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Journal retracts 70-year-old article on homosexuality for "long discredited beliefs, prejudices, and practices"
We wrote in September in WIRED about a trend among journals of purging racist and sexist work from their archives. To that trend we can now add papers that are homophobic and racist. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease has retracted a 1951 article by one Benjamin H. Glover, at the time a professor … Continue reading
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A Hong Kong Protest Icon Is Jailed
Of the issues Joshua Wong has faced during his time as an activist—harassment by Chinese state media , travel bans , and disqualification from local politics —the loquacious dissident rarely suffers a loss for words. But that was the problem nearly a decade ago, when he gave one of his first broadcast interviews. Wong, then just a teenager, was organizing and leading demonstrations that eventuall
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Relations between vitamin D3, total and specific IgE for house dust mites in atopic dermatitis patients
Scientific Reports, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77968-1
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Systematical study of multi-walled carbon nanotube nanofluids based disposed transformer oil
Scientific Reports, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77810-8
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Present value of the Urethral mobility test as a tool to assess Stress urinary incontinence due to Intrinsic sphincteric deficiency
Scientific Reports, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77493-1
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Fluorescence lifetime imaging with a megapixel SPAD camera and neural network lifetime estimation
Scientific Reports, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77737-0
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Adaptive selection drives TRPP3 loss-of-function in an Ethiopian population
Scientific Reports, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-78081-z
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Pistacia lentiscus extract enhances mammary epithelial cells' productivity by modulating their oxidative status
Scientific Reports, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-78065-z
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Hormonal and biochemical changes in female Proechimys guyannensis, an animal model of resistance to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus
Scientific Reports, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77879-1 Hormonal and biochemical changes in female Proechimys guyannensis , an animal model of resistance to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus
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The UK has granted emergency approval for Pfizer/BioNTech's covid-19 vaccine
The news: The UK's regulator has approved Pfizer/BioNTech's vaccine, making it the first country in the world to provide emergency authorization for a covid-19 vaccine. The UK had already signed an agreement to buy 40 million doses due to be delivered this year and in 2021, with the first batch set to arrive in the coming days. The vaccine requires two doses, so that is enough for 20 million peop
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Amid Covid, the Air Hazards of Gas Appliances Draw New Scrutiny
The Covid-19 pandemic has drawn new attention to indoor air pollution, but most consumers don't know that a long body of research — largely ignored by regulators — has found gas stoves and other gas appliances particularly hazardous. In some cases, the pollution they create indoors would be illegal outdoors.
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Terrawatch: what does the inside of a volcano look like?
Detailed analysis of a buried extinct volcano in the Faroe-Shetland Basin reveals some surprises If you were to slice a volcano in half, what would it look like inside? For most volcanoes it's assumed that there is a large magma chamber which is connected to the surface by a narrow conduit: a structure referred to as the "balloon and straw" model. But detailed analysis of a buried extinct volcano
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Drinking blocks a chemical that promotes attention
UT Health San Antonio scientists studied the cascade of events that begins when alcohol diminishes norepinephrine release in a brain structure called the locus coeruleus.
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New lab-on-a-chip infection test could provide cheaper, faster portable diagnostics
A tiny new silicon-based lab-on-chip test could pave the way for cheap handheld infectious disease testing.
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LGB adults may be less likely to take statins to prevent heart disease
Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease than non-LGB adults. Yet, LGB adults who have diabetes or high cholesterol are less likely than non-LGB adults to use statins, which help prevent cardiovascular events such as heart attacks. There is an urgent need for prevention programs aimed at reaching at-risk LGB adults to increase knowledge about the benefit
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In vivo biomolecular imaging of zebrafish embryos using confocal Raman spectroscopy
Nature Communications, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19827-1 Raman spectroscopic imaging (RSI) can provide information on the chemical composition of a sample, but application to living organisms has lacked sufficient spatial resolution and signal strength. Here the authors apply confocal RSI to whole-mount zebrafish embryos to distinguish different infectious bacteri
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Chemotherapy induces dynamic immune responses in breast cancers that impact treatment outcome
Nature Communications, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19933-0 Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a therapeutic option for the treatment of breast cancer. Here, the authors characterize changes in the gene expression profiles and immune microenvironment in serial breast cancer biopsies taken before, during and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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Radiation-induced DNA damage and repair effects on 3D genome organization
Nature Communications, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20047-w Genomic aberrations disrupting chromosome spatial domains can lead to disease. Here, the authors investigate the impact of DNA damage response and repair on 3D genome folding, comparing wild type cells and ataxia telangiectasia mutated patient cells, and characterise both cell type-specific and shared change
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Maximizing ion accessibility in MXene-knotted carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high-rate electrochemical energy storage
Nature Communications, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19992-3 Improving the accessibility of ions in the electrodes of electrochemical energy storage devices is vital for charge storage and rate performance. Here, the authors report a new type of MXene-carbon nanotube composite electrode that maximizes ion accessibility, resulting in high rate performance at low temper
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Structural modularity of the XIST ribonucleoprotein complex
Nature Communications, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20040-3 The long noncoding RNA XIST plays a central role in sex-specific gene expression in humans by silencing one of two X chromosomes in female cells. Here the authors show that higher order secondary structure creates the modular domain structure of XIST ribonucleoprotein complex and spatial separation of functi
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A nanobody suite for yeast scaffold nucleoporins provides details of the nuclear pore complex structure
Nature Communications, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19884-6 Characterizing the assembly of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) remains challenging. Here, the authors develop a set of nanobodies that recognize seven constituent nucleoporins, study their binding characteristics, and apply them to probe accessible and obstructed NPC surfaces in yeast.
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Distributed control of motor circuits for backward walking in Drosophila
Nature Communications, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19936-x Drosophila Moonwalker Descending Neurons (MDNs) alter leg motor circuit dynamics so that the fly walks backwards. The authors identify two MDN effector neurons that directly control the stance and swing phases of the backward stepping cycle, indicating distributed control of local motor circuits via command-
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Key activity descriptors of nickel-iron oxygen evolution electrocatalysts in the presence of alkali metal cations
Nature Communications, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19729-2 It is commonly accepted that electrolyte alkali metal cations modify the catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction. Here the authors challenge this assumption, showing that the activity is actually affected by a change in the electrolyte pH rather than a specific alkali cation.
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Lækkede dokumenter afslører: Kina rapporterede forkerte tal på coronadøde
De kinesiske sundhedsmyndigheder underrapporterede tal for smittede og døde under coronapandemiens begyndelse, viser 117 lækkede dokumenter fra Kina.
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Is free will an illusion?
The debate over whether or not humans have free will is centuries old and ongoing. While studies have confirmed that our brains perform many tasks without conscious effort, there remains the question of how much we control and when it matters. According to Dr. Uri Maoz, it comes down to what your definition of free will is and to learning more about how we make decisions versus when it is ok for
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No country 'immune' to COVID-19 economic shock, but Asian nations will bounce back faster
Global GDP will drop three percent below pre-pandemic estimates by the end of 2021, with many Western nations seeing "deeper and longer-lasting" effects compared to China and other Asian economies, a study suggests.
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Pågående blodförtunnande behandling tycks inte skydda mot svår covid-19
Blodproppar antas bidra till ett komplicerat sjukdomsförlopp vid infektion med det nya coronaviruset. Men de som använder blodförtunnande så kallade NOAK-tabletter, bland annat som blodproppsförebyggande behandling vid förmaksflimmer, tycks inte vara skyddade mot svår covid-19. Det visar en stor svensk registerstudie från Karolinska Institutet. Tidigt under den pågående pandemin kom rapporter om
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Podd: Är ja alltid ett ja? – om hur unga tänker kring sex
Att följa med någon hem efter en kväll på klubben, kan det tolkas som ja till sex? Och vad händer om ni redan fått av er kläderna och du plötsligt känner att det här vill jag inte. Vi pratar om oklara sexuella situationer och om hur ungdomar resonerar kring gränsdragning.
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UK coronavirus live: health experts hold briefing on vaccine ahead of roll out
Latest updates: Matt Hancock says 'millions of doses' of Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine will be available by the end of the year UK approves Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine for roll out next week How does the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine work and who will get it? Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage 10.18am GMT Lim then presents a slide showing which groups will get priority. 10.15am GMT Lim
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China Moon mission and a scholar on death row
Nature, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03349-3 The latest science news, in brief.
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'There's a gaping hole in our knowledge': the scientists studying why gamers invert their controls
Our article asking why so many players invert their controls provoked a fierce debate that has now caught the attention of researchers into visual perception It is one of the most contentious aspects of video game playing – a debate where opposing sides literally cannot see each other's perspective. When the Guardian ran an article asking why a large minority of game players invert the Y axis on
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China's 'space dream': A Long March to the Moon and beyond
China's landing this week of a probe on the Moon—the first attempt by any nation to retrieve lunar samples in four decades—underlined just how far the country has come in achieving its space dream.
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'Don't leave trash in the desert': Utah monolith removal explained
The mystery of how a metal monolith appeared in the Utah desert remains, but the riddle of its removal seems to have been solved—and sadly, has nothing to do with aliens.
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Lab developing device to help Earth dodge asteroids
In a corner of the campus at Riga Technical University, a team of scientists is working on technology that could one day stop asteroids from smashing into Earth.
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How the UK will unroll its 'biggest vaccine programme in history'
BioNTech/Pfizer approval sets off race to stop spread of coronavirus
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New Zealand symbolically declares climate emergency
Joining more than 30 countries, New Zealand on Wednesday took the symbolic step of declaring a climate emergency.
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Wildlife advocates sue US agency to protect Canada lynx
Wildlife advocates sued the federal government Tuesday in a bid to force officials to do more to conserve Canada lynx, a snow-loving cat that has struggled to survive in parts of the U.S. West.
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Wildlife advocates sue US agency to protect Canada lynx
Wildlife advocates sued the federal government Tuesday in a bid to force officials to do more to conserve Canada lynx, a snow-loving cat that has struggled to survive in parts of the U.S. West.
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PtX på vej: Grønt, dansk brændstof fra solceller og biogasanlæg
Firma udvikler og fremstiller anlæg til produktion af grøn methanol. Kassø kan blive ét af de første steder, hvor ideen bliver ført ud i livet.
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Keeping California a powerhouse of almond production
A favorite healthy snack, almonds are a staple on grocery store shelves worldwide. More than 80% of these almonds are grown in California. As permanent crops, almond trees have unique needs and challenges for farmers.
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Keeping California a powerhouse of almond production
A favorite healthy snack, almonds are a staple on grocery store shelves worldwide. More than 80% of these almonds are grown in California. As permanent crops, almond trees have unique needs and challenges for farmers.
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After 100 years, Cornell University plant pathologists revisit fire blight hypothesis
Historically credited as being the first bacterium ever characterized as a plant pathogen, fire blight is a bacterial disease that leads to significant losses of pear and apple. The role of insects in the spread of this disease has been long studied. In a new study, plant pathologists based at Cornell University and Cornell AgriTech take a hypothesis that has been more or less ignored for 100 year
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After 100 years, Cornell University plant pathologists revisit fire blight hypothesis
Historically credited as being the first bacterium ever characterized as a plant pathogen, fire blight is a bacterial disease that leads to significant losses of pear and apple. The role of insects in the spread of this disease has been long studied. In a new study, plant pathologists based at Cornell University and Cornell AgriTech take a hypothesis that has been more or less ignored for 100 year
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U.K. Approves Pfizer Coronavirus Vaccine For Emergency Use
A British regulatory agency approved the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine Wednesday. It could be dispersed within days to the neediest people, government officials said. (Image credit: Joel Saget/AFP via Getty Images)
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Native American ancestry associated with more mutations in EGFR gene among Latin Americans
Among patients with lung cancer from Latin America, genomic and ancestry analyses revealed that Native American ancestry was associated with increased mutations in the EGFR gene, independent of smoking status.
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How does the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine work and who will get it?
Covid vaccine with an efficacy of almost 95% has been authorised by the UK medicines regulator Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The Pfizer/BioNTech Covid vaccine, which has an efficacy of almost 95%, has been authorised by the UK medicines regulator, making the UK the first western country to license a vaccine against the disease. The UK has 40m doses of this vaccine
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UK approves Pfizer/BioNTech Covid vaccine for rollout next week
'Historic moment' allows mass immunisation, with 800,000 doses expected to be available next week How does the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine work and who will get it? Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The UK has become the first western country to license a vaccine against Covid, opening the way for mass immunisation with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine to begin next week for th
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U.K. Approves Pfizer Coronavirus Vaccine, a First in the West
The emergency approval, ahead of the United States and the European Union, clears the way for Britain to begin mass inoculations. "Help is on its way," one official said.
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Norway's prime minister reveals plans to protect the world's oceans
Nature, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03405-y Erna Solberg on fisheries, fossil fuels and the future of the oceans.
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Norway's Prime Minister: Ocean science can boost jobs and wellbeing
Nature, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03302-4 Why I put my political will behind knowledge to benefit the ocean and humanity.
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Five priorities for a sustainable ocean economy
Nature, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03303-3 Unleash the ocean's potential to boost economies sustainably while addressing climate change, food security and biodiversity.
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World leaders are waking up to the ocean's role in a healthy planet
Nature, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03301-5 Fourteen nations have made an unprecedented and welcome commitment to use marine ecosystems sustainably. It is equally important to establish a system to hold them to account.
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ETRI, DGIST develop new electrode structure for all-solid-state secondary battery
South Korean researchers have developed a new type of electrode structure for all-solid-state secondary batteries. If this technology is adopted, the energy density of the batteries could increase significantly when compared to existing technologies, contributing tremendously to the development of high-performance secondary batteries.
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Keeping California a powerhouse of almond production
Research shows nitrogen efficiency and productivity not a tradeoff.
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Octapharma presents results of study on Octagam® 10% for severe COVID-19 patients at ASH
Clinical research presented by Octapharma USA at the 62nd American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition will highlight the investigational use of high-dose Octagam® 10% [Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human)] for the most severe COVID-19 patients. Octapharma's intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) portfolio also will be featured in a study design poster focused on primary infection
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Building resiliency in children as the COVID-19 pandemic continues through the holidays
A new survey by Nationwide Children's Hospital found two-thirds of parents worry the effects of the pandemic on their children's mental health will be more challenging to recover from the longer it continues. With adjustments to a child's home environment, empathetic family conversations and thoughtful planning, parents can set kids up for success.
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Humans waging 'suicidal war' on nature – UN chief Antonio Guterres
Secretary General Antonio Guterres says our "war" on the natural world will come back to haunt us.
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I love these ebikes!
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How AlphaFold From DeepMind Will Change The World
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Amazon to roll out tools to monitor factory workers and machines
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[Article] Deepmind's Superhuman Intelligence
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Canadian discovery: a potential game-changer to reverse alcohol intoxication
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Worst-case emissions projections are already off track
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A conversation with Isaac Arthur, Science and Futurism content creator
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Peak Oil Demand Is Already Here
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Unilever to try out four-day working week in New Zealand
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Deep Blue Notes: episode two
Wildlife recordist Chris Watson and spatial audio sound artist Prof Tony Myatt continue on their three-part journey to the Sea of Cortez fishing for the song of the blue whale. Chris speaks to blue whale expert Dr Diane Gendron, and artists Diana Schniedermeier and Ina Krüger, who produce ocean sound installations. Help support our independent journalism at theguardian.com/sciencepod
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Deep Blue Notes: episode two – podcast
Wildlife recordist Chris Watson and spatial audio sound artist Prof Tony Myatt continue on their three-part journey to the Sea of Cortez fishing for the song of the blue whale. Chris speaks to blue whale expert Dr Diane Gendron , and artists Diana Schniedermeier and Ina Krüger, who produce ocean sound installations In episode two of this three-part series, the pioneering nature sound recordist Ch
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Dansk skilsmisse-undersøgelse: Alder, penge og konflikt har betydning for, hvor godt du klarer den
En skilsmisse rammer nogle hårdere end andre, når det kommer til det mentale og fysiske helbred.
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Melbourne Museum acquires world's most complete triceratops skeleton in 'immense' dinosaur deal
Unlike the 'dime a dozen' T-Rex, there are only a handful of near-complete triceratops skeletons in the world – and one is coming to Australia Melbourne Museum will become permanent home to the world's most complete triceratops skeleton, with the "immense and unprecedented" $3m acquisition of a 67m-year-old dinosaur fossil. After two years of negotiation and due diligence, the Victorian governmen
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Chang'e-5: why has China sent a probe to the moon?
The unmanned Chang'e-5 spacecraft has landed on the moon to pick up lunar rock samples, something not attempted since the 1970s China has successfully landed a probe on the moon . There, the unmanned Chang'e-5 will prepare to collect the first lunar samples gathered since the Soviet Union's Luna 24 mission in 1976. Here is everything you need to know: Continue reading…
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Virus-like probes could help make rapid COVID-19 testing more accurate, reliable
Nanoengineers have developed new and improved probes, known as positive controls, that could make it easier to validate rapid, point-of-care diagnostic tests for COVID-19 across the globe. The advance could help expand testing to low-resource, underserved areas.
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New tests identify early changes in Alzheimer's disease before symptoms appear
Researchers have found new forms of tau protein that become abnormal in the very early stages of Alzheimer's disease before cognitive problems develop. The scientists developed new tools to detect these subtle changes and confirmed their results in human samples.
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How are older adults coping with the mental health effects of COVID-19?
Recent studies indicate that older adults may be withstanding the mental health strains of the COVID-19 pandemic better than other age groups.
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National Autism Indicators Report: Health and health care of individuals with autism
Researchers highlight a holistic picture of what health and health care look like across the life course for people on the autism spectrum.
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Repurposed mouse model sheds light on loss of smell in COVID-19
A repurposed mouse model can develop symptoms of both severe COVID-19 (lung damage, blood clots, abnormal blood vessels, and death) and also of milder disease, including loss of the sense of smell, according to a recent study.
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Virus-like probes could help make rapid COVID-19 testing more accurate, reliable
Nanoengineers have developed new and improved probes, known as positive controls, that could make it easier to validate rapid, point-of-care diagnostic tests for COVID-19 across the globe. The advance could help expand testing to low-resource, underserved areas.
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Emergency department doctors ask: 'Where did all the patients go?'
Despite a surge in COVID-19 cases, emergency department visits declined by nearly a third in five Boston-area hospitals during the early days of the pandemic.
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Bankdata dropper 3-lagsarkitekturen og bruger mikroservices: »Det her er ret fedt, og det skalerer«
Gennem de seneste år har Bankdata taget mikroservices-arkitekturen i anvendelse.
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Kids' TV teaching children wrong lessons about pain
New analysis of children's TV and film suggests that too often it portrays pain as something arising only through violent act or injury when instead it could do more to educate young people about much more common, everyday pain.
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COVID-19 may deepen depression, anxiety, and PTSD among pregnant and postpartum women
In a new study, researchers surveyed pregnant women and those who had recently given birth, finding concerning rates of depression, generalized anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which were found to be exacerbated by COVID-19-related grief and health worries.
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Glucosamine may reduce overall death rates as effectively as regular exercise, study suggests
Glucosamine supplements may reduce overall mortality about as well as regular exercise does, according to a new epidemiological study.
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Cancer survivors at higher risk of hospitalization or dying from flu
Survivors from a wide range of cancers are more likely than people in the general population to be hospitalized or die from seasonal influenza even several years after their cancer diagnosis, according to new data. Given that flu and COVID-19 are both epidemic respiratory viruses with broadly similar risk factors, the findings suggest that cancer survivors are also likely to be at raised risk of s
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Danfoss klar med nye, smarte termostater: Taler ikke sammen med firmaets mest udbredte smartvarme-system
PLUS. Skift af netværksprotokol betyder at funktionaliteterne ikke kan deles. Hovedrystende lyder det fra bygningsejere og Forbrugerrådet Tænk.
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Vind med Ingeniørens julekalender: 2. december
Vær med i Ingeniørens julekalender 2020. Hver dag med nye præmier!
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New Study Reveals SARS-CoV-2 Can Invade The Brain Through The Nose
Autopsies have revealed traces of the virus in the nervous system.
