection boosts fitness app appeal
Apps alone don't motivate most people to exercise but interacting with an online exercise community as well provides the impetus for exercisers to do more – and enjoy what they are doing.
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Food safety model may help pandemic management
No precedent exists for managing the COVID-19 pandemic – although a plan for working through major public food scares may point to the best ways of alerting and communicating with the public.
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Scientists identify modulator of plant architecture in Setaria italica
The leaf is the primary organ for light capture and organic compound synthesis in plants. For cereal crops, leaf architecture is an important agronomic trait that directly determines canopy structure, as well as grain yield.
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In a land of ancient giants, these small oddball seals once called Australia home
When most of us think of the prehistoric past, we envision a world of bizarre, often fearsome giants. From dinosaurs to mammoths and even penguins, life then seemed larger than life today.
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Study uncovers mechanisms underlying biosynthesis and accumulation of Paris saponins in P. polyphyllavar yunnanensis
Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis can synthesize Paris saponins with multiple effective therapies, and its rhizome has become an indispensable ingredient in many patented drugs.
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Unearthing evidence for the origins of plate tectonics
Minerals trapped inside tiny crystals that have survived the grinding of the continents over billions of years may help to reveal the origins of plate tectonics and perhaps even provide clues about how complex life sprang up on Earth.
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Scientists identify modulator of plant architecture in Setaria italica
The leaf is the primary organ for light capture and organic compound synthesis in plants. For cereal crops, leaf architecture is an important agronomic trait that directly determines canopy structure, as well as grain yield.
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Study uncovers mechanisms underlying biosynthesis and accumulation of Paris saponins in P. polyphyllavar yunnanensis
Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis can synthesize Paris saponins with multiple effective therapies, and its rhizome has become an indispensable ingredient in many patented drugs.
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Explore 175 Years of Words in Scientific American
Search a 4,000-word database to see how language in the magazine evolved over time — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Ortopædkirurger klarer kontrolbesøg over video
Ortopædkirurgisk afdeling i Hjørring har indført videokonsultationer ved opfølgning på patienter efter skulderoperationer.
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Explore 175 Years of Words in Scientific American
Search a 4,000-word database to see how language in the magazine evolved over time — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Tiny endangered shrimp may get big hand from environmental DNA testing
The San Diego fairy shrimp, a miniscule, puddle-dwelling crustacean that provides food for migrating birds, is nearing extinction as humans continue to encroach on its wetlands habitat. But a new approach to tracking the shrimp's population numbers may give conservationists a boost in protecting the species, according to a UCLA study.
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Mathematicians unravel a thread of string theory
Simply put, string theory is a proposed method of explaining everything. Actually, there's nothing simple about it. String theory is a theoretical framework from physics that describes one-dimensional, vibrating fibrous objects called "strings," which propagate through space and interact with each other. Piece by piece, energetic minds are discovering and deciphering fundamental strings of the phy
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Artificial materials for more efficient electronics
The discovery of an unprecedented physical effect in a new artificial material marks a significant milestone in the lengthy process of developing "made-to-order" materials and more energy-efficient electronics.
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Tackling issues of diversity and inclusion in science, with a fact-based approach
A group of 31 world-renowned chemists have come together to articulate the value of diversity in science, calling for a paradigm shift in the ways that the scientific community nurtures and values its marginalized members. Isaiah Speight, a graduate student in the research lab of Professor of Chemistry Timothy Hanusa and national student representative of the National Organization for the Professi
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Tiny endangered shrimp may get big hand from environmental DNA testing
The San Diego fairy shrimp, a miniscule, puddle-dwelling crustacean that provides food for migrating birds, is nearing extinction as humans continue to encroach on its wetlands habitat. But a new approach to tracking the shrimp's population numbers may give conservationists a boost in protecting the species, according to a UCLA study.
