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When strains of E.coli play rock-paper-scissors, it's not the strongest that survives
What happens when different strains of bacteria are present in the same system? Do they co-exist? Do the strongest survive? In a microbial game of rock-paper-scissors, researchers at the University of California San Diego's BioCircuits Institute uncovered a surprising answer.
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Breast cancer survivors are less likely to get pregnant, but often have healthy babies and good long-term health
A large meta-analysis of breast cancer survivors of childbearing age indicated that they are less likely than the general public to get pregnant, and they face higher risk of certain complications such as preterm labor. However, most survivors who do get pregnant deliver healthy babies and have no adverse effects on their long-term survival, according to data presented at the 2020 San Antonio Brea
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Omitting radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery may not impact 10-year survival rates for older patients with HR-positive breast cancer
Older patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who did not receive radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery had higher rates of local recurrence but similar 10-year survival rates when compared to patients who received postoperative radiation therapy, according to updated 10-year data from the PRIME II study, presented at the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
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Postmenopausal women with early-stage BC/low recurrence score could skip adjuvant chemo
After a median follow-up of 5.1 years, among women with lymph node-positive early-stage breast cancer and a recurrence score of 25 or lower who received adjuvant endocrine therapy with or without chemotherapy, postmenopausal patients had no added benefit from chemotherapy, while premenopausal patients who received chemotherapy had improved invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) and an early indicat
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Mastectomy and reconstructive surgery may lead to patients becoming persistent drug users
Women who receive mastectomy and reconstructive surgery as part of breast cancer treatment may face the risk of developing persistent use of opioids and sedative-hypnotic drugs, according to data presented at the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
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CTC dynamics may predict treatment response/prognosis in metastatic breast cancer patients
Early circulating tumor cell dynamics were associated with overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer, according to a meta-analysis presented at the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
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Under-recognition of symptoms may be common in breast cancer patients receiving radiation
Among patients with breast cancer treated with radiotherapy, under-recognition of symptoms was common in reports of pain, pruritus, edema, and fatigue, with younger patients and Black patients having significantly increased odds of symptom under-recognition.
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High-risk, HR+, HER2-, early-stage BC patients continue to benefit from abemaciclib
Extended follow-up data from the phase III monarchE trial showed that adding the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor abemaciclib (Verzenio) to standard adjuvant endocrine therapy continued to improve invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) among patients with high-risk, node-positive, early-stage, HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, according to data presented at the 2020 San Antonio Breas
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Physicians don't always recognize patients' radiation therapy side effects
Physicians did not recognize side effects from radiation therapy in more than half of breast cancer patients who reported a significant symptom, a new study finds.
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Some postmenopausal women with common breast cancer may forgo chemotherapy
Postmenopausal women with a common form of breast cancer may safely skip chemotherapy, according to study results from SWOG Cancer Research Network, funded by the National Cancer Institute, to be released at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
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Image: Study explores how astronauts' nervous systems adjust to microgravity
If the orientation of this image is a little disorienting, then you know how astronauts feel in their first few hours in space. in weightlessness, the human body loses its cues for up and down and requires adjustments in over to move and manipulate objects.
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Contagious form of cancer drives Tasmanian devils to become antisocial
A team of researchers from Australia and the U.S. has found that a form of facial cancer in Tasmanian devils drives them to become antisocial. In their paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study of the creatures in the wild and how they behave when they begin to develop tumors.
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Välkommen Jonas Mattsson – ny chefredaktör på F&F
Grattis till nya jobbet! Kan du berätta lite kort vem du är?
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Contagious form of cancer drives Tasmanian devils to become antisocial
A team of researchers from Australia and the U.S. has found that a form of facial cancer in Tasmanian devils drives them to become antisocial. In their paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study of the creatures in the wild and how they behave when they begin to develop tumors.
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Anova's $600 Countertop Oven Is a Steam-Powered Dream
Move over, air fryers. The use of steam is an exciting and approachable new direction for the home kitchen, and this oven is pointing the way.
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Toxicity in Gaming Is Dangerous. Here's How to Stand Up to It
Players often rationalize behaviors like harassment as a part of video game culture. But new research shows it has long-term negative effects.
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Scientists Devise a Method to Edit Mitochondrial DNA. Here's How It Works and Why It Matters
There's a mini second genome inside your cells, but no one could figure out how to edit it — until now.
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Error-prone quantum bits could correct themselves, physicists show
One of the chief obstacles facing quantum computer designers—correcting the errors that creep into a processor's calculations—could be overcome with a new approach by physicists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the University of Maryland and the California Institute of Technology, who may have found a way to design quantum memory switches that would self-correct.
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Dress pants optional: How retailers are dealing with changing consumer habits
The COVID-19 pandemic is disrupting consumer habits. Canadians developed an intense interest in baking in the early days of the crisis, leading to flour and yeast shortages. They bought less sunscreen in the absence of tropical vacations, and they are dressing down in sweatpants while working over Zoom.
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Space weather discovery puts 'habitable planets' at risk
A discovery that links stellar flares with radio-burst signatures will make it easier for astronomers to detect space weather around nearby stars outside the Solar System. Unfortunately, the first weather reports from our nearest neighbour, Proxima Centauri, are not promising for finding life as we know it.
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Researchers decry 'pay to publish' system — but don't want it to stop
Nature, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03483-y South African incentive programme has attracted criticism for encouraging unethical behaviour.
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Five things I hate about Phobos
Nature, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03505-9 An unromantic view.
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Tomatoes offer affordable source of Parkinson's disease drug
Scientists have produced a tomato enriched in the Parkinson's disease drug L-DOPA in what could become a new, affordable source of one of the world's essential medicines.
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How maize makes an antibiotic cocktail
Maize (Zea mays) produces a plethora of antibiotics called zealexins. Even though scientists have identified at least 15 zealexins, they suspect there are even more to find. Zealexins are produced in every corn variety and protect maize by fending off fungal and microbial infections. Scientists had assumed that maize synthesizes these compounds via clear, straight pathways, entailing the function
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2020's Top 10 Tech Innovations
Scientific American and the World Economic Forum sifted through more than 75 nominations for the most innovative and potentially game-changing technologies in 2020. The final top 10 span… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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SARS didn't prepare the hospitality industry for the prolonged impact of COVID-19
A virulent virus, worried travelers and a tourism sector on the brink. Sounds like 2020? In fact, this was the experience in a few global cities in 2002 and 2003.
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How maize makes an antibiotic cocktail
Maize (Zea mays) produces a plethora of antibiotics called zealexins. Even though scientists have identified at least 15 zealexins, they suspect there are even more to find. Zealexins are produced in every corn variety and protect maize by fending off fungal and microbial infections. Scientists had assumed that maize synthesizes these compounds via clear, straight pathways, entailing the function
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Open cluster NGC 188 explored with AstroSat
Indian researchers have carried out ultraviolet photometric observations of an old open cluster known as NGC 188. Results of the study, conducted with the AstroSat spacecraft, provide important information about stellar populations of this cluster. The findings are presented in a paper published December 1 on the arXiv pre-print repository.
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The 'pink tax' on gendered stuff extends to tariffs too
Gender-biased import tariffs are another form of the "pink tax," research finds. This form of the pink tax is generally lower in countries that elect more women to political office, report the researchers. Their paper, to appear in the American Political Science Review , highlights a previously unacknowledged trade policy that penalizes women—gender-biased import taxes—and provides evidence that
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Meet the aquaculture industry's new maintenance bot
This ROV can fully operate on its own, and follow along with fish's behavior and health with its Argus eyes—all while keeping a safe distance. It even inspects the technical standard of the enclosure while it's at it. Say hi to Mr. CageReporter.
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Meet the aquaculture industry's new maintenance bot
This ROV can fully operate on its own, and follow along with fish's behavior and health with its Argus eyes—all while keeping a safe distance. It even inspects the technical standard of the enclosure while it's at it. Say hi to Mr. CageReporter.
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Att jobba i äldreomsorgen är som att arbeta i motvind
Lena Ede har undersökt arbetsförhållandena för två av Sveriges största yrkesgrupper: undersköterska och vårdbiträde. Avhandlingen visar att många tvingas arbeta mot sin övertygelse, när villkoren för lönearbetet står emot de egna kraven på kvalitet. Hur påverkas anställda inom äldreomsorgen av förändringar i organisationen och vad är det som föranleder en sjukskrivning? Det har Lena Ede undersökt
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A technique to sift out the universe's first gravitational waves
In the moments immediately following the Big Bang, the very first gravitational waves rang out. The product of quantum fluctuations in the new soup of primordial matter, these earliest ripples through the fabric of space-time were quickly amplified by inflationary processes that drove the universe to explosively expand.
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Despite improved access, digital divide persists for minority, low-income students
While K–12 students' access to computers and the internet improved during the pandemic-plagued and largely remote fall school term, a clear digital divide persists, especially among Black, Hispanic and low-income students, according to a new report (PDF) by the UCLA Center for Neighborhood Knowledge.
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5 hidden gems are riding aboard NASA's Perseverance rover
More than halfway to the Red Planet, NASA's Perseverance Mars rover isn't just shuttling sophisticated science instruments and tubes to be filled with Earth-bound rock samples. It's carrying symbols, mottos, and objects that range from practical to playful—everything from meteorite fragments to chips carrying the names of 10.9 million people.
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Maize outpaces soybeans in fighting off fungal invasions
Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is a devastating disease that afflicts soybean crops, causing annual losses in U.S. soybean yields in excess of $274 million dollars. New Michigan State University research shows that the trick to surviving the disease might be a matter of timing when to mount a defense response.
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Microjets are faster than a speeding bullet
When a shock wave travels through material and reaches a free surface, chunks of material can break away and fly off at high speeds. If there are any defects on the surface, the shock forms microjets that travel faster than a speeding bullet.
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Maize outpaces soybeans in fighting off fungal invasions
Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is a devastating disease that afflicts soybean crops, causing annual losses in U.S. soybean yields in excess of $274 million dollars. New Michigan State University research shows that the trick to surviving the disease might be a matter of timing when to mount a defense response.
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Study sheds light on growing numbers of flat-faced 'designer' dogs in UK rescue centres
The number of brachycephalic dogs—those with flat faces such as pugs, bulldogs and French bulldogs—being taken in by UK rescue and rehoming centers has doubled over just three years, a new study suggests.
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Researchers develop new multitasking microbe for simpler, cheaper and greener wastewater treatment
Researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have developed a new way to treat sewage that is much simpler, cheaper and greener than existing methods.
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Study sheds light on growing numbers of flat-faced 'designer' dogs in UK rescue centres
The number of brachycephalic dogs—those with flat faces such as pugs, bulldogs and French bulldogs—being taken in by UK rescue and rehoming centers has doubled over just three years, a new study suggests.
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Sea ice loss and extreme wildfires mark another year of Arctic change
NOAA's 15th Arctic Report Card catalogs for 2020 the numerous ways that climate change continues to disrupt the polar region, with second-highest air temperatures and second-lowest summer sea ice driving a cascade of impacts, including the loss of snow and extraordinary wildfires in northern Russia.
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Researchers develop new multitasking microbe for simpler, cheaper and greener wastewater treatment
Researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have developed a new way to treat sewage that is much simpler, cheaper and greener than existing methods.
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Paging Dr. Hamblin: I Want to Give People Cookies
Editor's Note: Every Wednesday, James Hamblin takes questions from readers about health-related curiosities, concerns, and obsessions. Have one? Email him at paging.dr.hamblin@theatlantic.com . Dear Dr. Hamblin, During the holidays, I usually bake about six or seven family cookie recipes for a large collection of cookies on a festive tray. Because I make a lot, I always have extras and typically
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Using light, red blood cells and a honey bee peptide to deliver therapeutic proteins
Protein therapies are often more potent and selective toward their biochemical targets than other types of drugs, particularly small molecules. However, proteins are also more likely to be quickly degraded by enzymes or cleared from blood by the kidneys, which has limited their clinical use. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have engineered red blood cell (RBC) carriers that releas
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Praktiserende læge: Afvisninger af henvisninger er en tiltagende plage i almen praksis
Afvisninger af henvisninger er ikke udtryk for et 'samarbejdende sundhedsvæsen' – tværtimod. De skaber irritation både i almen praksis og hos visitatorerne, da tonen i kommunikationen kan blive ret direkte.
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How to put video calls on your TV
True reality TV. (Facebook/) We're all getting more comfortable working and socializing over video apps , whether it's office meetings on Zoom or family catch-ups over FaceTime. But squinting at your friends, relatives, or colleagues on your phone, tablet, or computer screen doesn't always feel like a personal interaction. They're just so… small. If you want to feel like they're actually in the r
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Exploitation of Mammals for Traditional Remedies
A recent review hints at the extent to which endangered mammals are exploited for fake medicines. The post first appeared on Science-Based Medicine .
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Best running shoes for men: Five things to consider
The best running shoes that'll improve your workout. (jack atkinson via Unsplash/) Running is truly an exercise of convenience. You don't have to learn how to do it, and it doesn't require any equipment other than your two feet. Of course, those need to be outfitted correctly. Running around with bare feet might be fun for toddlers, but a guy who wants to go the distance without falling apart, wi
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Using light, red blood cells and a honey bee peptide to deliver therapeutic proteins
Protein therapies are often more potent and selective toward their biochemical targets than other types of drugs, particularly small molecules. However, proteins are also more likely to be quickly degraded by enzymes or cleared from blood by the kidneys, which has limited their clinical use. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have engineered red blood cell (RBC) carriers that releas
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Artificial Intelligence Is Now Shockingly Good at Sounding Human
Synthetic voices have become ubiquitous. They feed us directions in the morning, shepherd us through phone calls by day and broadcast the news on smart speakers at night. And as the technology… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Using light, red blood cells and a honey bee peptide to deliver therapeutic proteins
Protein therapies are often more potent and selective toward their biochemical targets than other types of drugs, particularly small molecules. However, proteins are also more likely to be quickly degraded by enzymes or cleared from blood by the kidneys, which has limited their clinical use. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have engineered red blood cell (RBC) carriers that releas
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Can you tell the difference between a human voice and the voice of a machine?
Synthetic voices have become ubiquitous. They feed us directions in the morning, shepherd us through phone calls by day, and broadcast the news on smart speakers at night. And as the technology used to make them improves, these voices are becoming more and more human-sounding. This is the final frontier in synthetic speech: replicating not just what we say, but how we say it. Rupal Patel heads a
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Can sting rays and electric rays help us map the ocean floor?
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan have completed a feasibility study indicating that electric rays and sting rays equipped with pingers will be able to map the seabed through natural exploration
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Can sting rays and electric rays help us map the ocean floor?
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan have completed a feasibility study indicating that electric rays and sting rays equipped with pingers will be able to map the seabed through natural exploration
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Southern Hemisphere westerly winds likely to intensify as climate warms
Polar climate scientists have created the most high-resolution past record of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds. The results, published this week (9 December) in the journal Communications Earth and Environment, describe how the winds are likely to intensify and migrate poleward as the climate warms. The study highlights the urgent need for better models to predict the future.
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New definition of sustainability overcomes flaw hampering global transformation efforts
An interdisciplinary team led by Senior Researcher Dr. Christoph Rupprecht (FEAST Project, RIHN) has revealed a new definition of sustainability that expands the concept to non-human species and their needs. With this new definition, published in the journal Global Sustainability, the researchers addressed a critical flaw in the original concept of sustainability that was hindering global transfor
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Big data kinase ohmics takes over drug discovery
In order for tumors to successfully take hold and spread in the body, they typically must meet several developmental milestones. These include things like suppressing apoptosis, cultivating replication and angiogenesis, weaning from growth factor dependency, becoming less sticky, and becoming more sticky.
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A Political Obituary for Donald Trump
Photo Rendering by Patrick White This article was published online on December 9, 2020. T o assess the legacy of Donald Trump's presidency, start by quantifying it. Since last February, more than a quarter of a million Americans have died from COVID-19—a fifth of the world's deaths from the disease, the highest number of any country. In the three years before the pandemic, 2.3 million Americans l
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Big data kinase ohmics takes over drug discovery
In order for tumors to successfully take hold and spread in the body, they typically must meet several developmental milestones. These include things like suppressing apoptosis, cultivating replication and angiogenesis, weaning from growth factor dependency, becoming less sticky, and becoming more sticky.
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Electricity-Carrying Bacteria Lead to New Applications–and New Questions
As researchers develop sensors and other devices based on conductive microbes' nanowires, they continue to debate exactly how the organisms conduct electricity — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Marvel Puzzle Quest Might Just Be My Forever Game
Despite the raft of new games now available on PlayStation 5 and Xbox Series X, a free-to-play mobile puzzler still has the bulk of my attention.
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Brawn on a Budget: The New Mac Mini With Apple Silicon
The tiny desktop PC has been relaunched with an Apple-made chip, and boy does it rip.
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Life after Covid-19: What are we going to do now?
The Pope, Ivan Krastev and Fareed Zakaria on processing the pandemic
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Researchers capture roaming molecular fragments in real time
The observation of a chemical reaction at the molecular level in real time is a central theme in experimental chemical physics. An international research team has captured roaming molecular fragments for the first time. The work, under the supervision of Heide Ibrahim, research associate at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), was published in the journal Science.
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Direktør for fem udbudsklinikker: Stråmænd støvsuger ydernumrene
Om fem år vågner vi op til en virkelighed, hvor større koncerner ejer mere end 100 lægeklinikker i Danmark, vurderer Nils Høgalmen, adm. direktør i MedAssist. Han efterlyser, at politikerne kommer på banen.
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Miniature guttural toads on Mauritius and Reunion stun researchers
Researchers from the DSI/NRF Center for Invasion Biology at Stellenbosch University in South Africa have found that 100 years after guttural toads were introduced to the islands of Mauritius and Réunion, their overall body size has been reduced by up to one-third compared to their counterparts in South Africa.
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Pinligt, uambitiøst og ukonkret: Regeringens strategi for bæredygtigt byggeri får hård kritik
PLUS. Opførelsen af en bygning udleder mere CO2, end energiforbruget i bygningens levetid. Derfor vil byggebranchen have en CO2-grænse indført fra 2021, men ifølge regeringens netop offentliggjorte strategi for bæredygtigt byggeri kommer der tidligst en grænse i 2027
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What Motivates COVID Rule Breakers?
The answer turns out to be complicated — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Merkel calls for extension to Covid restrictions as deaths increase
Germany and France struggle to contain 'second wave' of pandemic before Christmas
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Miniature guttural toads on Mauritius and Reunion stun researchers
Researchers from the DSI/NRF Center for Invasion Biology at Stellenbosch University in South Africa have found that 100 years after guttural toads were introduced to the islands of Mauritius and Réunion, their overall body size has been reduced by up to one-third compared to their counterparts in South Africa.
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COVID vaccine allocation and a dramatic telescope collapse
Nature, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03460-5 The latest science news, in brief.
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Accounting for sex and gender makes for better science
Nature, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03459-y The European Commission is set to insist on steps that will make research design more inclusive.
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How the first life on Earth survived its biggest threat — water
Nature, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03461-4 Living things depend on water, but it breaks down DNA and other key molecules. So how did the earliest cells deal with the water paradox?
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The Danger of Assuming That Family Time Is Dispensable
Pandemic shaming, a national pastime since the spring, intensified in the weeks leading up to Thanksgiving. Thousands waited in line, some for many hours , for a preholiday coronavirus test, only to be rebuked as careless, selfish violators of public-health rules. "I do want people to understand that testing on Thursday so you can party on Saturday: That doesn't work," said Barbara Ferrer, Los An
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The case against cancelling debt at the ECB
Calls for the central bank to write down government bonds are misguided
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Electricity-Carrying Bacteria Lead to New Applications–and New Questions
As researchers develop sensors and other devices based on conductive microbes' nanowires, they continue to debate exactly how the organisms conduct electricity — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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12.000 m3 fjeld fjernet: Ny færøsk tunnel med rundkørsel under havet
Entreprenøren NCC er ved at være færdig med et spektakulært tunnelprojekt på Færøerne, som blandt andet indeholder en rundkørsel under havets overflade.