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CDC advisory panel takes first shot at prioritizing who gets the first shots of COVID-19 vaccines
Health workers and residents and staff of long-term care facilities top the list; tougher decisions lie ahead
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The Atlantic Daily: What We Still Don't Know About Vaccines
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. SIPHIWE SIBEKO / REUTERS The vaccine news cycles are just beginning. More trial data are coming, our science reporter Sarah Zhang says in her latest . Expect future results that are "sometimes goo
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Cultured meat has been approved for consumers for the first time
The first lab-grown, or cultured, meat product has been given the green light to be sold for human consumption. In the landmark approval, regulators in Singapore granted Just, a San Francisco–based startup, the right to sell cultured chicken—in the form of chicken nuggets—to the public. Just had been working with the regulators for the past two years and was formally granted approval on November
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US panel sets out who should get Covid vaccine first
Healthcare workers and care-home residents would be initial recipients under guidance
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Small waters 'can help address biodiversity crisis'
Experts call for urgent action to protect England's smallest freshwater sites, from ponds to streams.
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Alina møder virkeligheden, når hun HIV-tester i Warszawa
HIV-smitte er et stigende problem i Polen. I fem uger er Alina og hendes hold i Warszawa, hvor de studerende…
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Carlsberg hylder Nicolines læskedrik
Virksomhedssamarbejde er en del af Nicolines uddannelse. Hun er til eksamen med sin læskedrik,…
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Actin flow-dependent and -independent force transmission through integrins [Cell Biology]
Integrin-dependent adhesions mediate reciprocal exchange of force and information between the cell and the extracellular matrix. These effects are attributed to the "focal adhesion clutch," in which moving actin filaments transmit force to integrins via dynamic protein interactions. To elucidate these processes, we measured force on talin together with actin…
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The Fast Track intervention's impact on behaviors of despair in adolescence and young adulthood [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
How to mitigate the dramatic increase in the number of self-inflicted deaths from suicide, alcohol-related liver disease, and drug overdose among young adults has become a critical public health question. A promising area of study looks at interventions designed to address risk factors for the behaviors that precede these —often…
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Targeting progesterone signaling prevents metastatic ovarian cancer [Genetics]
Effective cancer prevention requires the discovery and intervention of a factor critical to cancer development. Here we show that ovarian progesterone is a crucial endogenous factor inducing the development of primary tumors progressing to metastatic ovarian cancer in a mouse model of high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), the most common and…
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The origin, supply chain, and deforestation risk of Brazil's beef exports [Sustainability Science]
Though the international trade in agricultural commodities is worth more than $1.6 trillion/year, we still have a poor understanding of the supply chains connecting places of production and consumption and the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of this trade. In this study, we provide a wall-to-wall subnational map of the origin…
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Radiation with reticulation marks the origin of a major malaria vector [Applied Biological Sciences]
Advances in genomics have led to an appreciation that introgression is common, but its evolutionary consequences are poorly understood. In recent species radiations the sharing of genetic variation across porous species boundaries can facilitate adaptation to new environments and generate novel phenotypes, which may contribute to further diversification. Most Anopheles…
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Time-dependent discrimination advantages for harmonic sounds suggest efficient coding for memory [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Perceptual systems have finite memory resources and must store incoming signals in compressed formats. To explore whether representations of a sound's pitch might derive from this need for compression, we compared discrimination of harmonic and inharmonic sounds across delays. In contrast to inharmonic spectra, harmonic spectra can be summarized, and…
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Igniting Ca2+ sparks with TRPML1 [Commentaries]
Storage and voiding of urine in mammals is accomplished by a reciprocal contractile relationship between the bladder and the urethra. During the storage phase, the urethra remains contracted to prevent leakage of urine, while the bladder is relaxed to accommodate the increased volume of urine. Conversely, during voiding, the urethra…
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Awareness-driven behavior changes can shift the shape of epidemics away from peaks and toward plateaus, shoulders, and oscillations [Population Biology]
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 1,000,000 reported deaths globally, of which more than 200,000 have been reported in the United States as of October 1, 2020. Public health interventions have had significant impacts in reducing transmission and in averting even more deaths. Nonetheless, in many jurisdictions, the decline…
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Regulatory mechanisms of tau protein fibrillation under the conditions of liquid-liquid phase separation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders is the aggregation of tau protein into fibrillar structures. Building on recent reports that tau readily undergoes liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS), here we explored the relationship between disease-related mutations, LLPS, and tau fibrillation. Our data demonstrate that, in…
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Hierarchical supramolecular assembly of a single peptoid polymer into a planar nanobrush with two distinct molecular packing motifs [Chemistry]
Hierarchical nanomaterials have received increasing interest for many applications. Here, we report a facile programmable strategy based on an embedded segmental crystallinity design to prepare unprecedented supramolecular planar nanobrush-like structures composed of two distinct molecular packing motifs, by the self-assembly of one particular diblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(N-o
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Livestock plants and COVID-19 transmission [Economic Sciences]
Policy responses to the COVID-19 outbreak must strike a balance between maintaining essential supply chains and limiting the spread of the virus. Our results indicate a strong positive relationship between livestock-processing plants and local community transmission of COVID-19, suggesting that these plants may act as transmission vectors into the surrounding…
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Refined measurement of SecA-driven protein secretion reveals that translocation is indirectly coupled to ATP turnover [Biochemistry]
The universally conserved Sec system is the primary method cells utilize to transport proteins across membranes. Until recently, measuring the activity—a prerequisite for understanding how biological systems work—has been limited to discontinuous protein transport assays with poor time resolution or reported by large, nonnatural tags that perturb the process. The…
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A goal-driven modular neural network predicts parietofrontal neural dynamics during grasping [Neuroscience]
One of the primary ways we interact with the world is using our hands. In macaques, the circuit spanning the anterior intraparietal area, the hand area of the ventral premotor cortex, and the primary motor cortex is necessary for transforming visual information into grasping movements. However, no comprehensive model exists…
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A highly immunogenic and effective measles virus-based Th1-biased COVID-19 vaccine [Microbiology]
The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has spread worldwide, with millions of cases and more than 1 million deaths to date. The gravity of the situation mandates accelerated efforts to identify safe and effective vaccines. Here, we generated measles virus (MeV)-based vaccine candidates…
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A thermogenic fat-epithelium cell axis regulates intestinal disease tolerance [Immunology and Inflammation]
Disease tolerance, the capacity of tissues to withstand damage caused by a stimulus without a decline in host fitness, varies across tissues, environmental conditions, and physiologic states. While disease tolerance is a known strategy of host defense, its role in noninfectious diseases has been understudied. Here, we provide evidence that…
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Vibration enhanced cell growth induced by surface acoustic waves as in vitro wound-healing model [Cell Biology]
We report on in vitro wound-healing and cell-growth studies under the influence of radio-frequency (rf) cell stimuli. These stimuli are supplied either by piezoactive surface acoustic waves (SAWs) or by microelectrode-generated electric fields, both at frequencies around 100 MHz. Employing live-cell imaging, we studied the time- and power-dependent healing of…
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Periodic training of creeping solids [Physics]
We consider disordered solids in which the microscopic elements can deform plastically in response to stresses on them. We show that by driving the system periodically, this plasticity can be exploited to train in desired elastic properties, both in the global moduli and in local "allosteric" interactions. Periodic driving can…
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Crustal fingering facilitates free-gas methane migration through the hydrate stability zone [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Widespread seafloor methane venting has been reported in many regions of the world oceans in the past decade. Identifying and quantifying where and how much methane is being released into the ocean remains a major challenge and a critical gap in assessing the global carbon budget and predicting future climate…
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Targeting presynaptic H3 heteroreceptor in nucleus accumbens to improve anxiety and obsessive-compulsive-like behaviors [Neuroscience]
Anxiety commonly co‐occurs with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Both of them are closely related to stress. However, the shared neurobiological substrates and therapeutic targets remain unclear. Here we report an amelioration of both anxiety and OCD via the histamine presynaptic H3 heteroreceptor on glutamatergic afferent terminals from the prelimbic prefrontal cortex…
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Fruiting body form, not nutritional mode, is the major driver of diversification in mushroom-forming fungi [Evolution]
With ∼36,000 described species, Agaricomycetes are among the most successful groups of Fungi. Agaricomycetes display great diversity in fruiting body forms and nutritional modes. Most have pileate-stipitate fruiting bodies (with a cap and stalk), but the group also contains crust-like resupinate fungi, polypores, coral fungi, and gasteroid forms (e.g., puffballs…
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Profile of Se-Jin Lee [Profiles]
In the late 1990s, Se-Jin Lee was exploring the effects of regulatory genes in mice when he found a gene with a remarkable phenotype (1). "These mice have a doubling of muscle mass throughout the body," says Lee. He had been identifying and characterizing new members of the TGF-β family…
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The NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor OLT1177 rescues cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease [Neuroscience]
Numerous studies demonstrate that neuroinflammation is a key player in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interleukin (IL)-1β is a main inducer of inflammation and therefore a prime target for therapeutic options. The inactive IL-1β precursor requires processing by the the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3…
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Control of Drosophila wing size by morphogen range and hormonal gating [Developmental Biology]
The stereotyped dimensions of animal bodies and their component parts result from tight constraints on growth. Yet, the mechanisms that stop growth when organs reach the right size are unknown. Growth of the Drosophila wing—a classic paradigm—is governed by two morphogens, Decapentaplegic (Dpp, a BMP) and Wingless (Wg, a Wnt)….
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Driving integrative structural modeling with serial capture affinity purification [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Streamlined characterization of protein complexes remains a challenge for the study of protein interaction networks. Here we describe serial capture affinity purification (SCAP), in which two separate proteins are tagged with either the HaloTag or the SNAP-tag, permitting a multistep affinity enrichment of specific protein complexes. The multifunctional capabilities of…
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Micellar TIA1 with folded RNA binding domains as a model for reversible stress granule formation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
TIA1, a protein critical for eukaryotic stress response and stress granule formation, is structurally characterized in full-length form. TIA1 contains three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal low-complexity domain, sometimes referred to as a "prion-related domain" or associated with amyloid formation. Under mild conditions, full-length (fl) mouse TIA1 spontaneously…
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Valuation of peers' safe choices is associated with substance-naivete in adolescents [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Social influences on decision-making are particularly pronounced during adolescence and have both protective and detrimental effects. To evaluate how responsiveness to social signals may be linked to substance use in adolescents, we used functional neuroimaging and a gambling task in which adolescents who have and have not used substances (substance-exposed…
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FGF23 contains two distinct high-affinity binding sites enabling bivalent interactions with {alpha}-Klotho [Biochemistry]
The three members of the endocrine-fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, FGF19, 21, and 23 are circulating hormones that regulate critical metabolic processes. FGF23 stimulates the assembly of a signaling complex composed of α-Klotho (KLA) and FGF receptor (FGFR) resulting in kinase activation, regulation of phosphate homeostasis, and vitamin D levels….
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Structure of the Plasmodium-interspersed repeat proteins of the malaria parasite [Microbiology]
The deadly symptoms of malaria occur as Plasmodium parasites replicate within blood cells. Members of several variant surface protein families are expressed on infected blood cell surfaces. Of these, the largest and most ubiquitous are the Plasmodium-interspersed repeat (PIR) proteins, with more than 1,000 variants in some genomes. Their functions…
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Scaffold association factor B (SAFB) is required for expression of prenyltransferases and RAS membrane association [Cell Biology]
Inhibiting membrane association of RAS has long been considered a rational approach to anticancer therapy, which led to the development of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs). However, FTIs proved ineffective against KRAS-driven tumors. To reveal alternative therapeutic strategies, we carried out a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen designed to identify genes required for KRAS4B…
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Atomic-scale evidence for highly selective electrocatalytic N-N coupling on metallic MoS2 [Chemistry]
Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) is the most widely studied transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDs) and phase engineering can markedly improve its electrocatalytic activity. However, the selectivity toward desired products remains poorly explored, limiting its application in complex chemical reactions. Here we report how phase engineering of MoS2 significantly improves the selectivity for nitrite…
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Mitochondrial Nuclear Retrograde Regulator 1 (MNRR1) rescues the cellular phenotype of MELAS by inducing homeostatic mechanisms [Medical Sciences]
MNRR1 (CHCHD2) is a bi-organellar regulator of mitochondrial function that directly activates cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondria and functions in the nucleus as a transcriptional activator for hundreds of genes. Since MNRR1 depletion contains features of a mitochondrial disease phenotype, we evaluated the effects of forced expression of MNRR1…
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Cellular proteostasis decline in human senescence [Cell Biology]
Proteostasis collapse, the diminished ability to maintain protein homeostasis, has been established as a hallmark of nematode aging. However, whether proteostasis collapse occurs in humans has remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that proteostasis decline is intrinsic to human senescence. Using transcriptome-wide characterization of gene expression, splicing, and translation, we found…
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Human sapovirus propagation in human cell lines supplemented with bile acids [Microbiology]
Human sapoviruses (HuSaVs) cause acute gastroenteritis similar to human noroviruses. Although HuSaVs were discovered four decades ago, no HuSaV has been grown in vitro, which has significantly impeded the understanding of viral biology and the development of antiviral strategies. In this study, we identified two susceptible human cell lines, that…
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HSATII RNA is induced via a noncanonical ATM-regulated DNA damage response pathway and promotes tumor cell proliferation and movement [Cell Biology]
Pericentromeric human satellite II (HSATII) repeats are normally silent but can be actively transcribed in tumor cells, where increased HSATII copy number is associated with a poor prognosis in colon cancer, and in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected fibroblasts, where the RNA facilitates viral replication. Here, we report that HCMV infection or…
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Visual motion assists in social cognition [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Recent evidence suggests a link between visual motion processing and social cognition. When person A watches person B, the brain of A apparently generates a fictitious, subthreshold motion signal streaming from B to the object of B's attention. These previous studies, being correlative, were unable to establish any functional role…
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TAT-RasGAP317-326 kills cells by targeting inner-leaflet-enriched phospholipids [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
TAT-RasGAP317–326 is a cell-penetrating peptide-based construct with anticancer and antimicrobial activities. This peptide kills a subset of cancer cells in a manner that does not involve known programmed cell death pathways. Here we have elucidated the mode of action allowing TAT-RasGAP317–326 to kill cells. This peptide binds and disrupts artificial…
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Planning universal accessibility to public health care in sub-Saharan Africa [Sustainability Science]
Achieving universal health care coverage—a key target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal number 3—requires accessibility to health care services for all. Currently, in sub-Saharan Africa, at least one-sixth of the population lives more than 2 h away from a public hospital, and one in eight people is no…
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A wireless, skin-interfaced biosensor for cerebral hemodynamic monitoring in pediatric care [Engineering]
The standard of clinical care in many pediatric and neonatal neurocritical care units involves continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics using hard-wired devices that physically adhere to the skin and connect to base stations that commonly mount on an adjacent wall or stand. Risks of iatrogenic skin injuries associated with adhesives…
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Profile of Sandra L. Schmid [Profiles]
Cell biologist Sandra L. Schmid has compared some of her skills to that of a watchmaker. "I like to take things apart, put them back together, and understand exactly how they work," she explained in an essay commemorating the American Society for Cell Biology's 50th anniversary (1). For much of…
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Seasonal plasticity in the adult somatosensory cortex [Neuroscience]
Seasonal cycles govern life on earth, from setting the time for the mating season to influencing migrations and governing physiological conditions like hibernation. The effect of such changing conditions on behavior is well-appreciated, but their impact on the brain remains virtually unknown. We investigate long-term seasonal changes in the mammalian…
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Viewing rare conformations of the {beta}2 adrenergic receptor with pressure-resolved DEER spectroscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is an archetypal G protein coupled receptor (GPCR). One structural signature of GPCR activation is a large-scale movement (ca. 6 to 14 Å) of transmembrane helix 6 (TM6) to a conformation which binds and activates a cognate G protein. The β2AR exhibits a low level…
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Multiple origins of obligate nematode and insect symbionts by by a clade of bacteria closely related to plant pathogens [Evolution]
Obligate symbioses involving intracellular bacteria have transformed eukaryotic life, from providing aerobic respiration and photosynthesis to enabling colonization of previously inaccessible niches, such as feeding on xylem and phloem, and surviving in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. A major challenge in the study of obligate symbioses is to understand how they arise….
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A bacterial cytolinker couples positioning of magnetic organelles to cell shape control [Microbiology]
Magnetotactic bacteria maneuver within the geomagnetic field by means of intracellular magnetic organelles, magnetosomes, which are aligned into a chain and positioned at midcell by a dedicated magnetosome-specific cytoskeleton, the "magnetoskeleton." However, how magnetosome chain organization and resulting magnetotaxis is linked to cell shape has remained elusive. Here, we describe…
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Intergenerational transfer of DNA methylation marks in the honey bee [Evolution]
The evolutionary significance of epigenetic inheritance is controversial. While epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation can affect gene function and change in response to environmental conditions, their role as carriers of heritable information is often considered anecdotal. Indeed, near-complete DNA methylation reprogramming, as occurs during mammalian embryogenesis, is a major…
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Fluctuating optimum and temporally variable selection on breeding date in birds and mammals [Evolution]
Temporal variation in natural selection is predicted to strongly impact the evolution and demography of natural populations, with consequences for the rate of adaptation, evolution of plasticity, and extinction risk. Most of the theory underlying these predictions assumes a moving optimum phenotype, with predictions expressed in terms of the temporal…
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Individual variations lead to universal and cross-species patterns of social behavior [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The duration of interaction events in a society is a fundamental measure of its collective nature and potentially reflects variability in individual behavior. Here we performed a high-throughput measurement of trophallaxis and face-to-face event durations experienced by a colony of honeybees over their entire lifetimes. The interaction time distribution is…
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The potential harms of the Tor anonymity network cluster disproportionately in free countries [Computer Sciences]
The Tor anonymity network allows users to protect their privacy and circumvent censorship restrictions but also shields those distributing child abuse content, selling or buying illicit drugs, or sharing malware online. Using data collected from Tor entry nodes, we provide an estimation of the proportion of Tor network users that…
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Separating direct and indirect effects of rising temperatures on biogenic volatile emissions in the Arctic [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from biogenic sources in a temperature-dependent manner. Consequently, Arctic ecosystems are expected to greatly increase their VOC emissions with ongoing climate warming, which is proceeding at twice the rate of global temperature rise. Here, we show that ongoing warming has strong, increasing effects on…
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Functional characterization of 67 endocytic accessory proteins using multiparametric quantitative analysis of CCP dynamics [Cell Biology]
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) begins with the nucleation of clathrin assembly on the plasma membrane, followed by stabilization and growth/maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) that eventually pinch off and internalize as clathrin-coated vesicles. This highly regulated process involves a myriad of endocytic accessory proteins (EAPs), many of which are multidomain proteins…
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Local elected officials' receptivity to refugee resettlement in the United States [Political Sciences]
Local leaders possess significant and growing authority over refugee resettlement, yet we know little about their attitudes toward refugees. In this article, we use a conjoint experiment to evaluate how the attributes of hypothetical refugee groups influence local policymaker receptivity toward refugee resettlement. We sample from a national panel of…
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QnAs with Catherine L. Kling [QnAs]
Environmental economist Catherine L. Kling has spent her career calculating the economic value of environmental resources and using the data to help design environmental policies. She has examined what consumers are willing to pay for environmental improvements and assessed the cost-effectiveness of policies to reduce nutrient runoff in waterways and…
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An angular motion of a conserved four-helix bundle facilitates alternating access transport in the TtNapA and EcNhaA transporters [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
There is ongoing debate regarding the mechanism through which cation/proton antiporters (CPAs), like Thermus thermophilus NapA (TtNapA) and Escherichia coli NapA (EcNhaA), alternate between their outward- and inward-facing conformations in the membrane. CPAs comprise two domains, and it is unclear whether the transition is driven by their rocking-bundle or elevator…
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Inverse correlation between fatty acid transport protein 4 and vision in Leber congenital amaurosis associated with RPE65 mutation [Neuroscience]
Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4), a transmembrane protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is a recently identified negative regulator of the ER-associated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)65 isomerase necessary for recycling 11-cis-retinal, the light-sensitive chromophore of both rod and cone opsin visual pigments. The role of FATP4 in the disease…
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Pattern-induced local symmetry breaking in active-matter systems [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The emergence of macroscopic order and patterns is a central paradigm in systems of (self-)propelled agents and a key component in the structuring of many biological systems. The relationships between the ordering process and the underlying microscopic interactions have been extensively explored both experimentally and theoretically. While emerging patterns often…
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Fouling-resistant zwitterionic polymers for complete prevention of postoperative adhesion [Engineering]
Postoperative adhesions are most common issues for almost any types of abdominal and pelvic surgery, leading to adverse consequences. Pharmacological treatments and physical barrier devices are two main approaches to address postoperative adhesions but can only alleviate or reduce adhesions to some extent. There is an urgent need for a…
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Fingerprint ridges allow primates to regulate grip [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Fingerprints are unique to primates and koalas but what advantages do these features of our hands and feet provide us compared with the smooth pads of carnivorans, e.g., feline or ursine species? It has been argued that the epidermal ridges on finger pads decrease friction when in contact with smooth…
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Oxygen limitation may affect the temperature and size dependence of metabolism in aquatic ectotherms [Ecology]
Both oxygen and temperature are fundamental factors determining metabolic performance, fitness, ecological niches, and responses of many aquatic organisms to climate change. Despite the importance of physical and physiological constraints on oxygen supply affecting aerobic metabolism of aquatic ectotherms, ecological theories such as the metabolic theory of ecology have focused…
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Fuel and oxygen harvesting from Martian regolithic brine [Engineering]
NASA's current mandate is to land humans on Mars by 2033. Here, we demonstrate an approach to produce ultrapure H2 and O2 from liquid-phase Martian regolithic brine at ∼−36 °C. Utilizing a Pb2Ru2O7−δ pyrochlore O2-evolution electrocatalyst and a Pt/C H2-evolution electrocatalyst, we demonstrate a brine electrolyzer with >25× the O2…
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Meet the scientists investigating the origins of the COVID pandemic
Nature, Published online: 02 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03402-1 Ten researchers with expertise in virology, public health and animals will seek to answer this key question.