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Free-roaming dogs prevent giant pandas from thriving in the wild
Before China declared giant pandas a protected species in 1962—hunters in pursuit of the black and white bear used dogs to track them. Since then measures have been put in place to protect the vulnerable pandas, but more than half a century later, dogs are still jeopardizing their safety, according to a group of researchers that included Drexel's James Spotila, Ph.D.
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Dansk forsker vender hjem fra Oxford
Mads Gyrd-Hansen er ansat som professor og gruppeleder på LEO Foundation Skin Immunology Research Center på Københavns Universitet.
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11 essential items for four specialized survival kits
A proper survival kit includes essentials like a compass, matches, knife, and food. (Tim MacWelch/) This story was originally featured on Outdoor Life . Ask 100 outdoor enthusiasts to write up a shopping list for a wilderness survival kit and you'll get 100 different lists. The same is true for preppers building disaster preparedness kits or picking which everyday carry gear to bring with them. W
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Low humidity increases COVID risk; another reason to wear a mask
University of Sydney study confirms a link between COVID-19 cases and lower humidity.
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The Scientific Secrets Behind Making Great Sourdough Bread
Scientists explain how simple steps can change a starter's microbial community and allow bakers to up their game
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How a Chemical Weapons Disaster in WWII Led to a U.S. Cover-Up—and a New Cancer Treatment
The physician who led the investigation into a deadly explosion in Italy found the truth, and some hope
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The Language of Science
How the words we use have evolved over the past 175 years — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Free-roaming dogs prevent giant pandas from thriving in the wild
Before China declared giant pandas a protected species in 1962—hunters in pursuit of the black and white bear used dogs to track them. Since then measures have been put in place to protect the vulnerable pandas, but more than half a century later, dogs are still jeopardizing their safety, according to a group of researchers that included Drexel's James Spotila, Ph.D.
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Biomedical scientists piece together how medication paralyzes parasitic worms
For years, many scientists and medical professionals likely misunderstood how a commonly prescribed medication for elephantiasis battled the disease, but a new study sets the record straight.
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Biomedical scientists piece together how medication paralyzes parasitic worms
For years, many scientists and medical professionals likely misunderstood how a commonly prescribed medication for elephantiasis battled the disease, but a new study sets the record straight.
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Research touts lower-cost, longer-life battery
New materials engineering research led by Western could translate into significant real-world benefits like greater range for electric vehicles and longer battery life for cell phones.
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Climate change: Mixed-species tree stands adapt better than pure stands
Firs and spruces dominate the tree population of the Black Forest with a share of 80 percent. However, such predominantly pure stands are particularly vulnerable to extreme events caused by climate change, such as storm damage, heat waves, and bark beetle infestations. In Baden-Württemberg, on average, every third tree is already sick. A conversion from pure to mixed stands could increase the resi
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Indian astronomers investigate open cluster Czernik 3
A team of astronomers from India has performed deep near-infrared photometric observations of an open cluster known as Czernik 3. The study provides important information about the properties of Czernik 3, suggesting that it is a disintegrating old open cluster. The research is available in a paper published August 7 on arXiv.org.
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Female led countries' COVID-19 outcomes 'systematically and significantly better'
Female national leaders locked down earlier and suffered half as many COVID deaths on average as male leaders, according to analysis across 194 countries by the University of Liverpool.
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In a Touch-Free World, the QR Code Is Having Its Moment
Once dismissed as a marketing gimmick, the black and white patterns are proving their worth during the coronavirus pandemic.
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The YOLOers vs. Distancers Feud Is Tearing Us Apart
Covid-19 has given rise to a new blood feud—and the two camps are increasingly blaming each other for everything the pandemic has wrought.
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Celebrating Scientific American's 175th Anniversary
Enjoy some surprising history and the most dizzying discoveries — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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175 Years of Discovery
— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Seismic signals allow researchers to see under river ice
River scientists from Sweden, Finland and Germany report detailed measurements of sediment movement and water level in an ice-covered river using a novel technique—seismic signals. The results are published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface.