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What Will Happen to Cities in 2021
The post-pandemic world approaches. According to some projections, up to half of all Americans could be vaccinated by June, and another 30 percent may have acquired natural immunity through infection over the previous year. Next summer could be surprisingly unburdened by the pandemic, which is not the same as saying it will be normal. The world that emerges from our year of plague will be altered
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New study suggests indigenous practices can help revitalize pacific salmon fisheries
Across the North Pacific, salmon fisheries are struggling with climate variability, declining fish populations, and a lack of sustainable fishing opportunities. According to a study published today in BioScience from a team of Indigenous leaders and conservation scientists, help lies in revitalizing Indigenous fishing practices and learning from Indigenous systems of salmon management.
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Author Correction: Casimir forces exerted by epsilon-near-zero hyperbolic materials
Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-78860-8
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Author Correction: Seasonal variability of net sea-air CO2 fluxes in a coastal region of the northern Antarctic Peninsula
Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-79111-6 Author Correction: Seasonal variability of net sea-air CO 2 fluxes in a coastal region of the northern Antarctic Peninsula
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Author Correction: Perceived stress and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in apparently healthy men and women
Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-78911-0
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Taxonomic composition and seasonal dynamics of the air microbiome in West Siberia
Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-78604-8
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Determining soil water characteristic curve of lime treated loess using multiscale structure fractal characteristic
Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-78489-7
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Radiographic and clinical assessment of unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite to treat benign bone tumors
Scientific Reports, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-78409-9
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Nyt dansk PtX-anlæg til ammoniak i Lemvig
Haldor Topsøe, Vestas og Skovgaard Invest skal i fællesskab opføre verdens første industrielle PtX-anlæg til fremstilling af ammoniak. Anlægget skal stå klar i 2022 og forsynes med el fra vindmøller og solceller.
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The Bigger the Publishers, the Blander the Books
W hen the Department of Justice interviewed me in late 2012 as part of its investigation into the pending merger of Random House and Penguin, I was both surprised and heartened—the very fact that DOJ attorneys were talking with a small publisher suggested that they understood the dark potential of such a deal. After all, the Big Six publishers at the time accounted for roughly 50 percent of Ameri
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How Biden Should Investigate Trump
This article was published online on December 9, 2020. I. A Crimes Commission? As he prepares to occupy the White House, President-elect Joe Biden faces a decision rare in American history: what to do about the man who has just left office, whose personal corruption, disdain for the Constitution, and destructive mismanagement of the federal government are without precedent. Human beings crave rec
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NHS told not to give Pfizer vaccine to extreme allergy sufferers after two people have reaction
Anyone scheduled to receive vaccine will be asked if they are allergic to any of its ingredients Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage People with a history of significant allergic reactions should not receive the Covid vaccine, the medicines regulator has said, after two NHS workers experienced symptoms on Wednesday. Both of the NHS staff carry adrenaline autoinjectors, o
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Asciminib er sikkert og effektivt til hårdt ramte patienter med kronisk myeloid leukæmi
Lægemidlet Asciminib viser lovende resultater som tredjelinjebehandling, når tyrosinkinasehæmmere til patienter med kronisk myeloid leukæmi ikke er nok.
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The woman behind China's Chang'e-5 Moon mission
Zhou Chengyu, 24, has been lauded on social media for her work as the project's youngest commander.
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Mindre risk för barnet med igångsättning vid 41 graviditetsveckor
Gravida kvinnor som går över tiden, speciellt förstföderskor, och deras barn, gynnas av igångsättning redan vid 41 fullgångna veckor, istället för vid 42 veckor. Det framgår när forskare vägt samman resultat från tre tidigare studier på området. I Sverige och Nederländerna är risken generellt mycket låg för att ett barn dör före eller under förlossningen, eller som nyfödd, så kallad perinatal död
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There's no stopping this immortal jellyfish
Turritopsis dohrnii. (Maria Pia Miglietta/National Science Foundation /) What's the weirdest thing you learned this week? Well, whatever it is, we promise you'll have an even weirder answer if you listen to PopSci 's hit podcast . The Weirdest Thing I Learned This Week hits Apple , Anchor , and everywhere else you listen to podcasts every-other Wednesday morning. It's your new favorite source for
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Silky sharks find hope in Atlantic, remain targets in Indo-Pacific
New research shows that conservation efforts in the Atlantic Ocean may be working for one of the most popular—and endangered—species that ends up in the global shark fin trade.
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Nationalbanken vil skrotte kritiseret it-projekt efter store budgetoverskridelser
Efter fordyrelser og forsinkelser er Nationalbankens betalingsplatform Kronos2 kommet i luften, men nu bliver systemet skrottet i løbet af de kommende år.
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Authors of meta-analysis on heart disease retract it when they realize a NEJM reference had been retracted
The authors of a meta-analysis on predicting cardiovascular disease have retracted the paper because it included a study that was retracted between the time they submitted their article and the date it was published. If only there were a repository of retracted articles that authors and editors could check to see if the references in … Continue reading
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Silky sharks find hope in Atlantic, remain targets in Indo-Pacific
New research shows that conservation efforts in the Atlantic Ocean may be working for one of the most popular—and endangered—species that ends up in the global shark fin trade.
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Plugin ska öka säkerheten online för ovana surfare
Säkerhetsarbetet för internet har ofta datorerna i fokus, men beslutet att klicka på en länk ligger hos användaren. Forskare på Högskolan i Skövde utvecklar nu ett browser-plugin som ska hjälpa ovana internetanvändare att känna igen hotfulla situationer, till exempel phishing. Det är osäkert att surfa på internet, det vet vi, men funderar kanske inte så mycket på det i daglig användning. Vi vet a
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Regioner: Nu tager vi fat på generationsforureninger
Med finanslovens tilskud på 630 millioner kroner til oprensningen af de ti generationsforureninger er der nu dækning for planens fase 1, lyder det fra Danske Regioner. Der venter dog mange udfordringer forude, påpeger ekspert.
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Asymmetric construction of tetrahedral chiral zinc with high configurational stability and catalytic activity
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20074-7 Unlike traditional chiral metal complexes, which typically contain chiral ligands, in chiral-at-metal complexes chirality originates from a stereogenic metal center bound to achiral ligands. Herein, the authors use an unsymmetric tridentate ligand to construct a Werner-type tetrahedral chiral-at-zinc complex
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Engineering rules that minimize germline silencing of transgenes in simple extrachromosomal arrays in C. elegans
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19898-0 C. elegans has strong repressive mechanisms that silence transgenes in the germline. Here the authors elucidate the design rules for efficient germline expression.
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Nature-inspired remodeling of (aza)indoles to meta-aminoaryl nicotinates for late-stage conjugation of vitamin B3 to (hetero)arylamines
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19610-2 Vitamin B3 derivatives display a range of biological activities. Here, the authors report the synthesis of meta-aminoaryl nicotinates, derivatives of vitamin B3, and their late-stage conjugation with (hetero)arylamines, ultimately expanding the chemical space for biomedical research.
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Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of host response to SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary infection
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20139-7 Understanding the pathology in the lungs of patients with COVID-19 might provide clues as to the susceptibility of patients and how the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be fatal. Here the authors analyze cadaveric pulmonary tissue and show one group with high viral load, early death, inflammation and inflammatory damage
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Demonstration of non-Markovian process characterisation and control on a quantum processor
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20113-3 As quantum computing devices become more complex, they enter the realm of correlated noise, which is difficult to characterise and mitigate. Here, the authors demonstrate, over a range of superconducting devices, a method for non-Markovian dynamics characterisation based on the process tensor framework.
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Condensation of Rubisco into a proto-pyrenoid in higher plant chloroplasts
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20132-0 Introducing the pyrenoid-based CO2-concentrating mechanism of green algae into crops could greatly improve photosynthesis. Here, the authors show that expression of the algal linker protein EPYC1 and a plant-algal hybrid Rubisco in Arabidopsis chloroplasts leads to formation of a phase separated algal-like p
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Meta-neural-network for real-time and passive deep-learning-based object recognition
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19693-x The authors present a passive meta-neural-network for real-time recognition of objects by analysis of acoustic scattering. It consists of unit cells termed meta-neurons, mimicking an analogous neural network for classical waves, and is shown to recognise handwritten digits and misaligned orbital-angular-mome
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HIF1A signaling selectively supports proliferation of breast cancer in the brain
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20144-w The mechanisms underlying the growth of breast cancer metastasis in the brain are unclear. Here, the authors use an intracranial injection mouse model and single-cell analysis of patient circulating tumour cells to demonstrate that increased hypoxic and HIF1A signalling promotes tumour growth in the brain.
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Martin Hutchings på ASH: Højere end forventet responsrater med nyt Genmab-middel
Et bispecifikt antistof fra Genmab viser i forsøg med patienter med svær at behandle relaps eller refraktær non-Hodgkins lymfom overraskende gode resultater. Studiet blev præsenteret på ASH af overlæge fra Rigshospitalet.
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Covid vaccine from China's Sinopharm is 86% effective, says UAE
Health ministry says its studies show similar results to pharma group's interim analysis of phase 3 trial
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UK regulator issues allergy warning on Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine
People with 'significant' history of allergies told to avoid jab after 2 NHS staff suffer adverse reactions
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Green pandemic recovery essential to close climate action gap – UN report
* Green pandemic recovery can bring 2030 emissions close to levels needed for 2°C goal, with more needed for 1.5°C goal* Pandemic-linked fall in 2020 emissions of up to 7% will have negligible impact on climate change* New net-zero pledges welcome, but need to be reflected in countries' commitments under the Paris Agreement and backed with rapid action
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Southern Hemisphere westerly winds likely to intensify as climate warms
Polar climate scientists have created the most high resolution past record of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds. The results, published this week (9 December) in the journal Communications Earth and Environment, describe how the winds are likely to intensify and migrate poleward as the climate warms. The study highlights the urgent need for better models to predict the future.
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Fatty residues on ancient pottery reveal meat-heavy diets of Indus Civilization
New lipid residue analyses have revealed a dominance of animal products, such as the meat of animals like pigs, cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat as well as dairy products, used in ancient ceramic vessels from rural and urban settlements of the Indus Civilisation in north-west India, the present-day states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
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CAR-T-celleterapi viser lovende resultater som behandling af non-Hodgkins lymfom
Data fra et fase 2-studie med en CAR T-celleterapi (axicabtagene ciloleucel) som behandling til patienter med refraktær eller relaps non-Hodgkins lymfom tegner godt.
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The Secret to Beating the Electoral College
On Monday, 538 Americans will convene in state capitols across the country, swear an oath to uphold the Constitution, and cast the most consequential yet utterly anticlimactic votes of the 2020 election. These are the electors, the members of the Electoral College, who will take one of the final, formal steps in making Joe Biden the 46th president of the United States and ending President Donald
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Climate change: Global 'elite' will need to slash high-carbon lifestyles
The world's wealthiest will need to limit emissions if the world is to avoid dangerous warming.
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Experts Push for New Cancer Drug Dosing Recommendations
Common oral cancer drugs are often prescribed at the highest tolerated dose, which must be taken while fasting, despite studies suggesting that lower doses might be just as effective and less risky. Ingesting more drug than necessary can not only be dangerous, some oncologists say, but wasteful.
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How showing remorse can save your relationships
Forgiveness as a cultural act linked to religion and philosophy dates back centuries, but studies focused on the science of apologies, morality, and relationships are fairly new. As Amrisha Vaish explains, causing harm, showing remorse, and feeling concern for others are things children pay attention to, even in their first year of life. In a series of experiments, adults ripped children's artwor
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Ingen sammenhæng mellem enzymaktivitet og bivirkninger ved asparaginasebehandling
Patienter med akut lymfatisk leukæmi har stor risiko for at udvikle bivirkninger ved behandling med asparaginase. Men høj enzymaktivitet under behandlingen øger ikke risikoen, viser et nyt stort, danskledet studie.
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Social Inequities Explain Racial Gaps in Pandemic, Studies Find
Higher rates of infection and mortality among Black and Hispanic Americans are explained by exposure on the job and at home, experts said.
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Diversity in technology must go beyond gender
The UAE Mars mission used the expertise of different ages, nationalities and backgrounds
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Researchers develop rapid genomics strategy to trace coronavirus
Thanks to cutting-edge 'Nanopore' genome sequencing technology, researchers at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research and the Kirby Institute at UNSW Sydney have developed the most rapid coronavirus genome sequencing strategy in Australia to date. The technological advance has the potential to provide critical, timely clues on how cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection are linked.
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Fatty residues on ancient pottery reveal meat-heavy diets of Indus Civilization
New lipid residue analyses have revealed a dominance of animal products, such as the meat of animals like pigs, cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat as well as dairy products, used in ancient ceramic vessels from rural and urban settlements of the Indus Civilisation in north-west India, the present-day states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
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Researchers develop rapid genomics strategy to trace coronavirus
Thanks to cutting-edge 'Nanopore' genome sequencing technology, researchers at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research and the Kirby Institute at UNSW Sydney have developed the most rapid coronavirus genome sequencing strategy in Australia to date. The technological advance has the potential to provide critical, timely clues on how cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection are linked.
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Første succesfulde andenlinjebehandling af GVH
Lægemidlet ruxolitinib var i et studie i stand til at lindre symptomerne på graft-versus-host sygdom (GVH) hos dobbelt så mange patienter som den hidtil bedst mulige behandling til patientgruppen.
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Corona har ikke ændret FN's klimanødråb: Kloden er på vej mod tre graders opvarmning
Coronakrisen har kun betydet en sænkelse af temperaturstigningerne på 0,01 grader.
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DSAM vil lave en ny vejledning om angst, depression og stress
Dansk Selskab for Almen Medicin har besluttet at nedsætte en arbejdsgruppe, der skal samle diagnoserne angst, depression og stress i en ny klinisk vejledning til praktiserende læger. Der er ofte tale om overlappende tilstande, som giver anledning til mange kontakter til egen læge, lyder forklaringen.
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Carbon capture a tool in climate fight, but at what cost?
Technology for capturing carbon from industrial emissions and storing it may still be in its early stages, but proponents believe it can become a major tool in the fight against climate change.
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'Net zero' climate targets? Read the fine print
The worldwide effort to prevent Earth from becoming an unlivable hothouse is in the grips of "net zero" fever.
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New Zealand marks 'devastating' volcano eruption anniversary
New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern paid emotional tribute to victims of the White Island volcano eruption Wednesday on the first anniversary of the disaster that claimed 22 lives.
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'Sabre-toothed tiger' skeleton sells for $70,000
A nearly 40-million-year-old skeleton belonging to what is popularly called a sabre-toothed tiger has sold for almost $70,000, a year after its discovery on a US ranch.
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Test flight of SpaceX's Starship aborted at last second
The first high-altitude test flight of SpaceX's futuristic Starship was aborted at the last second in Texas on Tuesday.
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Algoritm förutsäger individuell alzheimer-risk
Omkring 50 miljoner människor i världen beräknas leva med någon slags demens, och Alzheimers sjukdom står för mellan 50 och 70 procent av fallen. Sjukdomen utvecklas ofta smygande, där de inledningsvis harmlösa minnesproblemen gradvis blir allt värre. Oskar Hansson, professor i neurologi vid Lunds universitet och överläkare vid enheten för klinisk minnesforskning vid Skånes universitetssjukhus, ar
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Reductive stress in neuroblastoma cells aggregates protein and impairs neurogenesis
Cells require a balance among oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox homeostasis. Loss of that balance to create oxidative stress is often associated with neurodegeneration. Less is known about how loss of that balance at the other end of the spectrum—reductive stress, or RS—may affect neurons.
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Toyota unveils new fuel cell car in fresh push on hydrogen technology
submitted by /u/MichaelTen [link] [comments]
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Tech News: Cybersecurity, Hardware, and Satellite Internet
submitted by /u/Fozzation [link] [comments]
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Chinese scientists make world's first light-based quantum computer
submitted by /u/Shradha_Singh [link] [comments]
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Researchers discover treatment that suppresses liver cancer
submitted by /u/Sorin61 [link] [comments]
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U.S. physicists rally around ambitious plan to build fusion power plant
submitted by /u/MichaelTen [link] [comments]
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Virtual Observatory Using Existing Smartphone Technology
I just want to start off by saying that any app made to do this would have to secure a person's privacy as a priority. That said it seems to me that the various sensors on a Smartphone should be able to provide useful observations given the accuracy they now have in terms of position. To start I think you could make a pretty incredible planet size radio observatory using the data from Smartphones
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Twitter billionaire Jack Dorsey gives U.S. mayors $15M to fund basic income
submitted by /u/monkfreedom [link] [comments]
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First Electric 'Smart Tractor's was unveiled today.
submitted by /u/bbshot [link] [comments]
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Elementary particles part ways with their properties
submitted by /u/Memetic1 [link] [comments]
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Airbus bets on hydrogen to deliver zero-emission jets
submitted by /u/altmorty [link] [comments]
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The coming war on the hidden algorithms that trap people in poverty
submitted by /u/Just_Another_AI [link] [comments]
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Microsoft files patent to create chatbots from your dead loved ones
submitted by /u/DMattin [link] [comments]
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Reductive stress in neuroblastoma cells aggregates protein and impairs neurogenesis
Cells require a balance among oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox homeostasis. Loss of that balance to create oxidative stress is often associated with neurodegeneration. Less is known about how loss of that balance at the other end of the spectrum—reductive stress, or RS—may affect neurons.
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Why do elephants and tigers still roam in India? Study offers clues
Tropical Asia and Africa are the only regions on Earth that retain diverse populations of large, land-dwelling mammals, such as elephants, rhinos, and big cats. A new study co-authored by Yale researcher Advait M. Jukar suggests that the persistence of mammalian megafauna in the Indian Subcontinent is related to the great beasts' long coexistence there with homo sapiens and other human ancestors.
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AGU panel explores environmental impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, as observed from space
COVID-19 has changed the way we live and work, as various health and safety restrictions keep more of us at home more often. The resulting changes to our behavior are already impacting the environment around us in myriad ways, according to comparisons of remote sensing data before and during the pandemic collected by NASA, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and ESA (European Space Agency) Earth-observ
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Colorado mountains bouncing back from 'acid rain' impacts
A long-term trend of ecological improvement is appearing in the mountains west of Boulder. Researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder have found that Niwot Ridge—a high alpine area of the Rocky Mountains, east of the Continental Divide—is slowly recovering from increased acidity caused by vehicle emissions in Colorado's Front Range.
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Team discovers light-driven catalyst forms olefins for drug, agrochemical manufacturing
Inspired by light-sensing bacteria that thrive near hot oceanic vents, synthetic chemists at Rice University have found a mild method to make valuable hydrocarbons known as olefins, or alkenes.
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Nytt exakt blodprov hittar alzheimer tidigt
För att ställa diagnosen Alzheimers sjukdom har det hittills krävts kostsamma PET-undersökningar av hjärnan eller prov från ryggvätskan. Nu har svenska forskare utvecklat fungerande blodtester.
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Microbes and plants: A dynamic duo
Drought stress has been a major roadblock in crop success, and this obstacle will not disappear anytime soon. Luckily, a dynamic duo like Batman and Robin, certain root-associated microbes and the plants they inhabit, are here to help.
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Several US populations and regions exposed to high arsenic concentrations in drinking water
A new national study of public water systems found that arsenic levels were not uniform across the U.S., even after implementation of the latest national regulatory standard. In the first study to assess differences in public drinking water arsenic exposures by geographic subgroups, researchers at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health confirmed there are inequalities in drinking wate
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Microbes and plants: A dynamic duo
Drought stress has been a major roadblock in crop success, and this obstacle will not disappear anytime soon. Luckily, a dynamic duo like Batman and Robin, certain root-associated microbes and the plants they inhabit, are here to help.
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Spørg Fagfolket: Kunne minkene ikke være blevet til biogas?
En læser undrer sig – og svaret har noget at gøre med kogalskab.
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The use of wild mammals in traditional medicine
In an analysis of published research, investigators identified 565 mammalian species that have been used to source products used in traditional medicine around the world, especially in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The analysis, which is published in Mammal Review, also found that 155 of these mammalian species are considered threatened (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered), and a
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The use of wild mammals in traditional medicine
In an analysis of published research, investigators identified 565 mammalian species that have been used to source products used in traditional medicine around the world, especially in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The analysis, which is published in Mammal Review, also found that 155 of these mammalian species are considered threatened (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered), and a
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Understanding COVID-19 infection and possible mutations
The binding of a SARS-CoV-2 virus surface protein spike—a projection from the spherical virus particle—to the human cell surface protein ACE2 is the first step to infection that may lead to COVID-19 disease. Penn State researchers computationally assessed how changes to the virus spike makeup can affect binding with ACE2 and compared results to those of the original SARS-CoV virus (SARS).
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Understanding COVID-19 infection and possible mutations
The binding of a SARS-CoV-2 virus surface protein spike—a projection from the spherical virus particle—to the human cell surface protein ACE2 is the first step to infection that may lead to COVID-19 disease. Penn State researchers computationally assessed how changes to the virus spike makeup can affect binding with ACE2 and compared results to those of the original SARS-CoV virus (SARS).
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Podd: När våldet sker i en nära relation
Ungefär en femtedel av de anmälda misshandelsbrotten handlar om misshandel av en närstående och var 15:e person uppger sig ha blivit utsatt för brott i en relation. Vilken typ av brott handlar det om, vad ska sjukvården vara uppmärksam på och går det att förebygga dödligt våld i nära relationer?
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Kinesisk kvantecomputer løser et problem som er umuligt for traditionelle supercomputeree
PLUS. Med en optisk kvantecomputer har forskerne fundet løsningen til et problem, som kaldes boson sampling, som er overmåde svært for klassiske computere.
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Chuck Yeager: First pilot to fly supersonic dies aged 97
The US pilot broke the sound barrier in 1947, helping to pave the way for America's space programme.
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Ridley Scott on sci-fi epic Raised By Wolves: 'Watch it with three bottles of wine!'
The director is returning to TV after 50 years, with a drama about two androids raising humans on a far planet. He talks about working through lockdown, doing big adverts for China – and living on £75 a week The lead character in Raised By Wolves is Mother, an android tasked with bringing up a young human family on a faraway planet. But things soon go wrong. Mother starts wildly overreacting to t
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Filming roaming molecular fragments in real time
An international research team has captured roaming molecular fragments for the first time.
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Can sting rays and electric rays help us map the ocean floor?
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan have completed a feasibility study indicating that electric rays and sting rays equipped with pingers will be able to map the seabed through natural exploration.
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How blood and wealth can predict future disability
Research shows that blood tests for biomarkers such as cholesterol and inflammation can predict disability in five years.Researchers studied blood biomarkers of 5,286 participants involved in the UK Household Longitudinal Study – and found that biological health can predict disability and healthcare demand in five years' time.They also found that people on higher-incomes were more likely to seek G
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The ethics of human challenge trials
The first human challenge trial to test COVID-19 treatments and vaccines is set to begin in January in the United Kingdom. Daniel Hausman, a research professor at Rutgers Center for Population-Level Bioethics discussed the findings of his recently published paper in the Journal of Medicine & Philosophy examining ethical issues of challenge trials.
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Microbes and plants: A dynamic duo
The unique partnership between root-dwelling microbes and the plants they inhabit can reduce drought stress.
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Evolution may be to blame for high risk of advanced cancers in humans
UC San Diego researchers discovered that most people no longer produce the Siglec-12 protein, but some of those who do are at twice the risk for advanced cancer.
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The use of wild mammals in traditional medicine
In an analysis of published research, investigators identified 565 mammalian species that have been used to source products used in traditional medicine around the world, especially in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
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Program reduces social isolation among middle-aged and older adults
An existing service in the North West of England called Community Connectors, which enables adults to access social activities within their community, can help reduce loneliness and social isolation, according to an analysis published in Health & Social Care in the Community.
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Several U.S. populations and regions exposed to high arsenic concentrations in drinking water
A national study of public water systems found that arsenic levels were not uniform across the U.S., even after implementation of the latest national regulatory standard. In the first study of differences in public drinking water arsenic exposures by geographic subgroups, researchers confirmed that community water systems reliant on groundwater, serving smaller populations located in the Southwest
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Exercise may protect bone health after weight loss surgery
Although weight loss surgery is a highly effective treatment for obesity, it can be detrimental to bone health. A new study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research suggests that exercise may help address this shortcoming.
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Researchers call for clarity on the definition of medicine misuse
A recent analysis of published studies provides a comprehensive overview of the terms and definitions used to characterize medicine misuse. The findings are published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
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Life expectancy and healthcare costs for patients with rheumatoid arthritis
A new study published in Arthritis & Rheumatology suggests that recent advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis have prolonged patients' lives but also increased healthcare costs.
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Uniquely human gene may drive numerous cancers
A new study published in FASEB BioAdvances reveals a human-specific connection between advanced carcinomas and a gene called SIGLEC12.
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Nearly 72% of Black patients with gynecologic cancer and COVID-19 were hospitalized for the virus compared with 46 percent of non-Blacks
COVID-19 deaths among Black patients with gynecologic cancer disproportionately higher compared to non-Black patients.
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Many older adults hospitalized with the flu face persistent functional decline
In a study of older adults admitted to the hospital with influenza and other acute respiratory illnesses during the 2011-2012 flu season, functional decline was common–and for some, this decline was persistent and catastrophic. The findings are published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
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Hidden symmetry could be key to more robust quantum systems, researchers find
Researchers have found a way to protect highly fragile quantum systems from noise, which could aid in the design and development of new quantum devices, such as ultra-powerful quantum computers.
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Charles Darwin was right about why insects are losing the ability to fly
Most insects can fly. Yet scores of species have lost that extraordinary ability, particularly on islands.
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Nine out of 10 in poor nations to miss out on inoculation as west buys up Covid vaccines
Billions unlikely to get jabs as rich countries secure 53% of most promising vaccines Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Nine out of 10 people in 70 low-income countries are unlikely to be vaccinated against Covid-19 next year because the majority of the most promising vaccines coming on-stream have been bought up by the west, campaigners have said. As the first people
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Hidden symmetry could be key to more robust quantum systems, researchers find
Researchers have found a way to protect highly fragile quantum systems from noise, which could aid in the design and development of new quantum devices, such as ultra-powerful quantum computers.
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​Amazon devices have colonized homes. 'Smart neighborhoods' may be next
Speaking at Web Summit 2020 , David Limp, the senior vice president of Devices and Services at Amazon, suggested that the company is aiming to build smart devices that would operate in neighborhoods. Amazon recently began rolling out Sidewalk, which aims to create a shared, intermediate-range network powered by Amazon devices. Sidewalk, which lets nearby devices access your Wi-Fi, raises numerous
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The Privacy Mismatch: Evolved Intuitions in a Digitial World
submitted by /u/MaxDemian_ [link] [comments]
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Recommendations for cog sci/linguistics grad programs?
Looking for recommendations for interdisciplinary two-year Master's programs with their focus on cognitive science (preferably with a linguistics/language focus. With the possibility of good lab experience, internships, collaborative work as a part of the course. My undergrad education is in Philosophy (international candidate). My interests are on the intersections of cog sci, discourse analysis
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Mount Everest Has Officially Grown Taller in 2020
The highest point on Earth is now almost 3 feet higher.
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Kartrevolution med miljödata och AI
På svenska terrängkartor finns bara en femtedel av alla vattendrag markerade. Nya digitala kartor ska göra det lättare att se om svampturen kräver stövlar eller om det räcker med gympaskor. När man går efter karta i skogen dröjer det inte länge förrän man hittar en bäck som inte finns med på kartan. Nu lanserar SLU i samarbete med Skogsstyrelsen nya digitala kartor som ger en mer fullständig bild
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Lektor: Kommuner vælger Facebook over borgernes databeskyttelse
Kommuner bør stoppe med at bruge Facebook, vurderer eksperter i persondataret, for det opfordrer borgere til at udlevere data til en virksomhed, der går på kompromis med databeskyttelsen.
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Udbygning med biogasanlæg er løbet løbsk – milliard-regning i vente
PLUS. Nye fremskrivninger viser, at der er blevet etableret væsentligt flere, støtteberettigede biogasanlæg end forventet – og at støtten vil stige med 6,6 mia. kroner frem mod 2030. Enhedslisten vil modregne midler fra sommerens klimaaftale.
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Vind med Ingeniørens julekalender: 9. december
Vær med i Ingeniørens julekalender 2020. Hver dag med nye præmier!
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Trial of a universal flu vaccine shows promise
A new study has demonstrated the effectiveness of a potentially universal flu vaccine. By focusing on a nearly unchanging part of the virus, a single shot could be effective against a wide variety of strains. It will be at least another few years before you can get one. While there are insinuations that the flu is a mild disease not to be worried about, it is in fact a disease that kills hundreds
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New study allows regional prediction of uranium in groundwater
Researchers can predict where and when uranium is released into aquifers and suggest an easy fix to keep this naturally occurring toxin from contaminating water sources.
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New study allows regional prediction of uranium in groundwater
Researchers can predict where and when uranium is released into aquifers and suggest an easy fix to keep this naturally occurring toxin from contaminating water sources.
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Russia's FireEye Hack Is a Statement—but Not a Catastrophe
The fallout from the attack may not be as dire as it first sounds.
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The threat of antibiotic resistance — in charts
Detailed information is starting to emerge on the problem and how to combat it
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Covid delays India's attempts to curb widespread overuse of antibiotics
Some hospital schemes encourage proper antimicrobial stewardship but progress has been slow
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Climate change: Low-carbon revolution 'cheaper than thought'
The UK can make major cuts to carbon emissions more cheaply than previously thought.
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The Atlantic Daily: Joe Biden Explains His Secretary-of-Defense Pick
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox . The ATLANTIC 43 days. President-elect Joe Biden takes office in a month and half. In the meantime, his transition team is working to staff the executive branch. As my colleague Russell Berman poi
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Colorado mountains bouncing back from 'acid rain' impacts
Niwot Ridge in the Rocky Mountains is slowly recovering from increased acidity caused by vehicle emissions in Colorado's Front Range, suggesting that alpine regions across the Mountain West may be recovering. This is good news for the wildlife and wildflowers of Rocky Mountain National Park and for water sources that supply the Front Range and the Mountain West.
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The Christchurch Shooter and YouTube's Radicalization Trap
The platform has gotten better about stamping out extremist content. But researchers say its policies and algorithms are still too opaque.
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Study: These personality traits predict early career success
A 12-year longitudinal study found that personality changes in teens predicted important early career outcomes. Growth in extroversion, conscientiousness, and emotional stability showed the strongest effects. While personality traits have been shown to be relatively stable, they can also be developed throughout our lifetimes. What propels some young adults to successful careers and life satisfact
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New definition of sustainability overcomes flaw hampering global transformation efforts
An interdisciplinary team led by Senior Researcher Dr. Christoph Rupprecht (FEAST Project, RIHN) has revealed a new definition of sustainability that expands the concept to non-human species and their needs. The new definition, published in Global Sustainability, addresses a critical flaw in the original concept of sustainability that was hindering global transformation efforts. Examples from land
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Dogs may never learn that every sound of a word matters
Despite their excellent auditory capacities, dogs do not attend to differences between words which differ only in one speech sound (e.g. dog vs dig), according to a new study by Hungarian researchers measuring brain activity with non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) on awake dogs. This might be a reason why the number of words dogs learn to recognize typically remains very low throughout thei
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Coronavirus live news: UK science chief warns Britons may still need masks next winter; Rudy Giuliani to leave hospital
US cases pass 15m; North Korea lashes out at South Korea over zero cases doubt; Giuliani expects to leave hospital on Wednesday UK woman becomes first in world to receive Pfizer jab Oxford AstraZeneca Covid vaccine has 70% efficacy, full trial data shows FDA: Pfizer Covid vaccine data fits with guidance Slovakia's mass testing cut infection rate by 60%, researchers say See all our coronavirus cov
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Mechanisms by which adiponectin reverses high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice [Medical Sciences]
Adiponectin has emerged as a potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the molecular mechanism by which adiponectin reverses insulin resistance remains unclear. Two weeks of globular adiponectin (gAcrp30) treatment reduced fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride (TAG), and insulin concentrations and reversed whole-body insulin resistance, which could be attributed to…
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The interrelationship between the face and vocal tract configuration during audiovisual speech [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
It is well established that speech perception is improved when we are able to see the speaker talking along with hearing their voice, especially when the speech is noisy. While we have a good understanding of where speech integration occurs in the brain, it is unclear how visual and auditory…
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IL-4/STAT6 signaling facilitates innate hematoma resolution and neurological recovery after hemorrhagic stroke in mice [Neuroscience]
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke affecting millions of people worldwide. Parenchymal hematoma triggers a series of reactions leading to primary and secondary brain injuries and permanent neurological deficits. Microglia and macrophages carry out hematoma clearance, thereby facilitating functional recovery after ICH. Here, we elucidate a pivotal…
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MicroED structure of lipid-embedded mammalian mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel [Biochemistry]
A structure of the murine voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) was determined by microcrystal electron diffraction (MicroED). Microcrystals of an essential mutant of VDAC grew in a viscous bicelle suspension, making it unsuitable for conventional X-ray crystallography. Thin, plate-like crystals were identified using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). Crystals were milled into thin…
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Quantifying the dynamics of migration after Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico [Population Biology]
Population displacement may occur after natural disasters, permanently altering the demographic composition of the affected regions. Measuring this displacement is vital for both optimal postdisaster resource allocation and calculation of measures of public health interest such as mortality estimates. Here, we analyzed data generated by mobile phones and social media…
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The importance of "year zero" in interdisciplinary studies of climate and history [Perspectives]
The mathematical aberration of the Gregorian chronology's missing "year zero" retains enduring potential to sow confusion in studies of paleoclimatology and environmental ancient history. The possibility of dating error is especially high when pre-Common Era proxy evidence from tree rings, ice cores, radiocarbon dates, and documentary sources is integrated. This…
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Dynamics of RNA polymerase II and elongation factor Spt4/5 recruitment during activator-dependent transcription [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (RNApII) transcribes messenger RNA from template DNA. Decades of experiments have identified the proteins needed for transcription activation, initiation complex assembly, and productive elongation. However, the dynamics of recruitment of these proteins to transcription complexes, and of the transitions between these steps, are poorly understood….
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A long noncoding RNA, LncMyoD, modulates chromatin accessibility to regulate muscle stem cell myogenic lineage progression [Developmental Biology]
Epigenetics regulation plays a critical role in determining cell identity by controlling the accessibility of lineage-specific regulatory regions. In muscle stem cells, epigenetic mechanisms of how chromatin accessibility is modulated during cell fate determination are not fully understood. Here, we identified a long noncoding RNA, LncMyoD, that functions as a…
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Guanine, a high-capacity and rapid-turnover nitrogen reserve in microalgal cells [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for microalgae, influencing their productivity, composition, and growth dynamics. Despite the dramatic consequences of N starvation, many free-living and endosymbiotic microalgae thrive in N-poor and N-fluctuating environments, giving rise to questions about the existence and nature of their long-term N reserves. Our understanding of…
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Mesyl phosphoramidate backbone modified antisense oligonucleotides targeting miR-21 with enhanced in vivo therapeutic potency [Biochemistry]
The design of modified oligonucleotides that combine in one molecule several therapeutically beneficial properties still poses a major challenge. Recently a new type of modified mesyl phosphoramidate (or µ-) oligonucleotide was described that demonstrates high affinity to RNA, exceptional nuclease resistance, efficient recruitment of RNase H, and potent inhibition of…
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Coupled impacts of sea ice variability and North Pacific atmospheric circulation on Holocene hydroclimate in Arctic Alaska [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Arctic Alaska lies at a climatological crossroads between the Arctic and North Pacific Oceans. The modern hydroclimate of the region is responding to rapidly diminishing sea ice, driven in part by changes in heat flux from the North Pacific. Paleoclimate reconstructions have improved our knowledge of Alaska's hydroclimate, but no…
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Transfer RNA fragments replace microRNA regulators of the cholinergic poststroke immune blockade [Medical Sciences]
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Recovery depends on a delicate balance between inflammatory responses and immune suppression, tipping the scale between brain protection and susceptibility to infection. Peripheral cholinergic blockade of immune reactions fine-tunes this immune response, but its molecular regulators are unknown. Here, we report…
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Geochemical transition zone powering microbial growth in subsurface sediments [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
No other environment hosts as many microbial cells as the marine sedimentary biosphere. While the majority of these cells are expected to be alive, they are speculated to be persisting in a state of maintenance without net growth due to extreme starvation. Here, we report evidence for in situ growth…
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The plasticity of well-being: A training-based framework for the cultivation of human flourishing [Perspectives]
Research indicates that core dimensions of psychological well-being can be cultivated through intentional mental training. Despite growing research in this area and an increasing number of interventions designed to improve psychological well-being, the field lacks a unifying framework that clarifies the dimensions of human flourishing that can be cultivated. Here,…
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Histone variants in archaea and the evolution of combinatorial chromatin complexity [Evolution]
Nucleosomes in eukaryotes act as platforms for the dynamic integration of epigenetic information. Posttranslational modifications are reversibly added or removed and core histones exchanged for paralogous variants, in concert with changing demands on transcription and genome accessibility. Histones are also common in archaea. Their role in genome regulation, however, and…
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DIA-based systems biology approach unveils E3 ubiquitin ligase-dependent responses to a metabolic shift [Systems Biology]
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model system for systems-wide biology screens and large-scale proteomics methods. Nearly complete proteomics coverage has been achieved owing to advances in mass spectrometry. However, it remains challenging to scale this technology for rapid and high-throughput analysis of the yeast proteome to investigate biological…
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Crystal structure of the FERM-folded talin head reveals the determinants for integrin binding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Binding of the intracellular adapter proteins talin and its cofactor, kindlin, to the integrin receptors induces integrin activation and clustering. These processes are essential for cell adhesion, migration, and organ development. Although the talin head, the integrin-binding segment in talin, possesses a typical FERM-domain sequence, a truncated form has been…
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Dissociating antibacterial from ototoxic effects of gentamicin C-subtypes [Cell Biology]
Gentamicin is a potent broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic whose use is hampered by ototoxic side-effects. Hospital gentamicin is a mixture of five gentamicin C-subtypes and several impurities of various ranges of nonexact concentrations. We developed a purification strategy enabling assaying of individual C-subtypes and impurities for ototoxicity and antimicrobial activity. We…
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Comparing crime rates between undocumented immigrants, legal immigrants, and native-born US citizens in Texas [Social Sciences]
We make use of uniquely comprehensive arrest data from the Texas Department of Public Safety to compare the criminality of undocumented immigrants to legal immigrants and native-born US citizens between 2012 and 2018. We find that undocumented immigrants have substantially lower crime rates than native-born citizens and legal immigrants across…
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The role of third parties in norm enforcement in customary courts among the Enga of Papua New Guinea [Anthropology]
Cultural norms are key to cooperation in human societies. How they are regulated, maintained, and adapted to the change remains a matter of debate. Humans have dispositions for both retributive and restorative justice; recent focus has been on third-party punishment, punitive sanctions by those not directly harmed, as key for…
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Identification of signaling pathways, matrix-digestion enzymes, and motility components controlling Vibrio cholerae biofilm dispersal [Microbiology]
Bacteria alternate between being free-swimming and existing as members of sessile multicellular communities called biofilms. The biofilm lifecycle occurs in three stages: cell attachment, biofilm maturation, and biofilm dispersal. Vibrio cholerae biofilms are hyperinfectious, and biofilm formation and dispersal are considered central to disease transmission. While biofilm formation is well…
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Direct visualization of translational GTPase factor pool formed around the archaeal ribosomal P-stalk by high-speed AFM [Biochemistry]
In translation elongation, two translational guanosine triphosphatase (trGTPase) factors EF1A and EF2 alternately bind to the ribosome and promote polypeptide elongation. The ribosomal stalk is a multimeric ribosomal protein complex which plays an essential role in the recruitment of EF1A and EF2 to the ribosome and their GTP hydrolysis for…
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BAM1/2 receptor kinase signaling drives CLE peptide-mediated formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis roots [Plant Biology]
Cell division is often regulated by extracellular signaling networks to ensure correct patterning during development. In Arabidopsis, the SHORT-ROOT (SHR)/SCARECROW (SCR) transcription factor dimer activates CYCLIND6;1 (CYCD6;1) to drive formative divisions during root ground tissue development. Here, we show plasma-membrane-localized BARELY ANY MERISTEM1/2 (BAM1/2) family receptor kinases are req
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Stable maintenance of multiple representational formats in human visual short-term memory [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables humans to form a stable and coherent representation of the external world. However, the nature and temporal dynamics of the neural representations in VSTM that support this stability are barely understood. Here we combined human intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings with analyses using deep neural networks…
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Upregulation of a KN1 homolog by transposon insertion promotes leafy head development in lettuce [Plant Biology]
Leafy head is a unique type of plant architecture found in some vegetable crops, with leaves bending inward to form a compact head. The genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying leafy head in vegetables remain poorly understood. We genetically fine-mapped and cloned a major quantitative trait locus controlling heading in lettuce….
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Reconstructing orogens without biostratigraphy: The Saharides and continental growth during the final assembly of Gondwana-Land [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
A hitherto unknown Neoproterozoic orogenic system, the Saharides, is described in North Africa. It formed during the 900–500-Ma interval. The Saharides involved large subduction accretion complexes occupying almost the entire Arabian Shield and much of Egypt and parts of the small Precambrian inliers in the Sahara including the Ahaggar mountains….
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Pharmacoproteomics pinpoints HSP70 interaction for correction of the most frequent Wilson disease-causing mutant of ATP7B [Cell Biology]
Pathogenic mutations in the copper transporter ATP7B have been hypothesized to affect its protein interaction landscape contributing to loss of function and, thereby, to hepatic copper toxicosis in Wilson disease. Although targeting mutant interactomes was proposed as a therapeutic strategy, druggable interactors for rescue of ATP7B mutants remain elusive. Using…
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Nanoscale morphological evolution of monocrystalline Pt surfaces during cathodic corrosion [Chemistry]
This paper studies the cathodic corrosion of a spherical single crystal of platinum in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte, to map out the detailed facet dependence of the corrosion structures forming during this still largely unexplored electrochemical phenomenon. We find that anisotropic corrosion of the platinum electrode takes place in different…
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Glucose-TOR signaling regulates PIN2 stability to orchestrate auxin gradient and cell expansion in Arabidopsis root [Plant Biology]
The plant growth hormone auxin controls cell identity, cell division, and expansion. In the primary root of Arabidopsis there is a robust auxin gradient with a peak concentration at the tip of the meristem and a significant decrease throughout the elongation zone. The molecular mechanisms of how such a steep…
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Ancestral genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity underlies rapid evolutionary changes in resurrected populations of waterfleas [Evolution]
The role of phenotypic plasticity in adaptive evolution has been debated for decades. This is because the strength of natural selection is dependent on the direction and magnitude of phenotypic responses to environmental signals. Therefore, the connection between plasticity and adaptation will depend on the patterns of plasticity harbored by…
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Cortical tension overrides geometrical cues to orient microtubules in confined protoplasts [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
In plant cells, cortical microtubules (CMTs) generally control morphogenesis by guiding cellulose synthesis. CMT alignment has been proposed to depend on geometrical cues, with microtubules aligning with the cell long axis in silico and in vitro. Yet, CMTs are usually transverse in vivo, i.e., along predicted maximal tension, which is…
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The V2 loop of HIV gp120 delivers costimulatory signals to CD4+ T cells through Integrin {alpha}4{beta}7 and promotes cellular activation and infection [Immunology and Inflammation]
Acute HIV infection is characterized by rapid viral seeding of immunologic inductive sites in the gut followed by the severe depletion of gut CD4+ T cells. Trafficking of α4β7-expressing lymphocytes to the gut is mediated by MAdCAM, the natural ligand of α4β7 that is expressed on gut endothelial cells. MAdCAM…
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Evolutionary novelty in the apoptotic pathway of aphids [Evolution]
Apoptosis, a conserved form of programmed cell death, shows interspecies differences that may reflect evolutionary diversification and adaptation, a notion that remains largely untested. Among insects, the most speciose animal group, the apoptotic pathway has only been fully characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, and apoptosis-related proteins have been studied in a…
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Early specialized maritime and maize economies on the north coast of Peru [Anthropology]
We assess diet and economies of middle Holocene (∼7,500 to 4,000 calibrated [cal] B.P.) humans at coexisting mound sites (Huaca Prieta and Paredones) in north coastal Peru and document regular consumption of maize by ∼6,500 to 6,000 cal B.P. and its earliest use as a staple food in this area…
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The porphyrin ring rather than the metal ion dictates long-range electron transport across proteins suggesting coherence-assisted mechanism [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The fundamental biological process of electron transfer (ET) takes place across proteins with common ET pathways of several nanometers. Recent discoveries push this limit and show long-range extracellular ET over several micrometers. Here, we aim in deciphering how protein-bound intramolecular cofactors can facilitate such long-range ET. In contrast to natural…
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Why wild giant pandas frequently roll in horse manure [Ecology]
Attraction to feces in wild mammalian species is extremely rare. Here we introduce the horse manure rolling (HMR) behavior of wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Pandas not only frequently sniffed and wallowed in fresh horse manure, but also actively rubbed the fecal matter all over their bodies. The frequency of…
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Fluid interfaces with very sharp tips in viscous flow [Applied Mathematics]
When a fluid interface is subjected to a strong viscous flow, it tends to develop near-conical ends with pointed tips so sharp that their radius of curvature is undetectable. In microfluidic applications, tips can be made to eject fine jets, from which micrometer-sized drops can be produced. Here we show…
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Linking 19th century European settlement to the disruption of a seabird's natural population dynamics [Sustainability Science]
Recent estimates indicate that ∼70% of the world's seabird populations have declined since the 1950s due to human activities. However, for almost all bird populations, there is insufficient long-term monitoring to understand baseline (i.e., preindustrial) conditions, which are required to distinguish natural versus anthropogenically driven changes. Here, we address this…
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Global trends in nature's contributions to people [Sustainability Science]
Declining biodiversity and ecosystem functions put many of nature's contributions to people at risk. We review and synthesize the scientific literature to assess 50-y global trends across a broad range of nature's contributions. We distinguish among trends in potential and realized contributions of nature, as well as environmental conditions and…
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ARP2/3-independent WAVE/SCAR pathway and class XI myosin control sperm nuclear migration in flowering plants [Plant Biology]
After eukaryotic fertilization, gamete nuclei migrate to fuse parental genomes in order to initiate development of the next generation. In most animals, microtubules control female and male pronuclear migration in the zygote. Flowering plants, on the other hand, have evolved actin filament (F-actin)-based sperm nuclear migration systems for karyogamy. Flowering…
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A Middle Eocene lowland humid subtropical "Shangri-La" ecosystem in central Tibet [Ecology]
Tibet's ancient topography and its role in climatic and biotic evolution remain speculative due to a paucity of quantitative surface-height measurements through time and space, and sparse fossil records. However, newly discovered fossils from a present elevation of ∼4,850 m in central Tibet improve substantially our knowledge of the ancient…
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Communication hubs of an asocial cat are the source of a human-carnivore conflict and key to its solution [Ecology]
Human–wildlife conflicts occur worldwide. Although many nonlethal mitigation solutions are available, they rarely use the behavioral ecology of the conflict species to derive effective and long-lasting solutions. Here, we use a long-term study with 106 GPS-collared free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to demonstrate how new insights into the socio-spatial organization of…
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The mechanoresponse of bone is closely related to the osteocyte lacunocanalicular network architecture [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Organisms rely on mechanosensing mechanisms to adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Fluid-filled network structures not only ensure efficient transport but can also be employed for mechanosensation. The lacunocanalicular network (LCN) is a fluid-filled network structure, which pervades our bones and accommodates a cell network of osteocytes. For the…
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Clinically approved IVIg delivered to the hippocampus with focused ultrasound promotes neurogenesis in a model of Alzheimer's disease [Neuroscience]
Preclinical and clinical data support the use of focused ultrasound (FUS), in the presence of intravenously injected microbubbles, to safely and transiently increase the permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). FUS-induced BBB permeability has been shown to enhance the bioavailability of administered intravenous therapeutics to the brain. Ideal therapeutics candidates…
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Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway determines ferroptosis sensitivity in gastric cancer [Cell Biology]
Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent regulated necrosis mediated by lipid peroxidation. Cancer cells survive under metabolic stress conditions by altering lipid metabolism, which may alter their sensitivity to ferroptosis. However, the association between lipid metabolism and ferroptosis is not completely understood. In this study, we found that the expression of elongation…
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TCR{alpha} reporter mice reveal contribution of dual TCR{alpha} expression to T cell repertoire and function [Immunology and Inflammation]
It is known that a subpopulation of T cells expresses two T cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes, though the extent and functional significance of this is not established. To definitively evaluate dual TCRα cells, we generated mice with green fluorescent protein and red fluorescent protein reporters linked to TCRα, revealing that…
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The ARF tumor suppressor targets PPM1G/PP2C{gamma} to counteract NF-{kappa}B transcription tuning cell survival and the inflammatory response [Medical Sciences]
Inducible transcriptional programs mediate the regulation of key biological processes and organismal functions. Despite their complexity, cells have evolved mechanisms to precisely control gene programs in response to environmental cues to regulate cell fate and maintain normal homeostasis. Upon stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), the…
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Direct lysosome-based autophagy of lipid droplets in hepatocytes [Cell Biology]
Hepatocytes metabolize energy-rich cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) in the lysosome-directed process of autophagy. An organelle-selective form of this process (macrolipophagy) results in the engulfment of LDs within double-membrane delimited structures (autophagosomes) before lysosomal fusion. Whether this is an exclusive autophagic mechanism used by hepatocytes to catabolize LDs is unclear. It…
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Author Correction: Coupling of hippocampal theta and ripples with pontogeniculooccipital waves
Nature, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03068-9
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Dogs may never learn that every sound of a word matters
Despite their excellent auditory capacities, dogs do not attend to differences between words that differ only in one phoneme (e.g., "dog" vs "dig"), according to a new study by Hungarian researchers of the Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest (ELTE). In the study, they measured brain activity with non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) on conscious dogs. This might be a reason why the number of w
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Dogs may never learn that every sound of a word matters
Despite their excellent auditory capacities, dogs do not attend to differences between words that differ only in one phoneme (e.g., "dog" vs "dig"), according to a new study by Hungarian researchers of the Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest (ELTE). In the study, they measured brain activity with non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) on conscious dogs. This might be a reason why the number of w
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Molecules convert visible light into ultraviolet light with record efficiency
A newly developed molecular system makes possible the efficient conversion of even weak visible light from sunlight and indoor LEDs into ultraviolet light.
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Publisher Correction: Self-assembled poly-catenanes from supramolecular toroidal building blocks
Nature, Published online: 09 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-3012-3
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CRISPR gene therapy shows promise against blood diseases
Nature, Published online: 08 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03476-x Researchers report early successes using genetic approaches to treat sickle-cell anaemia and β-thalassaemia.
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The Lancet Infectious Diseases: Confirmed COVID-19 cases and outbreaks were low in schools and nurseries in England that re-opened after the first lockdown
COVID-19 cases and outbreaks were low among staff and students in schools and nurseries in England that re-opened during the summer half-term after lockdown, according to research published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal.
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Significant increase in depression seen among children during first UK lockdown
The first lockdown led to a significant increase in symptoms of depression among children, highlighting the unintended consequences of school closures, according to a new study from the University of Cambridge.
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Steep rise in depressive symptoms among 7-12 year olds during UK-wide lockdown
The prevalence of depressive symptoms rose substantially among young children during the UK-wide lockdown in response to the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic, finds research focusing on one region of England and published online in Archives of Disease in Childhood .
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Healthcare workers 7 times as likely to have severe COVID-19 as other workers
Healthcare workers are 7 times as likely to have severe COVID-19 infection as those with other types of 'non-essential' jobs, finds research focusing on the first UK-wide lockdown and published online in the journal Occupational & Environmental Medicine .
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Environmental impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, as observed from space
COVID-19 has changed the way we live and work, as various health and safety restrictions keep more of us at home more often. The resulting changes to our behavior are already impacting the environment around us in myriad ways, according to comparisons of remote sensing data before and during the pandemic collected by NASA, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and ESA (European Space Agency) Earth-observ
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Racial microaggressions contribute to disparities in STEM education
Careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are one of the fastest-growing areas of work in the United States, yet racial and gender disparities remain in STEM occupations. A recent study examining reasons for such disparities shows the overall racial climate on a college campus — informed by experiences of racial microaggressions — is a contributing factor in the lack of
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Trump Administration Is Planting Loyalists in Biden Transition Meetings
Supporters of the president are monitoring many of the conversations between Biden teams and civil servants, chilling the flow of information.
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Orientalism, Cyberpunk 2077, and Yellow Peril in Science Fiction
Cyberpunk as a genre, and Cyberpunk 2077 the game, are both rooted in a type of other-ization that can't be ignored—but it can be examined.
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Chuck Yeager's 1947 Flight Inspired Our Supersonic Ambitions
Yeager was the prototype of the American hero, a decorated fighter pilot immortalized in Tom Wolfe's The Right Stuff. He died Monday at age 97.
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Opsendelse af Starship blev afbrudt et sekund før affyring
Starship-prototypen SN8, som her til aften skulle testes i 12,5 km højde, afbrød automatisk affyringen 1,3 sekunder før launch.
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McKinsey Issues a Rare Apology for Its Role in OxyContin Sales
The firm faced criticism after a report revealed that consultants had discussed destroying documents related to the opioid business and proposed that a drugmaker pay its distributors rebates for overdoses.
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How the brain remembers right place, right time
Two new studies shed new light on how the brain encodes time and place into memories. The findings not only add to the body of fundamental research on memory, but could eventually provide the basis for new treatments to combat memory loss from conditions such as traumatic brain injury or Alzheimer's disease.
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What Explains Sleep Paralysis and Visions of a Demon on Your Chest?
You're awake, but you can't move. And what's that shadow moving toward you? Sleep paralysis is a perplexing disorder, but sleep scientists have made some headway toward understanding its causes and how to stop it.
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Breakthrough material makes pathway to hydrogen use for fuel cells under hot, dry conditions
A collaborative research team has developed a proton conductor for fuel cells based on polystyrene phosphonic acids that maintain high protonic conductivity up to 200 C without water.
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Shining a light on the weird world of dihydrogen phosphate anions
Scientists show that dihydrogen phosphate anions actually bind to one another when their negative charges suggest they shouldn't.
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SpaceX's Starship Scrubs First High-Altitude Test at Last Second
Liftoff After many months of delays, SpaceX finally got ready for its first-ever high-altitude test flight of its gigantic Starship rocket. At around 4:35 pm local time, the 165-foot behemoth fired up its three massive Raptor engines at the space company's test facilities in Boca Chica, Texas — but it wasn't meant to be. The engines flared up in puffs of white smoke, but stopped short of igniting
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Breakthrough material makes pathway to hydrogen use for fuel cells under hot, dry conditions
A collaborative research team has developed a proton conductor for fuel cells based on polystyrene phosphonic acids that maintain high protonic conductivity up to 200 C without water.
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Stretchable micro-supercapacitors to self-power wearable devices
A stretchable system that can harvest energy from human breathing and motion for use in wearable health-monitoring devices may be possible, according to an international team of researchers.
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Algorithms and automation: Making new technology faster and cheaper
Additive manufacturing (AM) machinery has advanced over time, however, the necessary software for new machines often lags behind. To help mitigate this issue, researchers designed an automated process planning software to save money, time and design resources.
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Breakthrough optical sensor mimics human eye, a key step toward better AI
Researchers are making key advances with a new type of optical sensor that more closely mimics the human eye's ability to perceive changes in its visual field.
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Vitamin boosts essential synthetic chemistry
Inspired by light-sensing bacteria that thrive near hot oceanic vents, synthetic chemists use vitamin B12 to catalyze valuable hydrocarbons known as olefins, or alkenes. The mild process eliminates harsh chemicals typically needed to make precursor molecules for the manufacture of drugs and agrochemicals.
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Defect-resistant superalloy can be 3D-printed
In recent years, it has become possible to use laser beams and electron beams to 'print' engineering objects with complex shapes that could not be achieved by conventional manufacturing. The additive manufacturing (AM) process, or 3D printing, for metallic materials involves melting and fusing fine-scale powder particles — each about 10 times finer than a grain of beach sand — in sub-millimeter-
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First instance of COVID-19 triggering recurrent Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Researchers have reported the first instance of COVID-19 triggering a recurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome — a rare disorder where the body's immune system attacks nerves and can lead to respiratory failure and death.
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Understanding COVID-19 infection and possible mutations
The binding of a SARS-CoV-2 virus surface protein spike — a projection from the spherical virus particle — to the human cell surface protein ACE2 is the first step to infection that may lead to COVID-19 disease. Researchers computationally assessed how changes to the virus spike makeup can affect binding with ACE2 and compared results to those of the original SARS-CoV virus (SARS).
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The Weekly Planet: What Extremely Muscular Horses Teach Us About Climate Change
Every Tuesday morning, our lead climate reporter brings you the big ideas, expert analysis, and vital guidance that will help you flourish on a changing planet. Sign up to get T he Weekly Planet , our guide to living through climate change, in your inbox . The first thing you should know about the history of energy in the United States is that, about 150 years ago, the horses got absolutely rippe
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Colorado mountains bouncing back from 'acid rain' impacts
Niwot Ridge in the Rocky Mountains is slowly recovering from increased acidity caused by vehicle emissions in Colorado's Front Range, suggesting that alpine regions across the Mountain West may be recovering. This is good news for the wildlife and wildflowers of Rocky Mountain National Park and for water sources that supply the Front Range and the Mountain West.
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Understanding COVID-19 infection and possible mutations
The binding of a SARS-CoV-2 virus surface protein spike — a projection from the spherical virus particle — to the human cell surface protein ACE2 is the first step to infection that may lead to COVID-19 disease. Researchers computationally assessed how changes to the virus spike makeup can affect binding with ACE2 and compared results to those of the original SARS-CoV virus (SARS).
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Wildfire risk rising as scientists determine which conditions beget blazes
As wildfires burn more often across the Western U.S., researchers are working to understand how extensively blazes burn. Their investigation, aided by machine learning techniques that sort fires by the conditions that precede them, not only reveals that the risk of wildfire is rising, but also spells out the role moisture plays in estimating fire risk.
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New approach for more accurate epidemic modeling
Researchers demonstrate that they can make more accurate predictions about the spread of infectious diseases by using fractional exponents for infected sub-groups, particularly in the early stages of a pandemic.
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Damage to brain cells reverberates to 'bystander' cells
Injury or disease that afflicts a relatively small number of brain cells causes a chain reaction that stops activity across a vast network of neural circuits, according to new research. The study may help to explain why people can suffer from temporary but severe loss of cognitive function in cases of traumatic brain injury or disease.
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More support for induction at 41 weeks' pregnancy, especially for first time mothers
There is growing evidence that pregnant women who go beyond term, especially first time mothers and their infants, will benefit from induction of labor at 41 weeks, instead of expectant management with subsequent induction of labor at 42 weeks if labor will not start spontaneously. This is clearer now that researchers have appraised results from three previous investigations.
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Why do elephants and tigers still roam in India? Study offers clues
A study documenting four extinctions of large mammals on the Indian Subcontinent sheds light on why elephants, tigers, and rhinos still roam there.
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NASA Releases Detailed Plan for 2024 Moon Base Camp
Moon Base Alpha NASA just released updated plans for the upcoming Artemis Moon missions — and, in particular, new details about setting up a lunar base and the first crewed Moon landing in decades. The space agency laid out specific goals for several upcoming missions, like how much lunar soil it plans to bring back to Earth and the experiments it plans to conduct, according to The Independent .
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Europe hopes new R&D fund will boost meager defense capabilities and create opportunities for science
With no military of its own, European Union funds work on camouflage, drones, and laser weapons
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Behind the Paper That Led to a Google Researcher's Firing
Timnit Gebru was one of seven authors on a study that examined prior research on training artificial intelligence models to understand language.
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New treatment in development for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation
Researchers devised a plan to treat IBS with constipation by delivering chenodeoxycholic acid in a bilayered capsule, finding that this mode of delivery could decrease colon cramping and thus produce a better patient experience.
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AGU panel explores environmental impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, as observed from space
COVID-19 has changed the way we live and work, as various health and safety restrictions keep more of us at home more often. The resulting changes to our behavior are already impacting the environment around us in myriad ways, according to comparisons of remote sensing data before and during the pandemic collected by NASA, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and ESA (European Space Agency) Earth-observ
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Chuck Yeager has died at 97, but the legacy of his record-breaking flight lives on
Yeager with the X-1. Its name, Glamorous Glennis, was for his wife. (National Air and Space Museum/) On October 14, 1947, a B-29 bomber dropped Chuck Yeager and his ride—the X-1—out of its bay and into the sky at 20,000 feet. This excursion, his ninth powered flight in the plane, would mark the moment that wrote the test pilot into the history books as the first person to break the sound barrier.
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Elon Musk says he has moved from California to Texas
Billionaire, 49, confirms move to Wall Street Journal and says he plans to focus on new Tesla plant and SpaceX venture Elon Musk said on Tuesday he had relocated to Texas from California, where he plans to focus more on the new Tesla plant and his SpaceX venture. Related: Joe Biden pledges to distribute 100m vaccine shots in first 100 days of presidency – live Continue reading…
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Smartphone data shows real-time impact of neighborhood on health
Researchers at Cornell University are using smartphones to capture location and real-time survey data to examine how social environments encountered in everyday life may affect health.
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Potential antibiotic for drug-resistant pathogen
Scientists have developed a possible new antibiotic for a pathogen that is notoriously resistant to medications and frequently lethal for people with cystic fibrosis and other lung ailments.
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Disrupting the cellular process that promotes pancreatic cancer's deadly growth
Researchers say they've identified a way to disrupt a process that promotes the growth of pancreatic cancers — one of the most difficult and deadly cancers to treat.
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Infant health inequality has increased since 2010, study finds
After decades of narrowing gaps in health between infants born to the most and least advantaged American mothers, infant health inequality is increasing, portending a rise in health and social inequity that could last for decades.
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U.S. physicists rally around ambitious plan to build fusion power plant
Plan calls for a subtle but crucial shift toward applied research in Department of Energy fusion program
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Vitamin boosts essential synthetic chemistry
Inspired by light-sensing bacteria that thrive near hot oceanic vents, synthetic chemists use vitamin B12 to catalyze valuable hydrocarbons known as olefins, or alkenes. The mild process eliminates harsh chemicals typically needed to make precursor molecules for the manufacture of drugs and agrochemicals.
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Miniature guttural toads on Mauritius and Réunion stun researchers
Researchers from the DSI/NRF Center for Invasion Biology at Stellenbosch University in South Africa have found that, scarcely a hundred years after Guttural Toads were introduced to the islands of Mauritius and Réunion, their overall body size has been reduced by up to a third compared to their counterparts in South Africa.
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13 Best hair Loss Treatments: Medications, Shampoos, and Other Products To Regrow Hair and Reverse Baldness Fast
Top 13 Hair Loss Treatments For Male Pattern Baldness, Bald Spots, Telogen Effluvium, Female Hair Loss, African-American Male Hair Thinning. We Look At The Top Hair Growth Shampoos, Conditioners, Natural Essential Oils & More!
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Elon Musk Says He Has Moved to Texas
Howdy, Elon SpaceX CEO Elon Musk said he's relocated from Silicon Valley to Texas during an interview at The Wall Street Journal 's annual CEO Council summit. Musk previously told friends and associated of his plans, as CNBC reported last week . The CEO had already spent considerable time in the state overseeing production at SpaceX's testing facilities in Boca Chica, Texas as well as his tunnel
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Jessica Polka (ASAPbio): Publishing in a Pandemic: The Preprint Revolution
https://www.ibiology.org/science-and-society/preprint Jessica Polka, Executive Director of ASAPbio, talks about how the COVID-19 pandemic has inspired a surge in the use of preprints to share research rapidly and how this is changing perceptions of peer review. As the COVID-19 pandemic escalated in the beginning of 2020, there was a need for the rapid dissemination of scientific information to un
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Rescue dried-out cheese with this simple trick
It's just cheese, olive oil, and some herbs or spices. (Matt Taylor-Gross/) This story was originally featured on Saveur . When Pedro, my host father, offered me some cheese, I didn't expect him to reach into the kitchen cupboard. The previous weeks as an American teenager in Castilla-La Mancha had felt like Spanish culinary hazing: I'd survived blood sausage, octopus, even pig ears a la plancha—
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Excitement as outspoken HIV researcher named to lead key US health agency
Nature, Published online: 08 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03495-8 Rochelle Walensky, Joe Biden's pick for the next head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has emphasized the need for science-based decision-making in the pandemic.
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Coral recovery during a prolonged heatwave offers new hope
Biologists have discovered how some corals managed to survive a globally unprecedented heatwave, in a first-ever study that provides new hope for the long-term survival of coral reefs in the face of climate change.
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Studying trust in autonomous products
Engineers investigated how people's moods might affect their trust of autonomous products, such as smart speakers. They uncovered a complicated relationship.
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Climate change exacerbates biodiversity loss
A considerable number of existing and proposed post-2020 biodiversity targets are at risk of being severely compromised due to climate change, even if other barriers such as habitat exploitation are removed argue researchers. According to their analysis, global warming accelerates the loss of biodiversity. Vice versa, measures to protect biodiversity may also mitigate the impacts of climate change
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Predicting epilepsy from neural network models
A new study shows how 'tipping points' in the brain, responsible for diseases including epilepsy, can be better predicted by accounting for branches in networks of neurons.
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New method to label and track nano-particles could improve our understanding of plastic pollution
A ground-breaking method to label and track manufactured nano-plastics could signal a paradigm shift in how we understand and care for environments, finds a new study.
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Research team invents novel light-controlled contamination-free fluidic processor for advanced medical and industrial applications
A mechanical engineering research team has invented a novel light-controlled, contamination-free fluidic processor, which can serve as a useful tool to greatly reduce the risk of infection of front-line medical workers in testing virus or bacteria in big pandemics like the current COVID-19 pandemic, and to minimize the risk of contamination during the process.
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Face shields no match for sneeze vortex rings
Do face shields provide enough protection to the wearers against COVID-19 if they don't also wear a mask? No. But researchers in Japan are working to create face shields safe enough to be worn alone. In a new article, the researchers describe their work to gain a better understanding of what happens to the airflow around a face shield when someone nearby sneezes.
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Tension between awareness and fatigue shapes COVID-19 spread
In the midst of the coronavirus pandemic, two human factors are battling it out: awareness of the virus's severe consequences and fatigue from nine months of pandemic precautions. The results of that battle can be seen in the oddly shaped case, hospitalization, and fatality-count graphs, a new study suggests.
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Police Raid Home of COVID-19 Whistleblower
Police Violence On Monday, Florida state police raided the home of Rebekah Jones, a data scientist who worked for the Florida Health Department until she was fired earlier this year for what she said amounted to covering up case and fatality numbers to justify reopening the state . Police barged into her home and seized her computer, pulling their guns on her children in the process. The justific
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Research team invents novel light-controlled contamination-free fluidic processor for advanced medical and industrial applications
A mechanical engineering research team has invented a novel light-controlled, contamination-free fluidic processor, which can serve as a useful tool to greatly reduce the risk of infection of front-line medical workers in testing virus or bacteria in big pandemics like the current COVID-19 pandemic, and to minimize the risk of contamination during the process.
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Reductive stress in neuroblastoma cells aggregates protein and impairs neurogenesis
Cells require a balance among oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox homeostasis. Loss of that balance to create oxidative stress is often associated with neurodegeneration. Less is known about how loss of that balance at the other end of the spectrum — reductive stress — may affect neurons. Now researchers show for the first time that reductive stress promotes protein aggregation in neuroblast
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Breakthrough optical sensor mimics human eye, a key step toward better AI
CORVALLIS, Ore. – Researchers at Oregon State University are making key advances with a new type of optical sensor that more closely mimics the human eye's ability to perceive changes in its visual field.
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Understanding COVID-19 infection and possible mutations
The binding of a SARS-CoV-2 virus surface protein spike — a projection from the spherical virus particle — to the human cell surface protein ACE2 is the first step to infection that may lead to COVID-19 disease. Penn State researchers computationally assessed how changes to the virus spike makeup can affect binding with ACE2 and compared results to those of the original SARS-CoV virus (SARS).
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Why I Chose Lloyd Austin as Secretary of Defense
In late August of 2010, I traveled to Iraq for the fifth time as vice president. While there, I participated in the change-of-command ceremony for United States Forces–Iraq. President Barack Obama had charged me with overseeing the end of Operation Iraqi Freedom, and we were committed to ensuring the orderly withdrawal of our forces and equipment from Iraq. Standing in the garish al-Faw palace, o
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COVID Vaccine Is Effective After Just Two Weeks
The COVID-19 vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech effective just two weeks after the first of two doses, according to newly released documents published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA just posted the BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine data here. Lots of good stuff. https://t.co/ycGOU5fQkp example: Looks like one dose may induce meaningful protection around day 10. pic.twitter.com/Ki
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In 'The Queen's Gambit' and beyond, chess holds up a mirror to life
If this use of chess to represent life feels familiar, it is largely thanks to the medieval world. As I argue in my book " Power Play: The Literature and Politics of Chess in the Late Middle Ages ," the game's early European players turned the game into an allegory for society and changed it to mirror their world. Since then, poets and writers have used it as an allegory for love, duty, conflict
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Stretchable micro-supercapacitors to self-power wearable devices
A stretchable system that can harvest energy from human breathing and motion for use in wearable health-monitoring devices may be possible, according to an international team of researchers, led by Huanyu "Larry" Cheng, Dorothy Quiggle Career Development Professor in Penn State's Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics.
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Algorithms and automation: Making new technology faster and cheaper
Additive manufacturing (AM) machinery has advanced over time, however, the necessary software for new machines often lags behind. To help mitigate this issue, Penn State researchers designed an automated process planning software to save money, time and design resources.
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Smartphone data shows real-time impact on health
Researchers at Cornell University are using smartphones to capture location and real-time survey data to examine how social environments encountered in everyday life may affect health.
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Researchers discover key driver of the spread of cancer to the brain
Approximately 200,000 cancer patients are diagnosed with brain metastases each year, yet few treatment options exist because the mechanisms that allow cancer to spread to the brain remain unclear. However, a study recently published in the journal Cancer Cell by VCU Massey Cancer Center scientist Suyun Huang, M.D., Ph.D., offers hope for the development of future therapies by showing how a poorly
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Stretchable micro-supercapacitors to self-power wearable devices
A stretchable system that can harvest energy from human breathing and motion for use in wearable health-monitoring devices may be possible, according to an international team of researchers, led by Huanyu "Larry" Cheng, Dorothy Quiggle Career Development Professor in Penn State's Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics.
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Researchers identify critical molecules that coronaviruses hijack to infect human cells
Researchers at Gladstone Institutes and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, in collaboration with scientists at UC San Francisco (UCSF) and Synthego Corporation, have identified critical molecular processes in human cells that coronaviruses use to survive. They report, in a study published in the journal Cell , that targeting these processes with drugs may treat not only COVID-19 infections, but other exi
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Why do elephants and tigers still roam in India? Study offers clues
A study documenting four extinctions of large mammals on the Indian Subcontinent sheds light on why elephants, tigers, and rhinos still roam there.
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More years of obesity means higher risk of disease, study finds
A greater obesity duration is associated with worse values for all cardiometabolic disease factors, according to a new study.
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Lab-grown human brain organoids mimic an autism spectrum disorder, help test treatments
Researchers used brain organoids to identify two drug candidates that counteract the genetic deficiencies that cause Rett syndrome, a rare form of autism spectrum disorder.
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Elevated biomarker for blood vessel damage found in all children with SARS-CoV-2
Researchers have found elevated levels of a biomarker related to blood vessel damage in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, even if the children had minimal or no symptoms of COVID-19. They also found that a high proportion of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection met clinical and diagnostic criteria for thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA).
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COVID-19: persistent symptoms in one third of cases
Physicians in Geneva have shown that some of the troublesome symptoms of COVID-19 could last more than 6 weeks, even in patients without underlying risk factors.
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New theoretical approach to manipulate light
The quest to discover pioneering new ways in which to manipulate how light travels through electromagnetic materials has taken a new, unusual twist.
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Research reveals how COVID-19 affects the eyes
Sore eyes are the most significant vision-based indicator of COVID-19, according to new research.
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Improving quadrotor drone performance
When an aircraft veers upwards too much, the decrease in lift and increase in drag may cause the vehicle to suddenly plummet. Known as a stall, this phenomenon has prompted many drone manufacturers to err on the side of extreme caution when they plan their vehicles' autonomous flight movements.
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Pollution from cooking remains in atmosphere for longer
Particulate emissions from cooking stay in the atmosphere for longer than previously thought, making a prolonged contribution to poor air quality and human health, according to a new study.
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"Pink tax" hurts female consumers, but electing more women combats it
The wage gap between men and women is no secret, but another form of gender discrimination directly and disproportionately affects women worldwide: the "pink tax" imposed by import tariffs that target female products.
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New cost-effective technique facilitates study of non-bacterial plant microbiomes
Thanks to a new technique developed by plant pathologists in Connecticut, scientists now have access to an affordable and effective tool to facilitate the study of the entire non-bacterial microbiomes of any plant species.
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Massachusetts Reimposes Coronavirus Restrictions
Gov. Charlie Baker is turning back to sweeping measures as cases and deaths rise. Fewer people are allowed at restaurant tables and service is limited to 90 minutes. Indoor performances are banned. (Image credit: Nancy Lane/POOL/AFP via Getty Images)
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New cost-effective technique facilitates study of non-bacterial plant microbiomes
Thanks to a new technique developed by plant pathologists in Connecticut, scientists now have access to an affordable and effective tool to facilitate the study of the entire non-bacterial microbiomes of any plant species.
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New method for evaluating vaccine safety
A research group has led the development of a new method to evaluate vaccine safety. The new method may significantly reduce the use of animal testing in the vaccine industry.
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More support for induction at 41 weeks' pregnancy, especially for first time mothers
There is growing evidence that pregnant women who go beyond term, especially first time mothers and their infants, will benefit from induction of labour at 41 weeks, instead of expectant management with subsequent induction of labour at 42 weeks if labour will not start spontaneously. This is clearer now that researchers from Sweden and the Netherlands have appraised results from three previous in
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Best place for life on Mars? Deep down
The most habitable region for life on Mars would have been up to several miles below its surface, likely due to subsurface melting of thick ice sheets due to geothermal heat, a new study concludes. The study, published in the journal Science Advances , may help resolve what's known as the faint young sun paradox—a lingering key question in Mars science. "Even if greenhouse gases like carbon dioxi
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10 TikTok-inspired gifts to help your friends follow trends
You only need one key ingredient to ride that whipped-coffee train. (Sheryak Singh/Unsplash/) With its green screens, choreo, and ample pet content, TikTok has been one of the best distractions this year. The app, which hit 100 million US users during the pandemic , keeps churning out video hits , left and right. And while we have to remember that it's the people who make the platform, not the ot
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Is the time now ripe for planes to run on hydrogen?
Some planemakers think the answer may be "yes"
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New method for evaluating vaccine safety
A research group has led the development of a new method to evaluate vaccine safety. The new method may significantly reduce the use of animal testing in the vaccine industry.
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Scientists shed new light on how lung bacteria defend against pneumonia
New insight on how bacteria in the lungs protect against invading pathogens has been published.
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Batteries mimic mammal bones for stability
Sodium-ion batteries offer several advantages over lithium-ion batteries; however, it is difficult to develop sodium cathodes, materials through which electrons can enter a battery. Many candidate materials are unstable or cannot withstand high voltages. To find a solution, researchers turned to nature. They created a porous system of NVP structures, surrounded by a dense shell of reduced graphene
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Satellite tracking finds turtle foraging areas in Australia's north-west
Marine scientists have mapped previously unknown foraging grounds and migratory routes of Western Australia's green turtles to support conservation of the iconic threatened species.
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The world's smallest high-performance magnetic tunnel junction
A research group has developed the world's smallest (2.3 nm) high-performance magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). This work is expected to accelerate the advancement of ultrahigh-density, low-power, high-performance non-volatile memory for a variety of applications, such as IoT, AI, and automobiles.
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Damage to brain cells reverberates to 'bystander' cells, study finds
Injury or disease that afflicts a relatively small number of brain cells causes a chain reaction that stops activity across a vast network of neural circuits, according to new research. The study may help to explain why people can suffer from temporary but severe loss of cognitive function in cases of traumatic brain injury or disease.
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UCI-led study offers new approach for more accurate epidemic modeling
In a new study published in Scientific Reports, researchers at the University of California, Irvine demonstrate that they can make more accurate predictions about the spread of infectious diseases by using fractional exponents for infected sub-groups, particularly in the early stages of a pandemic.
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Iran vows to build two new nuclear facilities, alarming observers
A lab for uranium metallurgy and a heavy water reactor capable of accumulating plutonium would pose new headaches for efforts to rein in Iran's nuclear program
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A Greener Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody
Learn more about environmentally-friendly antibodies that deliver superior performance.
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Research group has made a defect-resistant superalloy that can be 3-D-printed
In recent years, it has become possible to use laser beams and electron beams to "print" engineering objects with complex shapes that could not be achieved by conventional manufacturing. The additive manufacturing (AM) process, or 3-D printing, for metallic materials involves melting and fusing fine-scale powder particles—each about 10 times finer than a grain of beach sand—in sub-millimeter-scale
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Long-lost Flemish masterpiece discovered in Brussels district hall
A painting that hung for decades in a municipal building in Brussels has been authenticated as the work of Flemish master Jacob Jordaens, Belgian conservators said Tuesday.
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The Guardian view on Vaccine Day: an opportunity to seize | Editorial
Protecting patients from Covid-19 is a wonderful step forward. But we cannot yet afford to relax our guard Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The face of hope in 2020 is 90-year-old Margaret Keenan, the first patient worldwide to receive the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. After a year mostly spent self-isolating, she described her dose as "the best thing that's ever happened"
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Using targeted microbubbles to administer toxic cancer drugs
New research has shown how microbubbles carrying powerful cancer drugs can be guided to the site of a tumor using antibodies.
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Oh No: This Company Is Building Robodogs Specifically for Combat
Combat Dogs Soon, a squadron of dog-like robots will patrol and monitor an Air Force base in Florida, thanks to a robotics company that's making robodogs explicitly for military applications. Ghost Robotics recently unveiled its Vision 60 robots — four-legged machines that can be remote-controlled to surveil an area, clear bombs, or otherwise assist soldiers, according to Digital Trends . You can
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Wildfire risk rising as scientists determine which conditions beget blazes
As wildfires burn more often across the Western U.S., PNNL researchers are working to understand how extensively blazes burn. Their investigation, aided by machine learning techniques that sort fires by the conditions that precede them, not only reveals that the risk of wildfire is rising, but also spells out the role moisture plays in estimating fire risk.
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New cost-effective technique facilitates study of non-bacterial plant microbiomes
Thanks to a new technique developed by plant pathologists in Connecticut, scientists now have access to an affordable and effective tool to facilitate the study of the entire non-bacterial microbiomes of any plant species.
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A standout superalloy
In recent years, it has become possible to use laser beams and electron beams to "print" engineering objects with complex shapes that could not be achieved by conventional manufacturing. The additive manufacturing (AM) process, or 3D printing, for metallic materials involves melting and fusing fine-scale powder particles — each about 10 times finer than a grain of beach sand — in sub-millimeter-
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Lower Paleolithic bone handaxes and chopsticks: Tools and symbols? [Biological Sciences]
Across the Old World, Lower Paleolithic humans manufactured bone facsimiles of the canonical Acheulean stone handaxe, but these enigmatic bone items (mostly elephant) are exceptionally rare. As no functional use evidence was available, bone handaxes, unlike their more prevalent stone counterparts, were thought to reflect early human worldviews or spiritual…
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Reply to Barkai: Implications of the Konso bone handaxe [Biological Sciences]
We welcome Ran Barkai's thoughts (1) on the symbolic significance of the Konso bone handaxe that we recently reported (2). First, we agree that African Homo erectus at 1.4 Mya may have been considerably sophisticated in their cognitive capacities, including potential symbolic perception and behavior. Indeed, the technological context of…
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Does tocilizumab have a magical therapeutic effect on COVID-19 patients without obvious adverse reactions? [Biological Sciences]
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause a cytokine storm, which may lead to respiratory failure or even death, and the mortality rate for critically ill cases reached 60.5% (1, 2). In a retrospective observational study conducted by Xu et al. (3), all 21 patients, including 17 seriously ill and 4…
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Reply to Wang et al.: Tocilizumab treatment should be used in a timely manner, at suitable dose, and in suitable patients [Biological Sciences]
We thank Wang et al. (1) for their Letter, and we understand their concern about the uncertain effectiveness of tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19 patients. Tocilizumab is not a magical therapeutic that can save all of the lives of COVID-19 patients. However, if tocilizumab is used properly, it may reduce the…
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A MASCOT for mosaic analysis [Genetics]
Genetic mosaicism is a phenomenon that occurs naturally in multicellular organisms, by which genetically diverse cell populations arise through the process of somatic mutation within the organism. Somatic mutations that underlie genetic mosaicism result from intrinsic errors in DNA replication and/or exposure to exogenous genotoxic agents, such as radiation, ultraviolet…
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Angiosperms versus gymnosperms in the Cretaceous [Evolution]
In a letter to Sir Joseph Hooker dated July 22, 1879, Charles Darwin described the abrupt origin, highly accelerated rate of diversification, and rise to dominance of flowering plants (angiosperms) in the Mid-Cretaceous (100 to 110 Ma) as an "abominable mystery" (1, 2). Knowledge of the paleobotanical record has greatly…
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Post-2020 biodiversity targets need to embrace climate change [Sustainability Science]
Recent assessment reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) have highlighted the risks to humanity arising from the unsustainable use of natural resources. Thus far, land, freshwater, and ocean exploitation have been the chief causes of biodiversity…
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Development of cyclic peptides with potent in vivo osteogenic activity through RaPID-based affinity maturation [Applied Biological Sciences]
Osteoporosis is caused by a disequilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation. Therapeutics for osteoporosis can be divided into antiresorptives that suppress bone resorption and anabolics which increase bone formation. Currently, the only anabolic treatment options are parathyroid hormone mimetics or an anti-sclerostin monoclonal antibody. With the current global increases…
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Local conformal autoencoder for standardized data coordinates [Applied Mathematics]
We propose a local conformal autoencoder (LOCA) for standardized data coordinates. LOCA is a deep learning-based method for obtaining standardized data coordinates from scientific measurements. Data observations are modeled as samples from an unknown, nonlinear deformation of an underlying Riemannian manifold, which is parametrized by a few normalized, latent variables….
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Moth wings are acoustic metamaterials [Applied Mathematics]
Metamaterials assemble multiple subwavelength elements to create structures with extraordinary physical properties (1–4). Optical metamaterials are rare in nature and no natural acoustic metamaterials are known. Here, we reveal that the intricate scale layer on moth wings forms a metamaterial ultrasound absorber (peak absorption = 72% of sound intensity at…
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Global analysis of more than 50,000 SARS-CoV-2 genomes reveals epistasis between eight viral genes [Applied Physical Sciences]
Genome-wide epistasis analysis is a powerful tool to infer gene interactions, which can guide drug and vaccine development and lead to deeper understanding of microbial pathogenesis. We have considered all complete severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomes deposited in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID)…
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The Arg/N-degron pathway targets transcription factors and regulates specific genes [Biochemistry]
The Arg/N-degron pathway targets proteins for degradation by recognizing their N-terminal or internal degrons. Our previous work produced double-knockout (2-KO) HEK293T human cell lines that lacked the functionally overlapping UBR1 and UBR2 E3 ubiquitin ligases of the Arg/N-degron pathway. Here, we studied these cells in conjunction with RNA-sequencing, mass spectrometry…
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Mutation-oriented profiling of autoinhibitory kinase conformations predicts RAF inhibitor efficacies [Biochemistry]
Kinase-targeted therapies have the potential to improve the survival of patients with cancer. However, the cancer-specific spectrum of kinase alterations exhibits distinct functional properties and requires mutation-oriented drug treatments. Besides post-translational modifications and diverse intermolecular interactions of kinases, it is the distinct disease mutation which reshapes full-length ki
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The SERCA residue Glu340 mediates interdomain communication that guides Ca2+ transport [Biochemistry]
The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) is a P-type ATPase that transports Ca2+ from the cytosol into the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SR/ER) lumen, driven by ATP. This primary transport activity depends on tight coupling between movements of the transmembrane helices forming the two Ca2+-binding sites and the cytosolic headpiece mediating ATP hydrolysis….
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Hsp40 proteins phase separate to chaperone the assembly and maintenance of membraneless organelles [Biochemistry]
Membraneless organelles contain a wide spectrum of molecular chaperones, indicating their important roles in modulating the metastable conformation and biological function of membraneless organelles. Here we report that class I and II Hsp40 (DNAJ) proteins possess a high ability of phase separation rendered by the flexible G/F-rich region. Different Hsp40…
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A structurally conserved human and Tetrahymena telomerase catalytic core [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that counteracts the shortening of chromosome ends due to incomplete replication. Telomerase contains a catalytic core of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase RNA (TER). However, what defines TERT and separates it from other reverse transcriptases remains a subject of debate. A recent cryoelectron microscopy…
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Discovery of Marburg virus neutralizing antibodies from virus-naive human antibody repertoires using large-scale structural predictions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Marburg virus (MARV) disease is lethal, with fatality rates up to 90%. Neutralizing antibodies (Abs) are promising drug candidates to prevent or treat the disease. Current efforts are focused in part on vaccine development to induce such MARV-neutralizing Abs. We analyzed the antibody repertoire from healthy unexposed and previously MARV-infected…
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Robust folding of a de novo designed ideal protein even with most of the core mutated to valine [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Protein design provides a stringent test for our understanding of protein folding. We previously described principles for designing ideal protein structures stabilized by consistent local and nonlocal interactions, based on a set of rules relating local backbone structures to tertiary packing motifs. The principles have made possible the design of…
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Mapping transmembrane binding partners for E-cadherin ectodomains [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We combine proximity labeling and single molecule binding assays to discover transmembrane protein interactions in cells. We first screen for candidate binding partners by tagging the extracellular and cytoplasmic regions of a "bait" protein with BioID biotin ligase and identify proximal proteins that are biotin tagged on both their extracellular…
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A general model of hippocampal and dorsal striatal learning and decision making [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Humans and other animals use multiple strategies for making decisions. Reinforcement-learning theory distinguishes between stimulus–response (model-free; MF) learning and deliberative (model-based; MB) planning. The spatial-navigation literature presents a parallel dichotomy between navigation strategies. In "response learning," associated with the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), decisions are anchor
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Inhibition of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) can revert cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Cellular senescence is defined as a stable, persistent arrest of cell proliferation. Here, we examine whether senescent cells can lose senescence hallmarks and reenter a reversible state of cell-cycle arrest (quiescence). We constructed a molecular regulatory network of cellular senescence based on previous experimental evidence. To infer the regulatory logic…
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Chemical mutagenesis of a GPCR ligand: Detoxifying "inflammo-attraction" to direct therapeutic stem cell migration [Cell Biology]
A transplanted stem cell's engagement with a pathologic niche is the first step in its restoring homeostasis to that site. Inflammatory chemokines are constitutively produced in such a niche; their binding to receptors on the stem cell helps direct that cell's "pathotropism." Neural stem cells (NSCs), which express CXCR4, migrate…
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Oncogenic activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling suppresses ferroptosis via SREBP-mediated lipogenesis [Cell Biology]
Ferroptosis, a form of regulated necrosis driven by iron-dependent peroxidation of phospholipids, is regulated by cellular metabolism, redox homeostasis, and various signaling pathways related to cancer. In this study, we found that activating mutation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)…
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ATP13A2-mediated endo-lysosomal polyamine export counters mitochondrial oxidative stress [Cell Biology]
Recessive loss-of-function mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9) are associated with a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently revealed that the late endo-lysosomal transporter ATP13A2 pumps polyamines like spermine into the cytosol, whereas ATP13A2 dysfunction causes lysosomal polyamine accumulation and rupture. Here, we investigate how ATP13A2 provides pro
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Circadian regulation of muscle growth independent of locomotor activity [Cell Biology]
Muscle tissue shows diurnal variations in function, physiology, and metabolism. Whether such variations are dependent on the circadian clock per se or are secondary to circadian differences in physical activity and feeding pattern is unclear. By measuring muscle growth over 12-h periods in live prefeeding larval zebrafish, we show that…
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Condensing water vapor to droplets generates hydrogen peroxide [Chemistry]
It was previously shown [J. K. Lee et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 116, 19294–19298 (2019)] that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is spontaneously produced in micrometer-sized water droplets (microdroplets), which are generated by atomizing bulk water using nebulization without the application of an external electric field. Here we report that…
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{beta}-Cyclodextrin modified Pt(II) metallacycle-based supramolecular hyperbranched polymer assemblies for DOX delivery to liver cancer cells [Chemistry]
Despite the widespread clinical application of chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs, their adverse side effects and inefficient performances remain ongoing issues. A drug delivery system (DDS) designed for a specific cancer may therefore overcome the drawbacks of single chemotherapeutic drugs and provide precise and synergistical cancer treatment by introducing exclusive stimulus responsiveness…
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Photochemistry of oxidized Hg(I) and Hg(II) species suggests missing mercury oxidation in the troposphere [Chemistry]
Mercury (Hg), a global contaminant, is emitted mainly in its elemental form Hg0 to the atmosphere where it is oxidized to reactive HgII compounds, which efficiently deposit to surface ecosystems. Therefore, the chemical cycling between the elemental and oxidized Hg forms in the atmosphere determines the scale and geographical pattern…
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Cellular pathways of calcium transport and concentration toward mineral formation in sea urchin larvae [Chemistry]
Sea urchin larvae have an endoskeleton consisting of two calcitic spicules. The primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) are the cells that are responsible for spicule formation. PMCs endocytose sea water from the larval internal body cavity into a network of vacuoles and vesicles, where calcium ions are concentrated until they precipitate…
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In situ organic Fenton-like catalysis triggered by anodic polymeric intermediates for electrochemical water purification [Chemistry]
Organic Fenton-like catalysis has been recently developed for water purification, but redox-active compounds have to be ex situ added as oxidant activators, causing secondary pollution problem. Electrochemical oxidation is widely used for pollutant degradation, but suffers from severe electrode fouling caused by high-resistance polymeric intermediates. Herein, we develop an in…
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Datura quids at Pinwheel Cave, California, provide unambiguous confirmation of the ingestion of hallucinogens at a rock art site [Chemistry]
While debates have raged over the relationship between trance and rock art, unambiguous evidence of the consumption of hallucinogens has not been reported from any rock art site in the world. A painting possibly representing the flowers of Datura on the ceiling of a Californian rock art site called Pinwheel…
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Natural hybrid silica/protein superstructure at atomic resolution [Chemistry]
Formation of highly symmetric skeletal elements in demosponges, called spicules, follows a unique biomineralization mechanism in which polycondensation of an inherently disordered amorphous silica is guided by a highly ordered proteinaceous scaffold, the axial filament. The enzymatically active proteins, silicateins, are assembled into a slender hybrid silica/protein crystalline superstructure tha
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Structure of the Dietzia Mrp complex reveals molecular mechanism of this giant bacterial sodium proton pump [Chemistry]
Multiple resistance and pH adaptation (Mrp) complexes are sophisticated cation/proton exchangers found in a vast variety of alkaliphilic and/or halophilic microorganisms, and are critical for their survival in highly challenging environments. This family of antiporters is likely to represent the ancestor of cation pumps found in many redox-driven transporter complexes,…
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Reversal of autoimmunity by mixed chimerism enables reactivation of {beta} cells and transdifferentiation of {alpha} cells in diabetic NOD mice [Developmental Biology]
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the autoimmune destruction of β cells, so cure of firmly established T1D requires both reversal of autoimmunity and restoration of β cells. It is known that β cell regeneration in nonautoimmune diabetic mice can come from differentiation of progenitors and/or transdifferentiation of α cells….
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Chromatin topology and the timing of enhancer function at the HoxD locus [Developmental Biology]
The HoxD gene cluster is critical for proper limb formation in tetrapods. In the emerging limb buds, different subgroups of Hoxd genes respond first to a proximal regulatory signal, then to a distal signal that organizes digits. These two regulations are exclusive from one another and emanate from two distinct…
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The internal structure and geodynamics of Mars inferred from a 4.2-Gyr zircon record [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Combining U–Pb ages with Lu–Hf data in zircon provides insights into the magmatic history of rocky planets. The Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034/7533 meteorites are samples of the southern highlands of Mars containing zircon with ages as old as 4476.3 ± 0.9 Ma, interpreted to reflect reworking of the primordial Martian…
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A new sea-level record for the Neogene/Quaternary boundary reveals transition to a more stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Sea-level rise resulting from the instability of polar continental ice sheets represents a major socioeconomic hazard arising from anthropogenic warming, but the response of the largest component of Earth's cryosphere, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), to global warming is poorly understood. Here we present a detailed record of North…
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Seasonal drought events in tropical East Asia over the last 60,000 y [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The cause of seasonal hydrologic changes in tropical East Asia during interstadial/stadial oscillations of the last glaciation remains controversial. Here, we show seven seasonal drought events that occurred during the relatively warm interstadials by phytolith and pollen records. These events are significantly manifested as high percentages of bilobate phytoliths and…
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Ancient helium and tungsten isotopic signatures preserved in mantle domains least modified by crustal recycling [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Rare high-3He/4He signatures in ocean island basalts (OIB) erupted at volcanic hotspots derive from deep-seated domains preserved in Earth's interior. Only high-3He/4He OIB exhibit anomalous 182W—an isotopic signature inherited during the earliest history of Earth—supporting an ancient origin of high 3He/4He. However, it is not understood why some OIB host…
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Conservation cobenefits from air pollution regulation: Evidence from birds [Ecology]
Massive wildlife losses over the past 50 y have brought new urgency to identifying both the drivers of population decline and potential solutions. We provide large-scale evidence that air pollution, specifically ozone, is associated with declines in bird abundance in the United States. We show that an air pollution regulation…
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Ultrahigh foraging rates of Baikal seals make tiny endemic amphipods profitable in Lake Baikal [Ecology]
Understanding what, how, and how often apex predators hunt is important due to their disproportionately large effects on ecosystems. In Lake Baikal with rich endemic fauna, Baikal seals appear to eat, in addition to fishes, a tiny (<0.1 g) endemic amphipod Macrohectopus branickii (the world's only freshwater planktonic species). Yet,…
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Differences in spatial versus temporal reaction norms for spring and autumn phenological events [Ecology]
For species to stay temporally tuned to their environment, they use cues such as the accumulation of degree-days. The relationships between the timing of a phenological event in a population and its environmental cue can be described by a population-level reaction norm. Variation in reaction norms along environmental gradients may…
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Characterization, stability, and application of domain walls in flexible mechanical metamaterials [Engineering]
Domain walls, commonly occurring at the interface of different phases in solid-state materials, have recently been harnessed at the structural scale to enable additional modes of functionality. Here, we combine experimental, numerical, and theoretical tools to investigate the domain walls emerging upon uniaxial compression in a mechanical metamaterial based on…
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Triclosan leads to dysregulation of the metabolic regulator FGF21 exacerbating high fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [Environmental Sciences]
Triclosan (TCS), employed as an antiseptic and disinfectant, comes into direct contact with humans through a plethora of consumer products and its rising environmental release. We have demonstrated that TCS promotes liver tumorigenesis in mice, yet the biological and molecular mechanisms by which TCS exerts its toxicity, especially in early…
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Mycena genomes resolve the evolution of fungal bioluminescence [Evolution]
Mushroom-forming fungi in the order Agaricales represent an independent origin of bioluminescence in the tree of life; yet the diversity, evolutionary history, and timing of the origin of fungal luciferases remain elusive. We sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five bonnet mushroom species (Mycena spp.), a diverse lineage comprising the…
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Ultrarare heterozygous pathogenic variants of genes causing dominant forms of early-onset deafness underlie severe presbycusis [Genetics]
Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss (ARHL), is a major public health issue. About half the phenotypic variance has been attributed to genetic factors. Here, we assessed the contribution to presbycusis of ultrarare pathogenic variants, considered indicative of Mendelian forms. We focused on severe presbycusis without environmental or comorbidity risk factors…
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KRAB zinc finger protein diversification drives mammalian interindividual methylation variability [Genetics]
Most transposable elements (TEs) in the mouse genome are heavily modified by DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications. However, a subset of TEs exhibit variable methylation levels in genetically identical individuals, and this is associated with epigenetically conferred phenotypic differences, environmental adaptability, and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. The evolutionary or
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Decreased mechanotransduction prevents nuclear collapse in a Caenorhabditis elegans laminopathy [Genetics]
The function of the nucleus depends on the integrity of the nuclear lamina, an intermediate filament network associated with the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. The LINC complex spans the nuclear envelope and mediates nuclear mechanotransduction, the process by which mechanical signals and forces are transmitted across the…
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Retinol binding protein 4 primes the NLRP3 inflammasome by signaling through Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 [Immunology and Inflammation]
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation contributes to systemic insulin resistance. In obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), the major retinol carrier in serum, is elevated in AT and has proinflammatory effects which are mediated partially through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We now show that RBP4 primes…
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Cytocidal macrophages in symbiosis with CD4 and CD8 T cells cause acute diabetes following checkpoint blockade of PD-1 in NOD mice [Immunology and Inflammation]
Autoimmune diabetes is one of the complications resulting from checkpoint blockade immunotherapy in cancer patients, yet the underlying mechanisms for such an adverse effect are not well understood. Leveraging the diabetes-susceptible nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, we phenocopy the diabetes progression induced by programmed death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 blockade and identify…
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TAO-kinase 3 governs the terminal differentiation of NOTCH2-dependent splenic conventional dendritic cells [Immunology and Inflammation]
Antigen-presenting conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are broadly divided into type 1 and type 2 subsets that further adapt their phenotype and function to perform specialized tasks in the immune system. The precise signals controlling tissue-specific adaptation and differentiation of cDCs are currently poorly understood. We found that mice deficient in…
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The Ig heavy chain protein but not its message controls early B cell development [Immunology and Inflammation]
Development of progenitor B cells (ProB cells) into precursor B cells (PreB cells) is dictated by immunoglobulin heavy chain checkpoint (IgHCC), where the IgHC encoded by a productively rearranged Igh allele assembles into a PreB cell receptor complex (PreBCR) to generate signals to initiate this transition and suppressing antigen receptor…
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A steroid receptor coactivator stimulator (MCB-613) attenuates adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction [Medical Sciences]
Progressive remodeling of the heart, resulting in cardiomyocyte (CM) loss and increased inflammation, fibrosis, and a progressive decrease in cardiac function, are hallmarks of myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure. We show that MCB-613, a potent small molecule stimulator of steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) attenuates pathological remodeling post-MI. MCB-613 decreases infarct…
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Therapeutic candidates for the Zika virus identified by a high-throughput screen for Zika protease inhibitors [Medical Sciences]
When Zika virus emerged as a public health emergency there were no drugs or vaccines approved for its prevention or treatment. We used a high-throughput screen for Zika virus protease inhibitors to identify several inhibitors of Zika virus infection. We expressed the NS2B-NS3 Zika virus protease and conducted a biochemical…
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Designer broad-spectrum polyimidazolium antibiotics [Microbiology]
For a myriad of different reasons most antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have failed to reach clinical application. Different AMPs have different shortcomings including but not limited to toxicity issues, potency, limited spectrum of activity, or reduced activity in situ. We synthesized several cationic peptide mimics, main-chain cationic polyimidazoliums (PIMs), and discovered…
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Capillary leakage provides nutrients and antioxidants for rapid pneumococcal proliferation in influenza-infected lower airways [Microbiology]
Influenza A virus (IAV)-related mortality is often due to secondary bacterial infections, primarily by pneumococci. Here, we study how IAV-modulated changes in the lungs affect bacterial replication in the lower respiratory tract (LRT). Bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) from coinfected mice showed rapid bacterial proliferation 4 to 6 h after pneumococcal challenge….
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A peptide of a type I toxin-antitoxin system induces Helicobacter pylori morphological transformation from spiral shape to coccoids [Microbiology]
Toxin−antitoxin systems are found in many bacterial chromosomes and plasmids with roles ranging from plasmid stabilization to biofilm formation and persistence. In these systems, the expression/activity of the toxin is counteracted by an antitoxin, which, in type I systems, is an antisense RNA. While the regulatory mechanisms of these systems…
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Unbiased optical mapping of telomere-integrated endogenous human herpesvirus 6 [Microbiology]
Next-generation sequencing technologies allowed sequencing of thousands of genomes. However, there are genomic regions that remain difficult to characterize, including telomeres, centromeres, and other low-complexity regions, as well as transposable elements and endogenous viruses. Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are closely related viruses that infect most humans…
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Studies in bank voles reveal strain differences between chronic wasting disease prions from Norway and North America [Microbiology]
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a relentless epidemic disorder caused by infectious prions that threatens the survival of cervid populations and raises increasing public health concerns in North America. In Europe, CWD was detected for the first time in wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces) in 2016….
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Design of a multivalent bifunctional chelator for diagnostic 64Cu PET imaging in Alzheimer's disease [Neuroscience]
Herein, we report a 64Cu positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent that shows appreciable in vivo brain uptake and exhibits high specific affinity for beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates, leading to the successful PET imaging of amyloid plaques in the brains of 5xFAD mice versus those of wild-type mice. The employed approach…
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Synaptotagmin-7 deficiency induces mania-like behavioral abnormalities through attenuating GluN2B activity [Neuroscience]
Synaptotagmin-7 (Syt7) probably plays an important role in bipolar-like behavioral abnormalities in mice; however, the underlying mechanisms for this have remained elusive. Unlike antidepressants that cause mood overcorrection in bipolar depression, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-targeted drugs show moderate clinical efficacy, for unexplained reasons. Here we identified Syt7 single nucleoti
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High-resolution mouse subventricular zone stem-cell niche transcriptome reveals features of lineage, anatomy, and aging [Neuroscience]
Adult neural stem cells (NSC) serve as a reservoir for brain plasticity and origin for certain gliomas. Lineage tracing and genomic approaches have portrayed complex underlying heterogeneity within the major anatomical location for NSC, the subventricular zone (SVZ). To gain a comprehensive profile of NSC heterogeneity, we utilized a well-validated…
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Layer and rhythm specificity for predictive routing [Neuroscience]
In predictive coding, experience generates predictions that attenuate the feeding forward of predicted stimuli while passing forward unpredicted "errors." Different models have suggested distinct cortical layers, and rhythms implement predictive coding. We recorded spikes and local field potentials from laminar electrodes in five cortical areas (visual area 4 [V4], lateral…
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Structure-function subsystem models of female and male forebrain networks integrating cognition, affect, behavior, and bodily functions [Neuroscience]
The forebrain is the first of three primary vertebrate brain subdivisions. Macrolevel network analysis in a mammal (rat) revealed that the 466 gray matter regions composing the right and left sides of the forebrain are interconnected by 35,738 axonal connections forming a large set of overlapping, hierarchically arranged subsystems. This…
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Distinct neural ensemble response statistics are associated with recognition and discrimination of natural sound textures [Neuroscience]
The perception of sound textures, a class of natural sounds defined by statistical sound structure such as fire, wind, and rain, has been proposed to arise through the integration of time-averaged summary statistics. Where and how the auditory system might encode these summary statistics to create internal representations of these…
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Bumblebees perceive the spatial layout of their environment in relation to their body size and form to minimize inflight collisions [Neuroscience]
Animals that move through complex habitats must frequently contend with obstacles in their path. Humans and other highly cognitive vertebrates avoid collisions by perceiving the relationship between the layout of their surroundings and the properties of their own body profile and action capacity. It is unknown whether insects, which have…
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Functional redundancy of type I and type II receptors in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth by myostatin and activin A [Physiology]
Myostatin (MSTN) is a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member that normally acts to limit muscle growth. The function of MSTN is partially redundant with that of another TGF-β family member, activin A. MSTN and activin A are capable of signaling through a complex of type II and type I…
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Race and ethnic variation in college students' allostatic regulation of racism-related stress [Physiology]
Racism-related stress is thought to contribute to widespread race/ethnic health inequities via negative emotion and allostatic stress process up-regulation. Although prior studies document race-related stress and health correlations, due to methodological and technical limitations, they have been unable to directly test the stress-reactivity hypothesis in situ. Guided by theories of…
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The Arabidopsis NRT1/PTR FAMILY protein NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is an indole-3-butyric acid transporter involved in root gravitropism [Plant Biology]
Active membrane transport of plant hormones and their related compounds is an essential process that determines the distribution of the compounds within plant tissues and, hence, regulates various physiological events. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER FAMILY 7.3 (NPF7.3) protein functions as a transporter of indole-3-butyric…
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A receptor-like protein mediates plant immune responses to herbivore-associated molecular patterns [Plant Biology]
Herbivory is fundamental to the regulation of both global food webs and the extent of agricultural crop losses. Induced plant responses to herbivores promote resistance and often involve the perception of specific herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs); however, precisely defined receptors and elicitors associated with herbivore recognition remain elusive. Here, we…
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Dogmatism manifests in lowered information search under uncertainty [Political Sciences]
When knowledge is scarce, it is adaptive to seek further information to resolve uncertainty and obtain a more accurate worldview. Biases in such information-seeking behavior can contribute to the maintenance of inaccurate views. Here, we investigate whether predispositions for uncertainty-guided information seeking relate to individual differences in dogmatism, a phenomenon…
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"You" speaks to me: Effects of generic-you in creating resonance between people and ideas [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Creating resonance between people and ideas is a central goal of communication. Historically, attempts to understand the factors that promote resonance have focused on altering the content of a message. Here we identify an additional route to evoking resonance that is embedded in the structure of language: the generic use…
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Richer color vocabulary is associated with better color memory but not color perception [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
The potential interaction between color naming and psychophysical color recognition has been historically debated. To study this interaction, here we utilized two approaches based on individual differences in color naming and variation of color name density along the color wheel. We tested a pool of Persian speaking subjects with a…
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Gender stereotypes can explain the gender-equality paradox [Social Sciences]
The so-called "gender-equality paradox" is the fact that gender segregation across occupations is more pronounced in more egalitarian and more developed countries. Some scholars have explained this paradox by the existence of deeply rooted or intrinsic gender differences in preferences that materialize more easily in countries where economic constraints are…
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Green energy by recoverable triple-oxide mesostructured perovskite photovoltaics [Sustainability Science]
Perovskite solar cells have developed into a promising branch of renewable energy. A combination of feasible manufacturing and renewable modules can offer an attractive advancement to this field. Herein, a screen-printed three-layered all-nanoparticle network was developed as a rigid framework for a perovskite active layer. This matrix enables perovskite to…
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Natural gas shortages during the "coal-to-gas" transition in China have caused a large redistribution of air pollution in winter 2017 [Sustainability Science]
The Chinese "coal-to-gas" and "coal-to-electricity" strategies aim at reducing dispersed coal consumption and related air pollution by promoting the use of clean and low-carbon fuels in northern China. Here, we show that on top of meteorological influences, the effective emission mitigation measures achieved an average decrease of fine particulate matter…
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Correction for Ciaravella et al., X-ray processing of a realistic ice mantle can explain the gas abundances in protoplanetary disks [Correction]
ASTRONOMY Correction for "X-ray processing of a realistic ice mantle can explain the gas abundances in protoplanetary disks," by Angela Ciaravella, Guillermo M. Muñoz Caro, Antonio Jiménez-Escobar, Cesare Cecchi-Pestellini, Li-Chieh Hsiao, Chao-Hui Huang, and Yu-Jung Chen, which was first published June 30, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2005225117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117,…
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Correction for Kessler et al., Victorin, the host-selective cyclic peptide toxin from the oat pathogen Cochliobolus victoriae, is ribosomally encoded [Correction]
BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for "Victorin, the host-selective cyclic peptide toxin from the oat pathogen Cochliobolus victoriae, is ribosomally encoded," by Simon C. Kessler, Xianghui Zhang, Megan C. McDonald, Cameron L. M. Gilchrist, Zeran Lin, Adriana Rightmyer, Peter S. Solomon, B. Gillian Turgeon, and Yit-Heng Chooi, which was first published September 14,…
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Correction for You et al., HERES, a lncRNA that regulates canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways via interaction with EZH2 [Correction]
CELL BIOLOGY Correction for "HERES, a lncRNA that regulates canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways via interaction with EZH2," by Bo-Hyun You, Jung-Ho Yoon, Hoin Kang, Eun Kyung Lee, Sang Kil Lee, and Jin-Wu Nam, which was first published November 15, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1912126116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 24620–24629)….
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Correction for Allen et al., A comparative genomics approach identifies contact-dependent growth inhibition as a virulence determinant [Correction]
MICROBIOLOGY Correction for "A comparative genomics approach identifies contact-dependent growth inhibition as a virulence determinant," by Jonathan P. Allen, Egon A. Ozer, George Minasov, Ludmilla Shuvalova, Olga Kiryukhina, Karla J. F. Satchell, and Alan R. Hauser, which was first published March 10, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1919198117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117,…
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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Moth scales act as acoustic metamaterials False-color 3D representation of a wing section of the moth Lasiocampa quercus showing structure, diversity, and arrangement of base scales (orange) and cover scales (blue and yellow). Image credit: Simon Reichel, Thomas R. Neil, Zhiyuan Shen, and Marc W. Holderied (University of Bristol, Bristol,…
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QnAs with Catherine L. Kling [QnAs]
Environmental economist Catherine L. Kling has spent her career calculating the economic value of environmental resources and using the data to help design environmental policies. She has examined what consumers are willing to pay for environmental improvements and assessed the cost-effectiveness of policies to reduce nutrient runoff in waterways and…
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Profile of Se-Jin Lee [Profiles]
In the late 1990s, Se-Jin Lee was exploring the effects of regulatory genes in mice when he found a gene with a remarkable phenotype (1). "These mice have a doubling of muscle mass throughout the body," says Lee. He had been identifying and characterizing new members of the TGF-β family…
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A Golgi-associated lipid kinase controls peripheral nerve myelination [Cell Biology]
Myelination of axons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of vertebrates including humans enables the fast, saltatory propagation of nerve impulses by restricting action potentials to short unmyelinated axonal segments termed nodes of Ranvier (1). Defects in nerve myelination are causative of a variety of myelin…
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Opinion: Standardizing the definition of gene drive [Cell Biology]
Gene drive has become a hot topic in the popular press and the scientific literature, yet little consensus vocabulary on the subject exists. As members of the gene drive community, we have developed a core set of definitions to help stakeholders discuss the topic and communicate using a common understanding…
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Johns Hopkins develops potential antibiotic for drug-resistant pathogen
Scientists from Johns Hopkins University and Medicine have developed a possible new antibiotic for a pathogen that is notoriously resistant to medications and frequently lethal for people with cystic fibrosis and other lung ailments.
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Survey: COVID-19 prevention top concern of home-care agencies
Tens of thousands of Massachusetts residents depend on home care to support their health as they age or cope with physical challenges. That care often requires close personal contact, increasing the risk of contracting COVID-19 among both home-care clients and the aides who provide their care.
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More years of obesity means higher risk of disease, study finds
A greater obesity duration is associated with worse values for all cardiometabolic disease factors, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Tom Norris of Loughborough University, UK, and colleagues.
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Hydrogel could treat glaucoma without surgery or drugs
A potential new treatment for glaucoma could replace daily eye drops and surgery with a twice-a-year hydrogel injection to control the buildup of pressure in the eye, a new study with animals shows. Researchers envision doctors could do the injection as an office procedure as part of regular patient visits. The possible treatment, which could become the first non-drug, non-surgical, long-acting t
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Daily briefing: Mount Everest is officially taller
Nature, Published online: 08 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03502-y The new official height of the highest spot on Earth is 8,848.86 metres. Plus, how to understand COVID vaccine trial data and the implosion of the billion-euro Human Brain Project.
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Oxford COVID-vaccine paper highlights lingering unknowns about results
Nature, Published online: 08 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03504-w The Oxford–AstraZeneca partnership is the first major developer to publish detailed data from phase III trials.
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The U.S. Risks Locking In a Climate Health Crisis in Response to COVID
So far, the bulk of energy-related economic relief has gone to the fossil fuel industry — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Serotonin plays a key role in patience and impulse control, research says
Prior research has suggested a possible link between a lack of serotonin receptors in the brain and impulsive behaviors. A recent study from the Neural Computation Unit at the OIST explored this further, resulting in evidence that there is in fact a neurological factor to the brain's ability to control impulses and manage patience. This research could reveal more data on how serotonin impacts reg
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'Pink tax' hurts female consumers, but electing more women combats it
The wage gap between men and women is no secret, but another form of gender discrimination directly and disproportionately affects women worldwide: the "pink tax" imposed by import tariffs that target female products.
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Tiny Cyborg Drone Navigates Using Surgically Removed Moth Antenna
Smellicopter When it comes to tracking scents, technological sensors tend to fall short. So when they were building a new smell-hunting robot, a team of University of Washington engineers instead turned to nature , equipping a small drone with an antenna plucked from a live moth, according to research published in the journal Bioinspiration & Biomimetics . The resulting cyborg, which they call th
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Don't spread this holiday suicide myth
The holiday season usually has the lowest monthly suicide rates, but a new analysis shows that in the 2019-2020 holiday season, about half of the newspaper stories that connected the holidays and suicide contained misinformation falsely perpetuating the myth. While the COVID-19 pandemic has increased risk factors associated with suicide, the media and the public should be careful this holiday sea
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Why pandas like to roll in piles of poo
Nature, Published online: 08 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03477-w A steaming pile holds allure for giant pandas, especially at one time of year.
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How Parents Can Help Children of the Pandemic Cope
The pandemic has upended childhoods around the world. Here's what parents and caregivers can do to ease anxiety and stress among kids.
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How Playing Science Games is Advancing Genetic Research
By playing citizen science games like Phylo, Colony B and Borderlands Science, people can join scientific research projects by completing simple activities in their free time.
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Curiosity Stream Is a Streaming Service Tailor-Made for People Who Love to Learn
Binge-watching TV shows was a trend during before the pandemic. Now? It's practically the norm. Thanks to the development of various streaming services, there are thousands of TV shows readily available anytime, anywhere. But if you're tired of the same old streaming services, and wanna immerse yourself in factual, educational, thought-provoking content, it's time to try Curiosity Stream . Curios
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Researcher, until last week a Miami dean, faked data in grant applications, says federal watchdog
A former researcher at the University of Arizona who is now was until last week an associate dean at the University of Miami "engaged in research misconduct by intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly falsifying and/or fabricating data" in six federal grant applications, according to a new finding by the U.S. Office of Research Integrity (ORI). Charles … Continue reading
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Disrupting the cellular process that promotes pancreatic cancer's deadly growth
Researchers say they've identified a way to disrupt a process that promotes the growth of pancreatic cancers — one of the most difficult and deadly cancers to treat.
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Lab-grown human brain organoids mimic an autism spectrum disorder, help test treatments
UC San Diego researchers used brain organoids to identify two drug candidates that counteract the genetic deficiencies that cause Rett syndrome, a rare form of autism spectrum disorder.
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Arctic endured one of its hottest years in 2020: study
Every year for the past 15, environmental scientists working under the aegis of a US government agency issue a report on the state of the Arctic, and Tuesday's edition confirms an alarming trend: the North Pole is heating up twice as fast as the rest of the planet.
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Coral recovery during a prolonged heatwave offers new hope
University of Victoria biologists have discovered how some corals managed to survive a globally unprecedented heatwave, in a first-ever study that provides new hope for the long-term survival of coral reefs in the face of climate change.
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Does free will actually exist? It's complicated.
Your split decision to grab ice cream from the fridge may have been programmed deep inside you. (Tomi Um/) Here's a mind-bending question: Are you reading this because you definitely chose to or because you were destined to? Philosophers have pondered free will's existence for millennia, and neuroscientists began to consider whether humans go about their lives of their own accord in the 1960s. Bu
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COVID vaccines: the world's medical regulators need access to open data
Nature, Published online: 08 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03458-z The global race to produce COVID vaccines is a chance for regulators and drug companies to create a more harmonized approvals process.
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Coral recovery during a prolonged heatwave offers new hope
University of Victoria biologists have discovered how some corals managed to survive a globally unprecedented heatwave, in a first-ever study that provides new hope for the long-term survival of coral reefs in the face of climate change.
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A molecule that works like a nanobattery
How do molecular catalysts—molecules which, like enzymes, can trigger or accelerate certain chemical reactions—function, and what effects do they have? A team of chemists at the University of Oldenburg has come closer to the answers using a model molecule that functions like a molecular nanobattery. It consists of several titanium centers linked to each other by a single layer of interconnected ca
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Racial microaggressions contribute to disparities in STEM education
Careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are one of the fastest-growing areas of work in the United States, yet racial and gender disparities remain in STEM occupations.
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People pose a deadly threat to orcas
Orcas face a variety of deadly threats—many stemming from human interactions, according to pathology reports on more than 50 killer whales stranded over nearly a decade in the northeast Pacific and Hawaii. A study analyzing the reports in PLOS ONE indicates that understanding and being aware of each threat is critical for managing and conserving killer whale populations. It also presents a baseli
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Human systems management critical for businesses during COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted all types of organizations, leading human resources managers to reconsider their roles to support the implementation of social distancing practices, safety measures, and new ways of working. A special issue of Human Systems Management looks at the behavioral challenges posed by new ways of working and presents new models and tools to help organizations manage th
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Silver linings: Adding silver to nanoclusters can do wonders for their luminescence
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have discovered that a silver-doped platinum thiolate nanometal complex shows 18-fold greater photoluminescence than the original platinum complex. In their recent paper, they provide insights into the causes of this, crowning a new approach to creating efficient non-toxic and biocompatible compounds for bioimaging.
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Trump Turned Down Opportunity to Buy 500M Doses of COVID Vaccine
U.S. President Donald Trump is claiming credit for pharmaceutical companies making significant progress toward a COVID-19 vaccine during his presidency. But The New York Times isreporting that when Pfizer offered the U.S. government the chance to purchase additional doses of its experimental vaccine, Trump said no. Pfizer developed a coronavirus vaccine — and didn't accept any federal funding thr
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Frontline workers should be first in vaccine queue | Letters
Dr Richard Lawson argues for the need to prioritise frontline workers, Dr Hugh Adler praises clinical trial volunteers, and Heidi Chow says patents must be suspended so all countries can access the Covid vaccine "NHS staff no longer top priority to receive coronavirus vaccine" ( Report , 3 December). This is because the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) advises that the first
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New findings shed light on the repair of UV-induced DNA damage
An international research team has clarified the regulatory mechanism of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in recognizing and repairing DNA that has been damaged by ultraviolet (UV) light. The investigators at Kobe University (Japan), the National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan), the Catholic University of Louvain (Belgium), Kyoto University (Japan), and the National Institute of Genetics (Japa
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New TIMSS results show East Asian students continue to lead the way in mathematics
Led by Singapore, five East Asian countries also including Chinese Taipei, Korea, Japan, and Hong Kong SAR, continue to outperform all TIMSS countries in mathematics by a substantial margin at the fourth and eighth grades, according to results released today from TIMSS, the longest running, large scale international assessment of mathematics and science education in the world.
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New findings shed light on the repair of UV-induced DNA damage
An international research team has clarified the regulatory mechanism of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in recognizing and repairing DNA that has been damaged by ultraviolet (UV) light. The investigators at Kobe University (Japan), the National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan), the Catholic University of Louvain (Belgium), Kyoto University (Japan), and the National Institute of Genetics (Japa
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2020 in Photos: How the First Months Unfolded
As the year comes to a close, it's time to take a look at some of the most memorable events and images of 2020. Events covered in this essay (the first of a three-part photo summary of the year) include the disastrous Australian wildfires, the onset of the global coronavirus pandemic and the new reality of empty public spaces, innovative ways to cope with social-distancing measures, the Democrati
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In new step toward quantum tech, scientists synthesize 'bright' quantum bits
Qubits (short for quantum bits) are often made of the same semiconducting materials as our everyday electronics. But now an interdisciplinary team of chemists and physicists at Northwestern University and the University of Chicago has developed a new method to create tailor-made qubits: by chemically synthesizing molecules that encode quantum information into their magnetic, or "spin," states. Thi
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Novel gene variants that modify the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease discovered
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital have identified 216 new genetic modifiers of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. The newly-identified biomarkers could potentially be used in the future to refine risk assessment, patient prognosis and act as therapeutic targets for this untreatable condition.
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RAF releases video of world's biggest iceberg
The RAF has now released footage from its low-level reconnaissance flight over the giant A68a.
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How poor oral hygiene may result in metabolic syndrome
Researchers have identified a novel mechanism by which periodontal disease may cause metabolic syndrome. By studying patients with metabolic syndrome, the researchers demonstrated high antibody titers against Porphyromonas gingivalis, the bacterium causing periodontal disease. In a mouse model, the researchers then showed that infection with this bacterium causes systemic insulin resistance and me
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SMART researchers design portable device for fast detection of plant stress
Researchers have designed a portable optical sensor that allows rapid monitoring of plant stress – a new tool to help farmers and plant scientists with early diagnosis and real-time plant health monitoring in field conditions. SMART's discovery is a useful tool in precision agriculture to improve crop yield through sustainable farming.
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Research sheds new light on cause of deadly lung disease
New research could shed light on the mystery cause of a lung disease that is a major killer, and potentially unlock new treatments
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Elevated biomarker for blood vessel damage found in all children with SARS-CoV-2
Researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have found elevated levels of a biomarker related to blood vessel damage in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, even if the children had minimal or no symptoms of COVID-19. They also found that a high proportion of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection met clinical and diagnostic criteria for thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA).
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Biden's Health and Human Services Nominee Has Political Skill but No Frontline Health Experience
California Attorney General Xavier Becerra has never held a position in public health administration, but he has led dozens of lawsuits to protect the Affordable Care Act and health rights — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Web scraping is a tool, not a crime
As a reporter who can code, I can easily collect information from websites and social media accounts to find stories. All I need to do is write a few lines of code that go into the ether, open up websites, and download the data that is already publicly available on them. This process is called scraping. But there's a calculus I make in my head whenever I begin pursuing a story that requires scrap
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An 'aerosol factory' churns high in the Himalayas
Nature, Published online: 07 December 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03478-9 Tiny particles forming on the roof of the world can affect global climate.
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Man Robs Bank by Threatening to Infect Staff With COVID
51-year-old Georgia resident Victor Hardley Crawley attempted to rob a bank by telling the bank tellers that he would infect them with COVID-19. That's according to a typo-filled press release by the Clayton County Sheriff's Office and posted on its Facebook page . "The suspect did not display a weapon, but stated he had tested positive for COVID-19, and that if the bank did not comply with his d
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Best electric toothbrush: Five things to consider
All the things you need to consider if you want the best electric toothbrush. (Oral-B /) Opting for an electric toothbrush over a traditional design provides a number of benefits to users, granting basic optimization and automation of an otherwise repetitive hygiene routine that demands diligence yet too often veers into the mundane. The brush heads are the main plus for this category, as they're
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A role for the slow oscillations of the neocortex in epileptic spasm generation
Epileptic spasms are a type of brief seizures that are the hallmark of catastrophic seizure disorders and characterized by severe cognitive and motor deficits. Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital have found the source and mechanism to explain how cortical neurons generate spasms. This is also the first study to reveal a hitherto unknown relationship between a
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Studying trust in autonomous products
Stanford engineers investigated how people's moods might affect their trust of autonomous products, such as smart speakers. They uncovered a complicated relationship.
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Coral recovery during a prolonged heatwave offers new hope
University of Victoria biologists have discovered how some corals managed to survive a globally unprecedented heatwave, in a first-ever study that provides new hope for the long-term survival of coral reefs in the face of climate change.
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Labeling paid 'influencer' vaping posts as ads draws attention
Social media influencers vaping glamorously into their social media feeds are often not doing so for free. And new research suggests that calling out their pay-to-play posts as advertisements in a plain, obvious way might have an impact on young people.
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Delivering sound to people where they want it for VR, AR
What if a commercial audio speaker could function like an autozoom projector does for light, and you could deliver the sound people want where they want it? Chinmay Rajguru, from the University of Sussex, will discuss his research team's work creating a sound projector that can deliver spatial sound at a distance by forming a beam of audible sound at the 179th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of
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New DIY Contact Tracing App Is Based on the Science of Memory
It uses words and photos to remind you of where you've been and whom you've seen — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Visual short-term memory is more complex than previously assumed
Contrary to previous assumptions, visual short-term memory is not merely based on one kind of information about an object, such as only its colour or only its name. Rather, several types of information can be retained simultaneously in short-term memory. Using complex EEG analyses and deep neural networks, researchers have discovered that short-term memory is more complex than previously assumed.
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New findings shed light on the repair of UV-induced DNA damage
A repair system in our cells fixes DNA damage caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun, however the detailed process behind this is not fully understood. An international research team has clarified the regulatory mechanism of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in recognizing and repairing UV-damaged DNA. This new discovery will contribute towards illuminating the onset mechanisms of
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Smellicopter: An obstacle-avoiding drone that uses a live moth antenna to seek out smells
A team has developed Smellicopter: an autonomous drone that uses a live antenna from a moth to navigate toward smells. Smellicopter can also sense and avoid obstacles as it travels through the air.
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'SCOUT' helps researchers find, quantify significant differences among organoids
Unbiased, high-throughput 'pipeline' system clears, labels, images and analyzes organoids to improve their utility for understanding development and diseases such as Zika infection.
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Should Eating Organ Meat Be the Next Foodie Trend?
Most people eat very little offal, if any at all. Could going the whole hog reduce the environmental footprint associated with meat consumption? It depends.
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Smellicopter: An obstacle-avoiding drone that uses a live moth antenna to seek out smells
A team has developed Smellicopter: an autonomous drone that uses a live antenna from a moth to navigate toward smells. Smellicopter can also sense and avoid obstacles as it travels through the air.
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For a Nation on Edge, Antacids Become Hard to Find
Queasy Americans, fighting upset stomachs and worries about the pandemic, have stocked up on prescription and over-the-counter medications, making them scarce in some parts of the country.
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Study: Bartonella infection associated with psychiatric symptoms and skin lesions
Bartonella bacteria are increasingly recognized as an emerging infectious disease threat. A new study has found additional instances of Bartonella infection in humans who exhibited neuropsychiatric symptoms, a subset of whom also had skin lesions.
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Corona pandemic could be better tackled by reducing aerosol transmission.
Aerosols and their spread play an essential role in the transmission of COVID-19. However, the risk of transmission could be significantly reduced if more could be done to reduce indoor airborne viruses. The Working committee particulate matter (AAF) has therefore issued an statement with concrete recommendations. These include window ventilation, exhaust ventilation, air purification systems and
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Researchers discover treatment that suppresses liver cancer
Researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine have discovered a treatment combination that significantly reduces tumor growth and extends the life span of mice with liver cancer. This discovery provides a potentially new therapeutic approach to treating one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide.
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Infant health inequality has increased since 2010, study finds
After decades of narrowing gaps in health between infants born to the most and least advantaged American mothers, infant health inequality is increasing, portending a rise in health and social inequity that could last for decades.
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Efficacy data for Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine confirmed
Peer-reviewed study affirms better impact among trial participants who received smaller initial dose
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Expert: We need new laws for the facial recognition 'Wild West'
A new article outlines how laws could help protect consumer data gathered by facial recognition technology. Elizabeth Rowe likes the convenience of unlocking her phone without typing in a passcode—but not enough to use the phone's face identification. As a legal scholar who studies facial recognition technology, she knows that few restrictions govern what's done with the data it captures. "Compan
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Apple's AirPods Max take aim at high-end over-the-ear headphones
It almost looks like a pair of giant apple watches strapped to your head. (Apple /) The little white stick protruding from Apple's AirPods has become an instantly recognizable cultural object since the company first announced the wireless earbuds way back in 2016. When the AirPods Pro showed up in 2019 , they upped the performance—and the price—but kept a similar basic, and easily identifiable, f
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We Haven't Discovered "Alaska's Yellowstone"
New research suggests that a group of volcanoes in Alaska might be all related to a single large caldera, but this doesn't mean we have a new Yellowstone.
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Study can orient use of melatonin in the treatment of breast cancer
In an article published in the Journal of Pineal Research, researchers at São Paulo State University and collaborators describe a set of genes potentially regulated by the "sleep hormone" in some types of tumor
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Using targeted microbubbles to administer toxic cancer drugs
New research has shown how microbubbles carrying powerful cancer drugs can be guided to the site of a tumour using antibodies. Microbubbles are small manufactured spheres half the size of a red blood cell – and scientists believe they can be used to transport drugs to highly specific locations within the body.
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A molecule like a nanobattery
How do molecular catalysts function, and what effects do they have? A team of chemical scientists at the University of Oldenburg has come closer to the answers using a model molecule that functions like a molecular nanobattery. It consists of several titanium centres linked to each other by a single layer of interconnected carbon and nitrogen atoms. The researchers' recently published findings com
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Climate change exacerbates biodiversity loss
A considerable number of existing and proposed post-2020 biodiversity targets are at risk of being severely compromised due to climate change, even if other barriers such as habitat exploitation are removed argue the authors of a study led by Almut Arneth from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. According to their analysis published in PNAS, global warming accelerates the loss of biodiversity. Vice
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Bullied lesbian, gay and bisexual students more likely to carry weapons
A new study has found youth who report carrying a weapon have higher odds of experiencing bullying and bullying-related victimization. Minoritized student populations, especially sexual minority youth disproportionately experience bullying and bullying victimization.
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The Lancet: Oxford COVID-19 vaccine is safe and protects against disease, first published results from phase 3 trials
Interim results of the Oxford COVID-19 vaccine trials find that the vaccine protects against symptomatic disease in 70% of cases – with vaccine efficacy of 62% for those given two full doses, and of 90% in those given a half then a full dose (both trial arms pre-specified in the pooled analysis). The results are the first full peer-reviewed efficacy results to be published for a COVID-19 vaccine,
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Long-term study of gene therapy technique in monkeys finds no adverse health effects
A decade after the birth of the first primates born with the aid of a gene therapy technique designed to prevent inherited mitochondrial disease, a careful study of the monkeys and their offspring reveals no adverse health effects. The new study generally bolsters the scientific basis for mitochondrial replacement therapy in human clinical trials, with an important caveat: Researchers found varyin
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Safety of delaying surgery for high-risk prostate cancer
Considering when health care resources need to be prioritized during special times, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers in this observational study looked at whether delaying radical prostatectomy surgery for up to six months for high-risk prostate cancer was associated with worse outcomes.
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Adapting magnetometers for noisy, physically demanding environments
Researchers routinely measure magnetic fields to better understand a vast array of natural phenomena. Many of these measurements are performed in shielded environments, but the research community has achieved these sensitive measurements in extreme environments as well as outside of highly controlled environments. In AVS Quantum Science, researchers discuss ways in which various predominantly opti
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Tiny nanospindles enhance use of ultrasound to fight cancer
Ultrasound can be used to treat cancer when used in combination with molecules that sensitize the system to sound waves. These sonosensitizers generate toxic reactive oxygen species that attack and kill tumor cells. In Applied Physics Review, scientists report a new type of sonosensitizer based on a vanadium-doped titanium dioxide that enhances the amount of damage ultrasound inflicts on tumors. S
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New method to boost supply of life-saving stem cells
Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona and Columbia University in New York City have found a new method for growing a large quantity of life-saving blood stem cells. The scarcity of these cells is one of the greatest limitations for their use in a variety of medical procedures, from treatment of blood cancers to inherited blood disorders that require a bone marrow tran
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Batteries mimic mammal bones for stability
Sodium-ion batteries offer several advantages over lithium-ion batteries; however, it is difficult to develop sodium cathodes, materials through which electrons can enter a battery. Many candidate materials are unstable or cannot withstand high voltages. To find a solution, researchers turned to nature. They created a porous system of NVP structures, surrounded by a dense shell of reduced graphene
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Face shields no match for sneeze vortex rings
Do face shields provide enough protection to the wearers against COVID-19 if they don't also wear a mask? No. But researchers in Japan are working to create face shields safe enough to be worn alone. In Physics of Fluids, Fujio Akagi and colleagues describe their work to gain a better understanding of what happens to the airflow around a face shield when someone nearby sneezes.
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Arctic's Shift to a Warmer Climate Is 'Well Underway, Scientists Warn
"There is no reason to think that in 30 years much of anything will be as it is today," one of the editors of a new report on the Arctic climate said.
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The Real Reason Americans Aren't Quarantining
I f you flew into Honolulu International Airport anytime after the start of the pandemic, you would have had a different experience from most Americans who have traveled elsewhere this year. In the days following your arrival, you would not be wading into the azure waters of Waikiki Beach. You would not be climbing the soaring crest of Diamond Head to gaze upon the Pacific Ocean. A noble sea turt
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Därför är torvmarkerna så viktiga för klimatet
Världens torvmarker riskerar passera en brytpunkt, en så kallad "tipping point", i den globala kolcykeln och bli kolkällor istället för kolsänkor. För att förhindra det måste torvmarker bevaras och förvaltas på ett hållbart sätt – inte omvandlas till exempelvis jordbruksmark. Mer än 100 miljarder ton kol kan frigöras från torvmarker fram till år 2100 visar en studie från ett internationellt forsk
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The legacy of matriarchs in the Yukon First Nations | Kluane Adamek
In the Yukon First Nations, women lead; generations of matriarchs have guided and directed the community by forging trade agreements, creating marriage alliances and ensuring business for all. Yukon Regional Chief Kluane Adamek urges others to follow in the legacy of her people by putting more women at the table and encouraging them to seek spaces where their perspectives can create the biggest im
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Kæmpe vertikal farm i Taastrup vil disrupte fødevareproduktion
I en lagerhal i udkanten af Storkøbenhavn bliver salaterne dyrket under nøje tilrettelagte forhold og stimuleret med musik. Produktet er friskt og velsmagende, men kan ikke konkurrere på pris.
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Chuck Yeager obituary
American pilot who was the first person to fly faster than the speed of sound Chuck Yeager, who has died aged 97, stands alongside the Wright Brothers and Charles Lindbergh in the history of American aviation. In 1947 Yeager was the first person to break the sound barrier; and, in hitting Mach 1, he set the US on a path that was to lead to Neil Armstrong 's 1969 moon landing. On the evening of Su
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In surprising sign of resilience, some corals can survive long heat waves
But the reefs appear to require unpolluted water in order to resist worsening effects of climate change
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Face shields no match for sneeze vortex rings
Do face shields provide enough protection to the wearers against COVID-19 if they don't also wear a mask? Spoiler alert: no. But researchers at Fukuoka University in Japan are working to create face shields safe enough to be worn alone.
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Tiny nanospindles enhance use of ultrasound to fight cancer
Ultrasound can be used to treat cancer when used in combination with molecules that sensitize the system to sound waves. These sonosensitizers generate toxic reactive oxygen species that attack and kill tumor cells.
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Adapting magnetometers for noisy, physically demanding environments
Researchers routinely measure magnetic fields to better understand a vast array of natural phenomena including geological movements, solar flares, neuronal communication in the brain, and molecular-scale chemical processes.
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Batteries mimic mammal bones for stability
Sodium-ion batteries are poised to replace lithium-ion batteries for large-scale electrical energy storage. They offer several advantages over lithium-ion batteries, particularly due to the widespread abundance of sodium.
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New method to boost supply of life-saving stem cells
Researchers at the Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona and Columbia University in New York City have identified a protein that is critical for the expansion of typically scarce, life-saving blood stem cells.
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How Neutral Theory Altered Ideas About Biodiversity
If you had braved the jungles of China's Fujian province in the early 20th century, various accounts say you could have witnessed a stunningly unexpected animal: a blue tiger. These tigers were described as "marvelously beautiful" with bodies "a deep shade of Maltese, changing into almost deep blue on the under parts." As late as the 1950s, hunters reported spotting their blue hairs alongside the
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New method to boost supply of life-saving stem cells
Researchers at the Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona and Columbia University in New York City have identified a protein that is critical for the expansion of typically scarce, life-saving blood stem cells.
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Racial microaggressions contribute to disparities in STEM education
Careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are one of the fastest-growing areas of work in the United States, yet racial and gender disparities remain in STEM occupations. A recent study from University of Illinois researchers examining reasons for such disparities shows the overall racial climate on a college campus–informed by experiences of racial microaggressions–is
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New method for evaluating vaccine safety
A research group at the University of Turku, Finland, has led the development of a new method to evaluate vaccine safety. The new method may significantly reduce the use of animal testing in the vaccine industry.
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Army looks to improve quadrotor drone performance
The U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command's, now referred to as DEVCOM, Army Research Laboratory collaborated with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute to create a trajectory planner that significantly shortens the time it takes for VTOL tail-sitter drones to make this crucial transition. The team designed the trajectory planner specifically for the Army's Common Research Co
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Scientists shed new light on how lung bacteria defend against pneumonia
New insight on how bacteria in the lungs protect against invading pathogens has been published today in the open-access eLife journal.
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Human systems management critical for businesses during COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted all types of organizations, leading human resources managers to reconsider their roles to support the implementation of social distancing practices, safety measures, and new ways of working. A special issue of Human Systems Management looks at the behavioral challenges posed by new ways of working and presents new models and tools to help organizations manage th
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Research reveals how COVID-19 affects the eyes
Sore eyes are the most significant vision-based indicator of COVID-19, according to new research published in the journal BMJ Open Ophthalmology.
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Way to support effective brain performance after head injury backgrounded by lack of sleep
Scientists from the School of Biomedicine of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) with colleagues from Italy, Spain, Romania, and Sweden suggest a way to protect the brain and minimize neurodegenerative processes after concussion head injuries in the presence of extensive previous sleep deprivation. This methodology is especially important given the retirement-age increase that has recently becom
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Research news tip sheet: story ideas from Johns Hopkins Medicine
Research News Tip Sheet: Story Ideas From Johns Hopkins Medicine
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New method to label and track nano-particles could improve our understanding of plastic pollution
A ground-breaking method to label and track manufactured nano-plastics could signal a paradigm shift in how we understand and care for environments, finds a new study.
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Are Strange Space Signals in Antarctica Evidence of a Parallel Universe?
Odd detections at the South Pole have so far defied explanation, inviting theories beyond conventional physics.
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Jupiter and Saturn Will Form Rare "Christmas Star" on Winter Solstice
On December 21, Jupiter and Saturn will appear closer in Earth's night sky than they have since 1226 A.D. You can watch the event live here, courtesy of Lowell Observatory.
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Is It Okay to Let My Dog Sleep in My Bed?
It's funny to think back to a time when I thought I valued any possession more than my dog's freedom to destroy it. When I first took Peter in as a foster, I was under the impression that he would not sleep in my bed. It was against the rescue's rules, first of all, but I'd also recently purchased a linen duvet cover that cost $169, and that was on sale and with a discount code. I loved it very m
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HKU research team invents novel light-controlled contamination-free fluidic processor
A mechanical engineering research team at the University of Hong Kong has invented a novel light-controlled, contamination-free fluidic processor, which can serve as a useful tool to greatly reduce the risk of infection of front-line medical workers in testing virus or bacteria in big pandemics like the current COVID-19 pandemic, and to minimise the risk of contamination during the process. The ne
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COVID-19: persistent symptoms in one third of cases
A team of physicians and epidemiologists from the University of Geneva the University Hospitals of Geneva and the General Health Directorate of the State of Geneva followed nearly 700 people who tested positive for SARS-COV2 but did not require hospitalisation. Six weeks after diagnosis, 33% of them still reported suffering from fatigue, loss of smell or taste, shortness of breath or cough. These
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