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Famed primatologist fired for mismanagement of funds for chimp habitat
International researchers support Japan's Tetsuro Matsuzawa, who admits accounting mistakes
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Cancer cells 'remove blindfold' to spread
Cells are effectively 'blindfolded' as they lose sensitivity to their surroundings early in cancer progression, but scientists used a new method to find some cancer cells are able to switch this sense back on in order to move and spread. In future, these cells could potentially be targeted by treatments before cancer spreads to give patients a better chance of recovery.
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Kids' TV teaching children wrong lessons about pain — new study
New analysis of children's TV and film suggests that too often it portrays pain as something arising only through violent act or injury when instead it could do more to educate young people about much more common, everyday pain.
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China's Lunar Mission Just Landed on The Moon And Is Ready to Bring Back Some Rocks
The first samples in over 40 years!
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High-definition video used to identify new deep-sea blob – video
For the first time, scientists have used high-definition underwater cameras to identify a new species. The small gelatinous blob known as Duobrachium sparksae is a type of ctenophore, or comb jelly. Scientists from the US-based National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) discovered the creature in an underwater canyon north-west of Puerto Rico in April 2015 but it has only now been des
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UK seeks site for first nuclear fusion power station
Prototype to pave way for plants which would provide large amount of Britain's energy
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Coronavirus live news: CDC suggests first vaccines to US healthcare workers; England enters tier system
US hospitalisations surge; New tier system replaces lockdown; BioNTech/Pfizer and Moderna file for EU approval of Covid-19 vaccine Johnson suffers biggest Commons revolt as MPs back tougher Covid tiers US hospitals fill with 100,000 Covid-19 cases CDC panel recommends giving vaccines to healthcare workers first See all our coronavirus coverage 1.28am GMT In more Australian economy news: Australia
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Rocket Pharma
Take a peek inside one Israeli company's push to send pharmaceutical research into space.
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Cancer cells 'remove blindfold' to spread
Cancer cells spread by switching on and off abilities to sense their surroundings, move, hide and grow new tumors, a new study has found.
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Cancer cells 'remove blindfold' to spread
Cancer cells spread by switching on and off abilities to sense their surroundings, move, hide and grow new tumors, a new study has found.
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Rocket Pharma
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What's in a Dream
See Reading Frames coauthor Robert Stickgold discuss the relationship between sleeping, dreaming, and memory.
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What's in a Dream
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Discovery Against All Odds
Watch Nobel Laureate Rita Levi-Montalcini tell the story of how she continued her transformative cell biology research as World War II raged.
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Not Even William Barr Buys Trump's Election Nonsense
The attorney general has long been one of the president's chief apologists. Not this time.
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Comp Science AI vs Cog Science AI
Background I'm a mechanical engineering graduate trying to decide between computer science and cognitive science. Cognitive science is more aligned to my interests but from what I understand computer science teaches more technical skills. I'd like to do something with psychology in cog sci but it seems that psych results in mostly academia jobs which I'm not interested in. So I'm considering AI s
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Cognitive neuroscience termionology (about EEG asymmetry)
Hello, I was reading an article, it's saying that "Ischebeck, Endrass, Simon, and Kathmann (2014) found that obsessive-compulsive disorder participants showed more dominance of alpha power on the left frontal cortex (more activity in the right frontal) when compared with the healthy control group." So, why more dominance of alpha on the left but more activity on the right frontal cortex? I could
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Exercises to prevent fixed-mindset
submitted by /u/hau5keeping [link] [comments]
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13 edible plants you can still find in the winter
Knowing what plants to collect in a survival situation can be the difference between life or death. (Tim MacWelch/) This story was originally featured on Outdoor Life . If you're serious about wilderness survival, then you have to get serious about learning plants. Being able to positively identify herbaceous plants, vines, shrubs, and trees (both with and without their leaves) will give you all
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Britain becomes the first country to license a fully tested covid-19 vaccine
Inoculations with the Pfizer-BioNTech jab could start in less than a week
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Vitamin D regulates calcium in intestine differently than previously thought
A new study has discovered that vitamin D regulates calcium in a section of the intestine that previously was thought not to have played a key role. The findings have important implications on how bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, may disrupt calcium regulation.
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New method sees fibers in 3D, uses it to estimate conductivity
Designing a vehicle that can drive away the heat that is generated around it when traveling at hypersonic speeds requires an understanding of the thermal properties of the materials used to construct it. A recent study developed a method to create 3D models of the fibers within composite materials then used that information to predict the thermal conductivity of the material.
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Geoscientists use zircon to trace origin of Earth's continents
Geoscientists have long known that some parts of the continents formed in the Earth's deep past, but the speed in which land rose above global seas — and the exact shapes that land masses formed — have so far eluded experts.
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Researchers look to reduce rotorcraft noise
Imagine a silent helicopter stealthily moving troops and supplies around a future battlefield. U.S. Army researchers look to helicopter noise reduction technology as a top priority in aircraft design.
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Need to increase HPV vaccine uptake in adolescents
More than 90 percent of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers could be prevented by widespread uptake of the HPV vaccine. Yet, vaccine use in the United States falls short of public health goals.
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Metabolism influences parasite's resistance to drugs
New insight on how a parasite can resist current therapies has just been published.
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AI-based 'OxyGAN' is a robust, effective method to measure tissue oxygen levels
Researchers have proposed an end-to-end technique for accurate calculation of tissue oxygenation from single snapshots, called OxyGAN.
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False widow spiders bite can transmit harmful antibiotic-resistant bacteria
A team of zoologists and microbiologists have published a new study showing that common house spiders carry bacteria susceptible to infect people, with the Noble False Widow spiders also carrying harmful strains resistant to common antibiotic treatments.
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CDC Panel: This Is Who Should Get the COVID Vaccine First
Who should get the COVID-19 vaccine first? On Tuesday afternoon, a panel that advises the CDC voted on who that group needs to be. And the big winners? At 5:25PM EST, the panel voted by a tally of 13-1 to give the vaccine first to: Healthcare personnel (about 21 million Americans). After that, Elderly residents of long-term care facilities (about 3 million Americans). Here's the slide: Per the pa
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Video: Arecibo Observatory Telescope Collapses, Ending Era Of World-Class Research
Astronomers compare losing the observatory in Puerto Rico to losing a big brother. It was once the world's largest single-dish radio telescope. (Image credit: University of Central Florida)
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Vitamin D regulates calcium in intestine differently than previously thought
A Rutgers study has discovered that vitamin D regulates calcium in a section of the intestine that previously was thought not to have played a key role. The findings have important implications on how bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, may disrupt calcium regulation.
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What Rudy Giuliani Is Really Up To
Updated on December 1, 2020, at 5:32 p.m. ET. In his frenzied crusade to help President Donald Trump overturn the 2020 election result, Rudy Giuliani has displayed many of the characteristics that Trump has long demanded in his personal lawyers—albeit with more surreal and comedic elements. Giuliani has shown unswerving loyalty, gleefully obfuscated facts, launched wild attacks on the media, host
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US official says every American who wants a covid-19 vaccine will have one by June
An official with the US covid-19 vaccine initiative says anyone in the country who wants a vaccine will be able to have it by June, seven months from now. The confident projection was made by retired Lieutenant General Paul Ostrowski, director of supply, production, and distribution for Operation Warp Speed, during an appearance on MSNBC on Monday, November 30. "A hundred percent of Americans tha
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Novel mechanisms that cause protein clumping in brain diseases
A team of researchers has taken a major step toward understanding the mechanisms involved in the formation of large clumps of tau protein, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders.
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Shrinking massive neural networks used to model language
Deep learning neural networks can be massive, demanding major computing power. In a test of the 'lottery ticket hypothesis,' researchers have found leaner, more efficient subnetworks hidden within BERT models. The discovery could make natural language processing more accessible.
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Researchers study influence of cultural factors on gesture design
Freehand gesture-based interfaces in interactive systems are becoming more common, but what if your preferred way to gesture a command – say, changing the TV to channel 10 – significantly differed from that of a user from another culture? Would the system recognize your command? Researchers explored this question and found that some gesture choices are significantly influenced by the cultural back
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Seismic activity of New Zealand's alpine fault more complex than suspected
New evidence of a 19th century earthquake on New Zealand's Alpine fault suggests that in at least one portion of the fault, smaller earthquakes may occur in between such large rupture events.
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Telomere shortening protects against cancer
Researchers have found the first evidence that telomere shortening is not just a sign of aging, but a key component of the body's cancer prevention system.
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Statins can save lives; are they being used?
People who have coronary artery disease, stroke or peripheral artery disease often are prescribed a statin, a cholesterol-lowering drug that reduces the risk of heart attack or stroke.
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Cost of planting, protecting trees to fight climate change could jump
Planting trees and preventing deforestation are considered key climate change mitigation strategies, but a new analysis finds the cost of preserving and planting trees to hit certain global emissions reductions targets could accelerate quickly.
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Molecular 'barcode' helps decide which sperm will reach an egg
A protein called CatSper1 may act as a molecular 'barcode' that helps determine which sperm cells will make it to an egg and which are eliminated along the way.
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Scientists uncover the mysterious origin of canal grass in Panama
How did canal grass arrive in Panama? Scientists compared the DNA of sugar cane relatives from around the world to find out.
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CRISPR tagging improves accuracy of model cells grown from stem cells
CRISPR tags are being used to identify all of the transcription factors necessary to turn a pluripotent stem cell into a suitable adult cell for research, and possible future cell therapies. An article documents its use for making adult neuronal cells, but the technique could be applied to any cell type.
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Drug reverses age-related mental decline within days, mouse study shows
Just a few doses of an experimental drug can reverse age-related declines in memory and mental flexibility in mice, according to a new study. The drug, called ISRIB, has already been shown in laboratory studies to restore memory function months after traumatic brain injury (TBI), reverse cognitive impairments in Down Syndrome, prevent noise-related hearing loss, fight certain types of prostate can
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Want to Be More Productive While Working From Home? Get Up and Move Around
Science has found that sitting all day can be a productivity killer.
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Elon Musk: Tesla Open to Merging With Another Carmaker
Never Say Never During an interview following an award event in Germany, Tesla CEO Elon Musk said that he wasn't opposed to merging with another carmaker. "We are definitely not going to launch a hostile takeover," Musk said during the interview, as quoted by Electrek , "but if somebody said it would be a good idea to merge with Tesla, we would have this conversation." Soaring Valuations Tesla's
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How Do Climate Models Predict Global Warming?
Climate models use complex equations, mountains of data and supercomputers to help us understand global warming and future changes on planet Earth.
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More evidence that cellular 'death by iron' could be promising avenue of cancer treatment
Genetic mutations that give cancers a metabolic boost may also leave them vulnerable to drugs that promote a particular form of cell death, Sloan Kettering Institute researchers have found.
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Glucosamine may reduce overall death rates as effectively as regular exercise
Glucosamine supplements may reduce overall mortality about as well as regular exercise does, according to a new epidemiological study from West Virginia University.
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After 100 years, Cornell University plant pathologists revisit fire blight hypothesis
Historically credited as being the first bacterium ever characterized as a plant pathogen, fire blight is a bacterial disease that leads to significant losses of pear and apple. The role of insects in the spread of this disease has been long studied. In a new study, plant pathologists based at Cornell University and Cornell AgriTech take a hypothesis that has been more or less ignored for 100 year
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Scientists discover role of protein in detecting the common cold virus
The role of a protein in detecting the common cold virus and kickstarting an immune response to fight infection has been uncovered by a team of scientists.
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Why long-suffering hosts grow a thick skin
Occasionally, following a transplant procedure, the donor's immune cells recognize the recipient's tissues as foreign and trigger a multisystem disorder called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Occurring commonly after bone marrow or stem cell transplants performed to treat some blood cancers, GVHD may even follow solid organ transplants and is, in essence, the reverse of transplant rejection. Now
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Tweaking carotenoid genes helps tomatoes bring their A-game
Researchers led by the University of Tsukuba demonstrated that Target-AID gene editing technology can be used to simultaneously introduce single-base changes into multiple genes in tomatoes. Using this technique, the researchers altered three genes associated with carotenoid accumulation, resulting in elevated levels of carotenoids, particularly lycopene, in the resulting tomato lines. This techno
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Next step in simulating the universe
Researchers have developed a way to accurately represent the behavior of elementary particles called neutrinos in computer simulations of the Universe. The simulation results reveal the effects of neutrinos on the formation and growth of galaxies for different values of the uncertain neutrino mass. The work marks a milestone in simulating the Universe and could help determine the neutrino mass.
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Ultrasensitive transistor for herbicide detection in water
Researchers have fabricated a tiny electronic sensor that can detect very low levels of a commonly used weed killer in drinking water.
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Researchers develop customized targeting of bacteria using lysins
Researchers have developed a method to produce engineered lysins that can be used to selectively kill bacteria of interest while leaving others unharmed. The discovery presents a promising alternative to antibiotics for treating existing drug-resistant bacteria without the risk of causing resistance.
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MIT Engineers Built an AI That Design Its Own Robots
Robotception As the latest bit of evidence that humanity has learned nothing from the "Terminator" franchise, we present RoboGrammer — an AI algorithm that can design its own robot bodies. Thankfully, RoboGrammer still needs a helping hand from humanity, ExtremeTech reports , and it can't manufacture anything on its own, so a machine uprising remains unlikely. But the MIT-built algorithm is parti
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Virus May Have Arrived in U.S. in December, but Didn't Spread Until Later
Blood samples collected in mid-December indicate possible infections more than a month before the known first case of Covid-19, but do not show community transmission.
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One Less Thing to Worry About (Mostly)
Don't believe the hype: An asteroid is almost surely not going to kill you.
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Ultrasensitive transistor for herbicide detection in water
Researchers have fabricated a tiny electronic sensor that can detect very low levels of a commonly used weed killer in drinking water.
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New method sees fibers in 3-D, uses it to estimate conductivity
As a vehicle travels through space at hypersonic speeds, the gases surrounding it generate heat at dangerous temperatures for the pilot and instrumentation inside. Designing a vehicle that can drive the heat away requires an understanding of the thermal properties of the materials used to construct it. A recent two-part study at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign developed a method to cre
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After decades of work, why don't we have an HIV vaccine?
Staff members wait at a free HIV clinic in Guatemala City. (Nicholas S. Tenario/CDC/) In 2008, Koronis Pharmaceuticals wrapped up the second phase of trials for a new HIV treatment described as a "mutation booster." PopSci soon wrote about the intriguing procedure , which would supposedly introduce mistakes into the virus's DNA and cause it to self-destruct: "In the movies, this technique, known
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Molecule that regulates muscle adaptation to exercise is discovered
The onset of any physical exercise program causes muscle pain that can hinder movements as simple as getting up from a sofa. With time and a little persistence, the muscles become accustomed to the effort, developing more strength and endurance. Researchers affiliated with Harvard University in the United States and the University of São Paulo (USP) in Brazil describe the cellular mediator that ma
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Molecule that regulates muscle adaptation to exercise is discovered
The onset of any physical exercise program causes muscle pain that can hinder movements as simple as getting up from a sofa. With time and a little persistence, the muscles become accustomed to the effort, developing more strength and endurance. Researchers affiliated with Harvard University in the United States and the University of São Paulo (USP) in Brazil describe the cellular mediator that ma
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Home health aides can guide family caregivers to improve care
Family caregivers often struggle with medical and nursing tasks as well as navigating the complex health care system, according to a new study. Resources like home health care nurses or aides can, however, serve as a central point-of-contact to improve coordinated care, the research suggests. After Jo-Ana Chase, associate professor in the University of Missouri's Sinclair School of Nursing, heard
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COVID-19 may deepen depression, anxiety, and PTSD among pregnant and postpartum women
In a new study, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital surveyed pregnant women and those who had recently given birth, finding concerning rates of depression, generalized anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which were found to be exacerbated by COVID-19-related grief and health worries.
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New method sees fibers in 3D, uses it to estimate conductivity
Designing a vehicle that can drive away the heat that is generated around it when traveling at hypersonic speeds requires an understanding of the thermal properties of the materials used to construct it. A recent two-part study at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign developed a method to create 3D models of the fibers within composite materials then used that information to predict the the
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Flood Risks to Low-Income Homes to Triple by 2050
Such housing is often already in poor repair and residents are already struggling to make ends meet — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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It takes a community to eradicate hate | Wale Elegbede
Standing up to discrimination and hate should be everyone's business, says community activist Wale Elegbede. In this vital talk, he shares how his community in La Crosse, Wisconsin came together to form an interfaith group in response to Islamophobia and racism — and shows why a mentality of caring for your neighbors can make life better for everyone.
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System can get oxygen and fuel from salt water on Mars
A new electrolysis system that doesn't need pure water may change the game when it comes to exploring Mars. When it comes to water and Mars, there's good news and not-so-good news. The good news: there's water on Mars! The not-so-good news? There's water on Mars. The red planet is very cold; water that isn't frozen is almost certainly full of salt from the Martian soil, which lowers its freezing
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New immunotherapeutic approach takes aim at cancer's enzyme shield
A Brigham team observed that in a range of mouse models, inhibiting the protein SerpinB9 with a small molecule reduced tumor growth both by weakening the tumor's defense mechanisms and by triggering cell death in the tumors themselves.
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ASM journals build mechanisms to promote gender equity
ASM journal editors and staff seek to improve gender equity after analysis shows that women are not only underrepresented but receive more negative outcomes. A new analysis of 80,000 manuscript submissions will guide new mechanisms to promote gender equity in the publishing process.
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New way to make perovskite solar cells is super fast
A new ultrafast way to produce stable perovskite cells and assemble them into solar modules could offer a greener way to power devices, buildings, and even the electricity grid, researchers report. Most solar cells today are made with refined silicon that turns sunlight into clean electricity. Unfortunately, the process of refining silicon is far from clean, requiring vast amounts of energy from
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Geoscientists use zircon to trace origin of Earth's continents
Geoscientists have long known that some parts of the continents formed in the Earth's deep past, but the speed in which land rose above global seas—and the exact shapes that land masses formed—have so far eluded experts.
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Graphene: The building block for sustainable cities
Innovation in advanced materials offers the disruptive potential to transform the way we build our future cities—and make them greener and smarter.
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How to spot winning sperm: Examine their racing stripes
Millions of sperm enter the race to fertilize, but only one wins the sprint to the egg.
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Scientists fear no-deal Brexit as deadline looms
U.K. researchers in limbo, weeks from crashing out of EU trade and travel rules
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How to spot winning sperm: Examine their racing stripes
Millions of sperm enter the race to fertilize, but only one wins the sprint to the egg.