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How working away is changing home
With many of us cooped up at home with our families over the past few months, waving goodbye to your partner for a fortnight might not seem like a big deal, perhaps for some it might even afford a welcome relief.
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Consideration of both the potential and constraints of reforestation is needed to achieve climate mitigation goals
Reforestation is a promising nature-based climate solution. However, there are practical considerations beyond the suitability of land for planting trees, such as financial, land-use and operational constraints, which can limit its outcomes and thus need to be taken into account. A recent study led by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) found that these constraints could li
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Further details revealed about a highly efficient anticancer drug delivery system
The majority of drug delivery systems use nano carriers to transport drugs due to their small size and ability to distribute drugs to otherwise inaccessible sites of the body. The downside to this small size, however, is that large quantities are needed to match the required dosage.
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How the coronavirus pandemic is affecting young people's career plans
The coronavirus pandemic has had a serious and potentially detrimental impact on the lives of young people in the UK. The disruption to A-level results is one significant example, but is not the only way the future career prospects of young people have been affected.
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The world's biggest waves: How climate change could trigger large landslides and 'mega-tsunamis'
Just over 60 years ago, a giant wave washed over the narrow inlet of Lituya Bay, Alaska, knocking down the forest, sinking two fishing boats and claiming two lives.
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Australian government does deal to secure potential Oxford University Covid vaccine
Scott Morrison says the Oxford vaccine, which will be made available for free, is 'one of the most advanced and promising in the world' Australian stats interactive ; Vic cases map ; NSW cases map ; NSW hotspots list State by state Covid restrictions ; Melbourne stage 4 restrictions ; Vic stage 3 rules The Morrison government says it has reached an agreement with the British pharmaceutical giant
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Tweets sheds light on COVID-19 'long-haulers'
Social media data is shedding light on the experiences of so-called "long-haulers," people who remain sick long after being diagnosed with COVID-19, researchers report. Experts know little about the clinical course of COVID-19. In the early days of the pandemic, clinicians did not believe coronavirus symptoms could persist past two or three weeks. Patients tended to either recover quickly or die
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NASA's Mars Helicopter Powers Up in Space
NASA's Perseverance rover is on its way to the red planet following a successful launch and a small glitch with the rover's software. The new explorer robot has a lot in common with Curiosity but adds more cameras, stronger wheels, and its very own helicopter. NASA has now confirmed that the helicopter, known as Ingenuity, is still in good shape following the launch . Once Perseverance reaches Ma
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Kan Crispr give os lugtfrie grise og kødfuldt kvæg?
PLUS. Forskere på UC Davis har netop hjulpet en kalv til verden, som var designet til at blive en tyrekalv. Målet er mindre methanudledning pr. kg kød, men en dansk professor er ikke imponeret.
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Lad os sammen løse lægemanglen
Lægeforeningens formand opfordrer sundhedsminister Magnus Heunicke til at tage imod forslag, der hurtigt kan lægemangel i almen praksis – og droppe tankerne om en 'tjenestepligt' for nyuddannede læger
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Subscription boxes for coffee lovers
Add some variety to your morning routine. (Karl Fredrickson via Unsplash/) Every coffee lover knows you have to mix up your routine every now and again. It's important to try new roasts, beans, and drink types so you can be a cultured coffee connoisseur. A great way to do just that is with a subscription box that will deliver coffee to your door on a schedule. It'll feel like coffee Christmas eve
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New Pen-and-Ink Method Draws Health Sensors Directly on Skin
Using electronic ink and stencils, researchers created a cheap heart monitor and other health-detecting devices — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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The best santoku knives for prepping any meal
For the right cut. (Amazon/) The santoku knife may look a lot like a chef's knife—but it's got a few key differences that make it an incredibly useful tool, and an essential in every kitchen. Originally from Japan, the santoku—which translates to "three uses" or "three virtues"—is around 5 to 8 inches (versus the chef's knife which can be up to 10 inches), has a slightly more square build which g
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Novel method can efficiently create several 'building blocks' of pharmaceutical drugs
Scientists demonstrate a new method of producing a specific class of organic compounds, which promises to accelerate drug discovery research for several diseases.
