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We read the paper that forced Timnit Gebru out of Google. Here's what it says
On the evening of Wednesday, December 2, Timnit Gebru, the co-lead of Google's ethical AI team, announced via Twitter that the company had forced her out. Gebru, a widely respected leader in AI ethics research, is known for coauthoring a groundbreaking paper that showed facial recognition to be less accurate at identifying women and people of color, which means its use can end up discriminating a
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Var coronavirus i USA, før Kina slog alarm? 'Der er noget, der ikke helt stemmer'
Blodprøver viser, at virusset allerede var i USA i december 2019.
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Wire knækker: Se videoen af kæmpeteleskopets voldsomme kollaps
Efter næsten 60 år kollapsede det indtil for nyligt største radioteleskop i verden. Arecibo-teleskopet hjalp med at observere en binær pulsar, som førte Nobelprisen i fysik i 1993.
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LATEST

Chinese Chang'e-5 Is Returning From Moon With Rocks, Left A Flag To Celebrate
The craft has been collecting rock and soil samples. China is only the second country to plant its national banner on the lunar surface. (Image credit: Xinhua News Agency via AP)
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The US Used the Patriot Act to Justify Logging Website Users
Plus: Better Twitter two-factor, a Spotify hack, and more of the week's top security news.
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Physicists Are Closer to Knowing the Size of a Proton … Sort of
A new and potentially improved measurement of a proton's charge radius brings scientists closer to an answer. But the issue is still unresolved.
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Leg-lengthening: The people having surgery to be a bit taller
Hundreds of people are having long, often painful surgery to extend their legs. Is it worth the risk?
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Is the Dawn of the Stem Cell Revolution Finally Here?
This year, scientists made strides in using stem cells in treatments for human brains, livers, and hearts.
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In Case You Missed It
Top news from around the world — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Debat om landbruget: Masseproduktion eller luksusvarer – og hvad med klimaet?
PLUS. Ingeniørens leder slog i sidste uge til lyd for, at Danmark af bl.a. klimamæssige årsager skal producere fødevarer på en ny måde. Læserne reagerede vidt forskelligt på det budskab …
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Defuturing the Image of the Future
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This Robot Can Rap–Really
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Leaked DoD Photo of Purported Unidentified Aerial Phenomena
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Chinese photonic quantum computer demonstrates quantum supremacy
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How Leyline plans to help gamers make the world better
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Researchers observe what could be the first hints of dark bosons
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India to build 41.5 GW hybrid renewable energy park
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Panic Is Killing Movie Theaters
This week, a seismic shift hit the cinema industry. WarnerMedia, one of the world's biggest movie studios, announced that all of its 2021 films, including blockbusters such as Dune and The Matrix 4 , would debut on HBO Max and in theaters at the same time. Each movie would stream for one month before leaving the platform, an unusual arrangement seemingly geared toward giving subscribers a stream
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Is 'Natural Immunity' From Covid Better Than a Vaccine?
And if you've already had Covid-19, do you still need a vaccine? Experts tackle questions about vaccine immunity.
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Another Victim of Global Warming: The Great British Bake Off
Increasing summer temperatures are proving a menace to butter, chocolates, and baked Alaska.
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This Is the Perfect Bedroom Guitar Amp
The Positive Grid Spark will inspire you to step out of your musical wheelhouse.
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How a Georgia Republican Hit His Breaking Point With Trump
In Donald Trump's America, anyone who crosses him will be famous for 15 minutes. A lifelong Republican and self-proclaimed "functionary" reached his breaking point this week. That's Gabe Sterling, who holds the impressively bureaucratic title of Georgia's voting-system implementation manager. Sterling went viral for holding a press conference in which he called out the president for stoking false
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The tactics retailers use to make us spend more – and how they harm the vulnerable
Online stores draw in shoppers but those with mental health issues are particularly susceptible As a digital marketer, Emily Ware spends a lot of time online, yet this comes with a risk. Ware has borderline personality disorder , a mental health condition linked with impulsive behaviours. In her case, that's spending money online. "At the start of 2020 I was £4,250 in debt with nothing to show fo
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20 Smart Gifts to Upgrade Your Beauty Routine
Give your loved ones the gift of feeling fabulous with these tools and sets.
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The Easy Way for Joe Biden to Save Lives
There's an on-the-shelf policy the Biden administration could enact unilaterally that would save millions of American lives, without costing the government a single cent on net. That policy, one pushed for but never implemented by the Trump administration, is eliminating most nicotine from tobacco products. It would not render cigarettes illegal; they would still be available to adults, and the s
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The Crown's Majestic Untruths
T he Crown is not a documentary. The presence of actors is a strong clue; the members of the Royal Family wish they were this good-looking. Do viewers need to be warned about this? One British politician thinks so. "It's a beautifully produced work of fiction, so as with other TV productions, Netflix should be very clear at the beginning it is just that," the Conservative culture minister, Oliver
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Pieter Roelfsema Presents Research on Visual Stimuli at HBP Consciousness Conference
European Research is one step closer to a brain prosthesis for the blind. The advance by Pieter Roelfsema's team at NIN is making news around the world. Watch Pieter Roelfsema discuss his work in this clip from the Human Brain Project's 2018 Understanding Consciousness Conference. Read more: https://ebrains.eu/news/closer-to-prosthesis-for-blind/ From: HumanBrainProject
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Ugens klimaoverblik: FN advarer om selvmordskrig mod naturen, men der er håb forude
Her får du 6 af ugens vigtigste klimahistorier fra ind- og udland.
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Colorado student, scientist named Time's 'Kid of the Year'
A 15-year-old Colorado high school student and young scientist who has used artificial intelligence and created apps to tackle contaminated drinking water, cyberbullying, opioid addiction and other social problems has been named Time Magazine's first-ever "Kid of the Year."
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Officials: Rodents likely destroyed rare plants at mine
DNA evidence suggests rodents destroyed part of an area of an extremely rare desert wildflower being considered for endangered species protection at a contentious mine site in Nevada, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service said Friday.
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Officials: Rodents likely destroyed rare plants at mine
DNA evidence suggests rodents destroyed part of an area of an extremely rare desert wildflower being considered for endangered species protection at a contentious mine site in Nevada, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service said Friday.