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Stimulus relief funds increase social distancing to stop spread of COVID-19
As case rates of COVID-19 reach new heights across the nation, many states and cities are tightening stay-at-home restrictions to stop the spread. New research suggests that that those suffering from economic hardships are less likely comply with new stay-at-home orders; however, these same U.S. residents would be more likely to adhere to the new public health guidelines if their households receiv
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Study suggests metabolism influences parasite's resistance to drugs
New insight on how a parasite can resist current therapies has been published today in the open-access eLife journal.
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Seismic activity of New Zealand's alpine fault more complex than suspected
A rupture along the full length of the fast-slipping Alpine Fault on New Zealand's South Island poses the largest potential seismic threat to the southern and central parts of the country. But new evidence of a 19th century earthquake indicates that in at least one portion of the fault, smaller earthquakes may occur in between such large rupture events.
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Tomato's wild ancestor is a genomic reservoir for plant breeders
Thousands of years ago, people in South America began domesticating Solanum pimpinellifolium, a weedy plant with small, intensely flavored fruit. Over time, the plant evolved into S. lycopersicum—the modern cultivated tomato.
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Study suggests metabolism influences parasite's resistance to drugs
New insight on how a parasite can resist current therapies has been published today in the open-access eLife journal.
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Tomato's wild ancestor is a genomic reservoir for plant breeders
Thousands of years ago, people in South America began domesticating Solanum pimpinellifolium, a weedy plant with small, intensely flavored fruit. Over time, the plant evolved into S. lycopersicum—the modern cultivated tomato.
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Army researchers look to reduce rotorcraft noise
Imagine a silent helicopter stealthily moving troops and supplies around a future battlefield. U.S. Army researchers look to helicopter noise reduction technology as a top priority in aircraft design. At the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command, now known as DEVCOM, Army Research Laboratory, researchers collaborated with Uber and the University of Texas at Austin to investigate the ac
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Geoscientists use zircon to trace origin of Earth's continents
Geoscientists have long known that some parts of the continents formed in the Earth's deep past, but the speed in which land rose above global seas — and the exact shapes that land masses formed — have so far eluded experts.
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How automated vehicles can impede driver performance, and what to do about it
A University of Toronto Engineering study is underscoring the importance of drivers keeping their eyes on the road — even when they are in an automated vehicle (AV).The findings, published recently in the journal Accident Analysis & Prevention , revealed that drivers can become over-reliant on AV technology. This was especially true with a type of in-vehicle display the team coined as takeover re
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Stocks rally as dollar and Treasuries pull back
Upbeat report on China's vast industrial sector lifts Wall Street equities to new high
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Mapping stellar nurseries in the Milky Way
An international team of Astronomers from the Cosmostatistics Initiative (COIN) identified nearly 120,000 new young stellar objects (YSOs) based on data from the Infrared Array Camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The final catalog, named SPICY (Spitzer/IRAC Candidate YSO Catalog), is publicly available to anyone who wishes to study the first stages of stellar development.
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Georgina Mace, Who Shaped List of Endangered Species, Dies at 67
She rewrote the global Red List, which describes which species are in trouble, and warned that the world must restore its ecological balance or pay a steep price.
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Trump Is Rapidly Becoming Irrelevant
"When can we stop thinking about Trump every minute?" the New York Times columnists Gail Collins and Bret Stephens asked yesterday . As usual with such queries, the correct answer is " What do you mean 'we'? " To a remarkable degree, people have already stopped paying attention to the 45th president. The past few weeks have offered a preview of what Donald Trump's post-presidency might look like:
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A New Day for Queer People in the South
CHAPEL HILL, N.C.—Allison Scott has waited years for this day to come. This day, specifically. Scott's job is advocating for LGBTQ rights in the South, and for four years, her home state of North Carolina has prohibited towns and cities from passing new protections for queer people. Today, that ban is finally dead—and North Carolina has an opportunity to change the reputation it earned in the 201
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Noble False Widow spider bite can transmit harmful antibiotic resistant bacteria to humans
A team of zoologists and microbiologists from NUI Galway have published a new study showing that common house spiders carry bacteria susceptible to infect people, with the Noble False Widow spiders also carrying harmful strains resistant to common antibiotic treatments.
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Noble False Widow spider bite can transmit harmful antibiotic resistant bacteria to humans
A team of zoologists and microbiologists from NUI Galway have published a new study showing that common house spiders carry bacteria susceptible to infect people, with the Noble False Widow spiders also carrying harmful strains resistant to common antibiotic treatments.
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European colonization accelerated erosion tenfold
Rates of soil erosion and alluvium accumulation in North America accelerated 10-fold after Europeans colonized the continent, according to new research carried out by scientists from China, Belgium and U.S..
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How to spot winning sperm: examine their racing stripes
Millions of sperm enter the race to fertilize, but only one wins the sprint to the egg. Now Yale researchers have discovered that these winning sperm possess a few key molecular characteristics that differentiate them from those left behind, they report Dec. 1 in the journal eLife .
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We've mapped a million previously undiscovered galaxies beyond the Milky Way. Take the virtual tour here.
Astronomers have mapped about a million previously undiscovered galaxies beyond the Milky Way, in the most detailed survey of the southern sky ever carried out using radio waves. The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (or RACS) has placed the CSIRO's Australian SKA Pathfinder radio telescope (ASKAP) firmly on the international astronomy map. While past surveys have taken years to complete, ASKAP's RACS
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'Det er et gennembrud': Kunstig intelligens knækker koden bag protein-mysterie
Ny Googles-teknologi kan føre til bedre og mere målrettet medicin.
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China to collect first moon rocks since 1970s after successful probe landing
Chang'e-5 spacecraft completes 112-hour journey from Earth, according to Beijing's space agency A Chinese probe sent to the moon to bring back the first lunar samples in four decades has successfully landed, according to Beijing's space agency. China has poured billions into its military-run space programme, with hopes of having a crewed space station by 2022 and eventually sending humans to the
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Increasing HPV vaccine uptake in adolescents
More than 90 percent of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers could be prevented by widespread uptake of the HPV vaccine. Yet, vaccine use in the United States falls short of public health goals.
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Stimulus relief funds increase social distancing to stop spread of COVID-19
New research suggests that that those suffering from economic hardships are less likely comply with new stay-at-home orders; however, these same U.S. residents would be more likely to adhere to the new public health guidelines if their households received stimulus funds.
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Famous Arecibo Radio Telescope in Puerto Rico Collapses
A 900-ton equipment platform suspended hundreds of feet above the ground fell and punched a hole in the giant radio dish below, marking a catastrophic end for the iconic observatory.
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Octogenarian snapper found off Australia becomes oldest tropical reef fish by two decades
An 81-year-old midnight snapper caught off the coast of Western Australia has taken the title of the oldest tropical reef fish recorded anywhere in the world. The octogenarian fish was found at the Rowley Shoals — about 300km west of Broome — and was part of a study that has revised what we know about the longevity of tropical fish.
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Key molecules in brain development and neurodegenerative diseases identified
A research team uncovers the mechanism that regulates local expression of key molecules in brain development and neurodegenerative diseases.
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Collision models impact the future of energy
A new database of electron-molecule reactions is a major step forward in making nuclear fusion power a reality, by allowing researchers to accurately model plasmas containing molecular hydrogen.
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Woman Claims Husband Got Neurological Damage From COVID Vaccine
While some coronavirus vaccine trials have yielded impressive results, a third finds itself bogged down by a confusing and possibly-damning legal spat. The wife of a man in Chennai, India says he was given a dosage of the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca back in October as part of a research trial. Shortly thereafter, she told New Delhi Television (NDTV), he develop
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Dam threatening world's rarest great ape faces delays
Scientists urge independent study of the Tapanuli orangutan population after Chinese bank pulls out of Sumatra hydropower project
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Collision models impact the future of energy
A new database of electron-molecule reactions is a major step forward in making nuclear fusion power a reality, by allowing researchers to accurately model plasmas containing molecular hydrogen.
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Tomato's wild ancestor is a genomic reservoir for plant breeders
Today's tomatoes are larger and easier to farm than their wild ancestor, but they also are less resistant to disease and environmental stresses like drought and salty soil. Researchers from Boyce Thompson Institute created a high-quality genome for the ancestor, discovering structural variants that are involved in fruit flavor, size and ripening, stress tolerance and disease resistance. Plant bree
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Long-term data shows racial & ethnic disparities in effectiveness of anti-smoking measures
Tobacco control efforts have reduced cigarette smoking for many, but those efforts have disproportionately helped white smokers, while other racial and ethnic groups are still struggling, an Oregon State University researcher's analysis found.
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For people with certain BRCA mutations, activating the immune system could be promising treatment
Tumors with mutations in the BRCA2 cancer-predisposition gene respond better to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy than tumors with mutations in BRCA1 , scientists at Memorial Sloan Kettering have found.
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Obesity changes cell response to glucose, uses slower metabolic path in mouse liver
Healthy cells and cells with Type 2 diabetes use completely different pathways to manage blood sugar levels, according to results from a study in mice. Researchers used a trans-omic approach, combining data from genes (transcriptomics) and metabolites (metabolomics) to identify and connect the many separate processes involved in responding to glucose. Obese mice lack most of the rapid response to
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Cobra 3D-printed its limited-edition putter with stainless steel
The internal structure makes it sound and feel better at impact. (Cobra /) When you're looking down at Cobra's King Supersport-35 putter , it appears fairly similar to other modern blade-style putters on the market. But, take a peek through the back of the club and you'll find a metallic lattice structure that hints at what makes it unique. To create those internal supports, the company employed
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The Guardian view on a new test for cancer: grounds for optimism | Editorial
Early diagnosis is essential if survival rates are to improve, and the announcement of a trial starting next year is a promising sign Substantial improvement in the early detection of cancers was among the key aims set out last year in NHS England's long-term plan. Although survival rates have been improving, it has long been recognised that too often they lag behind the best performing countries
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Climate change warms groundwater in Bavaria
Groundwater reservoirs in Bavaria have warmed considerably over the past few decades. A new study compares temperatures at 35 measuring stations, taken at different depths, with data from the 1990s. Water found at a depth of 20 meters was almost one degree warmer on average than 30 years ago.
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Hydrogen-powered heavy duty vehicles could contribute significantly to achieving climate goals
A partial transition of German road transport to hydrogen energy is among the possibilities being discussed to help meet national climate targets. Researcher have examined the hypothetical transition to a hydrogen-powered transport sector through several scenarios. Their conclusion: A shift towards hydrogen-powered mobility could significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and greatly improve ai
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New research reveals 'megatrends' that will affect forests in the next decade
A group of experts from academic, governmental and international organisations have identified five large-scale 'megatrends' affecting forests and forest communities. These are likely to have major consequences – both positively and negatively – over the coming decade.
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Chemical memory in plants affects chances of offspring survival
Researchers have uncovered the mechanism that allows plants to pass on their 'memories' to offspring, which results in growth and developmental defects.
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Breaking the rules of chemistry unlocks new reaction
Scientists have broken the rules of enzyme engineering to unlock a new method for creating chemical reactions that could unlock a wide range of new applications — from creating new drugs to food production.
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AI reduces computational time required to study fate of molecules exposed to light
Light-induced processes are critical in transformative technologies such as solar energy harvesting, as well as in photomedicine and photoresponsive materials. Theoretical studies of the dynamics of photoinduced processes require numerous electronic structure calculations, which are computationally expensive. Scientists developed machine learning-based algorithms, which reduce these computations s
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Europe plans space claw to capture orbiting junk
2025 ClearSpace-1 mission will dispose of washing machine–size debris
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Opinion: Emergency Use Authorizations Are a Threat to Science
As COVID-19 therapies get emergency-use greenlights, the Biden administration must organize a therapeutic review board to help identify what's working and what's not.
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Trees can help slow climate change, but at a cost
Widespread forest management and protections against deforestation can help mitigate climate change – but will come with a steep cost if deployed as broadly as policymakers have discussed, new research suggests.
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Statins can save lives, are they being used?
People who have coronary artery disease, stroke or peripheral artery disease often are prescribed a statin, a cholesterol-lowering drug that reduces the risk of heart attack or stroke.
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Seismic activity of New Zealand's alpine fault more complex than suspected
New evidence of a 19th century earthquake on New Zealand's Alpine fault suggests that in at least one portion of the fault, smaller earthquakes may occur in between such large rupture events.
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Alcohol-free hand sanitizer just as effective against COVID as alcohol-based versions
A new study from researchers at Brigham Young University finds that alcohol-free hand sanitizer is just as effective at disinfecting surfaces from the COVID-19 virus as alcohol-based products. In most of the test cases, the compounds found in alcohol-free sanitizers wiped out at least 99.9% of the virus within 15 seconds.
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Telomere shortening protects against cancer
Researchers have found the first evidence that telomere shortening is not just a sign of aging, but a key component of the body's cancer prevention system.
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Researchers study influence of cultural factors on gesture design
Freehand gesture-based interfaces in interactive systems are becoming more common, but what if your preferred way to gesture a command – say, changing the TV to channel 10 – significantly differed from that of a user from another culture? Would the system recognize your command? Researchers from the Penn State College of Information Sciences and Technology and their collaborators explored this que
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Study identifies novel mechanisms that cause protein clumping in brain diseases
A team of researchers at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine has taken a major step toward understanding the mechanisms involved in the formation of large clumps of tau protein, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders.
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Drug keeps antibiotics from boosting bacteria resistance
An inexpensive, FDA-approved drug called cholestyramine, when taken in conjunction with an antibiotic, prevents the antibiotic from driving antimicrobial resistance, according to new research "Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem that has led to people dying from common bacterial infections," says Andrew Read, professor of biology and entomology at Penn State and director of the Huck Ins
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Breaking the rules of chemistry unlocks new reaction
Scientists have broken the rules of enzyme engineering to unlock a new method for creating chemical reactions that could unlock a wide range of new applications — from creating new drugs to food production.
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New Rocket Engine Could Use Slimy Gel as Fuel
PowerGel A startup called NewRocket says it's developed a new kind of rocket fuel that's both cleaner and more easily controlled than anything used in the space industry today. The gel-like fuel, aptly named PowerGel, can be fired on and off as needed — unlike competitors, its creator claims — and is less toxic than existing fuels, according to The Times of Israel . With the controllable fuel gel
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Our 100 Favorite Cyber Monday Deals Still Available Today
We combed through every Black Friday and Cyber Monday deal we featured this past weekend. These deals remain—for the moment.
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Teen girls go unprotected in humanitarian settings
Global efforts to end gender-based violence should strengthen their focus on adolescent girls in humanitarian settings, finds a new study. A 10-year-old girl was living in a small village in southeastern Sierra Leone during the country's decade-long civil war when the rebels arrived. "They said they were going to take the girls and boys," she said. "I was the first person picked. They picked 20 g
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Engaging family caregivers key to coordinated home health care
After Jo-Ana Chase heard her mother had successful heart surgery, she was relieved when her mom was finally discharged from the hospital and sent home to be cared for by her brother.
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Molecule that regulates muscle adaptation to exercise is discovered
An article in Cell shows that the metabolite succinate is released by muscle cells during physical exercise and triggers a process of tissue remodeling that makes muscles stronger and enhances metabolic efficiency.
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Shrinking massive neural networks used to model language
Deep learning neural networks can be massive, demanding major computing power. In a test of the "lottery ticket hypothesis," MIT researchers have found leaner, more efficient subnetworks hidden within BERT models. The discovery could make natural language processing more accessible.
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Study finds false widow spiders bite can transmit harmful antibiotic-resistant bacteria
A team of zoologists and microbiologists from NUI Galway have published a new study showing that common house spiders carry bacteria susceptible to infect people, with the Noble False Widow spiders also carrying harmful strains resistant to common antibiotic treatments.
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Bleach-alternative COVID-19 surface disinfectants may pollute indoor air: USask research
Cleaning surfaces with hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants has the potential to pollute the air and pose a health risk, according to research led by University of Saskatchewan (USask).
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Oncotarget launches special collection on breast cancer
Breast Cancer Collection published in honor of breast cancer awareness.
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Electric Car Maker Claims Elon Musk Crashed Its EV Into a Brick Wall
Three-Wheeled Crash The founder of Arcimoto, a company producing peppy electric three-wheeled electric vehicles in Oregon, claims that Tesla CEO Elon Musk crashed one of its cars into a brick wall in the fall of 2019. "Elon is the very first one to ever crash an Arcimoto, a production Arcimoto," CEO Mark Frohnmayer told Galileo Russell, the man behind the Tesla enthusiast YouTube channel HyperCha
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Plants on aspirin
For centuries humans were using willow barks to treat a headache or an inflamed tooth. Later, the active ingredient, the plant hormone salicylic acid, was used to develop painkillers like Aspirin. But what happens, if plants are treated with these painkillers? By doing so, scientists discovered an unexpected bioactivity of human pharmaceuticals in plants.
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Watching the Arctic thaw in fast-forward
The frozen permafrost in the Arctic is thawing on an alarming scale. By analyzing an annual record of satellite images, researchers have now confirmed these findings: thermokarst lakes in Alaska are draining one by one because warmer and wetter conditions cause deeper thaw, effectively weakening frozen ground as a barrier around lakes. In the season 2017/2018, lake drainage was observed on a scale
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Drug development target for retinal dystrophies
Researchers report that deleting one of the inhibitors of the RPE65 gene in a mouse model that carries a human disease mutation prevents degeneration of cone photoreceptors that are used for daytime high-resolution color vision.
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Meningococcus B vaccine prevents disease with 79 per cent effectiveness in under-18s
Meningococcus group B, the most prevalent strain of meningococcal infection, is prevented with 79 per cent effectiveness in children and young adults inoculated with the 4CMenB vaccine, also known as Bexsero, according to a new collaborative study which evaluated the vaccine's performance in a real-world setting.
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Link found between drought and HIV among women in less-developed countries
Researchers explored the consequences of drought and lack of environmental resources on women in less-developed countries. The research shows the direct and indirect associations to women's percentage of HIV.
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Is it better to give than receive?
Young children who have experienced compassionate love and empathy from their mothers may be more willing to turn thoughts into action by being generous to others, a University of California, Davis, study suggests. Lab studies were done of children at ages 4 and 6.
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Producing ammonia with a much smaller carbon footprint
Researchers describe a new process to produce ammonia with a potentially much lower carbon footprint.
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How politics drive our personal relationships – and even where we live
The 2020 presidential election again laid bare the divisions that separate people in the United States. While President-elect Joe Biden won 306 electoral votes to President Donald Trump's 232, and more than 80 million popular votes, nearly 74 million Americans voted for Trump.
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Octogenarian snapper found in WA becomes oldest tropical reef fish by two decades
An 81-year-old midnight snapper caught off the coast of Western Australia has taken the title of the oldest tropical reef fish recorded anywhere in the world.
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Octogenarian snapper found in WA becomes oldest tropical reef fish by two decades
An 81-year-old midnight snapper caught off the coast of Western Australia has taken the title of the oldest tropical reef fish recorded anywhere in the world.
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NOAA discovers a new, beautifully weird sea creature
Gorgeous simplicity characterizes the comb jelly recently discovered by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. The small denizen of the deep was spotted three times beneath the waters off Puerto Rico. Though it's unusual to formally identify an animal strictly based on video observations, the quality of NOAA's video made it possible in a case where there's no better alternativ
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In a holiday season unlike any other, avoid unfounded claims about suicide
The holiday season usually has the lowest monthly suicide rates. And while the COVID-19 pandemic has increased risk factors associated with suicide, the media and the public should be careful this holiday season not to make unfounded claims about suicide trends. Last year, during the holidays and before the pandemic, about half of the newspaper stories that connected the holidays and suicide perpe
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AI-based 'OxyGAN' is a robust, effective method to measure tissue oxygen levels
In a new study published in the Journal of Biomedical Optics, researchers from Johns Hopkins University, Mason T. Chen and Nicholas J. Durr, have proposed an end-to-end technique for accurate calculation of tissue oxygenation from single snapshots, called OxyGAN.
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How are older adults coping with the mental health effects of COVID-19?
Recent studies indicate that older adults may be withstanding the mental health strains of the COVID-19 pandemic better than other age groups.
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Which countries have the most ageism?
Older adults get more respect in Japan and China and less in more individualistic nations like the US and Germany, according to a pair of studies that show age bias, or ageism, varies among countries and even US states. "Older adults are one of the only stigmatized groups that we all become part of some day. And that's always struck me as interesting—that we would treat so poorly a group of peopl
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Chinese probe lands on Moon to gather lunar samples (Update)
A Chinese space probe on Wednesday began drilling on the surface of the Moon hours after landing, in an ambitious attempt to bring back the first lunar samples in four decades.
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We've mapped a million previously undiscovered galaxies beyond the Milky Way. Take the virtual tour here.
Astronomers have mapped about a million previously undiscovered galaxies beyond the Milky Way, in the most detailed survey of the southern sky ever carried out using radio waves.
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'Sabre-toothed tiger' skeleton up for auction
A nearly 40-million-year-old skeleton belonging to what is popularly called a sabre-toothed tiger is going under the hammer next week in Geneva, a year after its discovery on a US ranch.
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Queen and Prince Philip to have quiet Christmas at Windsor Castle
Royal couple will skip celebrations in Sandringham for first time in 32 years due to Covid pandemic Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh will spend a quiet Christmas at Windsor Castle due to the coronavirus pandemic. It is the first time in 32 years that the couple will not be at Sandringham for the festive period. The Queen usually rem
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Genomics, gene-editing and the Blue Revolution
Aquaculture—the farming of fish and shellfish, is the world's fastest growing primary industry. It provides a healthy source of protein, oil and minerals for our rapidy expanding human population.
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Plants on aspirin
When pathogens enter a plant, infected cells set off an alarm before they die. They discharge methylsalicylic acid, which is later transformed into salicylic acid, triggering an immune response. Hence, salicylic acid is a stress signal in plants, but it also participates in regulating plant growth and development. In humans, salicylic acid proved to be useful in a different way: Eveb in prehistori
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Genomics, gene-editing and the Blue Revolution
Aquaculture—the farming of fish and shellfish, is the world's fastest growing primary industry. It provides a healthy source of protein, oil and minerals for our rapidy expanding human population.
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Researchers find that building footbridges positively affects rural economies in flood-prone areas
Many residents of flood-prone areas of rural Nicaragua face uncertain economic futures each season. In a new paper, EGC faculty affiliate Kevin Donovan and co-author Wyatt Brooks of Arizona State University examine the role of footbridges in providing rural households reliable access to larger and higher-paying urban labor markets. They find that bridge construction increases integration, leading
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During the coronavirus pandemic, radio has proven to be the medium of reference
Radio has always proved to be a medium that adapts easily to crisis situations. Throughout history, at times of major natural disasters and health emergencies, radio has played a leading role thanks to the fact that is the most universal, simplest and most accessible of media.
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Plants on aspirin
When pathogens enter a plant, infected cells set off an alarm before they die. They discharge methylsalicylic acid, which is later transformed into salicylic acid, triggering an immune response. Hence, salicylic acid is a stress signal in plants, but it also participates in regulating plant growth and development. In humans, salicylic acid proved to be useful in a different way: Eveb in prehistori
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Climate change warms groundwater in Bavaria
Groundwater reservoirs in Bavaria have warmed considerably over the past few decades. A new study by researchers at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) compares temperatures at 35 measuring stations, taken at different depths, with data from the 1990s. Water found at a depth of 20 meters was almost one degree warmer on average than 30 years ago. The findings were published in the journ
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Puerto Rico: Iconic Arecibo Observatory telescope collapses
The telescope was used in decades of astronomical discoveries and as a backdrop for Hollywood films.
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The US is in its third COVID-19 peak—and by far its largest
America now has over 13.6 million cases of COVID-19. (Unsplash/) Follow all of PopSci's COVID-19 coverage here , including the truth about herd immunity , advice for pregnant women , and a tutorial on making your own mask . If you've lost count (or never started), we are now at week 38 of the pandemic, which officially began on March 11, 2020, when the World Health Organization declared COVID-19
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Matriliny reverses gender disparities in inflammation and hypertension among the Mosuo of China [Anthropology]
Women experience higher morbidity than men, despite living longer. This is often attributed to biological differences between the sexes; however, the majority of societies in which these disparities are observed exhibit gender norms that favor men. We tested the hypothesis that female-biased gender norms ameliorate gender disparities in health by…
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Glutaric acid production by systems metabolic engineering of an l-lysine-overproducing Corynebacterium glutamicum [Applied Biological Sciences]
There is increasing industrial demand for five-carbon platform chemicals, particularly glutaric acid, a widely used building block chemical for the synthesis of polyesters and polyamides. Here we report the development of an efficient glutaric acid microbial producer by systems metabolic engineering of an l-lysine–overproducing Corynebacterium glutamicum BE strain. Based on…
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Delivery of muscle-derived exosomal miRNAs induced by HIIT improves insulin sensitivity through down-regulation of hepatic FoxO1 in mice [Applied Biological Sciences]
Implementation of regular physical activity helps in the maintenance of a healthy metabolic profile both in humans and mice through molecular mechanisms not yet completely defined. Here, we show that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) modifies the microRNA (miRNA) profile of circulating exosomes in mice, including significant increases in miR-133a and…
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Structure-function analysis of microRNA 3'-end trimming by Nibbler [Biochemistry]
Nibbler (Nbr) is a 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease whose catalytic 3′-end trimming activity impacts microRNA (miRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis. Here, we report on structural and functional studies to decipher the contributions of Nbr's N-terminal domain (NTD) and exonucleolytic domain (EXO) in miRNA 3′-end trimming. We have solved the crystal structures…
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Crystal structure of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor encoded by the scrub typhus pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi [Biochemistry]
Rho family GTPases regulate an array of cellular processes and are often modulated by pathogens to promote infection. Here, we identify a cryptic guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain in the OtDUB protein encoded by the pathogenic bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. A proteomics-based OtDUB interaction screen identified numerous potential host interactors,…
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NAP1-Related Protein 1 (NRP1) has multiple interaction modes for chaperoning histones H2A-H2B [Biochemistry]
Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1 (NAP1) family proteins are evolutionarily conserved histone chaperones that play important roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of Arabidopsis NAP1-Related Protein 1 (NRP1) complexed with H2A-H2B and uncovered a previously unknown interaction mechanism in histone chaperoning. Both in vitro…
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FMRP links optimal codons to mRNA stability in neurons [Biochemistry]
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by inactivation of the FMR1 gene and loss of encoded FMRP, an RNA binding protein that represses translation of some of its target transcripts. Here we use ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing to investigate the dysregulation of translation in the mouse brain cortex. We…
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Mobile loop dynamics in adenosyltransferase control binding and reactivity of coenzyme B12 [Biochemistry]
Cobalamin is a complex organometallic cofactor that is processed and targeted via a network of chaperones to its dependent enzymes. AdoCbl (5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) is synthesized from cob(II)alamin in a reductive adenosylation reaction catalyzed by adenosyltransferase (ATR), which also serves as an escort, delivering AdoCbl to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). The mechanism by…
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The antibiotic sorangicin A inhibits promoter DNA unwinding in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerase [Biochemistry]
Rifampicin (Rif) is a first-line therapeutic used to treat the infectious disease tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The emergence of Rif-resistant (RifR) Mtb presents a need for new antibiotics. Rif targets the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP). Sorangicin A (Sor) is an unrelated inhibitor that…
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Interface switch mediates signal transmission in a two-component system [Biochemistry]
Two-component systems (TCS), which typically consist of a membrane-embedded histidine kinase and a cytoplasmic response regulator, are the dominant signaling proteins for transduction of environmental stimuli into cellular response pathways in prokaryotic cells. HptRSA is a recently identified TCS consisting of the G6P-associated sensor protein (HptA), transmembrane histidine kinase (HptS),…
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From particle attachment to space-filling coral skeletons [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Reef-building corals and their aragonite (CaCO3) skeletons support entire reef ecosystems, yet their formation mechanism is poorly understood. Here we used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to observe the nanoscale mineralogy of fresh, forming skeletons from six species spanning all reef-forming coral morphologies: Branching, encrusting, massive, and table. In all species, hydrated and…
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Structure of eukaryotic DNA polymerase {delta} bound to the PCNA clamp while encircling DNA [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The DNA polymerase (Pol) δ of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S.c.) is composed of the catalytic subunit Pol3 along with two regulatory subunits, Pol31 and Pol32. Pol δ binds to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and functions in genome replication, repair, and recombination. Unique among DNA polymerases, the Pol3 catalytic subunit contains…
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Replisome bypass of a protein-based R-loop block by Pif1 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Efficient and faithful replication of the genome is essential to maintain genome stability. Replication is carried out by a multiprotein complex called the replisome, which encounters numerous obstacles to its progression. Failure to bypass these obstacles results in genome instability and may facilitate errors leading to disease. Cells use accessory…
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Tight and specific lanthanide binding in a de novo TIM barrel with a large internal cavity designed by symmetric domain fusion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
De novo protein design has succeeded in generating a large variety of globular proteins, but the construction of protein scaffolds with cavities that could accommodate large signaling molecules, cofactors, and substrates remains an outstanding challenge. The long, often flexible loops that form such cavities in many natural proteins are difficult…
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An S/T motif controls reversible oligomerization of the Hsp40 chaperone DNAJB6b through subtle reorganization of a {beta} sheet backbone [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Chaperone oligomerization is often a key aspect of their function. Irrespective of whether chaperone oligomers act as reservoirs for active monomers or exhibit a chaperoning function themselves, understanding the mechanism of oligomerization will further our understanding of how chaperones maintain the proteome. Here, we focus on the class-II Hsp40, human…
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Biophysical analysis of the structural evolution of substrate specificity in RuBisCO [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is the most abundant enzyme on Earth. However, its catalytic rate per molecule of protein is extremely slow and the binding of the primary substrate, CO2, is competitively displaced by O2. Hence, carbon fixation by RuBisCO is highly inefficient; indeed, in higher C3 plants, about 30%…
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Structural basis for polarized elongation of actin filaments [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Actin filaments elongate and shorten much faster at their barbed end than their pointed end, but the molecular basis of this difference has not been understood. We use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the properties of subunits at both ends of the filament. The terminal subunits tend toward conformations…
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Single-molecule and in silico dissection of the interaction between Polycomb repressive complex 2 and chromatin [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) installs and spreads repressive histone methylation marks on eukaryotic chromosomes. Because of the key roles that PRC2 plays in development and disease, how this epigenetic machinery interacts with DNA and nucleosomes is of major interest. Nonetheless, the mechanism by which PRC2 engages with native-like chromatin…
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Markov state modeling reveals alternative unbinding pathways for peptide-MHC complexes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Peptide binding to major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) is a central component of the immune system, and understanding the mechanism behind stable peptide–MHC binding will aid the development of immunotherapies. While MHC binding is mostly influenced by the identity of the so-called anchor positions of the peptide, secondary interactions from nonanchor…
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mGreenLantern: a bright monomeric fluorescent protein with rapid expression and cell filling properties for neuronal imaging [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Although ubiquitous in biological studies, the enhanced green and yellow fluorescent proteins (EGFP and EYFP) were not specifically optimized for neuroscience, and their underwhelming brightness and slow expression in brain tissue limits the fidelity of dendritic spine analysis and other indispensable techniques for studying neurodevelopment and plasticity. We hypothesized that…
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Modular transient nanoclustering of activated {beta}2-adrenergic receptors revealed by single-molecule tracking of conformation-specific nanobodies [Cell Biology]
None of the current superresolution microscopy techniques can reliably image the changes in endogenous protein nanoclustering dynamics associated with specific conformations in live cells. Single-domain nanobodies have been invaluable tools to isolate defined conformational states of proteins, and we reasoned that expressing these nanobodies coupled to single-molecule imaging-amenable tags could..
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FoxO1 is a crucial mediator of TGF-{beta}/TAK1 signaling and protects against osteoarthritis by maintaining articular cartilage homeostasis [Cell Biology]
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a critical regulator for articular cartilage tissue maintenance and chondrocyte homeostasis. Nonetheless, the regulatory networks and downstream signaling pathways that govern the chondroprotective function of TGF-β in the context of osteoarthritis (OA) are not fully defined. Recent studies reveal that mice with postnatal deletion…
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The Cockayne syndrome group A and B proteins are part of a ubiquitin-proteasome degradation complex regulating cell division [Cell Biology]
Cytokinesis is monitored by a molecular machinery that promotes the degradation of the intercellular bridge, a transient protein structure connecting the two daughter cells. Here, we found that CSA and CSB, primarily defined as DNA repair factors, are located at the midbody, a transient structure in the middle of the…
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Absolute ion hydration free energy scale and the surface potential of water via quantum simulation [Chemistry]
With a goal of determining an absolute free energy scale for ion hydration, quasi-chemical theory and ab initio quantum mechanical simulations are employed to obtain an accurate value for the bulk hydration free energy of the Na+ ion. The free energy is partitioned into three parts: 1) the inner-shell or…
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Mammalian-specific ectodermal enhancers control the expression of Hoxc genes in developing nails and hair follicles [Developmental Biology]
Vertebrate Hox genes are critical for the establishment of structures during the development of the main body axis. Subsequently, they play important roles either in organizing secondary axial structures such as the appendages, or during homeostasis in postnatal stages and adulthood. Here, we set up to analyze their elusive function…
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Rox8 promotes microRNA-dependent yki messenger RNA decay [Developmental Biology]
The Hippo pathway is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ growth and tumorigenesis. In Drosophila, oncogenic RasV12 cooperates with loss-of-cell polarity to promote Hippo pathway-dependent tumor growth. To identify additional factors that modulate this signaling, we performed a genetic screen utilizing the Drosophila RasV12/lgl−/− in vivo tumor model and identified…
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Molecular and isotopic evidence reveals the end-Triassic carbon isotope excursion is not from massive exogenous light carbon [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The negative organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the end-Triassic mass extinction (ETE) is conventionally interpreted as the result of a massive flux of isotopically light carbon from exogenous sources into the atmosphere (e.g., thermogenic methane and/or methane clathrate dissociation linked to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province [CAMP]). Instead,…
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Solar geoengineering may not prevent strong warming from direct effects of CO2 on stratocumulus cloud cover [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Discussions of countering global warming with solar geoengineering assume that warming owing to rising greenhouse-gas concentrations can be compensated by artificially reducing the amount of sunlight Earth absorbs. However, solar geoengineering may not be fail-safe to prevent global warming because CO2 can directly affect cloud cover: It reduces cloud cover…
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Parental benefits and offspring costs reflect parent-offspring conflict over the age of fledging among songbirds [Ecology]
Parent–offspring conflict has explained a variety of ecological phenomena across animal taxa, but its role in mediating when songbirds fledge remains controversial. Specifically, ecologists have long debated the influence of songbird parents on the age of fledging: Do parents manipulate offspring into fledging to optimize their own fitness or do…
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The impact of COVID-19 nonpharmaceutical interventions on the future dynamics of endemic infections [Ecology]
Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been employed to reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), yet these measures are already having similar effects on other directly transmitted, endemic diseases. Disruptions to the seasonal transmission patterns of these diseases may have consequences for the timing and severity of…
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Ionization behavior of nanoporous polyamide membranes [Engineering]
Escalating global water scarcity necessitates high-performance desalination membranes, for which fundamental understanding of structure–property–performance relationships is required. In this study, we comprehensively assess the ionization behavior of nanoporous polyamide selective layers in state-of-the-art nanofiltration (NF) membranes. In these films, residual carboxylic acids and amines influe
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Swimming microorganisms acquire optimal efficiency with multiple cilia [Engineering]
Planktonic microorganisms are ubiquitous in water, and their population dynamics are essential for forecasting the behavior of global aquatic ecosystems. Their population dynamics are strongly affected by these organisms' motility, which is generated by their hair-like organelles, called cilia or flagella. However, because of the complexity of ciliary dynamics, the…
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Constitutive relationship and governing physical properties for magnetophoresis [Engineering]
Magnetophoresis is an important physical process with application to drug delivery, biomedical imaging, separation, and mixing. Other than empirically, little is known about how the magnetic field and magnetic properties of a solution affect the flux of magnetic particles. A comprehensive explanation of these effects on the transport of magnetic…
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Genomic islands of differentiation in a rapid avian radiation have been driven by recent selective sweeps [Evolution]
Numerous studies of emerging species have identified genomic "islands" of elevated differentiation against a background of relative homogeneity. The causes of these islands remain unclear, however, with some signs pointing toward "speciation genes" that locally restrict gene flow and others suggesting selective sweeps that have occurred within nascent species after…
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Aneuploidy increases resistance to chemotherapeutics by antagonizing cell division [Genetics]
Aneuploidy, defined as whole chromosome gains and losses, is associated with poor patient prognosis in many cancer types. However, the condition causes cellular stress and cell cycle delays, foremost in G1 and S phase. Here, we investigate how aneuploidy causes both slow proliferation and poor disease outcome. We test the…
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Exo1 recruits Cdc5 polo kinase to MutL{gamma} to ensure efficient meiotic crossover formation [Genetics]
Crossovers generated during the repair of programmed meiotic double-strand breaks must be tightly regulated to promote accurate homolog segregation without deleterious outcomes, such as aneuploidy. The Mlh1–Mlh3 (MutLγ) endonuclease complex is critical for crossover resolution, which involves mechanistically unclear interplay between MutLγ and Exo1 and polo kinase Cdc5. Using budding…
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A microbial metabolite synergizes with endogenous serotonin to trigger C. elegans reproductive behavior [Genetics]
Natural products are a major source of small-molecule therapeutics, including those that target the nervous system. We have used a simple serotonin-dependent behavior of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, egg laying, to perform a behavior-based screen for natural products that affect serotonin signaling. Our screen yielded agonists of G protein-coupled serotonin…
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Incompatibility between proliferation and plant invasion is mediated by a regulator of appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis [Genetics]
Plant pathogenic fungi often developed specialized infection structures to breach the outer surface of a host plant. These structures, called appressoria, lead the invasion of the plant by the fungal hyphae. Studies in different phytopathogenic fungi showed that appressorium formation seems to be subordinated to the cell cycle. This subordination…
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Leukotriene B4 licenses inflammasome activation to enhance skin host defense [Immunology and Inflammation]
The initial production of inflammatory mediators dictates host defense as well as tissue injury. Inflammasome activation is a constituent of the inflammatory response by recognizing pathogen and host-derived products and eliciting the production of IL-1β and IL-18 in addition to inducing a type of inflammatory cell death termed "pyroptosis." Leukotriene…
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TLR signaling adapter BCAP regulates inflammatory to reparatory macrophage transition by promoting histone lactylation [Immunology and Inflammation]
Macrophages respond to microbial ligands and various noxious cues by initiating an inflammatory response aimed at eliminating the original pathogenic insult. Transition of macrophages from a proinflammatory state to a reparative state, however, is vital for resolution of inflammation and return to homeostasis. The molecular players governing this transition remain…
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Aberrant expression of USF2 in refractory rheumatoid arthritis and its regulation of proinflammatory cytokines in Th17 cells [Immunology and Inflammation]
IL-17–producing Th17 cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine in the rheumatoid joint, facilitates Th17 differentiation. Anti-TNF therapy ameliorates disease in many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to this therapy. The impact of…
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Thymus-derived B cell clones persist in the circulation after thymectomy in myasthenia gravis [Immunology and Inflammation]
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular, autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies that target postsynaptic proteins, primarily the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and inhibit signaling at the neuromuscular junction. The majority of patients under 50 y with AChR autoantibody MG have thymic lymphofollicular hyperplasia. The MG thymus is a reservoir of plasma…
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Label-free adaptive optics imaging of human retinal macrophage distribution and dynamics [Medical Sciences]
Microglia are resident central nervous system macrophages and the first responders to neural injury. Until recently, microglia have been studied only in animal models with exogenous or transgenic labeling. While these studies provided a wealth of information on the delicate balance between neuroprotection and neurotoxicity within which these cells operate,…
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Unbiased in vivo preclinical evaluation of anticancer drugs identifies effective therapy for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma [Medical Sciences]
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage, which limits surgical options and portends a dismal prognosis. Current oncologic PDAC therapies confer marginal benefit and, thus, a significant unmet clinical need exists for new therapeutic strategies. To identify effective PDAC therapies, we leveraged a syngeneic orthotopic PDAC…
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Analysis of genomic distributions of SARS-CoV-2 reveals a dominant strain type with strong allelic associations [Microbiology]
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of COVID 19, continues to evolve since its first emergence in December 2019. Using the complete sequences of 1,932 SARS-CoV-2 genomes, various clustering analyses consistently identified six types of the strains. Independent of the dendrogram construction, 13 signature variations in…
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The SKI complex is a broad-spectrum, host-directed antiviral drug target for coronaviruses, influenza, and filoviruses [Microbiology]
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has made it clear that we have a desperate need for antivirals. We present work that the mammalian SKI complex is a broad-spectrum, host-directed, antiviral drug target. Yeast suppressor screening was utilized to find a functional genetic interaction between proteins from influenza A virus (IAV) and Middle…
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Transcriptome-based design of antisense inhibitors potentiates carbapenem efficacy in CRE Escherichia coli [Microbiology]
In recent years, the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has risen substantially, and the study of CRE resistance mechanisms has become increasingly important for antibiotic development. Although much research has focused on genomic resistance factors, relatively few studies have examined CRE pathogens through changes in gene expression. In this study,…