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Novel method can efficiently create several 'building blocks' of pharmaceutical drugs
Scientists demonstrate a new method of producing a specific class of organic compounds, which promises to accelerate drug discovery research for several diseases.
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Diabetes øger risikoen for kræft i bugspytkirtlen
Ny forskning viser, at ældre personer med diabetes har næsten tre gange højere risiko for at udvikle kræft i bugspytkirtlen sammenlignet med et bredt udsnit af befolkningen. Vægttab medfører også en betydelig stigning i risiko.
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6 ways architecture can put vets with PTSD at ease
The design of homes or workplaces can help or hinder veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder, researchers report. They're working to determine which elements of built environments affect veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the most, and how they can be altered to help veterans thrive. "We have already established collaborations with veteran support groups to develop veteran-c
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How Algorithms Affect Your Life
This is one of those things that futurists did not predict at all, but now seems obvious and unavoidable – the degree to which computer algorithms affect your life. It's always hard to make negative statements, and they have to be qualified – but I am not aware of any pre-2000 science fiction or futurism that even discussed the role of social media algorithms or other informational algorithms on
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Ratio Eight Coffee Maker Review: A Near-Perfect Chemex-Style Pot
A beautiful but expensive machine for aficionados of Chemex-style coffee.
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How the COVID-19 Pandemic is Preparing Humanity for First Contact
When the first message from an alien intelligence arrives, our experience with COVID-19 could help us plan a suitable response, says researchers.
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Tydlig vilja och kapacitet att bistå akutvården vid kris
Det finns både vilja och kapacitet hos aktörer utanför konventionell akutsjukvård att bistå vid kris, visar en studie vid Göteborgs universitet. Hotell, skolor och veterinärklinker finns bland dem som gärna ingår i ett beredskapssystem för att extremt snabbt kunna skala upp akutsjukvården. Syftet med studien var att undersöka förutsättningarna för att skapa ett system där enheter utanför akutsjuk
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In The Midst Of The Pandemic, Loneliness Has Leveled Out
Studies suggest that we are finding ways to connect even amid quarantine — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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The downsides of dating apps, and how to overcome them
Increasingly, people are turning to dating sites and apps to find love. And while the pool may seem larger, and access is at our fingertips, using them doesn't necessarily improve our chances of finding a mate.
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Novel method of heat conduction could be a game changer for server farms and aircraft
Jonathan Boreyko, an associate professor in mechanical engineering, has developed an aircraft thermal management technology that stands ready for adaptation into other areas.
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Pothole repair made eco-friendly using grit from wastewater treatment
Potholes are aggravating to drive over, and they can cause billions of dollars of damage every year to automobile wheels, tires and suspensions. Currently, road crews fill in these holes with hydrocarbon-containing asphalt, but that material can leach out, polluting the environment. Now, scientists report a brand-new way to repair roads that's also eco-friendly—by using a remnant of wastewater tre
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In The Midst Of The Pandemic, Loneliness Has Leveled Out
Studies suggest that we are finding ways to connect even amid quarantine — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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New building block in plant wall construction
University of Adelaide researchers as part of a multidisciplinary, international team, have uncovered a new biochemical mechanism fundamental to plant life.
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New building block in plant wall construction
University of Adelaide researchers as part of a multidisciplinary, international team, have uncovered a new biochemical mechanism fundamental to plant life.
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Unraveling the initial molecular events of respiration
Respiration is a fundamental process of all living things, allowing them to produce energy, stay healthy, and survive. In cells, respiration involves what are known as "respiratory proteins," e.g. hemoglobin in the blood and myoglobin in muscles.