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Japan awaits capsule's return with asteroid soil samples
Japan's Hayabusa2 spacecraft successfully released a small capsule on Saturday and sent it toward Earth to deliver samples from a distant asteroid that could provide clues to the origin of the solar system and life on our planet, the country's space agency said.
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How to make your living room feel more like a movie theater
You don't need to sit in a big theater to get the full movie experience. (Pixabay/) This week, Warner Bros. announced that it will release all of its 2021 movies in theaters and on HBO Max on the same day. That means you don't have to venture out into the world to see Dune next December—you can bring Timothée Chalamet and those big sand worms directly into your living room. Watching movies at hom
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Tyske virksomheder distancerer danske i trådløs innovation
PLUS. Mens interessen for private 5G-net i Tyskland er så stor, at myndighederne udvider det frekvensspektrum, der er dedikeret til dem, forventer danske myndigheder ikke stor efterspørgsel og prioriterer teleselskabernes offentlige 5G-net.
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A Race Against Time to Rescue a Reef From Climate Change
In an unusual experiment, a coral reef in Mexico is now insured against hurricanes. A team of locals known as "the Brigade" rushed to repair the devastated corals, piece by piece.
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The Swiss Cheese Model of Pandemic Defense
It's not edible, but it can save lives. The virologist Ian Mackay explains how.
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Research reveals how airflow inside a car may affect COVID-19 transmission risk
A new study of airflow patterns inside a car's passenger cabin offers some suggestions for potentially reducing the risk of COVID-19 transmission while sharing rides with others.
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'Ballooning' spiders take flight on Earth's electric fields
Research shows how arachnids' sense of atmospheric electricity allows it to spin a line and take off We humans are only aware of the Earth's electrical field on stormy days, when the positively charged sky makes a circuit with the negatively charged Earth and lightning flashes between them. Spiders have a more nuanced sense of atmospheric electricity, and can harness it to take flight. Research f
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Japan's Hayabusa2 sends capsule carrying asteroid samples towards Earth
Capsule will burn through atmosphere before landing in South Australia in the early hours of Sunday morning Japan's Hayabusa2 spacecraft has successfully separated a capsule and sent it toward Earth to deliver samples from a distant asteroid that could provide clues to the origin of the solar system and life on our planet. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency said the capsule successfully detac
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Fotoudstilling: Tigeren i træet og mange andre dyr
PLUS. Statens Naturhistoriske Museum har for første gang besøg af verdens mest prestigefyldte natur-fotoudstil­ling. Den viser naturen fra sin smukkeste side – men også alt det, vi mennesker ødelægger.
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Galleri: Naturfotos i verdensklasse
For første gang kan man på Statens Naturhistoriske Museum opleve verdens mest prestigefyldte naturfoto-konkurrence, Wildlife Photographer of the Year. Her er ti gode skud fra udstillingen.
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Vind med Ingeniørens julekalender: 5. december
Vær med i Ingeniørens julekalender 2020. Hver dag med nye præmier!
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Clicks and bones: Doug Gurr's mission to transform the Natural History Museum
The former Amazon chief on how a venerable London institution can thrive in a digital world
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How nurse Pamela Zeinoun rescued three babies after Beirut's explosion
She picked her way through debris to extract them from smashed incubators. Then she carried them for hours to safety
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Japan's Hayabusa2 Asteroid Journey Ends With a Hunt in Australia's Outback
The Hayabusa2 mission cements Japan's role in exploring the solar system, but finding its asteroid cargo presents one last challenge.
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Vintergatans snabbaste stjärnor avslöjade det svarta hålet
2018 var ett spännande år för två av årets Nobelpristagarna i fysik. Då rundade en stjärna centrum av vår galax i en hastighet som ligger nära ljusets. Det nära mötet var ett slutgiltigt starkt bevis för att det verkligen ligger ett supermassivt svart hål där inne. Spela videon för att se hur man kan "se" svarta hål.
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Nobelpriset öppnar för designade barn
Årets Nobelpris i kemi, gensaxen Crispr-Cas9, håller på att ge oss nya botemedel mot svåra sjukdomar. Men nya möjligheter att klippa och klistra i arvsmassan öppnar samtidigt för andra användningsområden. Ett är att genförändra barn för att få de yttre egenskaper som föräldrarna önskar.
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U.K. Regulators Approve Use of Covid-19 Vaccine
On Wednesday, U.K. regulators approved public use of a Covid-19 vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech. The swift decision to greenlight the vaccine — the authorization process is slightly slower in the U.S. — made Britain the first Western country to launch widespread vaccination for Covid-19.