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Fast recovery of disrupted tip links induced by mechanical displacement of hair bundles [Neuroscience]
Hearing and balance rely on the capacity of mechanically sensitive hair bundles to transduce vibrations into electrical signals that are forwarded to the brain. Hair bundles possess tip links that interconnect the mechanosensitive stereocilia and convey force to the transduction channels. A dimer of dimers, each of these links comprises…
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Evidence accumulation for value computation in the prefrontal cortex during decision making [Neuroscience]
A key step of decision making is to determine the value associated with each option. The evaluation process often depends on the accumulation of evidence from multiple sources, which may arrive at different times. How evidence is accumulated for value computation in the brain during decision making has not been…
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Maternally inherited peptides as strain-specific chemosignals [Neuroscience]
Most mammals rely on chemosensory cues for individual recognition, which is essential to many aspects of social behavior, such as maternal bonding, mate recognition, and inbreeding avoidance. Both volatile molecules and nonvolatile peptides secreted by individual conspecifics are detected by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal…
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Thirst recruits phasic dopamine signaling through subfornical organ neurons [Neuroscience]
Thirst is a highly potent drive that motivates organisms to seek out and consume balance-restoring stimuli. The detection of dehydration is well understood and involves signals of peripheral origin and the sampling of internal milieu by first order homeostatic neurons within the lamina terminalis—particularly glutamatergic neurons of the subfornical organ…
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An inactive receptor-G protein complex maintains the dynamic range of agonist-induced signaling [Pharmacology]
Agonist binding promotes activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and association of active receptors with G protein heterotrimers. The resulting active-state ternary complex is the basis for conventional stimulus-response coupling. Although GPCRs can also associate with G proteins before agonist binding, the impact of such preassociated complexes on agonist-induced signaling…
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Critical point for Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in graphite [Physics]
An exciton is an electron–hole pair bound by attractive Coulomb interaction. Short-lived excitons have been detected by a variety of experimental probes in numerous contexts. An excitonic insulator, a collective state of such excitons, has been more elusive. Here, thanks to Nernst measurements in pulsed magnetic fields, we show that…
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From antiferromagnetic and hidden order to Pauli paramagnetism in UM2Si2 compounds with 5f electron duality [Physics]
Using inelastic X-ray scattering beyond the dipole limit and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we establish the dual nature of the U 5f electrons in UM2Si2 (M = Pd, Ni, Ru, Fe), regardless of their degree of delocalization. We have observed that the compounds have in common a local atomic-like state…
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Flow-induced choking of a compliant Hele-Shaw cell [Physics]
After centuries of striving for structural rigidity, engineers and scientists alike are increasingly looking to harness the deformation, buckling, and failure of soft materials for functionality. In fluidic devices, soft deformable components that respond to the flow have the advantage of being passive; they do not require external actuation. Harnessing…
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Machine-learning iterative calculation of entropy for physical systems [Physics]
Characterizing the entropy of a system is a crucial, and often computationally costly, step in understanding its thermodynamics. It plays a key role in the study of phase transitions, pattern formation, protein folding, and more. Current methods for entropy estimation suffer from a high computational cost, lack of generality, or…
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Multiscale structural complexity of natural patterns [Physics]
Complexity of patterns is key information for human brain to differ objects of about the same size and shape. Like other innate human senses, the complexity perception cannot be easily quantified. We propose a transparent and universal machine method for estimating structural (effective) complexity of two-dimensional and three-dimensional patterns that…
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Hidden symmetries generate rigid folding mechanisms in periodic origami [Physics]
We consider the zero-energy deformations of periodic origami sheets with generic crease patterns. Using a mapping from the linear folding motions of such sheets to force-bearing modes in conjunction with the Maxwell–Calladine index theorem we derive a relation between the number of linear folding motions and the number of rigid…
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Topological Weaire-Thorpe models of amorphous matter [Physics]
Amorphous solids remain outside of the classification and systematic discovery of new topological materials, partially due to the lack of realistic models that are analytically tractable. Here we introduce the topological Weaire–Thorpe class of models, which are defined on amorphous lattices with fixed coordination number, a realistic feature of covalently…
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Dirac cones and chiral selection of elastic waves in a soft strip [Physiology]
We study the propagation of in-plane elastic waves in a soft thin strip, a specific geometrical and mechanical hybrid framework which we expect to exhibit a Dirac-like cone. We separate the low frequencies guided modes (typically 100 Hz for a 1-cm-wide strip) and obtain experimentally the full dispersion diagram. Dirac…
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Lack of adipocyte purinergic P2Y6 receptor greatly improves whole body glucose homeostasis [Physiology]
Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-activated purinergic receptor P2Y6 (P2Y6R) plays a crucial role in controlling energy balance through central mechanisms. However, P2Y6R's roles in peripheral tissues regulating energy and glucose homeostasis remain unexplored. Here, we report the surprising finding that adipocyte-specific deletion of P2Y6R protects mice from diet-induced obesity, improving glucose tolera
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The intracellular Ca2+ release channel TRPML1 regulates lower urinary tract smooth muscle contractility [Physiology]
TRPML1 (transient receptor potential mucolipin 1) is a Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channel that is predominantly localized to the membranes of late endosomes and lysosomes (LELs). Intracellular release of Ca2+ through TRPML1 is thought to be pivotal for maintenance of intravesicular acidic pH as well as the maturation, fusion, and trafficking…
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Allosteric modulation of alternatively spliced Ca2+-activated Cl- channels TMEM16A by PI(4,5)P2 and CaMKII [Physiology]
Transmembrane 16A (TMEM16A, anoctamin1), 1 of 10 TMEM16 family proteins, is a Cl− channel activated by intracellular Ca2+ and membrane voltage. This channel is also regulated by the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. We find that two splice variants of TMEM16A show different sensitivity to endogenous PI(4,5)P2 degradation, where TMEM16A(ac)…
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Broad noncoding transcription suggests genome surveillance by RNA polymerase V [Plant Biology]
Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed, yet most transcribed sequences lack conservation or known biological functions. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RNA polymerase V (Pol V) produces noncoding transcripts, which base pair with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and allow specific establishment of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) on transposable elements. Here, we show that…
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HOS15 is a transcriptional corepressor of NPR1-mediated gene activation of plant immunity [Plant Biology]
Transcriptional regulation is a complex and pivotal process in living cells. HOS15 is a transcriptional corepressor. Although transcriptional repressors generally have been associated with inactive genes, increasing evidence indicates that, through poorly understood mechanisms, transcriptional corepressors also associate with actively transcribed genes. Here, we show that HOS15 is the substrate…
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Dissection of the general two-step di-C-glycosylation pathway for the biosynthesis of (iso)schaftosides in higher plants [Plant Biology]
Schaftoside and isoschaftoside are bioactive natural products widely distributed in higher plants including cereal crops and medicinal herbs. Their biosynthesis may be related with plant defense. However, little is known on the glycosylation biosynthetic pathway of these flavonoid di-C-glycosides with different sugar residues. Herein, we report that the biosynthesis of…
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Network interventions for managing the COVID-19 pandemic and sustaining economy [Population Biology]
Sustaining economic activities while curbing the number of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases until effective vaccines or treatments become available is a major public health and policy challenge. In this paper, we use agent-based simulations of a network-based susceptible−exposed−infectious−recovered (SEIR) model to investigate two network intervention strategies for mitigating…
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Global associations between macronutrient supply and age-specific mortality [Population Biology]
Animal experiments have demonstrated that energy intake and the balance of macronutrients determine life span and patterns of age-specific mortality (ASM). Similar effects have also been detected in epidemiological studies in humans. Using global supply data and 1,879 life tables from 103 countries, we test for these effects at a…
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A source for awareness-dependent figure-ground segregation in human prefrontal cortex [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Figure–ground modulation, i.e., the enhancement of neuronal responses evoked by the figure relative to the background, has three complementary components: edge modulation (boundary detection), center modulation (region filling), and background modulation (background suppression). However, the neuronal mechanisms mediating these three modulations and how they depend on awareness remain unclear. For
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Reconciling print-size and display-size constraints on reading [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Two fundamental constraints limit the number of characters in text that can be displayed at one time—print size and display size. These dual constraints conflict in two important situations—when people with normal vision read text on small digital displays, and when people with low vision read magnified text. Here, we…
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The social patterning of autism diagnoses reversed in California between 1992 and 2018 [Social Sciences]
As rates of autism diagnosis increased dramatically over the past number of decades, prevalence rates were generally highest among Whites and among those of higher socioeconomic status (SES). Using a unique, population-level dataset, we find that rates of autism diagnosis continued to be on the rise in recent years, but…
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The confidence gap predicts the gender pay gap among STEM graduates [Social Sciences]
Women make less than men in some science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. While explanations for this gender pay gap vary, they have tended to focus on differences that arise for women and men after they have worked for a period of time. In this study we argue that…
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The changing geography of social mobility in the United States [Social Sciences]
New evidence shows that intergenerational social mobility—the rate at which children born into poverty climb the income ladder—varies considerably across the United States. Is this current geography of opportunity something new or does it reflect a continuation of long-term trends? We answer this question by constructing data on the levels…
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Methods for correcting inference based on outcomes predicted by machine learning [Statistics]
Many modern problems in medicine and public health leverage machine-learning methods to predict outcomes based on observable covariates. In a wide array of settings, predicted outcomes are used in subsequent statistical analysis, often without accounting for the distinction between observed and predicted outcomes. We call inference with predicted outcomes postprediction…
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Estimating and forecasting spatial population dynamics of apex predators using transnational genetic monitoring [Statistics]
The ongoing recovery of terrestrial large carnivores in North America and Europe is accompanied by intense controversy. On the one hand, reestablishment of large carnivores entails a recovery of their most important ecological role, predation. On the other hand, societies are struggling to relearn how to live with apex predators…
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Consequences of seafood mislabeling for marine populations and fisheries management [Sustainability Science]
Over the past decade, seafood mislabeling has been increasingly documented, raising public concern over the identity, safety, and sustainability of seafood. Negative outcomes from seafood mislabeling are suspected to be substantial and pervasive as seafood is the world's most highly traded food commodity. Here we provide empirical systems-level evidence that…
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Mutation bias within oncogene families is related to proliferation-specific codon usage [Systems Biology]
It is well known that in cancer gene families some members are more frequently mutated in tumor samples than their family counterparts. A paradigmatic case of this phenomenon is KRAS from the RAS family. Different explanations have been proposed ranging from differential interaction with other proteins to preferential expression or…
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Correction for Li et al., Multiorbital charge-density wave excitations and concomitant phonon anomalies in Bi2Sr2LaCuO6+{delta} [Correction]
PHYSICS Correction for "Multiorbital charge-density wave excitations and concomitant phonon anomalies in Bi2Sr2LaCuO6+δ," by Jiemin Li, Abhishek Nag, Jonathan Pelliciari, Hannah Robarts, Andrew Walters, Mirian Garcia-Fernandez, Hiroshi Eisaki, Dongjoon Song, Hong Ding, Steven Johnston, Riccardo Comin, and Ke-Jin Zhou, which was first published June 25, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2001755117 (Proc. Natl. Ac
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Correction for Ahmad et al., Potent competitive inhibition of human ribonucleotide reductase by a nonnucleoside small molecule [Correction]
BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for "Potent competitive inhibition of human ribonucleotide reductase by a nonnucleoside small molecule," by Md. Faiz Ahmad, Intekhab Alam, Sarah E. Huff, John Pink, Sheryl A. Flanagan, Donna Shewach, Tessianna A. Misko, Nancy L. Oleinick, William E. Harte, Rajesh Viswanathan, Michael E. Harris, and Chris Godfrey Dealwis, which…
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Correction for Yaron et al., Forelimb force direction and magnitude independently controlled by spinal modules in the macaque [Correction]
NEUROSCIENCE Correction for "Forelimb force direction and magnitude independently controlled by spinal modules in the macaque," by Amit Yaron, David Kowalski, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Tomohiko Takei, and Kazuhiko Seki, which was first published October 15, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1919253117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 27655–27666). The authors note that Table 1 appeared…
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Correction to Supporting Information for Morales-Castilla et al., Diversity buffers winegrowing regions from climate change losses [SI Correction]
SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction to Supporting Information for "Diversity buffers winegrowing regions from climate change losses," by Ignacio Morales-Castilla, Iñaki García de Cortázar-Atauri, Benjamin I. Cook, Thierry Lacombe, Amber Parker, Cornelis van Leeuwen, Kimberly A. Nicholas, and Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, which was first published January 27, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1906731117 (Proc. Natl. Acad
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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Gender pay gap among STEM graduates Word cloud representing the role of self-confidence in the gender pay gap. In several science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, women earn less than men. Using a three-wave survey, Adina Sterling et al. (pp. 30303–30308) queried 559 engineering and computer science students—195 female…
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Aspect ratio dependence of the ultimate-state transition in turbulent thermal convection [Physical Sciences]
Iyer et al. (1) report heat (Nu) and momentum (Re) transport results for turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) for a Prandtl number Pr=1 from direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a cylindrical sample of aspect ratio (diameter D/height H ) Γ=1/10. The data show the classic scaling Nu=0.0525Ra0.331 in the range 1010≤Ra≤1015….
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Reply to He et al.: The dependence of heat transport law on aspect ratio is still unclear [Physical Sciences]
In their comment on Iyer et al. (1), He et al. (2) appear to address two putative issues: 1) that Iyer et al. neglect to point out that the small aspect ratio of their simulation could have an impact on the outcome; 2) He et al. (2) use their own…
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Safety concerns regarding concomitant use of tocilizumab and glucocorticoids in COVID-19 patients [Biological Sciences]
COVID-19 is one of the largest pandemics ever faced, and the current lack of specific and effective therapeutics has led to significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple existing drugs have been repurposed and tested in clinical trials. However, without preclinical studies, their mechanisms in combating COVID-19 are speculative, and their efficacy…
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Reply to Yang et al.: Tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19 patients needs the assessment of the disease severity and timely intervention [Biological Sciences]
We appreciate that Yang et al. (1) are concerned about the safety concerns regarding the use of tocilizumab and the combination usage with glucocorticoids in COVID-19 patients. We propose that tocilizumab can effectively treat severe COVID-19 patients (2); such effectiveness has also been confirmed by many other groups (3, 4)….
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Profile of Joel D. Blum [Profiles]
Joel D. Blum uses isotopes to solve an unusually wide range of research problems. Renowned for innovative approaches, Blum, a professor of earth and environmental sciences at the University of Michigan, was among the first scientists to apply methods developed largely for lunar and planetary studies to answer longstanding questions…
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Hippocampal plasticity may drive cocaine relapse [Neuroscience]
Premature deaths related to illicit drug use are at an all-time high in the United States (1). Over 72,000 people died from drug overdose in 2019, and this number is expected to increase dramatically in 2020, in no small part because of the COVID-19 pandemic (2). Indeed, March through May…
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Are nearly free silanols a unifying structural determinant of silica particle toxicity? [Chemistry]
Due to the abundance of and potential exposure to crystalline and amorphous silica dusts (Fig. 1A), silica toxicity has been investigated for over 100 y, and currently the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies cristobalite and quartz as group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) (1, 2). In contrast, amorphous silica…
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In fatal COVID-19, the immune response can control the virus but kill the patient [Microbiology]
COVID-19 is often a biphasic illness with an initial phase of upper respiratory symptoms that can rapidly progress to profound hypoxemia and respiratory failure. Postmortem studies of severe COVID-19 reveal diffuse alveolar damage, hyaline membranes, and thrombi, with varying degrees of inflammation and types of cellular infiltrates (1–5). Now, with…
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Hawks, Doves, and mongooses [Evolution]
In 1795, philosopher Immanuel Kant proposed rules to promote perpetual peace among nations (1). He first required that all nations be republics, because when "the consent of the subjects is required to determine whether there shall be war or not, nothing is more natural than that they should weigh the…
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Ethics in field experimentation: A call to establish new standards to protect the public from unwanted manipulation and real harms [Political Sciences]
In 1966, Henry Beecher published his foundational paper "Ethics and Clinical Research," bringing to light unethical experiments that were routinely being conducted by leading universities and government agencies. A common theme was the lack of voluntary consent. Research regulations surrounding laboratory experiments flourished after his work. More than half a…
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Theoretical issues in deep networks [Applied Mathematics]
While deep learning is successful in a number of applications, it is not yet well understood theoretically. A theoretical characterization of deep learning should answer questions about their approximation power, the dynamics of optimization, and good out-of-sample performance, despite overparameterization and the absence of explicit regularization. We review our recent…
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On instabilities of deep learning in image reconstruction and the potential costs of AI [Applied Mathematics]
Deep learning, due to its unprecedented success in tasks such as image classification, has emerged as a new tool in image reconstruction with potential to change the field. In this paper, we demonstrate a crucial phenomenon: Deep learning typically yields unstable methods for image reconstruction. The instabilities usually occur in…
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The effect of tethering on the clearance rate of suspension-feeding plankton [Applied Physical Sciences]
Many planktonic suspension feeders are attached to particles or tethered by gravity when feeding. It is commonly accepted that the feeding flows of tethered suspension feeders are stronger than those of their freely swimming counterparts. However, recent flow simulations indicate the opposite, and the cause of the opposing conclusions is…
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Hyperchromatic structural color for perceptually enhanced sensing by the naked eye [Applied Physical Sciences]
Colorimetric sensors offer the prospect for on-demand sensing diagnostics in simple and low-cost form factors, enabling rapid spatiotemporal inspection by digital cameras or the naked eye. However, realizing strong dynamic color variations in response to small changes in sample properties has remained a considerable challenge, which is often pursued through…
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Heterogeneity in social and epidemiological factors determines the risk of measles outbreaks [Applied Physical Sciences]
Political and environmental factors—e.g., regional conflicts and global warming—increase large-scale migrations, posing extraordinary societal challenges to policymakers of destination countries. A common concern is that such a massive arrival of people—often from a country with a disrupted healthcare system—can increase the risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks like measles. We analyze…
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Structure and regulation of the BsYetJ calcium channel in lipid nanodiscs [Biochemistry]
BsYetJ is a bacterial homolog of transmembrane BAX inhibitor-1 motif-containing 6 (TMBIM6) membrane protein that plays a key role in the control of calcium homeostasis. However, the BsYetJ (or TMBIM6) structure embedded in a lipid bilayer is uncharacterized, let alone the molecular mechanism of the calcium transport activity. Herein, we…
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Stable metal anodes enabled by a labile organic molecule bonded to a reduced graphene oxide aerogel [Chemistry]
Metallic anodes (lithium, sodium, and zinc) are attractive for rechargeable battery technologies but are plagued by an unfavorable metal–electrolyte interface that leads to nonuniform metal deposition and an unstable solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI). Here we report the use of electrochemically labile molecules to regulate the electrochemical interface and guide even lithium…
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A chemical dynamics study on the gas-phase formation of triplet and singlet C5H2 carbenes [Chemistry]
Since the postulation of carbenes by Buchner (1903) and Staudinger (1912) as electron-deficient transient species carrying a divalent carbon atom, carbenes have emerged as key reactive intermediates in organic synthesis and in molecular mass growth processes leading eventually to carbonaceous nanostructures in the interstellar medium and in combustion systems. Contemplating…
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The science of deep learning [Computer Sciences]
Scientists today have completely different ideas of what machines can learn to do than we had only 10 y ago. In image processing, speech and video processing, machine vision, natural language processing, and classic two-player games, in particular, the state-of-the-art has been rapidly pushed forward over the last decade, as…
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The unreasonable effectiveness of deep learning in artificial intelligence [Colloquium Papers (free online)]
Deep learning networks have been trained to recognize speech, caption photographs, and translate text between languages at high levels of performance. Although applications of deep learning networks to real-world problems have become ubiquitous, our understanding of why they are so effective is lacking. These empirical results should not be possible…
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Emergent linguistic structure in artificial neural networks trained by self-supervision [Computer Sciences]
This paper explores the knowledge of linguistic structure learned by large artificial neural networks, trained via self-supervision, whereby the model simply tries to predict a masked word in a given context. Human language communication is via sequences of words, but language understanding requires constructing rich hierarchical structures that are never…
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Understanding the role of individual units in a deep neural network [Computer Sciences]
Deep neural networks excel at finding hierarchical representations that solve complex tasks over large datasets. How can we humans understand these learned representations? In this work, we present network dissection, an analytic framework to systematically identify the semantics of individual hidden units within image classification and image generation networks. First,…
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Fast reinforcement learning with generalized policy updates [Computer Sciences]
The combination of reinforcement learning with deep learning is a promising approach to tackle important sequential decision-making problems that are currently intractable. One obstacle to overcome is the amount of data needed by learning systems of this type. In this article, we propose to address this issue through a divide-and-conquer…
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Algorithms as discrimination detectors [Computer Sciences]
Preventing discrimination requires that we have means of detecting it, and this can be enormously difficult when human beings are making the underlying decisions. As applied today, algorithms can increase the risk of discrimination. But as we argue here, algorithms by their nature require a far greater level of specificity…
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The interplay of movement and spatiotemporal variation in transmission degrades pandemic control [Population Biology]
Successful public health regimes for COVID-19 push below unity long-term regional Rt —the average number of secondary cases caused by an infectious individual. We use a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model for two coupled populations to make the conceptual point that asynchronous, variable local control, together with movement between populations, elevates long-term…
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The frontier of simulation-based inference [Colloquium Papers (free online)]
Many domains of science have developed complex simulations to describe phenomena of interest. While these simulations provide high-fidelity models, they are poorly suited for inference and lead to challenging inverse problems. We review the rapidly developing field of simulation-based inference and identify the forces giving additional momentum to the field….
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Benign overfitting in linear regression [Statistics]
The phenomenon of benign overfitting is one of the key mysteries uncovered by deep learning methodology: deep neural networks seem to predict well, even with a perfect fit to noisy training data. Motivated by this phenomenon, we consider when a perfect fit to training data in linear regression is compatible…
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Opinion: Biodiversity conservation during a global crisis: Consequences and the way forward [Sustainability Science]
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the latest episode in a string of environment-borne human tragedies, catastrophic in its magnitude, reach, and repercussions. Understandably, the scientific literature has focused on the causes and consequences of the pandemic from an anthropocentric viewpoint. As immense as the human tragedy surrounding the…
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DeepMind's AI Makes Gigantic Leap in Solving Protein Structures
Google's deep-learning program for determining the 3-D shapes of proteins stands to transform biology, scientists say — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Molecular 'barcode' helps decide which sperm will reach an egg
A protein called CatSper1 may act as a molecular 'barcode' that helps determine which sperm cells will make it to an egg and which are eliminated along the way.
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Pronouns matter—pronoun use conveys inclusivity
In her doctoral dissertation, Laura Hekanaho investigates attitudes towards English third person singular pronouns. The use of pronouns is very politicized.
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Breaking the rules of chemistry unlocks new reaction
Scientists have broken the rules of enzyme engineering to unlock a new method for creating chemical reactions that could unlock a wide range of new applications—from creating new drugs to food production.
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Early human landscape modifications discovered in Amazonia
In 2002 Professor Alceu Ranzi (Federal University of Acre) and Prof. Martti Parssinen (University of Helsinki) decided to form an international research team to study large geometric earthworks, called geoglyphs, in the Brazilian state of Acre in Southwestern Amazonia. Soon it appeared that a pre-colonial civilization unknown to international scholars built geometric ceremonial centers and sophist
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Molecular 'barcode' helps decide which sperm will reach an egg
A protein called CatSper1 may act as a molecular 'barcode' that helps determine which sperm cells will make it to an egg and which are eliminated along the way.
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Scientists warn of the social and environmental risks tied to the energy transition
To meet the most ambitious 1.5º C climate goal requires a rapid phase-out of fossil fuels and mass use of renewables. However, new international research by the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB) warns that green energy projects can be as socially and environmentally conflictive as fossil fuel projects. While renewable energies are
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DeepMind's AI Makes Gigantic Leap in Solving Protein Structures
Google's deep-learning program for determining the 3-D shapes of proteins stands to transform biology, scientists say — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Air pollution spikes linked to lower test scores for Salt Lake County third graders
More frequent exposure to air pollution spikes were associated with reduced test scores for third graders in Salt Lake County. Schools with a higher proportion of students of color and from households experiencing poverty were exposed to more peak pollution days than were schools serving middle- to upper- class and predominately white students. The results stress the need for legislators to enact
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Breaking the rules of chemistry unlocks new reaction
Scientists have broken the rules of enzyme engineering to unlock a new method for creating chemical reactions that could unlock a wide range of new applications—from creating new drugs to food production.
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A light shines in the gloom cast by Covid-19
After a grim recession, a strong and healthy recovery is within reach
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Famed Arecibo Observatory Collapses Following Cable Failures
The Arecibo Observatory in its prime. The Arecibo Radio Observatory has collapsed following a series of cable failures over the last several months. The National Science Foundation (NSF) previously expressed concern this could happen, which is why it decided last month the dish would be demolished rather than repaired. Gravity took care of that a bit quicker than expected as the 900-ton suspended
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Cost of planting, protecting trees to fight climate change could jump
Planting trees and preventing deforestation are considered key climate change mitigation strategies, but a new analysis finds the cost of preserving and planting trees to hit certain global emissions reductions targets could accelerate quickly.
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Watching the Arctic thaw in fast-forward
The Arctic is warming more quickly than almost any other region on Earth as a result of climate change. One of the better known: the continually shrinking summer sea-ice extent in the Arctic. But global warming is also leaving its mark on terrestrial permafrost. For several years, permafrost regions have been thawing more and more intensively in North America, Scandinavia and Siberia—e.g. in the e
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SLC25A51 regulates the transport of the coenzyme NAD into the mitochondria
For their growth, cells need various nutrients and vitamins. So-called solute carriers (SLC), proteins that can transport such substances across the boundaries of cellular membranes, play a central role in metabolism. Scientists in Giulio Superti-Furga's research group at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences have now discovered that the previously unc
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Mathematician suggests new approach to cooperative game
A mathematician from RUDN University developed a matrix representation of set functions. This approach is vivid and easy to check, and it makes the calculations easier. Among other things, the new development can be applied to cooperative game theory. The results of the work were published in the Information Sciences journal.
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Danish researchers develop budget optical ammonia sensor
In collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), the Department of Engineering at Aarhus University has developed photonic sensor technology that can pave the way for a portable, reliable and, above all, inexpensive device for detecting ammonia and other gases in agriculture.
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A semiconductor chip detects antigen concentrations at 1 parts per quadrillion molar mass
Associate Professor Kazuhiro Takahashi and Assistant Professor Yong-Joon Choi of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering at Toyohashi University of Technology have developed a chip that can sense antigens at one part per quadrillion molar mass. The chip was created using semiconductor micromachining technology. Antigens derived from diseases and present in blood and sal
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Curtin collision models impact the future of energy
A new Curtin University-created database of electron-molecule reactions is a major step forward in making nuclear fusion power a reality, by allowing researchers to accurately model plasmas containing molecular hydrogen.
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Scientists uncover the mysterious origin of canal grass in Panama
Urban legends about the origins of canal grass in Panama abound, but the Smithsonian has new evidence that puts the question to rest. Canal grass is an invasive weed, native to Asia. Because its tiny seeds blow in the wind, it readily invades clearings and spreads to form impenetrable stands by budding from tillers and rhizomes. Once established, canal grass is challenging to eliminate. Fire burns
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Study sheds light on immune mechanism that triggers cytokine storm typical of COVID-19
In lung tissue from a person who died after contracting COVID-19, active inflammasomes (puncta, represented as red specks) can be seen in some cells. Collagen fibers, lung cell nuclei and epithelial cells are stained green, blue and pink respectively
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The shorter the delay, the more effective the neurofeedback
HSE University scientists have for the first time in the world investigated the impact of delayed reinforcement signals in neurofeedback (NFB) training. They have experimentally proven that reducing the delay in feedback (decreasing feedback latency) can significantly increase the efficacy of training. This opens up new potential for the use of NFB for cognitive enhancement, self-regulation, and t
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Study suggests metabolism influences parasite's resistance to drugs
New insight on how a parasite can resist current therapies has been published today in the open-access eLife journal.
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What will the climate be like when earth's next supercontinent forms?
The continents will reunite again in the deep future. And a new study, presented today during an online poster session at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union, suggests that the future arrangement of this supercontinent could dramatically impact the habitability and climate stability of Earth. The findings also have implications for searching for life on other planets.
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SLC25A51 regulates the transport of the coenzyme NAD into the mitochondria
For their growth, cells need various nutrients and vitamins. So-called solute carriers (SLC), proteins that can transport such substances across the boundaries of cellular membranes, play a central role in metabolism. Scientists in Giulio Superti-Furga's research group at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences have now discovered that the previously unc
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Scientists uncover the mysterious origin of canal grass in Panama
Urban legends about the origins of canal grass in Panama abound, but the Smithsonian has new evidence that puts the question to rest. Canal grass is an invasive weed, native to Asia. Because its tiny seeds blow in the wind, it readily invades clearings and spreads to form impenetrable stands by budding from tillers and rhizomes. Once established, canal grass is challenging to eliminate. Fire burns
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Galaxy Brain Is Real
In December of 1995, astronomers around the world were vying for a chance to use the hottest new tool in astronomy: the Hubble space telescope. Bob Williams didn't have to worry about all that. As the director of the institution that managed Hubble, Williams could use the telescope to observe whatever he wanted. And he decided to point it at nothing in particular. Williams's colleagues told him,
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Giving birth may affect how quickly you age
The number of times a person gives birth may affect how quickly they age, researchers report. The researchers examined several different measures that represent how a person's body is aging and found that people who had few births—or many—seemed to have aged quicker than those who had given birth three or four times. However, these effects were found only after a person had gone through menopause
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Molecular 'barcode' helps decide which sperm will reach an egg
A protein called CatSper1 may act as a molecular 'barcode' that helps determine which sperm cells will make it to an egg and which are eliminated along the way.
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IU researchers publish first article dedicated to Hoosier youth's donated tumor
Researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have published their work about a specific type of childhood cancer in the peer-reviewed, international oncology journal, Cancers. This research involves a combination therapy that significantly slows tumor growth in models, which includes a model established from cells taken from tumors donated by Tyler Trent.
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European colonization accelerated erosion tenfold
Rates of soil erosion and alluvium accumulation in North America accelerated 10-fold after Europeans colonized the continent, according to new research carried out by scientists from China, Belgium and USA.
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Scientists warn of the social and environmental risks tied to the energy transition
New international research by the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB) warns that green energy projects can be as socially and environmentally conflictive as fossil fuel projects. While renewable energies are often portrayed as being environmentally sustainable, this new study cautions about the risks associated with the green energy
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Watching the Arctic thaw in fast-forward
The frozen permafrost in the Arctic is thawing on an alarming scale. By analysing an annual record of satellite images, researchers at the Alfred Wegener Institute have now confirmed these findings: thermokarst lakes in Alaska are draining one by one because warmer and wetter conditions cause deeper thaw, effectively weakening frozen ground as a barrier around lakes. In the season 2017/2018, lake
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Plants on aspirin
For centuries humans were using willow barks to treat a headache or an inflamed tooth. Later, the active ingredient, the plant hormone salicylic acid, was used to develop painkillers like Aspirin. But what happens, if plants are treated with these painkillers? By doing so, Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria discovered an unexpected bioactivity of human pharmaceutic
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Six-Word Sci-Fi: Stories Written By You
Here's this month's prompt, how to submit, and an illustrated archive of past favorites.
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Scientists identify deep-sea blob as new species using only video
Duobrachium sparksae is a type of ctenophore, or comb jelly Video identification without specimen 'can be controversial' Scientists have for the first time identified a small gelatinous blob in the deep sea as a new species, using only high-definition underwater cameras. Continue reading…
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AI reduces computational time required to study fate of molecules exposed to light
Light-induced processes are critical in transformative technologies such as solar energy harvesting, as well as in photomedicine and photoresponsive materials. Theoretical studies of the dynamics of photoinduced processes require numerous electronic structure calculations, which are computationally expensive. Scientists from the University of Groningen developed machine learning-based algorithms,
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First report card on biosimilars in oncology
In a Policy Review in The Lancet Oncology, Y. Tony Yang, a professor at the George Washington University School of Nursing and Milken Institute School of Public Health, along with his co-authors, identify factors preventing the effective launch of oncology biosimilars in the United States, including the struggle to garner market share and fighting patent litigation lawsuits across the country.
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Early human landscape modifications discovered in Amazonia
New research argues that the theories of extensive savannah formations in the South-western Amazonia during the current Holocene period are based on a false interpretation of the connection between charcoal accumulation and natural fires due to drier climatic periods. These interpretations have not taken into account the millennial human presence in Amazonia.
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Ongoing anticoagulant treatment does not seem to protect against severe COVID-19
DOAC (direct oral anticoagulant) pills are used in the treatment of atrial fibrillation by preventing blood clots. Even though blood clots are thought to contribute to complications from the new coronavirus infection, users of this class of drug do not seem to be protected against severe COVID-19, reports a large Swedish registry study from Karolinska Institutet published in The Journal of Interna
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New study links number of menopause symptoms with job performance
With a large percentage of women in the workplace aged between 40 and 59 years, the challenge of women managing menopause symptoms while at work is commonplace. A new study examined the relationship between the number of menopause symptoms and the job performance of working women. Study results are published online in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).
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LSU Health New Orleans discovers drug development target for retinal dystrophies
A team of LSU Health New Orleans researchers reports for the first time that deleting one of the inhibitors of the RPE65 gene in a mouse model that carries a human disease mutation prevents degeneration of cone photoreceptors that are used for daytime high-resolution color vision.
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Meningococcus B vaccine prevents disease with 79 per cent effectiveness in under-18s
Meningococcus group B, the most prevalent strain of meningococcal infection, is prevented with 79 per cent effectiveness in children and young adults inoculated with the 4CMenB vaccine, also known as Bexsero, according to a new collaborative study from researchers in Portugal and the UK and led by the University of Bristol which evaluated the vaccine's performance in a real-world setting. The find
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Skoltech scientists run a 'speed test' to boost production of carbon nanotubes
Skoltech researchers have investigated the procedure for catalyst delivery used in the most common method of carbon nanotube production, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), offering what they call a "simple and elegant" way to boost productivity and pave the way for cheaper and more accessible nanotube-based technology.
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Breaking the rules of chemistry unlocks new reaction
Scientists have broken the rules of enzyme engineering to unlock a new method for creating chemical reactions that could unlock a wide range of new applications — from creating new drugs to food production.
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Cost of planting, protecting trees to fight climate change could jump
Planting trees and preventing deforestation are considered key climate change mitigation strategies, but a new analysis finds the cost of preserving and planting trees to hit certain global emissions reductions targets could accelerate quickly.
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Story tips: Air taxis, fungi speak, radiation game and climate collab
ORNL story tips: Air taxis, fungi speak, radiation game and climate collab.
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China Lands on Moon Before Returning to Earth With Lunar Rocks
Touchdown! China's Chang'e-5 mission successfully touched down on the Moon Tuesday. While China's Chang'e-4 mission has been exploring the far side of the Moon for close to two years , this new mission will last less than one lunar day . Chang'e-5's robotic lander will spend just a few days on the Moon, The Verge reports , during which it's expected to dig up the first samples of lunar soil to be
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SpaceX Will Launch Remote Controlled Racecars to Lunar Surface
An ambitious startup is sending a pair of 5.5 pound, remotely-controlled racecars to the lunar surface to hold the first ever car race on the Moon, New Atlas reports — and a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket will help them get there as soon as October 2021. The race is being organized by Moon Mark, a multimedia and education content company, which partnered with Intuitive Machines, a Houston-based aerospace
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China's Chang'e 5 mission has successfully landed on the moon
China has just landed a new spacecraft on the surface of the moon. The mission, Chang'e 5, will collect lunar rocks and soil to bring back to Earth, as part of China's first-ever sample return mission. What happened: China launched Chang'e 5 on November 23 . On Sunday, while in lunar orbit, Chang'e 5 separated into two parts: an orbiter and return capsule that would remain in lunar orbit, and a l
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During the coronavirus pandemic, radio has proved to be the medium of reference
An article by the researchers Emma Rodero, director of the Media Psychology Lab at the Department of Communication, and María Blanco-Hernández, of the International University of La Rioja, published in Index.comunicación, affirms the influence of radio in crisis situations and especially during the covid-19 epidemic.
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Multi-center, multi-tracer PET studies harmonized to detect neuroinflammation in ALS
A novel ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) study has pooled data from multiple sites to effectively visualize neuroinflammation, which is key to developing drugs to treat the disease. Pooling data acquired from different scanners, different neuroinflammation positron emission tomography (PET) markers and different sites enhanced researchers' ability to detect neuroinflammation in ALS patients. Th
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Climate change warms groundwater in Bavaria
Groundwater reservoirs in Bavaria have warmed considerably over the past few decades. A new study by researchers at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) compares temperatures at 35 measuring stations, taken at different depths, with data from the 1990s. Water found at a depth of 20 metres was almost one degree warmer on average than 30 years ago. The findings were published in the journ
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KU Leuven vaccine candidate protects against Covid-19 and yellow fever
KU Leuven researchers published results of their vaccine candidate, a vector vaccine based on the yellow fever vaccine. The paper shows that the vaccine protects hamsters from infection with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus after a single dose. It is also effective in monkeys.
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Chemical memory in plants affects chances of offspring survival
Researchers at the University of Warwick have uncovered the mechanism that allows plants to pass on their 'memories' to offspring, which results in growth and developmental defects.
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Octogenarian snapper found in WA becomes oldest tropical reef fish by two decades
An 81-year-old midnight snapper caught off the coast of Western Australia has taken the title of the oldest tropical reef fish recorded anywhere in the world. The octogenarian fish was found at the Rowley Shoals — about 300km west of Broome — and was part of a study that has revised what we know about the longevity of tropical fish.
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The Smithsonian's Evolving Role as the Nation's Knowledge Partner
Museum education has had a long, ever evolving history at the Smithsonian that can be found at the heart of its mission today
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Tidligere Venstremand i spidsen for Diabetesforeningen
Diabetesforeningens hovedbestyrelse har ansat Claus Richter som ny adm. direktør. Den tidligere partisekretær i Venstre tiltræder i Diabetesforeningen straks efter nytår.
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The Weekly Planet: The Best Way to Donate to Fight Climate Change (Probably)
Every Tuesday morning, our lead climate reporter brings you the big ideas, expert analysis, and vital guidance that will help you flourish on a changing planet. Sign up to get T he Weekly Planet , our guide to living through climate change, in your inbox . Let's say you want to donate $25 to fighting climate change. Where should your money go? Since I started this newsletter, this inquiry (or som
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How the Ancient Code of Hammurabi Reveals a Society Both Similar and Alien to Ours
The almost 300 laws that make up Hammurabi's Code show us what daily life was like more than 3,500 years ago.
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China's Chang'e 5 Lands on Moon to Collect Fresh Samples
The ambitious mission is the first effort since 1976 to bring lunar material back to Earth — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico Collapses
Astronomers and residents of Puerto Rico mourned as an eye on the cosmos shuttered unexpectedly on Tuesday morning.
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The new generation solar, developed by TalTech, cells contribute to the green revolution
The European Union is determined to undertake a major reform known as the European Green Deal. The biggest changes will take place in the energy production sector, which stands on the brink of a complete transition to renewable energy sources, including solar energy. To boost the power output of solar cells to a terawatt-scale, technologies that leave a smaller ecological footprint, are more effic
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The (un)social network: The emergence of digital thought clones and what to do about them
A groundbreaking study published in Information & Communications Technology Law by experts at the Centre for Law and Development at Qatar University discusses the legal and ethical implications of Big Tech's development of "digital thought clones." Digital thought clones can allow technology companies to accurately predict and influence people's behavior according to their digital habits. The auth
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SLC25A51 regulates the transport of the coenzyme NAD into the mitochondria
Scientists at CeMM have now discovered that the previously uncharacterized protein SLC25A51 acts as a transporter into the mitochondria for the coenzyme NAD. This molecule has already been associated with processes such as aging, neurological diseases and the metabolism of cancer cells. Therefore, the results of this study not only open up new possibilities to study the biological role of NAD but
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Environmental exposures affect therapeutic drugs
Humans are exposed to various environmental or dietary molecules that can attenuate or even increase the effect of therapeutic drugs. Studies on the industrial chemical bisphenol A and the phytoestrogen genistein, for example, have shown drug-exposome interactions. However, interactions between exposures and therapeutic agents have not been systematically investigated to date, conclude chemists Be
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RUDN University mathematician suggested new approach to cooperative game
A mathematician from RUDN University developed a matrix representation of set functions. This approach is vivid and easy to check, and it makes the calculations easier. Among other things, the new development can be applied to cooperative game theory.
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Danish researchers develop budget optical ammonia sensor
In collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), the Department of Engineering at Aarhus University has developed photonic sensor technology that can pave the way for a portable, reliable and, above all, inexpensive device for detecting ammonia and other gases in agriculture. The new technology has been developed as part of the Ecometa project, which has received DKK 12.5 million f
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A semiconductor chip detects antigen concentrations at 1 parts per quadrillion molar mass
A chip, which can sense antigens at one part per quadrillion molar mass, was created. Antigens derived from diseases and present in blood and saliva were adhered onto the surface of a flexibly deformable nanosheet. The amount of force generated during the interaction between adhered antigens was then converted into nanosheet deformation information in order to successfully detect specific antigens
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Curtin collision models impact the future of energy
A new Curtin University-created database of electron-molecule reactions is a major step forward in making nuclear fusion power a reality, by allowing researchers to accurately model plasmas containing molecular hydrogen.
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Tunable rainbow light trapping in ultrathin resonator arrays
Light squeezed into nanoscale metallic gaps has a myriad of applications in sensing, energy, and nonlinear optics. Recently, scientists at the University of Toronto have developed a new paradigm for the design of ultrathin metallic nanostructures which allows for precision tailoring to fit any desired application. This design strategy, coupled with a novel fabrication technique, provides a promisi
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Ultrasensitive transistor for herbicide detection in water
University of Tokyo researchers have fabricated a tiny electronic sensor that can detect very low levels of a commonly used weed killer in drinking water.
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Nonlinear ionization dynamics of hot dense plasma observed in a laser-plasma amplifier
Understanding the behavior of light-matter interaction under extreme conditions, such as in high-density plasmas, is important for our identification of cosmologic objects and the formation of the universe. Researchers at the University of California Berkeley, the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, the Institut Polytechnique de Paris, and the Friedrich Schiller University Jena have succeeded in di
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Johnson suffers big Tory revolt as MPs approve England's Covid curbs
Rebellion delivers serious blow to prime minister's authority after a year of missteps on pandemic
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The Long Haul of Vaccine Results Is Just Beginning
The first two coronavirus-vaccine trials ran as smoothly as anyone could hope. And when the results from both Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna came back with more than 90 percent efficacy, easily surpassing the FDA's bar of 50 percent, even people like me—who kept telling you to temper your vaccine expectations —reacted with uncharacteristic and unrestrained optimism . These results really were about
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Post-COVID pain or weakness? Request an ultrasound or MRI
A new study shows how advanced imaging technology can pinpoint what may have caused patients' nerve damage and help determine the best course of treatment.
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Google AI Solves Longstanding, Near-Impossible Biology Problem
Predicting Biology Google's DeepMind team developed an artificial intelligence algorithm that seems to have cracked a biological challenge so complicated that it's seemed all but impossible for decades. DeepMind announced in a blog post Monday that its scientists developed an algorithm, AlphaFold 2, that solved what's called the protein folding problem: an ambitious scientific endeavor with the g
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When specialty cheesemaking becomes a quarantine pastime
Before the lockdown, Antoine Ricardou regularly traveled between his ­branding and design firm's Paris and New York City offices. (Courtesy Antoine Ricardou/) This story originally featured on Saveur . Cheesemaking, mankind's long-­running alchemy of controlled rot, involves transforming perishable milk into something exponentially more complex, long-lasting, and valuable. It requires the dedicat
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Hydrogen-powered heavy duty vehicles could contribute significantly to achieving climate goals
A partial transition of German road transport to hydrogen energy is among the possibilities being discussed to help meet national climate targets. Researcher from the IASS have examined the hypothetical transition to a hydrogen-powered transport sector through several scenarios. Their conclusion: A shift towards hydrogen-powered mobility could significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grea
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Drug reverses age-related cognitive decline within days
Just a few doses of an experimental drug can reverse age-related declines in memory and mental flexibility in mice, according to a new study by UC San Francisco scientists. The drug, called ISRIB, has already been shown in laboratory studies to restore memory function months after traumatic brain injury (TBI), reverse cognitive impairments in Down Syndrome, prevent noise-related hearing loss, figh
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New research reveals 'megatrends' that will affect forests in the next decade
A group of experts from academic, governmental and international organisations have identified five large-scale 'megatrends' affecting forests and forest communities, published today in Nature Plants. These are likely to have major consequences – both positively and negatively – over the coming decade.
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Treating brain diseases now possible
POSTECH research team led by Professor Kyong-Tai Kim uncovers the mechanism that regulates local expression of key molecules in brain development and neurodegenerative diseases.
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SMART researchers develop customised targeting of bacteria using lysins
Researchers from SMART have developed a method to produce engineered lysins that can be used to selectively kill bacteria of interest while leaving others unharmed. The discovery presents a promising alternative to antibiotics for treating existing drug-resistant bacteria without the risk of causing resistance.
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Obesity increases the risk of early hip fracture in postmenopausal women
Obese women have an increased risk of hip fracture earlier than others, already well before the age of 70, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows. The study followed 12,715 women for a period of 25 years.
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Adults with overweight or obesity often don't recognize they have a weight problem
A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data found that more than 40% of U.S. adults with overweight and nearly 10% with obesity did not consider themselves to be overweight. This trend has increased over the last two decades and was especially true of non-Hispanic Blacks and persons with low socioeconomic status. The findings are published in Annals
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Why long-suffering hosts grow a thick skin
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have shown that the skin fibrosis seen in chronic graft-versus-host disease is mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 expressed by epidermal cells undergoing programmed death when they are stimulated by interferon-γ. Further investigations elucidate the sclerodermatous changes characteristic of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as systemic sc
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Some primary school-aged children self-harm, prompting calls for earlier intervention
New research reveals that some primary school-aged children have self-harmed, prompting calls for intervention efforts to start earlier.
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Scientists discover role of protein in detecting the common cold virus
The role of a protein in detecting the common cold virus and kickstarting an immune response to fight infection has been uncovered by a team of scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore), the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) and the National University of Singapore.
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Next step in simulating the universe
Researchers led by the University of Tsukuba developed a way to accurately represent the behavior of elementary particles called neutrinos in computer simulations of the Universe. The simulation results reveal the effects of neutrinos on the formation and growth of galaxies for different values of the uncertain neutrino mass. The work marks a milestone in simulating the Universe and could help det
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CRISPR tagging improves accuracy of model cells grown from stem cells
CRISPR tags are being used to identify all of the transcription factors necessary to turn a pluripotent stem cell into a suitable adult cell for research, and possible future cell therapies. A paper in Cell Reports documents its use for making adult neuronal cells, but the technique could be applied to any cell type.
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Deciphering the energetic code of cells for better anticancer therapies
A procedure that may help personalise anticancer therapies has just been developed by the CNRS, INSERM, and Aix-Marseille University scientists in association with colleagues from the University of California San Francisco and the Marseille Public University Hospital System (AP-HM), with support from Canceropôle Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Their patented technique reveals the energy status of cell
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How the insect got its wings: Scientists (at last!) tell the tale
How insect wings evolved has puzzled biologists for over a century. Finally, a team from the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, has shown that the insect wing evolved from an outgrowth on the crustacean leg that was incorporated into the animal's body wall.
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Out of many COVID-19 tests, which one to choose?
Curbing the coronavirus pandemic relies heavily on how quickly a potentially exposed individual can be tested and quarantined. However, the current diagnostic techniques vary in reliability and relevance, so an understanding of which test is most appropriate for a given circumstance is necessary to avoid false reports. Researchers evaluated the available diagnostic techniques and determined key st
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Clothing, tattoos could be used to monitor patient health
A shirt that monitors your blood pressure or a pair of socks that can keep track of your cholesterol levels might be just a few years away from becoming reality. In Applied Physics Reviews, researchers examine the use of microfibers and nanofibers as wearable monitors that could keep track of a patient's vital signs. The microfiber- and nanofiber-based technology addresses growing concerns in the
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Cancer cases are rising in adolescents and young adults
Cancer cases in adolescents and young adults have risen by 30% during the last four decades, with kidney cancer rising at the greatest rate, according to researchers at Penn State College of Medicine. The team said further research into screening, diagnosis and treatment are needed to address the growing trend in this age group.
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Scientists identify new genetic MND risk factor in junk DNA
Researchers from the University of Sheffield have identified a new genetic risk factor for Motor Neurone Disease (MND).
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Cannabidiol (CBD) in cannabis does not impair driving, landmark study shows
New research shows from the Lambert Initiative at the University of Sydney shows that cannabidiol is safe for driving and the intoxicating effects of THC in cannabis fade in hours. The results have big implications for regulation of medical cannabis and for drug-driving laws regarding cannabis.
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Selecting best microalgae for biodiesel production
Microalgae are a promising source of energy to replace fossil fuels, as they have several advantages over conventional crops used for commercial biodiesel. Microalgae have a shorter lifecycle and they can be developed in environments unfit for agriculture. In the Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, researchers developed a methodology to analyze different species to select the best microal
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Scientists solve big limitation of stratospheric balloon payloads
Nearly all photons emitted after the Big Bang are now visible only at far-infrared wavelengths. Earth's atmosphere blocks most of this light, so scientists are turning to huge stratospheric balloons to explore it. However, it is quite difficult to cool a telescope the size of a living room to nearly absolute zero while flying it from a balloon. This is where the Balloon-Borne Cryogenic Telescope T
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Rock-a-bye fly: Why vibrations lead to sleepiness
Researchers discover that gentle vibration can induce sleep in flies through a simple form of learning
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Watch immune cells dig tunnels in tissues
White blood cells called cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) dig tunnels in tissues, potentially allowing other CTLs to quickly reach infected cells and tumor cells, researchers report December 1st in Biophysical Journal. The results show that some CTLs move slowly as they create channels through the extracellular matrix (ECM) – a major component of tissues. Afterward, other CTLs move quickly through t
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Retinal transplant boost opens door to treat eyesight loss
Researchers have identified two cell signals – Ccr5 and Cxcr6 – that are sent out by dying retinal cells to recruit stem cells and repair eye damage. When genetically engineered stem cells with an overabundance of Ccr5 and Cxcr6 cell receptors were transplanted into human and mouse models, they displayed a significantly higher rate of migration to degenerating retinal tissue, rescuing them from de
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The Big Problems
I've had a lot of people ask me about yesterday's protein folding news as it relates to drug discovery. And while I did a post on that last year , I thought it might be useful to briefly lay out the real problems with drug discovery, as I see them. Most folks in drug discovery will find the next few paragraphs to be pretty obvious stuff, but that's because we've been living it. Readers can decide
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New model predicts that larger fish suffer respiratory distress sooner
Large fish develop respiratory distress more quickly in warm water than smaller species, according to a new study involving researchers at Radboud University in collaboration with international researchers from McGill University (Canada) and the University of Montana (U.S.). This means that ocean warming triggered by climate change will have an impact on the respiratory physiology of larger fish,
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New model predicts that larger fish suffer respiratory distress sooner
Large fish develop respiratory distress more quickly in warm water than smaller species, according to a new study involving researchers at Radboud University in collaboration with international researchers from McGill University (Canada) and the University of Montana (U.S.). This means that ocean warming triggered by climate change will have an impact on the respiratory physiology of larger fish,
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When businesses behave badly
On a fateful April night ten years ago, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded—taking the lives of 11 crew members and triggering the largest marine oil spill in history. Nearly five million barrels of oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico, polluting around 2,100 kilometers of shoreline and killing thousands of marine mammals.
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Postdocs need urgent financial support amid COVID conditions
Nature, Published online: 01 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03377-z Most funders have no plans to provide postdoctoral researchers with additional pandemic funding. Society will pay a high price if this neglect continues.
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New Fish Data Reveal How Evolutionary Bursts Create Species
Africa's deepest freshwater lake holds a dizzying array of animals, including hundreds of species of cichlid fish found nowhere else in the world. They crowd the waters of Lake Tanganyika, with scales and stripes in most colors of the rainbow. One kind of cichlid there measures just over an inch; others are 2 to 3 feet long. "When you're snorkeling in the water with these fish, it's just incredib
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US: Mountain pine tree that feeds grizzlies is threatened
Climate change, voracious beetles and disease are imperiling the long-term survival of a high-elevation pine tree that's a key source of food for some grizzly bears and found across the West, U.S. officials said Tuesday.
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US: Mountain pine tree that feeds grizzlies is threatened
Climate change, voracious beetles and disease are imperiling the long-term survival of a high-elevation pine tree that's a key source of food for some grizzly bears and found across the U.S. West, U.S. officials said Tuesday.
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Decontaminating almonds and nuts with compressed carbon dioxide
Hardly a day goes by without manufacturers recalling food tainted by impurities. Even dry foods, generally thought to be safe because they lack the water pathogens needed to thrive, are often pulled from store shelves. Harmful microorganisms, such as salmonella, can colonize these foods during processing. Almonds, a popular treat around Christmastime, are one of the mo-re susceptible foods. Now re
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Transportation of water into the deep Earth by Al-phase D
Researchers have recently measured the propagation speed of ultrasonic waves in an aluminum-rich hydrous mineral called Al-phase D at pressure conditions relevant to the Earth's deep mantle. Their results suggest that seismic shear anomalies observed locally beneath subduction zones may reveal the presence of hydrous minerals in the uppermost lower mantle, which would have important implications f
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Children with dyslexia show stronger emotional responses
Children diagnosed with dyslexia show greater emotional reactivity than children without dyslexia, according to a new collaborative study.
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AI/pharmaceuticals: structural advantage
Disruption can be uncomfortable but there are big opportunities too
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Dansk ingeniør i London: »Brexit og corona er en giftig cocktail for Storbritannien«
PLUS. Om en måned kapper Storbritannien definitivt ­tøjret til EU. Økonomisk kaos truer, vurderer Karsten Meyer, som efter 20 år i landet har valgt at vende tilbage til Danmark. Siden brexit­afstemningen er antallet af danske ingeniører i landet halveret.
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CRISPR tagging improves accuracy of model cells grown from stem cells
A team of biomedical engineers at Duke University has created a new way to turn stem cells into a desired cell type by mastering the language of gene regulatory networks.
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Watch immune cells dig tunnels in tissues
White blood cells called cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) dig tunnels in tissues, potentially allowing other CTLs to quickly reach infected cells and tumor cells, researchers report December 1st in Biophysical Journal. The results show that some CTLs move slowly as they create channels through the extracellular matrix (ECM) – a major component of tissues. Afterward, other CTLs move quickly through t
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How the insect got its wings: Scientists (at last!) tell the tale
It sounds like a "Just So Story"—"How the Insect Got its Wings"—but it's really a mystery that has puzzled biologists for over a century. Intriguing and competing theories of insect wing evolution have emerged in recent years, but none were entirely satisfactory. Finally, a team from the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Woods Hole, has settled the controversy, using clues from long-ago scientif
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Deciphering the energetic code of cells for better anticancer therapies
The CNRS, INSERM, and Aix-Marseille University scientists at the Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, in association with colleagues from the University of California San Francisco and the Marseille Public University Hospital System (AP-HM), with support from Canceropôle Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, have reported a procedure that may help personalize anticancer therapies. Their patented techni
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Scientists solve big limitation of stratospheric balloon payloads
Nearly all photons emitted after the Big Bang are now visible only at far-infrared wavelengths. This includes light from the cold universe of gas and dust from which stars and planets form, as well as faint signals from distant galaxies tracing the universe's evolution to today.
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CRISPR tagging improves accuracy of model cells grown from stem cells
A team of biomedical engineers at Duke University has created a new way to turn stem cells into a desired cell type by mastering the language of gene regulatory networks.
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Watch immune cells dig tunnels in tissues
White blood cells called cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) dig tunnels in tissues, potentially allowing other CTLs to quickly reach infected cells and tumor cells, researchers report December 1st in Biophysical Journal. The results show that some CTLs move slowly as they create channels through the extracellular matrix (ECM) – a major component of tissues. Afterward, other CTLs move quickly through t
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How the insect got its wings: Scientists (at last!) tell the tale
It sounds like a "Just So Story"—"How the Insect Got its Wings"—but it's really a mystery that has puzzled biologists for over a century. Intriguing and competing theories of insect wing evolution have emerged in recent years, but none were entirely satisfactory. Finally, a team from the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Woods Hole, has settled the controversy, using clues from long-ago scientif
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Deciphering the energetic code of cells for better anticancer therapies
The CNRS, INSERM, and Aix-Marseille University scientists at the Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, in association with colleagues from the University of California San Francisco and the Marseille Public University Hospital System (AP-HM), with support from Canceropôle Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, have reported a procedure that may help personalize anticancer therapies. Their patented techni
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Suburbs are becoming increasingly diverse – urban development and the pandemic will transform them further
Historically, suburbs have been considered as places which are less diverse than cities, particularly with regard to their racial and social class composition. This is a result of many social and economic drivers influencing the development of city regions.
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Learning at your own pace with AI
When Singapore emerged from a two-month long COVID-19-imposed Circuit Breaker (CB), AI Singapore, a national Artificial Intelligence (AI) program set up by the National Research Foundation (NRF) to anchor deep national capabilities in AI, launched the AI vs COVID-19 Ideation Challenge. The goal was to "encourage the curation of innovative ideas using AI methods and technologies to improve people's
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How smart cities can serve citizens
Although cities and urban areas only make up a small proportion of the world's land mass, they are home to more than half the global population and that number is going to keep rising. As cities swell to capacity with more and more inhabitants, city planners have turned to technology to cope with the challenges that accompany urban density.
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Surprising trove of sorghum diversity discovered in Australia—but it's disappearing fast
New research published in the journal Diversity and Distributions used cutting-edge technology to show that wild cousins of sorghum, the fifth-most important cereal crop globally, are most concentrated in Australia, despite having been domesticated in Africa. But with 12 of the total 23 wild relative species possibly endangered, four vulnerable, and four near threatened, these economically importa
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Tweaking carotenoid genes helps tomatoes bring their a-game
Researchers led by the University of Tsukuba demonstrated that Target-AID gene editing technology can be used to simultaneously introduce single-base changes into multiple genes in tomatoes. Using this technique, the researchers altered three genes associated with carotenoid accumulation, resulting in elevated levels of carotenoids, particularly lycopene, in the resulting tomato lines. This techno
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New childhood dementia insight
Is the eye a window to the brain in Sanfilippo syndrome, an untreatable form of childhood-onset dementia, Australian researchers ask in a new publication. The findings of the NHMRC-funded project, just published in international journal Acta Neuropathologica Communications, highlight the potential for using widely available retinal imaging techniques to learn more about brain disease and monitor t
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Scientists uncover the mysterious origin of canal grass in Panama
How did canal grass arrive in Panama? STRI staff scientist Kristin Saltonstall compared the DNA of sugar cane relatives from around the world to find out.
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When businesses behave badly
We've all heard of corporate social responsibility, but what happens when companies do the opposite? This was the question of the hour at the Conference on Green and Ethical Finance, jointly organized by SMU.
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