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How tomorrow's sustainability leaders can benefit from past successes and pitfalls
Sustainability science focuses on ways to meet the needs of the present without jeopardizing the future. It's a deep and complex area of research that encompasses many systems, from the environment to economics, and draws on the strengths of a spectrum of disciplines that meet at the intersection of nature and culture.
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New quantum paradox reveals contradiction between widely held beliefs
Quantum physicists at Griffith University have unveiled a new paradox that says, when it comes to certain long-held beliefs about nature, "something's gotta give."
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Unraveling the initial molecular events of respiration
Respiration is a fundamental process of all living things, allowing them to produce energy, stay healthy, and survive. In cells, respiration involves what are known as "respiratory proteins," e.g. hemoglobin in the blood and myoglobin in muscles.
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How turning back the clock in aging fat cells can be a remedy for lifestyle diseases
No matter how much we try and fight it, aging is a part of life. High cholesterol, diabetes, and fatty liver, the collection of conditions referred to as lifestyle diseases, all become more commonplace as we get older. Interestingly, however, many of these age-related conditions are caused by changes inside adipocytes, the fat cells responsible for storing excess energy.
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New tool helps interpret future searches for life on exoplanets
Is there life on a distant planet? One way astronomers are trying to find out is by analyzing the light that is scattered off a planet's atmosphere. Some of that light, which originates from the stars it orbits, has interacted with its atmosphere, and provides important clues to the gases it contains. If gases like oxygen, methane or ozone are detected, that could indicate the presence of living o
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How turning back the clock in aging fat cells can be a remedy for lifestyle diseases
No matter how much we try and fight it, aging is a part of life. High cholesterol, diabetes, and fatty liver, the collection of conditions referred to as lifestyle diseases, all become more commonplace as we get older. Interestingly, however, many of these age-related conditions are caused by changes inside adipocytes, the fat cells responsible for storing excess energy.
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Wide variation across hospitals in nurse staffing is threat to public's health
According to a new study published today in BMJ Quality & Safety, many hospitals in New York and Illinois were understaffed right before the first surge of critically ill Covid-19 patients. The study, 'Chronic Hospital Nurse Understaffing Meets COVID-19,' documented staffing ratios that varied from 3 to 10 patients for each nurse on general adult medical and surgical units. ICU nurse staffing was
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How we accelerated clinical trials in the age of coronavirus
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02416-z The United Kingdom's RECOVERY trial shows a way to benefit patients faster.
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Our Bodies Process Medicines Best at Certain Times of Day
Our bodies run on predictable daily schedules. As morning approaches, our body temperature begins to rise, and our cortisol levels climb. Our heart rate and blood pressure spike upon awakening. By mid-morning, we tend to be at our most alert, while many components of athletic performance—including strength, coordination, and flexibility—peak in the afternoon. As darkness descends, the pineal glan
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Dokument: Secret Service har købt lokationsdata hentet fra almindelige apps
For omkring 224.000 kroner har Secret Service i USA købt et års adgang til et produkt, der høster data om blandt andet lokation fra en række apps. Det viser interne dokumenter, som mediet Motherboard er i besiddelse af.
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Spørg Fagfolket: Hvad kræver det at få solceller i ejerforeningen?
En læser vil gerne vide, hvor mange solceller der skal til pr. lejlighed i en boligforening, og hvad det ellers kræver. Det svarer energirådgiver på.
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Tiny elephant shrew species, missing for 50 years, rediscovered
The speedy Somali sengi had been lost to science until an expedition to Djibouti A mouse-sized elephant shrew that had been lost to science for 50 years has been discovered alive and well in the Horn of Africa. The Somali sengi mates for life, can race around at 30km/h and sucks up ants with its trunk-like nose. But it had not been documented by researchers since 1968. Continue reading…
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In Defense of the Psychologically Rich Life
It involves complex mental engagement; a wide range of deep, intense emotions; and diverse, novel and interesting experiences — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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A Move for Driverless Mass Transit Hits Speed Bumps
Pilot projects for autonomous shuttles abound. But technical limitations and hostility from labor unions may thwart large deployments.