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The genetic structure and adaptation of Andean highlanders and Amazonians are influenced by the interplay between geography and culture [Anthropology]
Western South America was one of the worldwide cradles of civilization. The well-known Inca Empire was the tip of the iceberg of an evolutionary process that started 11,000 to 14,000 years ago. Genetic data from 18 Peruvian populations reveal the following: 1) The between-population homogenization of the central southern Andes…
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Complex subsurface hydrothermal fluid mixing at a submarine arc volcano supports distinct and highly diverse microbial communities [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Hydrothermally active submarine volcanoes are mineral-rich biological oases contributing significantly to chemical fluxes in the deep sea, yet little is known about the microbial communities inhabiting these systems. Here we investigate the diversity of microbial life in hydrothermal deposits and their metagenomics-inferred physiology in light of the geological history and…
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Anatomical correlates of face patches in macaque inferotemporal cortex [Neuroscience]
Primate brains typically have regions within the ventral visual stream that are selectively responsive to faces. In macaques, these face patches are located in similar parts of inferotemporal cortex across individuals although correspondence with particular anatomical features has not been reported previously. Here, using high-resolution functional and anatomical imaging, we…
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Surface textures suppress viscoelastic braking on soft substrates [Engineering]
A gravity-driven droplet will rapidly flow down an inclined substrate, resisted only by stresses inside the liquid. If the substrate is compliant, with an elastic modulus G < 100 kPa, the droplet will markedly slow as a consequence of viscoelastic braking. This phenomenon arises due to deformations of the solid…
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Genome evolution of blind subterranean mole rats: Adaptive peripatric versus sympatric speciation [Evolution]
Speciation mechanisms remain controversial. Two speciation models occur in Israeli subterranean mole rats, genus Spalax: a regional speciation cline southward of four peripatric climatic chromosomal species and a local, geologic-edaphic, genic, and sympatric speciation. Here we highlight their genome evolution. The five species were separated into five genetic clusters by…
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Striking heterogeneity of somatic L1 retrotransposition in single normal and cancerous gastrointestinal cells [Genetics]
Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition has been detected in early embryos, adult brains, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and many cancers, including epithelial GI tumors. We previously found numerous somatic L1 insertions in paired normal and GI cancerous tissues. Here, using a modified method of single-cell analysis for somatic L1 insertions,…
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Development and validation of a potent and specific inhibitor for the CLC-2 chloride channel [Pharmacology]
CLC-2 is a voltage-gated chloride channel that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. In the central nervous system, CLC-2 appears in neurons and glia. Studies to define how this channel contributes to normal and pathophysiological function in the central nervous system raise questions that remain unresolved, in part due to…
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Individualistic evolutionary responses of Central African rain forest plants to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations [Evolution]
Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of genetic diversity is fundamental for species conservation in the face of climate change, particularly in hyper-diverse biomes. Species in a region may respond similarly to climate change, leading to comparable evolutionary dynamics, or individualistically, resulting in dissimilar patterns. The second-largest expanse of continuous tropical rain…
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New CRISPR-based test for COVID-19 uses a smartphone camera
In a new study, a team of researchers outlines the technology for a CRISPR-based test for COVID-19 that uses a smartphone camera to provide accurate results in under 30 minutes.
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The Atlantic Daily: 6 Suggestions for Another Weekend at Home
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox Apple TV+ U.S. hospitals are past their breaking point . It's time to go home and lock yourself down , if you can. Below, we've compiled six suggestions for a weekend spent in isolation. Watch. A s
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New CRISPR-based test for COVID-19 uses a smartphone camera
In a new study, a team of researchers outlines the technology for a CRISPR-based test for COVID-19 that uses a smartphone camera to provide accurate results in under 30 minutes.
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Outbreak investigation reveals 'super-spreader' potential of Andes virus
'Super-spreader' events and extensive person-to-person contact propelled an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a small village in Argentina from 2018-2019, according to new research. An international scientific team reports the genetic, clinical, and epidemiologic features of the outbreak caused by the Andes virus, a member of the hantavirus family. Their analysis could aid in managing o
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Here's How to Watch Hayabusa2 Drop Off Its 'Treasure Box' of Asteroid Dust
What secrets from our Solar System will be inside?
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World's biggest iceberg captured by RAF cameras
A reconnaissance flight in the South Atlantic obtains spectacular imagery of the giant iceberg A68a.
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"Clean meat" approved for sale in Singapore
Singapore has become the first country to approve the sale of a lab-grown meat product. Eat Just, the company behind the product, will have a small-scale commercial launch of its chicken bites. So-called "clean meats" may reduce our reliance on livestock farming, which kills billions of animals worldwide every year. Singapore faces a problem. The city-state currently imports the bulk of its food
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Iron deficiency can be managed better
Publishing in The Lancet, Australian and European researchers have released updated, evidence-based guidance for managing iron deficiency, a serious worldwide health problem. Iron deficiency is a major cause of anaemia, a lack of oxygen-carrying red blood cells or haemoglobin, which is experienced by two billion people worldwide, and can have serious long-term health consequences. Implementing the
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As Virus Spreads, C.D.C. Draws Up an Urgent Battle Plan
The multipronged advice, for individuals and state and local officials, may augur a national strategy in the months to come, experts said.
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US states sound alarm on soaring Covid-19 hospitalisations
'Stay at home' order issued for San Francisco Bay Area as CDC urges widespread mask use
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Coronavirus live news: US averages 1,800 daily deaths as NSW investigates link to airline crews
World Health Organization warns virus spreading fast despite vaccine progress; French infections rise to 2.29m; Brazil reports 627 new deaths. Follow latest updates Vaccine to have only 'marginal impact' on winter hospital admissions CDC advises 'universal' masks indoors as US deaths again break records Italians decry Christmas travel ban as 'slap in the face' See all coronavirus coverage 12.33am
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​'The time is now' for cryptocurrencies, PayPal CEO says
In October, PayPal announced that it would begin allowing users to buy, sell, and hold cryptocurrencies. Other major fintech companies—Square, Fidelity, SoFi—have also recently begun investing heavily in cryptocurrencies. While prices are volatile, many investors believe cryptocurrencies are a relatively safe bet because blockchain technology will prove itself over the long term. PayPal CEO Dan S
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Snakebite steals millions of years of quality life in India
Nature, Published online: 04 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03327-9 New data provide first estimate of the toll that snakebites take on survivors.
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Covid vaccine to have only 'marginal impact' on winter hospital admissions
UK's chief medical officers say health services will be put under more strain by Christmas socialising Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The coronavirus vaccine will have only a marginal impact on hospital admissions over the next three months with the festive season likely to put additional pressure on health services, the UK's chief medical officers have warned. In a
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Best Nintendo Switch games: Five things to consider
The best Nintendo Switch games come in all sorts of genres. (Sara Kurfeß via Unsplash/) While Microsoft and Sony treat their respective gaming consoles like giant Kaiju creatures—getting bigger and more powerful with each incarnation—Nintendo has long been content to trade hyper-realistic graphical power for ingeniously clever gameplay innovation. They don't want to blow you away by making the ga
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Why Some Libraries Are Ending Fines
When I was a kid, the sin of returning books late to the public library populated a category of dread for me next to weekly confessions to the Catholic priest (what can an 8-year-old really have to confess?) and getting caught by the dentist with a tootsie roll wrapper sticking out of my pocket. So decades later, when I heard about libraries going "fine-free," it sounded like an overdue change an
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COVID-19 may have been circulating in the U.S. as early as last year
According to a recent CDC study, the novel coronavirus may have entered the US about a month before the first case was found. (Pixabay/) Scientists at the Centers for Disease Control are reporting that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, may have already been circulating, undetected, in the United States in mid December. The first US case wasn't reported until about a month later on Janua
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Researchers adapt cell phone camera for SARS-CoV-2 detection
Researchers have developed an assay that can detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in a nasal swab using a device attached to an ordinary smartphone, they report December 4 in the journal Cell . Although more research is needed before such a test can be rolled out, the results are promising and ultimately may be applicable to screening more broadly for other viruses.