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Fountainstown Beach: Bioluminescent plankton light up Cork beach
Bioluminescent plankton light up the waves at Fountainstown Beach, just south of Cork City.
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The algorithms that make big decisions about your life
From insurance and healthcare to social media and policing, algorithms are used all around us.
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In Defense of the Psychologically Rich Life
It involves complex mental engagement; a wide range of deep, intense emotions; and diverse, novel and interesting experiences — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Elephant shrew rediscovered in Africa after 50 years
The last scientific record of the "lost species" of elephant shrew was in the 1970s.
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Mauritius oil spill: MV Wakashio captain arrested
Crew members say there was a birthday party on the ship the day it ran aground, according to police.
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Remote Learning Is a Bad Joke
One exciting thing about being alive at this pivotal moment in history is that I'm constantly learning about strong opinions I didn't previously know I had. Before mid-March 2020, if you'd asked me how I felt about videoconferencing, I'd have shrugged. It's fine? Now I would have to amend that opinion slightly. It's not fine. It's horrible, a form of psychic torture, and I hate it so deeply that
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Nine COVID-19 Myths That Just Won't Go Away
From a human-made virus to vaccine conspiracy theories, we rounded up the most persistent false claims about the pandemic — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Nine COVID-19 Myths That Just Won't Go Away
From a human-made virus to vaccine conspiracy theories, we rounded up the most persistent false claims about the pandemic — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Borneo's 'carnivorous' squirrel actually mainly eats one kind of seed
The Bornean tufted ground squirrel reputedly kills and eats deer – but the first scientific study of the rodent suggests it mainly feeds on the seeds of one tree
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Covid-19 News: Live Updates
Bill de Blasio is the only big-city mayor planning some in-person learning for students. The Democratic National Convention opened with searing criticism of President Trump's handling of the pandemic.
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Too many AI researchers think real-world problems are not relevant
Any researcher who's focused on applying machine learning to real-world problems has likely received a response like this one: "The authors present a solution for an original and highly motivating problem, but it is an application and the significance seems limited for the machine-learning community." These words are straight from a review I received for a paper I submitted to the NeurIPS (Neural
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How Mongolia has kept the coronavirus at bay
Mongolia shares the world's longest land border with China, but its early and highly centralized pandemic response has been so effective that not a single person in the landlocked country has died from covid-19. A former army colonel turned public health official recounts how Mongolia enacted its extensive quarantine and testing regime under a state of emergency. We first heard about a new virus
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Novel method of heat conduction could be a game changer for server farms and aircraft
'We are hopeful that the one-way heat transfer of our bridging-droplet diode will enable the smart thermal management of electronics, aircraft, and spacecraft,' said Boreyko.
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Første hastighedstest af nyt satellit-bredbånd skuffer
De første hastighedstest af de nye Starlink-satellitter lever ikke op til løfter fra Elon Musk om højhastighedsforbindelser på over 1 GB/s og latenstider under 20 ms. Hvis ikke nye test fra Elon Musk og Starlink løfter hastigheden, kan det blokere for opsendelsen af tusindvis af nye satellitter i…
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Horse eyeballs and bone hammers: surprising lives of the Neanderthals
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02420-3 Rebecca Wragg Sykes's book paints a vivid portrait of our adaptable ancient relatives.
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Mighty mites: arachnid soldiers deploy to protect a national treasure
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02423-0 Giuditta Beretta uses predatory mites to wage biowar on thrips, common pests that plague the beloved tulips of the Netherlands.
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The future may be full of fire tornadoes
An F5 tornado in Oklahoma City, May 3, 1999 (NOAA/) A fire tornado might sound like an unfortunate coincidence involving a weather front and a wildfire, but the truth is actually even wilder. Firenadoes, to use the vernacular, occur when a fire burns so intensely that it creates its own weather . The heat inside a large fire causes air to rise, forming eddies that can spiral into a vortex called
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Top chemistry journal retracts paper for faked data
A leading chemistry journal has retracted a 2019 paper by a pair of researchers in Switzerland after determining that it contained fabricated data. The article, "The manganese(I)‐catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones: disclosing the macrocylic privilege," was written by Alessandro Passera and Antonio Mezzetti, of the ETH Zurich in Switzerland. It appeared in Angewandte Chemie … Co
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Privatizing Airports Is a No-Brainer
A merica's airports may be mostly empty now, but they're full of hidden potential—if local governments sell them. Yes, sell LAX and LEX and PHX and JAX. Put OKC and OAK on the block with DFW and MDW and more. U.S. cities spent billions building these airports, and although hardly anyone knows it, they're worth billions more on the open market. That's money American cities need. This year, revenue
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Six-Word Sci-Fi: A Story About the Upside of Failure
Each month we publish a six-word story—and it could be written by you.
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Tech Workers Are Living the American Dream—in Canada
The short-sighted immigration policies of the US administration is driving top talent north of the border.
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What French Feminism Can Teach Us About Karens
The latest viral female archetype is complicated. Dramatizing her entitlement, she's at once familiar to the philosophers and a new phenomenon entirely.
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Kid-Friendly Tablets for Homework and Playtime
Depending on how schools—and your workplace—reopen, your sanity may depend on more screen time for your children. Choose the right screen.
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'Real' Programming Is an Elitist Myth
When people build a database to manage reading lists or feed their neighbors, that's coding—and culture.
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The Dangers of Seeing the World Through Ubiquitous Video
Moving images bombard our brains and fog our thoughts—but every now and then they expand our minds.
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Most US voters fear reopening of schools, FT poll shows
FT-Peterson survey reveals rising pessimism over pandemic and economic rebound
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Hjerteforeningen lukker omstridt projekt
Dialogprojektet 'P.S. I Love You' stopper øjeblikket efter kritik af brug af alternative behandlere.
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Sträng diet förklarar fetmakirurgins magi
Överviktskirurgi har i många studier lyfts fram som en näst intill magisk metod för viktnedgång och tillbakagång av typ 2-diabetes. En fråga som i stort sätt har lämnats obesvarad är huruvida effekten av kirurgi skiljer sig från de effekter man får av en sträng lågkaloridiet. Detta har nu forskare vid Lunds universitet undersökt i en studie.
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Will Covid-19 Failures Force Changes to the Public Health System?
Nearly 3,000 local, state, and federal health departments across the U.S. set their own reporting rules, leading to a vast range in use of electronic methods that hinders data sharing. Now Covid-19 has laid bare the nation's fragmented public health data system — and may have created momentum for change.
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Remdesivir Tests for Covid Treatments Enter New Phase
A clinical trial showed that remdesivir helped hospitalized patients. Now researchers are asking whether when the drug is paired with another antiviral drug, patients will recover faster.
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Unraveling the initial molecular events of respiration
Physicists from Switzerland, Japan and Germany have unveiled the mechanism by which the first event of respiration takes place in heme proteins.
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New gene therapy approach eliminates at least 90% latent herpes simplex virus 1
Infectious disease researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have used a gene editing approach to remove latent herpes simplex virus 1, or HSV-1, also known as oral herpes. In animal models, the findings show at least a 90 percent decrease in the latent virus, enough researchers expect that it will keep the infection from coming back.
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Airborne viruses can spread on dust, non-respiratory particles
Influenza viruses can spread through the air on dust, fibers and other microscopic particles, according to new research from UC Davis and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai. The findings, with obvious implications for coronavirus transmission as well as influenza, are published Aug. 18, 2020 in Nature Communications.