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Mailman School experts contribute to new Lancet report on health and climate change
Unless we take urgent action to tackle climate change, we can expect an ever-hotter world that threatens global health, disrupts lives and livelihoods and overwhelms healthcare systems, according to The Lancet 's Global Countdown on Health and Climate Change, a comprehensive global analysis tracking the impact of climate change on human health across 41 key indicators.
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Research reveals how airflow inside a car may affect COVID-19 transmission risk
A new study uses computer simulations to track airflows inside a car's passenger cabin, providing potential strategies — some of them counterintuitive — for reducing the risk of transmitting airborne diseases.
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New Device Sends Images Directly Into Monkeys' Brains
Thanks to an array of electrodes implanted in their brains, two monkeys were able to "see" and recognize individual letter shapes — without ever having to use their eyes, as New Scientist reports . The researchers behind the effort claim it's the highest resolution of "vision" ever achieved without taking advantage of the retina. Previous efforts have attempted to restore sight by placing implant
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What Blood Type Has to Do With COVID-19 Risk
Truthfully, not much — but it's still a valuable piece of information for future COVID-19 research to have.
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Blocking Cancer Progression and Shrinking Tumors with Antibody-ligand Traps
LuZhe Sun will discuss TGF? signaling during cancer progression and how researchers can target this pathway.
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Cricket-based snacks are surprisingly delicious
Left to right: chirping chips, crispy critters, smoothie sting, buggy bar. (Amanda Ringstad/) Crunchy crickets are 65 percent protein by weight, which helps make the nutty-tasting buggers a surprisingly eco-conscious substitute for meat-based nutrition. Chirping chips Roasted and pulverized insects mingle with stone-ground corn and chia seeds to give Chirps tortilla crisps 1.5 times more protein
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Must-pass U.S. defense bill would harmonize funding disclosures for all federal grant applicants
Consistency across agencies is expected to boost compliance—and preempt harsher measures
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No strings attached: maximizing wireless charging efficiency with multiple transmitters
Scientists at Incheon National University, Korea, develop a control strategy that allows for transferring power wirelessly through multiple transmitter coils with maximum efficiency. Unlike conventional approaches in which only the transmitter closer to the receiver is active, this novel method dispatches the optimal amount of current to each transmitter, depending on the degree of coupling with t
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The History of the Old Farmer's Almanac and Why Its Popularity Endures
For centuries, almanacs have served as valuable scientific documents that helped track heavenly bodies, the tides, planting seasons and more. But how good are they at predicting the weather?
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Will Artificial Intelligence Ever Live Up to Its Hype?
Replication problems plague the field of AI, and the goal of general intelligence remains as elusive as ever — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Findings about cilia on cells of the vessel wall may be relevant for diabetes treatment
A new study shows that primary cilia, hair-like protrusions on endothelial cells inside vessels, play an important role in the blood supply and delivery of glucose to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets. The findings may be relevant for transplantation therapies in diabetes, as formation of functional blood vessels is important for the treatment to be successful.
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Hidden network of enzymes accounts for loss of brain synapses in Alzheimer's
A new study on Alzheimer's disease has revealed a previously unknown biochemical cascade in the brain that leads to the destruction of synapses, the connections between nerve cells that are responsible for memory and cognition.
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Electrical spin filtering the key to ultra-fast, energy-efficient spintronics
A new study is a step towards even-faster, more energy-efficient 'spintronic' technology – an exciting, beyond-CMOS technology. The new study applies 'spin-filtering' to separate spin orientation, allowing generation and detection of spin via electrical (rather than magnetic) means, because electric fields are a lot less energetically costly to generate than magnetic fields.
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Gestational age linked to ADHD in children with Down syndrome
A new study finds a connection between gestational age and ADHD in children with Down syndrome. An earlier gestational age is linked to higher ADHD symptoms later in childhood.
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Genetically engineered T cells could lead to therapies for autoimmune diseases
Immunobiologists have created a five-module chimeric antigen receptor T cell that is showing early potential to fight Type 1 diabetes.
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Gut microbiome snapshot could reveal chemical exposures in children
Researchers have completed the most comprehensive study to date on how a class of persistent pollutants called semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are associated with the gut microbiome in human children. The results provide a potential mechanism for measuring exposure to a wide variety of these substances and suggests exposure to toxic halogenated compounds may create a niche for bacteria not
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First in nation treatment for chronic subdural hematoma at Los Robles Health System
Los Robles Health System is leading the way in neurovascular clinical trials. Interventional neurologist, Dr. Asif Taqi, is the principal investigator of the STEM Study, a landmark trial that can change the management of chronic subdural hematomas completely. Los Robles enrolled and treated the first patient in the nation into this trial.
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Safe space: improving the "clean" methanol fuel cells using a protective carbon shell
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), which produce electricity using methanol, will be an alternative solution in the transition away from fossil fuels and toward a "hydrogen" economy. However, undesired methanol oxidation on the cathode side in DMFCs degrades the essential platinum catalyst, causing performance and stability problems. Now, scientists from Korea have found a simple method to coat p
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Once hospitalized, Black patients with COVID-19 have lower risk of death than white
While multiple research studies show that Black and Hispanic patients are more likely to test positive for COVID-19, a team of investigators at NYU Langone Health has found that once hospitalized, Black patients (after controlling for other serious health conditions and neighborhood income) were less likely to have severe illness, die, or be discharged to hospice compared to White patients.
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The U.S. Has Passed the Hospital Breaking Point
Editor's Note: The Atlantic is making vital coverage of the coronavirus available to all readers. Find the collection here . Since the beginning of the pandemic, public-health experts have warned of one particular nightmare. It is possible, they said, for the number of coronavirus patients to exceed the capacity of hospitals in a state or city to take care of them. Faced with a surge of severely
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Electrical spin filtering the key to ultra-fast, energy-efficient spintronics
A new study is a step towards even-faster, more energy-efficient 'spintronic' technology – an exciting, beyond-CMOS technology. The new study applies 'spin-filtering' to separate spin orientation, allowing generation and detection of spin via electrical (rather than magnetic) means, because electric fields are a lot less energetically costly to generate than magnetic fields.
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New CRISPR-based test for COVID-19 uses a smartphone camera
In a new study published in the scientific journal Cell , the team from Gladstone Institutes, UC Berkeley, and UC San Francisco has outlined the technology for a CRISPR-based test for COVID-19 that uses a smartphone camera to provide accurate results in under 30 minutes.
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Researchers urge priority vaccination for individuals with diabetes
Researchers have discovered individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes infected with COVID-19 are three times more likely to have a severe illness or require hospitalization compared with people without diabetes.
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Researchers define immune system's requirements for protection against COVID-19
Researchers shed light on the role of antibodies and immune cells in protection against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in rhesus macaques.
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COVID-19 pandemic responsible for decrease in hepatitis C testing
New research finds that the COVID-19 emergency systemic changes made to decrease in-person visits during the pandemic have led to a decrease in hospital-wide Hepatitis C (HCV) testing by 50 percent, and a reduction in new HCV diagnoses by more than 60 percent.
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Detecting solar neutrinos with the Borexino experiment
New research documents the attempts of the Borexino experiment to measure low-energy neutrinos from the sun's carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle for the first time.
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Characterizing complex flows in 2D bubble swarms
Research shows that in 2D simulated fluids, upward-flowing swarms of bubbles, a mathematical relationship describing the nature of flows in their wake, previously thought to be universal, actually changes within larger-scale flows in less viscous fluids.
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Drinking linked to a decline in brain health from cradle to grave
The evidence for the harmful effects of alcohol on brain health is compelling, but now experts have pinpointed three key time periods in life when the effects of alcohol are likely to be at their greatest.
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Dark excitons hit the spotlight
Heralding the end of a decade-long quest, in a promising new class of extremely thin, two-dimensional semiconductors, scientists have for the first time directly visualized and measured elusive particles, called dark excitons, that cannot be seen by light. The powerful technique, described in Science, could revolutionize research into two-dimensional semiconductors and excitons, with profound impl
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Can we make bones heal faster?
A new article describes for the first time how minerals come together at the molecular level to form bones and other hard tissues, like teeth and enamel.
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Birth defects linked to greater risk of cancer in later life
People born with major birth defects face a higher risk of cancer throughout life, although the relative risk is greatest in childhood and then declines, finds a new study.
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These ghostly circles in the sky came out of nowhere
You might not notice these mysterious celestial imprints with bare eyes, but they're out there. (Rad Pozniakov/Unsplash /) Ray Norris is a professor at the School of Science at Western Sydney University. This story originally featured on The Conversation . In September 2019, my colleague Anna Kapinska gave a presentation showing interesting objects she'd found while browsing our new radio astrono
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Focal Dystonia: A Musician Overcomes a Movement Disorder With a Change of Mind
The brains of professional musicians are adapted to the intense demands of learning and performance. These brain changes also put musicians at risk for developing a movement disorder called dystonia.
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Virtual doctor visits are increasing, but use differs by patient race, age and insurance
A new study published December 4, 2020, in the journal JMIR Medical Informatics examines the increase in telemedicine visits due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and recommends adopting policies that encourage virtual visits going forward.
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Coronavirus News Roundup, November 28-December 4
Pandemic highlights for the week — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Biological diversity evokes happiness
A high biodiversity in our vicinity is as important for life satisfaction as our income, scientists found. All across Europe, the individual enjoyment of life correlates with the number of surrounding bird species. An additional 10% of bird species therefore increases the Europeans' life satisfaction as much as a comparable increase in income. Nature conservation thus constitutes an investment in
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Baby's first breath triggers life-saving changes in the brain
A new discovery reveals how something amazing happens when a baby takes a first breath. The finding could shed light on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
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A new view of how the brain decides to make an effort
New research gives the first detailed view of ventral striatum activity during three phases of effort-based decision-making — the anticipation of initiating an effort, the actual execution of the effort and the reward, or outcome, of the effort.
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NASA Will Pay This Startup $1 to Collect Moon Dust. Wait, What?
Low Balling NASA just cut deals with four startups to buy the Moon dust they plan to harvest during upcoming missions, and the space agency is paying top dollar. In fact, it's paying one of the startups just one single dollar — an eyebrow-raisingly low price in the realm of space travel, where missions can easily run up billion-dollar tabs. The one-dollar contract is going to a startup called the
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Drug blocks SARS-CoV-2 transmission in ferrets
Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a new oral antiviral drug called MK-4482/EIDD-2801 completely suppresses virus transmission in ferrets within 24 hours, researchers report. Researchers originally discovered the drug is potent against influenza viruses. "This is the first demonstration of an orally available drug to rapidly block SARS-CoV-2 transmission," says Richard Plemper, a professor at
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Can the US revive the Iran nuclear deal?
With the incoming Biden administration looking to restart talks with Iran, Gary Samore assesses the chances of reaching a deal. In May 2018, the Trump administration pulled out of what was considered one of President Obama's signature foreign policy achievements—a nuclear deal with Iran. Now the incoming Biden administration wants to rejoin the 5-year-old agreement, which is known as the Joint Co
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Hayabusa 2: Returning asteroid sample could help uncover the origins of life and the solar system
What is your idea of an asteroid? Many people think of them as potato-shaped, inert and perhaps rather dull, pock-marked objects—far away in deep space. But over the last ten years, two Japanese space missions – Hayabusa and now Hayabusa 2 – have dispatched that view to the history books. Asteroids are interesting bodies that may be able to explain how life on Earth came about.
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Airflow modeling suggests driving with all windows down safest to prevent COVID-19 transmission
A new series of computational fluid dynamics simulations suggests that, for two people who must travel together in the same passenger car, the safest way to prevent possible transmission of COVID-19 in such a risky, enclosed environment is to do so with all four windows down and the passenger seated as far as
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Lung tissue from COVID-19 patients and others reveals promising target to treat lung fibrosis
An analysis of lung tissues from patients with different types of pulmonary fibrosis – including cases triggered by COVID-19 – has revealed a promising molecular target to ameliorate the chronic and irreversible disease. Experiments in mouse models of lung fibrosis showed that administering blockers of
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Riding in a car in the pandemic: which windows to open?
If you find yourself in a car with someone outside your household during the COVID-19 pandemic, your instinct may be to roll down your window, whether you're the driver or a back-seat passenger. But a University of Massachusetts Amherst physicist has shown in a new study that opening the car window closest to you isn't always the best option to protect yourself from coronavirus or any airborne inf
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Gasdermin offers insight into coral necrotic death
A research team led by Professor SUN Li from the Institute of Oceanology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS), in collaboration with Professor ZHOU Zhi from Hainan University, has identified gasdermin E (GSDME) from the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata and demonstrated that coral GSDME triggers pyroptosis and is involved in pathogen-induced coral death.
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New pathway in Alzheimer's disease provides earlier target for potential therapies
A novel Alzheimer's disease marker–coming early in progression of the condition–could open significant new fronts of research into possible therapies
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Crystals may help reveal hidden Kilauea Volcano behavior
Stanford researchers used millimeter-sized crystals from the 1959 eruption of Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano to test models that offer insights about flow conditions prior to and during an eruption.
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Spatially coherent regional changes in seasonal extreme streamflow events in the United States and Canada since 1950
Complex hydroclimate in the United States and Canada has limited identification of possible ongoing changes in streamflow. We address this challenge by classifying 541 stations in the United States and Canada into 15 "hydro-regions," each with similar seasonal streamflow characteristics. Analysis of seasonal streamflow records at these stations from 1910 to present indicates regionally coherent c
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Designing high-performance hypergolic propellants based on materials genome
A new generation of rocket propellants for deep space exploration, ionic liquid propellants, with long endurance and high stability, is attracting more and more attention. However, a major defect of ionic liquid propellants that restricts their application is the inadequate hypergolic reactivity between the fuel and the oxidant, and this defect results in local burnout and accidental explosions d
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YAP-mediated mechanotransduction tunes the macrophage inflammatory response
Macrophages are innate immune cells that adhere to the extracellular matrix within tissues. However, how matrix properties regulate their function remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the adhesive microenvironment tunes the macrophage inflammatory response through the transcriptional coactivator YAP. We find that adhesion to soft hydrogels reduces inflammation when compared to adhesion
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Oligodendroglial glycolytic stress triggers inflammasome activation and neuropathology in Alzheimers disease
Myelin degeneration and white matter loss resulting from oligodendrocyte (OL) death are early events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) that lead to cognitive deficits; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we find that mature OLs in both AD patients and an AD mouse model undergo NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)–dependent Gasdermin D–associated inflammatory injury, concomi
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Evolution and competition between chiral spin textures in nanostripes with D2d symmetry
Chiral spin textures are of considerable interest for applications in spintronics. It has recently been shown that magnetic materials with D 2d symmetry can sustain several distinct spin textures. Here, we show, using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, that single and double chains of antiskyrmions can be generated at room temperature in nanostripes less than 0.5 μm in width formed from th
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Seasonality of diet costs reveals food system performance in East Africa
Seasonal fluctuations in food prices reflect interactions between climate and society, measuring the degree to which predictable patterns of crop growth and harvest are offset by storage and trade. Previous research on seasonality in food systems has focused on specific commodities. This study accounts for substitution between items to meet nutritional needs, computing seasonal variation in local
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Growth of pancreatic cancers with hemizygous chromosomal 17p loss of MYBBP1A can be preferentially targeted by PARP inhibitors
Here, we selectively target pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells harboring a hemizygous gene essential for cell growth. MYB binding protein 1A ( MYBBP1A ), encoding a chromatin-bound protein, is hemizygous in most of the PDAC due to a chromosome 17p deletion that also spans TP53 . We find that hemizygous MYBBP1A loss in isogenic PDAC cells promotes tumorigenesis but, paradoxically, homoz
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Using migrating cells as probes to illuminate features in live embryonic tissues
The biophysical and biochemical properties of live tissues are important in the context of development and disease. Methods for evaluating these properties typically involve destroying the tissue or require specialized technology and complicated analyses. Here, we present a novel, noninvasive methodology for determining the spatial distribution of tissue features within embryos, making use of non
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Giant nonreciprocity of surface acoustic waves enabled by the magnetoelastic interaction
Nonreciprocity, the defining characteristic of isolators, circulators, and a wealth of other applications in radio/microwave communications technologies, is generally difficult to achieve as most physical systems incorporate symmetries that prevent the effect. In particular, acoustic waves are an important medium for information transport, but they are inherently symmetric in time. In this work,
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Deep imaging in the brainstem reveals functional heterogeneity in V2a neurons controlling locomotion
V2a neurons are a genetically defined cell class that forms a major excitatory descending pathway from the brainstem reticular formation to the spinal cord. Their activation has been linked to the termination of locomotor activity based on broad optogenetic manipulations. However, because of the difficulties involved in accessing brainstem structures for in vivo cell type–specific recordings, V2a
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Multiple sclerosis iPS-derived oligodendroglia conserve their properties to functionally interact with axons and glia in vivo
Remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with a migration/differentiation block of oligodendroglia. The reason for this block is highly debated. It could result from disease-related extrinsic or intrinsic regulators in oligodendroglial biology. To avoid confounding immune-mediated extrinsic effect, we used an immune-deficient mouse model to compare induced pluripotent stem c
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Synthetic high-density lipoproteins loaded with an antiplatelet drug for efficient inhibition of thrombosis in mice
Antiplatelet agents offer a desirable approach to thrombosis prevention through the reduction of platelet reactivity. However, major bleeding events greatly attenuate the clinical outcomes of most antithrombotic agents. Therefore, the development of safer and more effective strategies to prevent vascular occlusion and avoid bleeding is urgently needed. A reconstituted nanoparticle, synthetic high
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Mechanics-driven mechanobiological mechanisms of arterial tortuosity
Arterial tortuosity manifests in many conditions, including hypertension, genetic mutations predisposing to thoracic aortopathy, and vascular aging. Despite evidence that tortuosity disrupts efficient blood flow and that it may be an important clinical biomarker, underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood but are widely appreciated to be largely biomechanical. Many previous studies suggested
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In situ manipulation of van der Waals heterostructures for twistronics
In van der Waals heterostructures, electronic bands of two-dimensional (2D) materials, their nontrivial topology, and electron-electron interactions can be markedly changed by a moiré pattern induced by twist angles between different layers. This process is referred to as twistronics, where the tuning of twist angle can be realized through mechanical manipulation of 2D materials. Here, we demonst
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Crystal aggregates record the pre-eruptive flow field in the volcanic conduit at Kilauea, Hawaii
Developing reliable, quantitative conduit models that capture the physical processes governing eruptions is hindered by our inability to observe conduit flow directly. The closest we get to direct evidence is testimony imprinted on individual crystals or bubbles in the conduit and preserved by quenching during the eruption. For example, small crystal aggregates in products of the 1959 eruption of
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Cooperative nature of viral replication
The ability of viruses to infect their hosts depends on rapid dissemination following transmission. The notion that viral particles function as independent propagules has been challenged by recent observations suggesting that viral aggregates show enhanced infectivity and faster spread. However, these observations remain poorly understood. Here, we show that viral replication is a cooperative pro
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Enabling near-atomic-scale analysis of frozen water
Transmission electron microscopy went through a revolution enabling routine cryo-imaging of biological and (bio)chemical systems, in liquid form. Yet, these approaches typically lack advanced analytical capabilities. Here, we used atom probe tomography to analyze frozen liquids in three dimensions with subnanometer resolution. We introduce a specimen preparation strategy using nanoporous gold. We
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Differential effects of intervention timing on COVID-19 spread in the United States
Assessing the effects of early nonpharmaceutical interventions on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread is crucial for understanding and planning future control measures to combat the pandemic. We use observations of reported infections and deaths, human mobility data, and a metapopulation transmission model to quantify changes in disease transmission rates in U.S. counties from 15 March to
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Reliable, low-cost, fully integrated hydration sensors for monitoring and diagnosis of inflammatory skin diseases in any environment
Present-day dermatological diagnostic tools are expensive, time-consuming, require substantial operational expertise, and typically probe only the superficial layers of skin (~15 μm). We introduce a soft, battery-free, noninvasive, reusable skin hydration sensor (SHS) adherable to most of the body surface. The platform measures volumetric water content (up to ~1 mm in depth) and wirelessly transm
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Biodegradable, bile salt microparticles for localized fat dissolution
Bile acids are proposed as therapeutic agents for various diseases, including liver diseases and obesity. However, oral or subcutaneous administration of a solubilized version of these drugs has limited efficacy and imposes unwanted side effects. Here, we describe a gold-templating method for fabricating stable, bile salt—cholate or deoxycholate—microparticles. The gold ions' reduction at the oil
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Standalone or combinatorial phenylbutyrate therapy shows excellent antiviral activity and mimics CREB3 silencing
Herpesviruses are ubiquitous human pathogens that tightly regulate many cellular pathways including the unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Pharmacological modulation of this pathway results in the inhibition of viral replication. In this study, we tested 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), a chemical chaperone–based potent alleviator of ER stress, for its effects on herpes simple
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Wireless, skin-interfaced sensors for compression therapy
Therapeutic compression garments (TCGs) are key tools for the management of a wide range of vascular lower extremity conditions. Proper use of TCGs involves application of a minimum and consistent pressure across the lower extremities for extended periods of time. Slight changes in the characteristics of the fabric and the mechanical properties of the tissues lead to requirements for frequent mea
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How the US, UK, and China are planning to roll out vaccines
The vaccines are coming. The UK became the first country in the West to approve a covid-19 vaccine for emergency use on December 2, specifically the Pfizer and BioNTech vaccine, which has completed phase 3 trials. But the US, the EU, and many other countries are expected to follow suit in the following days and weeks. The imminent arrival of vaccines means that countries not only face a huge logi
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Protein storytelling to address the pandemic
Computer molecular physics has contributed to the understanding of protein behavior by creating 3D models of molecular machines and setting them in motion. Researchers at Stony Brook University are using the Frontera supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computing Center to make structure predictions for 19 proteins from the SARS-CoV-2 virus about which little is known. Their team uses a method they
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Hayabusa2 comes home: remarkable space probe could open another window into how life originated
The six-year round trip to an asteroid named Ryugu will end in the red sands of Woomera, Australia The Japanese space agency's remarkable Hayabusa2 mission will on Sunday deliver the second-ever artificially collected sample of asteroid material when a return capsule falls to Earth at the Woomera rocket range in South Australia. The Hayabusa2 probe has been on a 6bn km, ¥30bn ($388m) round trip t
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Best air fryer: Five things to consider
Here are the things to consider if you're looking for the best air fryer. (Gilly via Unsplash/) Air fryers are a unique class of kitchen appliances that have been gracing countertops since their introduction to the market in 2010. The physics of the design itself has been around for much longer than that—they're essentially a refined design of the traditional convection oven. But the simple appea
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'I'm Not Lamenting the Existence of Marvel'
David Fincher's new film, Mank , begins with a title card announcing the arrival of one of cinema's first real auteurs. "In 1940, at the tender age of 24, Orson Welles was lured to Hollywood by a struggling RKO Pictures with a contract befitting his formidable storytelling talents," it reads. "He was given absolute creative autonomy, would suffer no oversight, and could make any movie, about any
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The heavier, the better — superior stability in isotope functionalized perovskites
We discover a significantly suppressed lattice disorder in isotope functionalized perovskite MAPbI3, which is crucial for structural stability and extraordinary optoelectronic properties.
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Fine tuning the "twist" between 2-D materials in van der Waals heterostructures to help accelerate next gen electronics
A group of international researchers at The University of Manchester have revealed a novel method that could fine tune the angle—"twist"—between atom-thin layers that form exotic manmade nanodevices called van der Waals heterostructures—and help accelerate the next generation of electronics.
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Crystals may help reveal hidden Kilauea Volcano behavior
Scientists striving to understand how and when volcanoes might erupt face a challenge: many of the processes take place deep underground in lava tubes churning with dangerous molten Earth. Upon eruption, any subterranean markers that could have offered clues leading up to a blast are often destroyed.
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How a Climate 'Stress Test' Can Foresee Collapsing Banks
Governments around the world are gearing up to see how vulnerable financial systems are to climate shocks — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Trust in Covid Vaccines Grows, Planning Begins, and More News
Catch up on the most important updates from this week.
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Protein storytelling to address the pandemic
Computer molecular physics has contributed to the understanding of protein behavior by creating 3D models of molecular machines and setting them in motion. Researchers at Stony Brook University are using the Frontera supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computing Center to make structure predictions for 19 proteins from the SARS-CoV-2 virus about which little is known. Their team uses a method they
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The climate changed rapidly alongside sea ice decline in the north
Researchers have shown that abrupt climate change occurred as a result of widespread decrease of sea ice. This scientific breakthrough concludes a long-lasting debate on the mechanisms causing abrupt climate change during the glacial period. It also documents that the cause of the swiftness and extent of sudden climate change must be found in the oceans.
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The Sharpest-Ever Image of a Sunspot Looks Like a Portal to Hell
The US National Science Foundation's Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, the largest solar observatory in the world, just released its first-ever image of a sunspot. The image, taken in January 2020, is the sharpest image of a sunspot in history — and it looks absolutely terrifying. "The sunspot image achieves a spatial resolution about 2.5 times higher than ever previously achieved, showing magnet
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How do archaeologists know where to dig?
National Geographic magazines and Indiana Jones movies might have you picturing archaeologists excavating near Egyptian pyramids, Stonehenge and Machu Picchu. And some of us do work at these famous places.
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Baricitinib: Doctors Are Skeptical of This Covid-19 Drug From Eli Lilly
Baricitinib, an arthritis drug made by Eli Lilly, may reduce recovery time by a day, but costs about $1,500 and comes with side effects.
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For dementia caregivers, tips for holiday joy during COVID
An elder care expert has advice for how families can help their loved ones with dementia during a holiday in isolation. As COVID-19 cases increase across the nation, many caregivers are trying to navigate the holidays for relatives with dementia or Alzheimer's disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that people not travel to limit the potential spread of the coronavirus.
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Satellite tag tracks activity levels of highly migratory species across the vast ocean
Scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and Wildlife Computers, Inc. today announced the release of a new activity data product application for marine animal tracking. The technology is designed to remotely track and transmit data gathered on an animal's activity levels over several months along with the temperatures and depths they experience
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Satellite tag tracks activity levels of highly migratory species across the vast ocean
Scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and Wildlife Computers, Inc. today announced the release of a new activity data product application for marine animal tracking. The technology is designed to remotely track and transmit data gathered on an animal's activity levels over several months along with the temperatures and depths they experience
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China Is Rolling Out an Enormous "Weather Modification" System
Cloud Cover This week, the Chinese government announced that it plans to drastically increase its use of technology that artificially changes the weather. Cloud seeding technology, or systems that can blasts silver molecules into the sky to prompt condensation and cloud formation, has been around for decades, and China makes frequent use of it. But now, CNN reports that China wants to increase th
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Daily briefing: 14 nations make an unprecedented commitment to healthy oceans
Nature, Published online: 03 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03455-2 A sustainable ocean economy, video of the moment the Arecibo telescope collapsed and scientists have restored vision in old mice by reversing their biological clocks.
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How vaccine approval compares between the UK, Europe and the US
The regulatory fast-tracking of the Covid vaccine in Britain by MHRA has led some to question its methods Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority (MHRA) in the UK has not had a round of applause from anyone other than the UK's politicians and the vaccine companies. It gave temporary authorisation to the Pfizer/BioNTe
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Hidden structure found in essential metabolic machinery
In his first year of graduate school, Rice University biochemist Zachary Wright discovered something hidden inside a common piece of cellular machinery that's essential for all higher order life from yeast to humans.
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Hidden structure found in essential metabolic machinery
In his first year of graduate school, Rice University biochemist Zachary Wright discovered something hidden inside a common piece of cellular machinery that's essential for all higher order life from yeast to humans.
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The fragmentation of everything
The rise of technonationalism. Diverging regulatory regimes. The spread of "walled gardens." Polarization like nothing we've seen before. The confluence of several trends is poised to completely fragment our real and digital worlds. For companies, this raises a host of new risks, from cybersecurity threats to reputation risk—which, in turn, will require new responses and approaches. The techonomi
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Research confirms crucial monitoring assessment is effective for patients with COVID-19
New research shows that an assessment score used to measure a patient's severity of illness can be applied to patients with COVID-19 without modification.
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People with rare autoimmune diseases at increased risk of dying during COVID-19 pandemic
A new study has shown that people with rare autoimmune rheumatic diseases are at a greater risk of dying at a younger age during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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The Arecibo Observatory collapsed this week. What now?
Arecibo's disk suffered damage in November, before the suspended receiver collapsed completely in December. (University of Central Florida/) On December 1, a crucial cable snapped at the iconic Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. After 57 years catching radio waves from around the cosmos, the 900-ton receiver fell through the air to the ground below, slashing through thousands of the aluminum pan
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Hidden structure found in essential metabolic machinery
Rice University biochemists have discovered membrane-divided subcompartments within organelles called peroxisomes, essential pieces of metabolic machinery for all higher order life from yeast to humans. The research appears this week in Nature Communications.
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RUDN University medics created a wound-healing gel with metabolic products of trichoderma
Researchers from the Department of Biochemistry of RUDN University developed a wound-healing gel based on a substance that is produced by Trichoderma fungi.
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Autologous chondrocyte implantation in the knee: M-ACI has comparable benefit to therapy alternative
Only matrix-induced ACI (M-ACI) shows a benefit that is at least comparable to that of therapy alternatives. This was not shown for other ACI procedures.
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BIDMC researchers define immune system's requirements for protection against COVID-19
In a new paper in the journal Nature, BIDMC researchers shed light on the role of antibodies and immune cells in protection against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in rhesus macaques.
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