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Pothole repair made eco-friendly using grit from wastewater treatment
Potholes are aggravating to drive over, and they can cause billions of dollars of damage every year to automobiles. Now, scientists report a brand-new way to repair roads that's also eco-friendly — by using a remnant of wastewater treatment called grit that's usually disposed of in landfills. The researchers will present their results today at the American Chemical Society Fall 2020 Virtual Meeti
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An exponential build-up in seismic energy suggests a months-long nucleation of slow slip in Cascadia
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17754-9 Using machine learning algorithms, the authors here identify slow slip precursors in the Cascadia subduction zone to last for months – which in turn argues for a much better predictability of slow slip rupture.
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Natural variation at FLM splicing has pleiotropic effects modulating ecological strategies in Arabidopsis thaliana
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17896-w FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) is known as a repressor of Arabidopsis flowering. Here, the authors show that a single intronic substitution of FLM modulates leaf color and plant growth strategy along the leaf economics spectrum, as well as plays a role in plant adaptation.
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Gene editing and elimination of latent herpes simplex virus in vivo
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17936-5 Herpes simplex virus establishes lifelong latency in ganglionic neurons, which are the source for recurrent infection. Here Aubert et al. report a promising antiviral therapy based on gene editing with adeno-associated virus-delivered meganucleases, which leads to a significant reduction in ganglionic HSV load
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Petahertz non-linear current in a centrosymmetric organic superconductor
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17776-3 Here the authors show second harmonic generation (SHG) from a centrosymmetric organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br. They find unusual temperature dependence and CEP-sensitive nature of the SHG which are explained in terms of nonlinear current.
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Geometric principles underlying the proliferation of a model cell system
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17988-7 Bacteria can form wall-deficient variants, or L-forms, that divide by a simple mechanism that does not require the FtsZ-based cell division machinery. Here, Wu et al. study L-forms in microfluidic systems to show the importance of geometric effects for cell growth, chromosome segregation and cell division.
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Micro triboelectric ultrasonic device for acoustic energy transfer and signal communication
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17842-w Miniaturizing efficient triboelectric nanogenerators remains a challenge. Here, the authors propose a MEMS-based micro triboelectric device for acoustic energy transfer and signal communication which is capable of generating the voltage signal of 16.8 mV and 12.7 mV through oil and sound-attenuation medium res
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A glycoprotein B-neutralizing antibody structure at 2.8 Å uncovers a critical domain for herpesvirus fusion initiation
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17911-0 Herpesvirus virions have an outer lipid membrane dotted with glycoproteins that enable fusion with cell membranes to initiate entry and establish infection. Here the authors elucidate the structural mechanism of a neutralizing antibody derived from a patient infected by the herpesvirus varicella-zoster virus a
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Chlorpromazine eliminates acute myeloid leukemia cells by perturbing subcellular localization of FLT3-ITD and KIT-D816V
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17666-8 Receptor tyrosine kinase mutations are frequent and associated with poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here the authors show that the antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine reduces AML cells viability by perturbing the intracellular localization of FLT3-ITD and KIT-D816V.
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Exogenous proline induces regulation in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) biosynthesis and quality characters in fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Scientific Reports, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70984-1 Exogenous proline induces regulation in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) biosynthesis and quality characters in fragrant rice ( Oryza sativa L . )
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Sitting-induced hemodynamic changes and association with sitting intolerance in children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study
Scientific Reports, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70925-y
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Implications of back-and-forth motion and powerful propulsion for spirochetal invasion
Scientific Reports, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70897-z
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Modeling homeostasis mechanisms that set the target cell size
Scientific Reports, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70923-0
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Comparing methods for estimating leaf area index by multi-angular remote sensing in winter wheat
Scientific Reports, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70951-w
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Modulation of P2Y6R expression exacerbates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in mice
Scientific Reports, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70956-5 Modulation of P2Y 6 R expression exacerbates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling i