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Transfer RNA fragments replace microRNA regulators of the cholinergic poststroke immune blockade [Medical Sciences]
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Recovery depends on a delicate balance between inflammatory responses and immune suppression, tipping the scale between brain protection and susceptibility to infection. Peripheral cholinergic blockade of immune reactions fine-tunes this immune response, but its molecular regulators are unknown. Here, we report…
14d
Identification of signaling pathways, matrix-digestion enzymes, and motility components controlling Vibrio cholerae biofilm dispersal [Microbiology]
Bacteria alternate between being free-swimming and existing as members of sessile multicellular communities called biofilms. The biofilm lifecycle occurs in three stages: cell attachment, biofilm maturation, and biofilm dispersal. Vibrio cholerae biofilms are hyperinfectious, and biofilm formation and dispersal are considered central to disease transmission. While biofilm formation is well…
14d
Consumptive coagulopathy of severe yellow fever occurs independently of hepatocellular tropism and massive hepatic injury [Microbiology]
Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes tens of thousands of deaths each year despite the long-standing deployment of an effective vaccine. In its most severe form, YF manifests as a hemorrhagic fever that causes severe damage to visceral organs. Although coagulopathy is a defining feature of…
14d
A highly immunogenic and effective measles virus-based Th1-biased COVID-19 vaccine [Microbiology]
The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has spread worldwide, with millions of cases and more than 1 million deaths to date. The gravity of the situation mandates accelerated efforts to identify safe and effective vaccines. Here, we generated measles virus (MeV)-based vaccine candidates…
14d
Anatomical correlates of face patches in macaque inferotemporal cortex [Neuroscience]
Primate brains typically have regions within the ventral visual stream that are selectively responsive to faces. In macaques, these face patches are located in similar parts of inferotemporal cortex across individuals although correspondence with particular anatomical features has not been reported previously. Here, using high-resolution functional and anatomical imaging, we…
14d
IL-4/STAT6 signaling facilitates innate hematoma resolution and neurological recovery after hemorrhagic stroke in mice [Neuroscience]
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke affecting millions of people worldwide. Parenchymal hematoma triggers a series of reactions leading to primary and secondary brain injuries and permanent neurological deficits. Microglia and macrophages carry out hematoma clearance, thereby facilitating functional recovery after ICH. Here, we elucidate a pivotal…
14d
Clinically approved IVIg delivered to the hippocampus with focused ultrasound promotes neurogenesis in a model of Alzheimer's disease [Neuroscience]
Preclinical and clinical data support the use of focused ultrasound (FUS), in the presence of intravenously injected microbubbles, to safely and transiently increase the permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). FUS-induced BBB permeability has been shown to enhance the bioavailability of administered intravenous therapeutics to the brain. Ideal therapeutics candidates…
14d
A dual role for {alpha}-synuclein in facilitation and depression of dopamine release from substantia nigra neurons in vivo [Neuroscience]
α-Synuclein is expressed at high levels at presynaptic terminals, but defining its role in the regulation of neurotransmission under physiologically relevant conditions has proven elusive. We report that, in vivo, α-synuclein is responsible for the facilitation of dopamine release triggered by action potential bursts separated by short intervals (seconds) and…
14d
Development and validation of a potent and specific inhibitor for the CLC-2 chloride channel [Pharmacology]
CLC-2 is a voltage-gated chloride channel that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. In the central nervous system, CLC-2 appears in neurons and glia. Studies to define how this channel contributes to normal and pathophysiological function in the central nervous system raise questions that remain unresolved, in part due to…
14d
Coexpressed subunits of dual genetic origin define a conserved supercomplex mediating essential protein import into chloroplasts [Plant Biology]
In photosynthetic eukaryotes, thousands of proteins are translated in the cytosol and imported into the chloroplast through the concerted action of two translocons—termed TOC and TIC—located in the outer and inner membranes of the chloroplast envelope, respectively. The degree to which the molecular composition of the TOC and TIC complexes…
14d
BAM1/2 receptor kinase signaling drives CLE peptide-mediated formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis roots [Plant Biology]
Cell division is often regulated by extracellular signaling networks to ensure correct patterning during development. In Arabidopsis, the SHORT-ROOT (SHR)/SCARECROW (SCR) transcription factor dimer activates CYCLIND6;1 (CYCD6;1) to drive formative divisions during root ground tissue development. Here, we show plasma-membrane-localized BARELY ANY MERISTEM1/2 (BAM1/2) family receptor kinases are req
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ARP2/3-independent WAVE/SCAR pathway and class XI myosin control sperm nuclear migration in flowering plants [Plant Biology]
After eukaryotic fertilization, gamete nuclei migrate to fuse parental genomes in order to initiate development of the next generation. In most animals, microtubules control female and male pronuclear migration in the zygote. Flowering plants, on the other hand, have evolved actin filament (F-actin)-based sperm nuclear migration systems for karyogamy. Flowering…
14d
Awareness-driven behavior changes can shift the shape of epidemics away from peaks and toward plateaus, shoulders, and oscillations [Population Biology]
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 1,000,000 reported deaths globally, of which more than 200,000 have been reported in the United States as of October 1, 2020. Public health interventions have had significant impacts in reducing transmission and in averting even more deaths. Nonetheless, in many jurisdictions, the decline…
14d
Quantifying the dynamics of migration after Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico [Population Biology]
Population displacement may occur after natural disasters, permanently altering the demographic composition of the affected regions. Measuring this displacement is vital for both optimal postdisaster resource allocation and calculation of measures of public health interest such as mortality estimates. Here, we analyzed data generated by mobile phones and social media…
14d
A unified neurocomputational bilateral model of spoken language production in healthy participants and recovery in poststroke aphasia [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Understanding the processes underlying normal, impaired, and recovered language performance has been a long-standing goal for cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Many verbally described hypotheses about language lateralization and recovery have been generated. However, they have not been considered within a single, unified, and implemented computational framework, and the literatures on…
14d
The interrelationship between the face and vocal tract configuration during audiovisual speech [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
It is well established that speech perception is improved when we are able to see the speaker talking along with hearing their voice, especially when the speech is noisy. While we have a good understanding of where speech integration occurs in the brain, it is unclear how visual and auditory…
14d
Linking 19th century European settlement to the disruption of a seabird's natural population dynamics [Sustainability Science]
Recent estimates indicate that ∼70% of the world's seabird populations have declined since the 1950s due to human activities. However, for almost all bird populations, there is insufficient long-term monitoring to understand baseline (i.e., preindustrial) conditions, which are required to distinguish natural versus anthropogenically driven changes. Here, we address this…
14d
Global trends in nature's contributions to people [Sustainability Science]
Declining biodiversity and ecosystem functions put many of nature's contributions to people at risk. We review and synthesize the scientific literature to assess 50-y global trends across a broad range of nature's contributions. We distinguish among trends in potential and realized contributions of nature, as well as environmental conditions and…
14d
DIA-based systems biology approach unveils E3 ubiquitin ligase-dependent responses to a metabolic shift [Systems Biology]
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model system for systems-wide biology screens and large-scale proteomics methods. Nearly complete proteomics coverage has been achieved owing to advances in mass spectrometry. However, it remains challenging to scale this technology for rapid and high-throughput analysis of the yeast proteome to investigate biological…
14d
Correction for Li et al., In situ detection of live-to-dead bacteria ratio after inactivation by means of synchronous fluorescence and PCA [Correction]
CHEMISTRY Correction for "In situ detection of live-to-dead bacteria ratio after inactivation by means of synchronous fluorescence and PCA," by Runze Li, Umang Goswami, Maria King, Jie Chen, Thomas C. Cesario, and Peter M. Rentzepis, which was first published January 8, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1716514115 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, 668–673)….
14d
Correction for Chandler et al., Early evolutionary loss of the lipid A modifying enzyme PagP resulting in innate immune evasion in Yersinia pestis [Correction]
MICROBIOLOGY Correction for "Early evolutionary loss of the lipid A modifying enzyme PagP resulting in innate immune evasion in Yersinia pestis," by Courtney E. Chandler, Erin M. Harberts, Mark R. Pelletier, Iyarit Thaipisuttikul, Jace W. Jones, Adeline M. Hajjar, Jason W. Sahl, David R. Goodlett, Aaron C. Pride, David A….
14d
In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Why giant pandas roll in manure A wild panda in Foping. Attraction to fecal matter among wild mammals is rare, but Qinling giant pandas have been observed to roll in horse manure. The behavior typically involves a panda sniffing the manure, rubbing against it with the cheek, rolling in the…
14d
Did volcano eruptions alter the trajectories of the Roman Republic and the Ptolemaic Kingdom? Moving beyond black-box determinism [Physical Sciences]
McConnell et al. (1) suggest that the eruption of Alaska's Okmok volcano in 43 BCE strongly affected historical events in the late Roman Republic and the Ptolemaic Kingdom. This interpretation is problematic, first because classical sources can plausibly be interpreted in completely different ways. The handling of natural disasters and…
14d
Reply to Strunz and Braeckel: Agricultural failures logically link historical events to extreme climate following the 43 BCE Okmok eruption [Physical Sciences]
We report (1) ice core evidence that unambiguously identifies massive sulfur fallout over much of the Arctic, attributed using tephra geochemistry to eruption of Alaska's Okmok volcano, with climate model simulations indicating 2 y of extreme temperatures and precipitation throughout the Northern Hemisphere starting in early 43 BCE. This climate…
14d
GenBank's reliability is uncertain for biodiversity researchers seeking species-level assignment for eDNA [Biological Sciences]
Leray et al. (1) reassuringly conclude that "GenBank is a reliable resource for 21st century biodiversity research" based on an important quantitative assessment of its taxonomic accuracy. However, their insightful analysis focuses only on taxonomic levels above species. GenBank (2) is the key reference database for the growing fields of…
14d
Reply to Locatelli et al.: Evaluating species-level accuracy of GenBank metazoan sequences will require experts' effort in each group [Biological Sciences]
Biodiversity studies increasingly rely on DNA sequences obtained from the environment (rather than individual organisms) for basic and applied research (1). Species-level assignment of sequences using genetic databases such as GenBank is often desirable (e.g., detecting invasive species, measuring range shifts, or interpreting interaction networks). Thus, Locatelli et al. (2)…
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Profile of Haig H. Kazazian Jr. [Profiles]
When geneticist Haig H. Kazazian Jr. was 16, he overheard a conversation between his father and a family friend. "What do you think? Is he going to be a doctor?" asked his father. "I think he'll be a scientist," replied the friend. Kazazian went on to become both. Trained in…
14d
A thermodynamic perspective on enhanced enzyme diffusion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We are well into the 21st century and even the most fundamental aspects of protein biophysics continue to perplex us. For example, counter to any expectation, proteins are excellent conductors (1); globular proteins, the once hallowed paradigm of structural biology, are now believed to sample their unfolded ensemble multiple times…
14d
Decoding DMD transcriptional networks using single-nucleus RNA sequencing [Cell Biology]
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X chromosome-linked disease, and it is the most common form of muscular dystrophy caused by genetic mutations in the Dmd gene (1). The Dmd gene contains 79 exons, spans 2.4 Mb, and is the single largest gene in the human genome (2). This gene…
14d
Thymectomy and myasthenia gravis [Immunology and Inflammation]
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disorder of the neuromuscular junction mediated by the actions of autoantibodies directed against one of several proteins expressed on the postjunction muscle membrane. For the large majority of MG patients the target for the autoantibodies is the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (1) that interacts with acetylcholine,…
14d
The plasticity of well-being: A training-based framework for the cultivation of human flourishing [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Research indicates that core dimensions of psychological well-being can be cultivated through intentional mental training. Despite growing research in this area and an increasing number of interventions designed to improve psychological well-being, the field lacks a unifying framework that clarifies the dimensions of human flourishing that can be cultivated. Here,…
14d
Early specialized maritime and maize economies on the north coast of Peru [Anthropology]
We assess diet and economies of middle Holocene (∼7,500 to 4,000 calibrated [cal] B.P.) humans at coexisting mound sites (Huaca Prieta and Paredones) in north coastal Peru and document regular consumption of maize by ∼6,500 to 6,000 cal B.P. and its earliest use as a staple food in this area…
14d
The role of third parties in norm enforcement in customary courts among the Enga of Papua New Guinea [Anthropology]
Cultural norms are key to cooperation in human societies. How they are regulated, maintained, and adapted to the change remains a matter of debate. Humans have dispositions for both retributive and restorative justice; recent focus has been on third-party punishment, punitive sanctions by those not directly harmed, as key for…
14d
Fluid interfaces with very sharp tips in viscous flow [Applied Mathematics]
When a fluid interface is subjected to a strong viscous flow, it tends to develop near-conical ends with pointed tips so sharp that their radius of curvature is undetectable. In microfluidic applications, tips can be made to eject fine jets, from which micrometer-sized drops can be produced. Here we show…
14d
Observation of spontaneous ferromagnetism in a two-dimensional electron system [Applied Physical Sciences]
What are the ground states of an interacting, low-density electron system? In the absence of disorder, it has long been expected that as the electron density is lowered, the exchange energy gained by aligning the electron spins should exceed the enhancement in the kinetic (Fermi) energy, leading to a (Bloch)…
14d
Mesyl phosphoramidate backbone modified antisense oligonucleotides targeting miR-21 with enhanced in vivo therapeutic potency [Biochemistry]
The design of modified oligonucleotides that combine in one molecule several therapeutically beneficial properties still poses a major challenge. Recently a new type of modified mesyl phosphoramidate (or µ-) oligonucleotide was described that demonstrates high affinity to RNA, exceptional nuclease resistance, efficient recruitment of RNase H, and potent inhibition of…
14d
MicroED structure of lipid-embedded mammalian mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel [Biochemistry]
A structure of the murine voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) was determined by microcrystal electron diffraction (MicroED). Microcrystals of an essential mutant of VDAC grew in a viscous bicelle suspension, making it unsuitable for conventional X-ray crystallography. Thin, plate-like crystals were identified using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). Crystals were milled into thin…
14d
Direct visualization of translational GTPase factor pool formed around the archaeal ribosomal P-stalk by high-speed AFM [Biochemistry]
In translation elongation, two translational guanosine triphosphatase (trGTPase) factors EF1A and EF2 alternately bind to the ribosome and promote polypeptide elongation. The ribosomal stalk is a multimeric ribosomal protein complex which plays an essential role in the recruitment of EF1A and EF2 to the ribosome and their GTP hydrolysis for…
14d
The mechanoresponse of bone is closely related to the osteocyte lacunocanalicular network architecture [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Organisms rely on mechanosensing mechanisms to adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Fluid-filled network structures not only ensure efficient transport but can also be employed for mechanosensation. The lacunocanalicular network (LCN) is a fluid-filled network structure, which pervades our bones and accommodates a cell network of osteocytes. For the…
14d
The porphyrin ring rather than the metal ion dictates long-range electron transport across proteins suggesting coherence-assisted mechanism [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The fundamental biological process of electron transfer (ET) takes place across proteins with common ET pathways of several nanometers. Recent discoveries push this limit and show long-range extracellular ET over several micrometers. Here, we aim in deciphering how protein-bound intramolecular cofactors can facilitate such long-range ET. In contrast to natural…
14d
Dynamics of RNA polymerase II and elongation factor Spt4/5 recruitment during activator-dependent transcription [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (RNApII) transcribes messenger RNA from template DNA. Decades of experiments have identified the proteins needed for transcription activation, initiation complex assembly, and productive elongation. However, the dynamics of recruitment of these proteins to transcription complexes, and of the transitions between these steps, are poorly understood….
14d
Directionality of light absorption and emission in representative fluorescent proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Fluorescent molecules are like antennas: The rate at which they absorb light depends on their orientation with respect to the incoming light wave, and the apparent intensity of their emission depends on their orientation with respect to the observer. However, the directions along which the most important fluorescent molecules in…
14d
Crystal structure of the FERM-folded talin head reveals the determinants for integrin binding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Binding of the intracellular adapter proteins talin and its cofactor, kindlin, to the integrin receptors induces integrin activation and clustering. These processes are essential for cell adhesion, migration, and organ development. Although the talin head, the integrin-binding segment in talin, possesses a typical FERM-domain sequence, a truncated form has been…
14d
Actin flow-dependent and -independent force transmission through integrins [Cell Biology]
Integrin-dependent adhesions mediate reciprocal exchange of force and information between the cell and the extracellular matrix. These effects are attributed to the "focal adhesion clutch," in which moving actin filaments transmit force to integrins via dynamic protein interactions. To elucidate these processes, we measured force on talin together with actin…
14d
Dissociating antibacterial from ototoxic effects of gentamicin C-subtypes [Cell Biology]
Gentamicin is a potent broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic whose use is hampered by ototoxic side-effects. Hospital gentamicin is a mixture of five gentamicin C-subtypes and several impurities of various ranges of nonexact concentrations. We developed a purification strategy enabling assaying of individual C-subtypes and impurities for ototoxicity and antimicrobial activity. We…
14d
Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway determines ferroptosis sensitivity in gastric cancer [Cell Biology]
Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent regulated necrosis mediated by lipid peroxidation. Cancer cells survive under metabolic stress conditions by altering lipid metabolism, which may alter their sensitivity to ferroptosis. However, the association between lipid metabolism and ferroptosis is not completely understood. In this study, we found that the expression of elongation…
14d
Direct lysosome-based autophagy of lipid droplets in hepatocytes [Cell Biology]
Hepatocytes metabolize energy-rich cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) in the lysosome-directed process of autophagy. An organelle-selective form of this process (macrolipophagy) results in the engulfment of LDs within double-membrane delimited structures (autophagosomes) before lysosomal fusion. Whether this is an exclusive autophagic mechanism used by hepatocytes to catabolize LDs is unclear. It…
14d
Nanoscale morphological evolution of monocrystalline Pt surfaces during cathodic corrosion [Chemistry]
This paper studies the cathodic corrosion of a spherical single crystal of platinum in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte, to map out the detailed facet dependence of the corrosion structures forming during this still largely unexplored electrochemical phenomenon. We find that anisotropic corrosion of the platinum electrode takes place in different…
14d
Reconstructing orogens without biostratigraphy: The Saharides and continental growth during the final assembly of Gondwana-Land [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
A hitherto unknown Neoproterozoic orogenic system, the Saharides, is described in North Africa. It formed during the 900–500-Ma interval. The Saharides involved large subduction accretion complexes occupying almost the entire Arabian Shield and much of Egypt and parts of the small Precambrian inliers in the Sahara including the Ahaggar mountains….
14d
Surface textures suppress viscoelastic braking on soft substrates [Engineering]
A gravity-driven droplet will rapidly flow down an inclined substrate, resisted only by stresses inside the liquid. If the substrate is compliant, with an elastic modulus G < 100 kPa, the droplet will markedly slow as a consequence of viscoelastic braking. This phenomenon arises due to deformations of the solid…
14d
Hierarchical routing in carbon metabolism favors iron-scavenging strategy in iron-deficient soil Pseudomonas species [Environmental Sciences]
High-affinity iron (Fe) scavenging compounds, or siderophores, are widely employed by soil bacteria to survive scarcity in bioavailable Fe. Siderophore biosynthesis relies on cellular carbon metabolism, despite reported decrease in both carbon uptake and Fe-containing metabolic proteins in Fe-deficient cells. Given this paradox, the metabolic network required to sustain the…
14d
Striking heterogeneity of somatic L1 retrotransposition in single normal and cancerous gastrointestinal cells [Genetics]
Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition has been detected in early embryos, adult brains, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and many cancers, including epithelial GI tumors. We previously found numerous somatic L1 insertions in paired normal and GI cancerous tissues. Here, using a modified method of single-cell analysis for somatic L1 insertions,…
14d
Glucose-TOR signaling regulates PIN2 stability to orchestrate auxin gradient and cell expansion in Arabidopsis root [Plant Biology]
The plant growth hormone auxin controls cell identity, cell division, and expansion. In the primary root of Arabidopsis there is a robust auxin gradient with a peak concentration at the tip of the meristem and a significant decrease throughout the elongation zone. The molecular mechanisms of how such a steep…
14d
Multiscale integration of environmental stimuli in plant tropism produces complex behaviors [Plant Biology]
Plant tropism refers to the directed movement of an organ or organism in response to external stimuli. Typically, these stimuli induce hormone transport that triggers cell growth or deformation. In turn, these local cellular changes create mechanical forces on the plant tissue that are balanced by an overall deformation of…
14d
Stable maintenance of multiple representational formats in human visual short-term memory [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables humans to form a stable and coherent representation of the external world. However, the nature and temporal dynamics of the neural representations in VSTM that support this stability are barely understood. Here we combined human intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings with analyses using deep neural networks…
14d
Comparing crime rates between undocumented immigrants, legal immigrants, and native-born US citizens in Texas [Social Sciences]
We make use of uniquely comprehensive arrest data from the Texas Department of Public Safety to compare the criminality of undocumented immigrants to legal immigrants and native-born US citizens between 2012 and 2018. We find that undocumented immigrants have substantially lower crime rates than native-born citizens and legal immigrants across…
14d
Face masks considerably reduce COVID-19 cases in Germany [Statistics]
We use the synthetic control method to analyze the effect of face masks on the spread of COVID-19 in Germany. Our identification approach exploits regional variation in the point in time when wearing of face masks became mandatory in public transport and shops. Depending on the region we consider, we…
14d
Base of fresh water, groundwater salinity, and well distribution across California [Sustainability Science]
The depth at which groundwaters transition from fresh to more saline—the "base of fresh water"—is frequently used to determine the stringency and types of measures put in place to manage groundwater and protect it from contamination. Therefore, it is important to understand salinity distributions and compare defined bases of fresh…
14d
Metabolites as frailty biomarkers in older adults [Biological Sciences]
We recently read, with great interest, the article by Kameda et al. (1). They conducted untargeted metabolomics analysis of whole blood samples of 19 older adults; identified 22 markers for frailty, cognition, and hypomobility; and find the following: 1) Metabolite profiles can efficiently distinguish frailty from nonfrailty; 2) antioxidant ergothioneine…
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Reply to Pan et al.: Whole blood metabolome analysis combined with comprehensive frailty assessment [Biological Sciences]
As frailty patients are vulnerable to stressors, due to declined physiological capacity of organs during aging, comprehensive frailty assessment efficiently predicts health risk of elderlies (1). First, Pan et al. raise concerns about the definition of frailty (2). Currently, there are three major approaches to defining "frailty": 1) the physical…
14d
Island species experience higher niche expansion and lower niche conservatism during invasion [Biological Sciences]
Using a global dataset of contemporary biological invasions, the recent paper by Liu et al. (1) presents a comprehensive test of the niche conservatism hypothesis. Specifically, Liu et al. demonstrate compelling support for climatic niche conservatism in most invasive species, even when accounting for differences in ecology and physiology (1)….
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Reply to Stroud: Invasive amphibians and reptiles from islands indeed show higher niche expansion than mainland species [Biological Sciences]
Islands have been widely recognized as natural laboratories in ecological and evolutionary studies (1, 2). Compared to mainland species, species endemic to islands (i.e., island endemics) may only occupy a small part of their fundamental niche due to dispersal limitation caused by surrounding water (3). When being introduced to new…
14d
Genome-wide surveillance of transcription errors in response to genotoxic stress [Genetics]
Mutagenic compounds are a potent source of human disease. By inducing genetic instability, they can accelerate the evolution of human cancers or lead to the development of genetically inherited diseases. Here, we show that in addition to genetic mutations, mutagens are also a powerful source of transcription errors. These errors…
14d
Downregulation of autophagy by Met30-mediated Atg9 ubiquitination [Cell Biology]
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a highly conserved eukaryotic molecular process that facilitates the recycling of superfluous cytoplasmic materials, damaged organelles, and invading pathogens, resulting in proper cellular homeostasis and survival during stress conditions. Autophagy is stringently regulated at multiple stages, including control at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational l
14d
The Parkinson's disease-associated gene ITPKB protects against {alpha}-synuclein aggregation by regulating ER-to-mitochondria calcium release [Neuroscience]
Inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) kinase B (ITPKB) is a ubiquitously expressed lipid kinase that inactivates IP3, a secondary messenger that stimulates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Genome-wide association studies have identified common variants in the ITPKB gene locus associated with reduced risk of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we investigate…
14d
GATA6 is a regulator of sinus node development and heart rhythm [Developmental Biology]
The sinus node (SAN) is the primary pacemaker of the human heart, and abnormalities in its structure or function cause sick sinus syndrome, the most common reason for electronic pacemaker implantation. Here we report that transcription factor GATA6, whose mutations in humans are linked to arrhythmia, is highly expressed in…
14d
Evolutionarily related small viral fusogens hijack distinct but modular actin nucleation pathways to drive cell-cell fusion [Cell Biology]
Fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins are a diverse family of nonstructural viral proteins. Once expressed on the plasma membrane of infected cells, they drive fusion with neighboring cells, increasing viral spread and pathogenicity. Unlike viral fusogens with tall ectodomains that pull two membranes together through conformational changes, FAST proteins have…
14d
A protease-activated, near-infrared fluorescent probe for early endoscopic detection of premalignant gastrointestinal lesions [Medical Sciences]
Fluorescence imaging is currently being actively developed for surgical guidance; however, it remains underutilized for diagnostic and endoscopic surveillance of incipient colorectal cancer in high-risk patients. Here we demonstrate the utility and potential for clinical translation of a fluorescently labeled cathepsin-activated chemical probe to highlight gastrointestinal lesions. This probe stay
14d
Mfd regulates RNA polymerase association with hard-to-transcribe regions in vivo, especially those with structured RNAs [Genetics]
RNA polymerase (RNAP) encounters various roadblocks during transcription. These obstacles can impede RNAP movement and influence transcription, ultimately necessitating the activity of RNAP-associated factors. One such factor is the bacterial protein Mfd, a highly conserved DNA translocase and evolvability factor that interacts with RNAP. Although Mfd is thought to function…
14d
Incorporating ethics and welfare into randomized experiments [Economic Sciences]
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enroll hundreds of millions of subjects and involve many human lives. To improve subjects' welfare, I propose a design of RCTs that I call Experiment-as-Market (EXAM). EXAM produces a welfare-maximizing allocation of treatment-assignment probabilities, is almost incentive-compatible for preference elicitation, and unbiasedly estimates any causal effect…
14d
Mammalian molar complexity follows simple, predictable patterns [Evolution]
Identifying developmental explanations for the evolution of complex structures like mammalian molars is fundamental to studying phenotypic variation. Previous study showed that a "morphogenetic gradient" of molar proportions was explained by a balance between inhibiting/activating activity from earlier developing molars, termed the inhibitory cascade model (ICM). Although this model provides…
14d
The evolution of skin pigmentation-associated variation in West Eurasia [Evolution]
Skin pigmentation is a classic example of a polygenic trait that has experienced directional selection in humans. Genome-wide association studies have identified well over a hundred pigmentation-associated loci, and genomic scans in present-day and ancient populations have identified selective sweeps for a small number of light pigmentation-associated alleles in Europeans….
14d
Host fibrinogen drives antimicrobial function in Staphylococcus aureus peritonitis through bacterial-mediated prothrombin activation [Immunology and Inflammation]
The blood-clotting protein fibrinogen has been implicated in host defense following Staphylococcus aureus infection, but precise mechanisms of host protection and pathogen clearance remain undefined. Peritonitis caused by staphylococci species is a complication for patients with cirrhosis, indwelling catheters, or undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Here, we sought to characterize possible mechanisms.
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Microrheology reveals microscale viscosity gradients in planktonic systems [Ecology]
Microbial activity in planktonic systems creates a dynamic and heterogeneous microscale seascape that harbors a diverse community of microorganisms and ecological interactions of global significance. In recent decades great effort has been put into understanding this complex system, particularly focusing on the role of chemical patchiness, while overlooking a physical…
14d
Nitric oxide resets kisspeptin-excited GnRH neurons via PIP2 replenishment [Neuroscience]
Fertility relies upon pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that drives pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion. Kisspeptin (KP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus are at the center of the GnRH pulse generation and the steroid feedback control of GnRH secretion. However, KP evokes a long-lasting response in GnRH neurons that is…
14d
Primary cilia safeguard cortical neurons in neonatal mouse forebrain from environmental stress-induced dendritic degeneration [Neuroscience]
The developing brain is under the risk of exposure to a multitude of environmental stressors. While perinatal exposure to excessive levels of environmental stress is responsible for a wide spectrum of neurological and psychiatric conditions, the developing brain is equipped with intrinsic cell protection, the mechanisms of which remain unknown….
14d
Evidence for root adaptation to a spatially discontinuous water availability in the absence of external water potential gradients [Plant Biology]
We hereby show that root systems adapt to a spatially discontinuous pattern of water availability even when the gradients of water potential across them are vanishingly small. A paper microfluidic approach allowed us to expose the entire root system of Brassica rapa plants to a square array of water sources,…
14d
Association of aerobic glycolysis with the structural connectome reveals a benefit-risk balancing mechanism in the human brain [Neuroscience]
Aerobic glycolysis (AG), that is, the nonoxidative metabolism of glucose, contributes significantly to anabolic pathways, rapid energy generation, task-induced activity, and neuroprotection; yet high AG is also associated with pathological hallmarks such as amyloid-β deposition. An important yet unresolved question is whether and how the metabolic benefits and risks of…
14d
Probabilistic structure of events controlling the after-storm recovery of coastal dunes [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Coastal dunes protect beach communities and ecosystems from rising seas and storm flooding and influence the stability of barrier islands by preventing overwashes and limiting barrier migration. Therefore, the degree of dune recovery after a large storm provides a simple measure of the short-term resiliency (and potential long-term vulnerability) of…
14d
Stochastic dynamics of barrier island elevation [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Barrier islands are ubiquitous coastal features that create low-energy environments where salt marshes, oyster reefs, and mangroves can develop and survive external stresses. Barrier systems also protect interior coastal communities from storm surges and wave-driven erosion. These functions depend on the existence of a slowly migrating, vertically stable barrier, a…
14d
Structural and molecular basis of cross-seeding barriers in amyloids [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Neurodegenerative disorders are frequently associated with β-sheet-rich amyloid deposits. Amyloid-forming proteins can aggregate under different structural conformations known as strains, which can exhibit a prion-like behavior and distinct pathophenotypes. Precise molecular determinants defining strain specificity and cross-strain interactions (cross-seeding) are currently unknown. The HET-s prio
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Transfer of information across repeated decisions in general and in obsessive-compulsive disorder [Neuroscience]
Real-life decisions are often repeated. Whether considering taking a job in a new city, or doing something mundane like checking if the stove is off, decisions are frequently revisited even if no new information is available. This mode of behavior takes a particularly pathological form in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), which…
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Remnants of early Earth differentiation in the deepest mantle-derived lavas [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The noble gas isotope systematics of ocean island basalts suggest the existence of primordial mantle signatures in the deep mantle. Yet, the isotopic compositions of lithophile elements (Sr, Nd, Hf) in these lavas require derivation from a mantle source that is geochemically depleted by melt extraction rather than primitive. Here,…
14d
Maternal death and offspring fitness in multiple wild primates [Anthropology]
Primate offspring often depend on their mothers well beyond the age of weaning, and offspring that experience maternal death in early life can suffer substantial reductions in fitness across the life span. Here, we leverage data from eight wild primate populations (seven species) to examine two underappreciated pathways linking early…
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E3 ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 facilitates nuclear delivery of adenovirus genomes [Microbiology]
The journey from plasma membrane to nuclear pore is a critical step in the lifecycle of DNA viruses, many of which must successfully deposit their genomes into the nucleus for replication. Viral capsids navigate this vast distance through the coordinated hijacking of a number of cellular host factors, many of…
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The Ligand of Ate1 is intrinsically disordered and participates in nucleolar phase separation regulated by Jumonji Domain Containing 6 [Cell Biology]
The Ligand of Ate1 (Liat1) is a protein of unknown function that was originally discovered through its interaction with arginyl-tRNA protein transferase 1 (Ate1), a component of the Arg/N-degron pathway of protein degradation. Here, we characterized the functional domains of mouse Liat1 and found that its N-terminal half comprises an…
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Cryo-EM structure of the full-length WzmWzt ABC transporter required for lipid-linked O antigen transport [Microbiology]
O antigens are important cell surface polysaccharides in gram-negative bacteria where they extend core lipopolysaccharides in the extracellular leaflet of the outer membrane. O antigen structures are serotype specific and form extended cell surface barriers endowing many pathogens with survival benefits. In the ABC transporter-dependent biosynthesis pathway, O antigens are…
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Enforcement may crowd out voluntary support for COVID-19 policies, especially where trust in government is weak and in a liberal society [Social Sciences]
Effective states govern by some combination of enforcement and voluntary compliance. To contain the COVID-19 pandemic, a critical decision is the extent to which policy makers rely on voluntary as opposed to enforced compliance, and nations vary along this dimension. While enforcement may secure higher compliance, there is experimental and…
14d
Global silicate weathering flux overestimated because of sediment-water cation exchange [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Rivers carry the dissolved and solid products of silicate mineral weathering, a process that removes CO2 from the atmosphere and provides a key negative climate feedback over geological timescales. Here we show that, in some river systems, a reactive exchange pool on river suspended particulate matter, bonded weakly to mineral…
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Pharmacokinetic modeling reveals parameters that govern tumor targeting and delivery by a pH-Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP) [Medical Sciences]
A pH-Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP) is a pH-sensitive peptide that undergoes membrane insertion, resulting in transmembrane helix formation, on exposure to acidity at a tumor cell surface. As a result, pHLIPs preferentially accumulate within tumors and can be used for tumor-targeted imaging and drug delivery. Here we explore the determinants…
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Cigarette smoke induces miR-132 in Th17 cells that enhance osteoclastogenesis in inflammatory arthritis [Immunology and Inflammation]
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by joint destruction and severe morbidity. Cigarette smoking (CS) can exacerbate the incidence and severity of RA. Although Th17 cells and the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) have been implicated, the mechanism by which CS induces RA development remains unclear. Here, using…
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Endoplasmic reticulum membrane receptors of the GET pathway are conserved throughout eukaryotes [Plant Biology]
Type II tail-anchored (TA) membrane proteins are involved in diverse cellular processes, including protein translocation, vesicle trafficking, and apoptosis. They are characterized by a single C-terminal transmembrane domain that mediates posttranslational targeting and insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the Guided-Entry of TA proteins (GET) pathway. The GET system…
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Social isolation uncovers a circuit underlying context-dependent territory-covering micturition [Neuroscience]
The release of urine, or micturition, serves a fundamental physiological function and, in many species, is critical for social communication. In mice, the pattern of urine release is modulated by external and internal factors and transmitted to the spinal cord via the pontine micturition center (PMC). Here, we exploited a…
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Drosophila melanogaster sex peptide regulates mated female midgut morphology and physiology [Physiology]
Drosophila melanogaster females experience a large shift in energy homeostasis after mating to compensate for nutrient investment in egg production. To cope with this change in metabolism, mated females undergo widespread physiological and behavioral changes, including increased food intake and altered digestive processes. The mechanisms by which the female digestive…
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Endogenous membrane stress induces T6SS activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Microbiology]
The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) is a dynamic organelle encoded by many gram-negative bacteria that can be used to kill competing bacterial prey species in densely occupied niches. Some predatory species, such as Vibrio cholerae, use their T6SS in an untargeted fashion while in contrast, Pseudomonas aeruginosa assembles and…
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Proton strings and rings in atypical nucleation of ferroelectricity in ice [Applied Physical Sciences]
Ordinary ice has a proton-disordered phase which is kinetically metastable, unable to reach, spontaneously, the ferroelectric (FE) ground state at low temperature where a residual Pauling entropy persists. Upon light doping with KOH at low temperature, the transition to FE ice takes place, but its microscopic mechanism still needs clarification….
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Transgenic cotton and sterile insect releases synergize eradication of pink bollworm a century after it invaded the United States [Agricultural Sciences]
Invasive organisms pose a global threat and are exceptionally difficult to eradicate after they become abundant in their new habitats. We report a successful multitactic strategy for combating the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), one of the world's most invasive pests. A coordinated program in the southwestern United States and northern…
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Maternal GABAergic and GnRH/corazonin pathway modulates egg diapause phenotype of the silkworm Bombyx mori [Developmental Biology]
Diapause represents a major developmental switch in insects and is a seasonal adaptation that evolved as a specific subtype of dormancy in most insect species to ensure survival under unfavorable environmental conditions and synchronize populations. However, the hierarchical relationship of the molecular mechanisms involved in the perception of environmental signals…
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Adaptive responses to mTOR gene targeting in hematopoietic stem cells reveal a proliferative mechanism evasive to mTOR inhibition [Medical Sciences]
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell growth and an attractive anticancer target that integrates diverse signals to control cell proliferation. Previous studies using mTOR inhibitors have shown that mTOR targeting suppresses gene expression and cell proliferation. To date, however, mTOR-targeted therapies in cancer have…
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A genome-wide microRNA screen identifies the microRNA-183/96/182 cluster as a modulator of circadian rhythms [Neuroscience]
The regulatory mechanisms of circadian rhythms have been studied primarily at the level of the transcription–translation feedback loops of protein-coding genes. Regulatory modules involving noncoding RNAs are less thoroughly understood. In particular, emerging evidence has revealed the important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in maintaining the robustness of the circadian system….
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Naphthylphthalamic acid associates with and inhibits PIN auxin transporters [Plant Biology]
N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) is a key inhibitor of directional (polar) transport of the hormone auxin in plants. For decades, it has been a pivotal tool in elucidating the unique polar auxin transport-based processes underlying plant growth and development. Its exact mode of action has long been sought after and is…
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Oral administration of PEGylated TLR7 ligand ameliorates alcohol-associated liver disease via the induction of IL-22 [Medical Sciences]
Effective therapies for alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) are limited; therefore, the discovery of new therapeutic agents is greatly warranted. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a pattern recognition receptor for single-stranded RNA, and its activation prevents liver fibrosis. We examined liver and intestinal damage in Tlr7−/− mice to determine the role…
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Adipose tissue is a critical regulator of osteoarthritis [Engineering]
Osteoarthritis (OA), the leading cause of pain and disability worldwide, disproportionally affects individuals with obesity. The mechanisms by which obesity leads to the onset and progression of OA are unclear due to the complex interactions among the metabolic, biomechanical, and inflammatory factors that accompany increased adiposity. We used a murine…
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Discovering multiscale and self-similar structure with data-driven wavelets [Applied Physical Sciences]
Many materials, processes, and structures in science and engineering have important features at multiple scales of time and/or space; examples include biological tissues, active matter, oceans, networks, and images. Explicitly extracting, describing, and defining such features are difficult tasks, at least in part because each system has a unique set…
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A phosphorylation-dependent switch in the disordered p53 transactivation domain regulates DNA binding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The tumor-suppressor p53 is a critical regulator of the cellular response to DNA damage and is tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications. Thr55 in the AD2 interaction motif of the N-terminal transactivation domain functions as a phosphorylation-dependent regulatory switch that modulates p53 activity. Thr55 is constitutively phosphorylated, becomes dephosphorylated upon DNA…
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Single-molecule nanopore sequencing reveals extreme target copy number heterogeneity in arylomycin-resistant mutants [Evolution]
Tandem gene amplification is a frequent and dynamic source of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Ongoing expansions and contractions of repeat arrays during population growth are expected to manifest as cell-to-cell differences in copy number (CN). As a result, a clonal bacterial culture could comprise subpopulations of cells with different levels…
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Precise genome engineering in Drosophila using prime editing [Genetics]
Precise genome editing is a valuable tool to study gene function in model organisms. Prime editing, a precise editing system developed in mammalian cells, does not require double-strand breaks or donor DNA and has low off-target effects. Here, we applied prime editing for the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and developed…
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Ancient DNA from Guam and the peopling of the Pacific [Anthropology]
Humans reached the Mariana Islands in the western Pacific by ∼3,500 y ago, contemporaneous with or even earlier than the initial peopling of Polynesia. They crossed more than 2,000 km of open ocean to get there, whereas voyages of similar length did not occur anywhere else until more than 2,000…
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HMGB1-mediated chromatin remodeling attenuates Il24 gene expression for the protection from allergic contact dermatitis [Immunology and Inflammation]
Dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes promote the pathogenesis of the skin inflammation, such as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) has been implicated in the promotion of skin inflammation upon its extracellular release as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule. However, whether and how HMGB1 in…
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MdERDL6-mediated glucose efflux to the cytosol promotes sugar accumulation in the vacuole through up-regulating TSTs in apple and tomato [Plant Biology]
Sugar transport across tonoplasts is essential for maintaining cellular sugar homeostasis and metabolic balance in plant cells. It remains unclear, however, how this process is regulated among different classes of sugar transporters. Here, we identified a tonoplast H+/glucose symporter, MdERDL6-1, from apples, which was highly expressed in fruits and exhibited…
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Concerns for others increases the likelihood of vaccination against influenza and COVID-19 more in sparsely rather than densely populated areas [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Vaccination yields the direct individual benefit of protecting recipients from infectious diseases and also the indirect social benefit of reducing the transmission of infections to others, often referred to as herd immunity. This research examines how prosocial concern for vaccination, defined as people's preoccupation with infecting others if they do…
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In vitro reconstitution reveals phosphoinositides as cargo-release factors and activators of the ARF6 GAP ADAP1 [Cell Biology]
The differentiation of cells depends on a precise control of their internal organization, which is the result of a complex dynamic interplay between the cytoskeleton, molecular motors, signaling molecules, and membranes. For example, in the developing neuron, the protein ADAP1 (ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein [ArfGAP] with dual pleckstrin homology [PH]…
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Prioritized experience replays on a hippocampal predictive map for learning [Neuroscience]
Hippocampal cells are central to spatial and predictive representations, and experience replays by place cells are crucial for learning and memory. Nonetheless, how hippocampal replay patterns dynamically change during the learning process remains to be elucidated. Here, we designed a spatial task in which rats learned a new behavioral trajectory…
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Astrocyte-secreted IL-33 mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the adult hippocampus [Neuroscience]
Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is important for learning and memory formation. Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a specific form of synaptic plasticity that is induced upon prolonged changes in neuronal activity to maintain network homeostasis. While astrocytes are important regulators of synaptic transmission and plasticity, it is largely unclear how they interact…
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Predicting long-term dynamics of soil salinity and sodicity on a global scale [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Knowledge of spatiotemporal distribution and likelihood of (re)occurrence of salt-affected soils is crucial to our understanding of land degradation and for planning effective remediation strategies in face of future climatic uncertainties. However, conventional methods used for tracking the variability of soil salinity/sodicity are extensively localized, making predictions on a global…
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Considering network interventions [Commentaries]
One of the greatest challenges to emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic is the need to develop new economic policies that steer nations safely between the Scylla of exponentially increasing infection rates and the Charybdis of a severe economic downturn. The obvious solution to curtail the rapidly increasing rate of COVID-19…
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DNA polymerase {iota} compensates for Fanconi anemia pathway deficiency by countering DNA replication stress [Genetics]
Fanconi anemia (FA) is caused by defects in cellular responses to DNA crosslinking damage and replication stress. Given the constant occurrence of endogenous DNA damage and replication fork stress, it is unclear why complete deletion of FA genes does not have a major impact on cell proliferation and germ-line FA…
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Axon morphology is modulated by the local environment and impacts the noninvasive investigation of its structure-function relationship [Neuroscience]
Axonal conduction velocity, which ensures efficient function of the brain network, is related to axon diameter. Noninvasive, in vivo axon diameter estimates can be made with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, but the technique requires three-dimensional (3D) validation. Here, high-resolution, 3D synchrotron X-ray nano-holotomography images of white matter samples from the…
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Post-transcriptional tuning of FGF signaling mediates neural crest induction [Developmental Biology]
Ectodermal patterning is required for the establishment of multiple components of the vertebrate body plan. Previous studies have demonstrated that precise combinations of extracellular signals induce distinct ectodermal cell populations, such as the neural crest and the neural plate. Yet, we still lack understanding of how the response to inductive…
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Physical mechanisms of amyloid nucleation on fluid membranes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Biological membranes can dramatically accelerate the aggregation of normally soluble protein molecules into amyloid fibrils and alter the fibril morphologies, yet the molecular mechanisms through which this accelerated nucleation takes place are not yet understood. Here, we develop a coarse-grained model to systematically explore the effect that the structural properties…
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Hidden proteome of synaptic vesicles in the mammalian brain [Neuroscience]
Current proteomic studies clarified canonical synaptic proteins that are common to many types of synapses. However, proteins of diversified functions in a subset of synapses are largely hidden because of their low abundance or structural similarities to abundant proteins. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an "ultra-definition" (UD) subcellular…
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Assessment of enzyme active site positioning and tests of catalytic mechanisms through X-ray-derived conformational ensembles [Biochemistry]
How enzymes achieve their enormous rate enhancements remains a central question in biology, and our understanding to date has impacted drug development, influenced enzyme design, and deepened our appreciation of evolutionary processes. While enzymes position catalytic and reactant groups in active sites, physics requires that atoms undergo constant motion. Numerous…
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A thermodynamic atlas of carbon redox chemical space [Biochemistry]
Redox biochemistry plays a key role in the transduction of chemical energy in living systems. However, the compounds observed in metabolic redox reactions are a minuscule fraction of chemical space. It is not clear whether compounds that ended up being selected as metabolites display specific properties that distinguish them from…
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Lithogenic hydrogen supports microbial primary production in subglacial and proglacial environments [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Life in environments devoid of photosynthesis, such as on early Earth or in contemporary dark subsurface ecosystems, is supported by chemical energy. How, when, and where chemical nutrients released from the geosphere fuel chemosynthetic biospheres is fundamental to understanding the distribution and diversity of life, both today and in the…
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IBEX: A versatile multiplex optical imaging approach for deep phenotyping and spatial analysis of cells in complex tissues [Immunology and Inflammation]
The diverse composition of mammalian tissues poses challenges for understanding the cell–cell interactions required for organ homeostasis and how spatial relationships are perturbed during disease. Existing methods such as single-cell genomics, lacking a spatial context, and traditional immunofluorescence, capturing only two to six molecular features, cannot resolve these issues. Imaging…
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Exotic foods reveal contact between South Asia and the Near East during the second millennium BCE [Anthropology]
Although the key role of long-distance trade in the transformation of cuisines worldwide has been well-documented since at least the Roman era, the prehistory of the Eurasian food trade is less visible. In order to shed light on the transformation of Eastern Mediterranean cuisines during the Bronze Age and Early…
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Evaluating sustainable development policies in rural coastal economies [Sustainability Science]
Sustainable development (SD) policies targeting marine economic sectors, designed to alleviate poverty and conserve marine ecosystems, have proliferated in recent years. Many developing countries are providing poor fishing households with new fishing boats (fishing capital) that can be used further offshore as a means to improve incomes and relieve fishing…
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Correction for Vandvik et al., Biotic rescaling reveals importance of species interactions for variation in biodiversity responses to climate change [Corrections]
ECOLOGY, EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for "Biotic rescaling reveals importance of species interactions for variation in biodiversity responses to climate change," by Vigdis Vandvik, Olav Skarpaas, Kari Klanderud, Richard J. Telford, Aud H. Halbritter, and Deborah E. Goldberg, which was first published August 31, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2003377117 (Proc. Natl….
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Operando measurement of lattice strain in internal combustion engine components by neutron diffraction [Engineering]
Engineering neutron diffraction can nondestructively and noninvasively probe stress, strain, temperature, and phase evolutions deep within bulk materials. In this work, we demonstrate operando lattice strain measurement of internal combustion engine components by neutron diffraction. A modified commercial generator engine was mounted in the VULCAN diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron…
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College roommates have a modest but significant influence on each other's political ideology [Political Sciences]
Does college change students' political preferences? While existing research has documented associations between college education and political views, it remains unclear whether these associations reflect a causal relationship. We address this gap in previous research by analyzing a quasi-experiment in which university students are assigned to live together as roommates….
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Multiple constraints cause positive and negative feedbacks limiting grassland soil CO2 efflux under CO2 enrichment [Ecology]
Terrestrial ecosystems are increasingly enriched with resources such as atmospheric CO2 that limit ecosystem processes. The consequences for ecosystem carbon cycling depend on the feedbacks from other limiting resources and plant community change, which remain poorly understood for soil CO2 efflux, JCO2, a primary carbon flux from the biosphere…
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DNA methylation mutants in Physcomitrella patens elucidate individual roles of CG and non-CG methylation in genome regulation [Plant Biology]
Cytosine (DNA) methylation in plants regulates the expression of genes and transposons. While methylation in plant genomes occurs at CG, CHG, and CHH sequence contexts, the comparative roles of the individual methylation contexts remain elusive. Here, we present Physcomitrella patens as the second plant system, besides Arabidopsis thaliana, with viable…
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Macrophage LC3-associated phagocytosis is an immune defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae that diminishes with host aging [Microbiology]
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia and invasive disease, particularly, in the elderly. S. pneumoniae lung infection of aged mice is associated with high bacterial burdens and detrimental inflammatory responses. Macrophages can clear microorganisms and modulate inflammation through two distinct lysosomal trafficking pathways that involve 1A/1B-light chain 3…
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Francois N. Diederich: Pioneer of carbon allotropes and molecular recognition [Retrospectives]
François Nico Diederich, an iconic organic chemist who innovated and created in the fields of molecular recognition and host–guest chemistry, new allotropes of carbon and novel carbon-rich molecules, and drug activity and design, passed away on September 23, 2020 in Zurich, Switzerland at the age of 68, after battling an…
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Satellites can reveal global extent of forced labor in the world's fishing fleet [Environmental Sciences]
While forced labor in the world's fishing fleet has been widely documented, its extent remains unknown. No methods previously existed for remotely identifying individual fishing vessels potentially engaged in these abuses on a global scale. By combining expertise from human rights practitioners and satellite vessel monitoring data, we show that…
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Bioavailable soil Pb minimized by in situ transformation to plumbojarosite [Environmental Sciences]
Exposure to lead (Pb) during early life has persistent adverse health effects. During childhood, ingestion of bioavailable Pb in contaminated soils can be a major route of Pb absorption. Remediation to alter physiochemical properties of soil-borne Pb can reduce Pb bioavailability. Our laboratory-based approach for soil Pb remediation uses addition…
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Correction for Ornes, Inner Workings: Physicists look to a new telescope to understand neutron stars and matter at the extremes [Corrections]
INNER WORKINGS Correction for "Inner Workings: Physicists look to a new telescope to understand neutron stars and matter at the extremes," by Stephen Ornes, which was first published November 4, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2021447117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 29249–29252). The editors note that ref. 5 appeared incorrectly. It should instead…
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HyPR-seq: Single-cell quantification of chosen RNAs via hybridization and sequencing of DNA probes [Genetics]
Single-cell quantification of RNAs is important for understanding cellular heterogeneity and gene regulation, yet current approaches suffer from low sensitivity for individual transcripts, limiting their utility for many applications. Here we present Hybridization of Probes to RNA for sequencing (HyPR-seq), a method to sensitively quantify the expression of hundreds of…
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Grain-boundary topological phase transitions [Engineering]
The formation and migration of disconnections (line defects constrained to the grain boundary [GB] plane with both dislocation and step character) control many of the kinetic and dynamical properties of GBs and the polycrystalline materials of which they are central constituents. We demonstrate that GBs undergo a finite-temperature topological phase…
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International research team calls for 'glocal' approach to help mitigate flooding damage
Large-scale global forecasting and on-the-ground observations need to meld into one system to better predict and prevent wide-spread flooding disasters, according to an international research team who published a short view in Advances in Atmospheric Sciences on Dec. 23.
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Novel method reveals small microplastics throughout Japan's subtropical ocean
Research conducted in the Light-Matter Interactions for Quantum Technologies Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) has revealed the presence of small microplastics in the ocean surrounding Okinawa. The study was published in Science of the Total Environment.
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Scientist shows global warming effect on greenhouse gas emissions in paddy soils
A soil scientist from RUDN University studied the decomposition of organic matter in rice paddies—the sources of CO2 and methane emissions. Both gases add to the greenhouse effect and affect climate warming in subtropical regions. The emissions increase when the roots of plants influence microbial communities in the soil. This influence, in turn, depends on temperature changes. Therefore, climate
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Human-made landscape promotes coexistence of two normally separated Andean warblers
In the mountains across the world, different types of vegetation occur at different elevations creating distinct zones with well-defined borders between them. Each vegetation zone provides specific living conditions for animals. Therefore species that are adapted to habitats created in the specific zone occur only at the specific elevations and do not overlap with other species of similar ecology
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Chilly forecast, falling iguanas in store for Florida Xmas
With unexpectedly cold weather in the forecast and pandemic-related curfews in some places, Florida is about to have a Christmas unlike any other in recent memory, and it may involve falling iguanas.
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Human-made landscape promotes coexistence of two normally separated Andean warblers
In the mountains across the world, different types of vegetation occur at different elevations creating distinct zones with well-defined borders between them. Each vegetation zone provides specific living conditions for animals. Therefore species that are adapted to habitats created in the specific zone occur only at the specific elevations and do not overlap with other species of similar ecology
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The Pandemic Is Crashing Through the South and the West
Editor's Note: The Atlantic is making vital coverage of the coronavirus available to all readers. Find the collection here . We'll begin with the good news: In every midwestern state—and in several others—COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations are declining. Elsewhere, however, the picture is mixed. In several large states, already large outbreaks appear to be rapidly worsening—and despite intense i
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Tired and Worn Down? This Nootropic Drink Gives Your Brain the Fuel It Needs.
Do you find that you've been running on fumes lately? Well, you're not alone. This time of year is always a grind. The weather is getting colder. The daylight is getting shorter. And as fun and joyous as the holidays may be, getting ready for them is a lot of work. After a while all the hustle and bustle can start to take a serious toll, both physically and mentally. Of course, for a lot of peopl
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How to set good New Year's resolutions for 2021
As you set your New Year's resolutions for 2021, consider a resolution to help others, says an expert on motivation. Any motivational researcher would have "ambivalent feelings" about New Year's resolutions , says Richard Ryan , professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Rochester. "The evidence shows that most of the time people aren't successful at them." But don't throw in the towel
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Stämmer det: Tappar vi mest kroppsvärme genom huvudet?
"Det är viktigt att ha mössa på sig för att vi tappar majoriteten av vår kroppsvärme genom huvudet." Detta är ett påstående som vi nästan alla någon gång fått höra. Men hur väl stämmer det?
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She's a Chess Champion Who Can Barely See the Board
Like the fictional Beth Harmon in "The Queen's Gambit," she's trying to find a way to get to Russia to compete. Unlike Beth, she's blind.
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RUDN University scientist showed global warming effect on greenhouse gas emissions in paddy soils
A soil scientist from RUDN University studied the decomposition of organic matter in rice paddies–the sources of CO2 and methane emissions. Both gases add to the greenhouse effect and affect climate warming in subtropical regions. The emissions increase when the roots of plants influence microbial communities in the soil. This influence, in turn, depends on temperature changes. Therefore, climate
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Modeling can help balance economy, health during pandemic
Using mathematical modeling, new interdisciplinary research from the lab of Arye Nehorai, the Eugene & Martha Lohman Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Preston M. Green Department of Electrical & Systems Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis, determines the best course of action when it comes to walking the line between economic stability and the best possible health outcomes.
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How the Lindbergh baby kidnapping changed media
The Lindbergh baby kidnapping case is the "perfect story," says Tom Doherty. "I'm a media person, and like most of America in the age of Netflix, I have an obsession with true crime," says Doherty , professor of American studies at Brandeis University. "The Lindbergh kidnapping case is right at the intersection—it's a crime story and a media story." There's a lot of writing about the kidnapping a
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Why Britain's Brexit Mayhem Was Worth It
N o, of course the past few weeks—like the past few months, and the past few years—of Brexit drama have not made much sense. In economic terms, not a lot about Brexit ever has. Britain and the European Union have in recent days been locked in talks to conclude one of the most important trade agreements ever negotiated. As a New Year deadline approached, after which, absent a deal, the two sides w
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Covid-19: How Much Herd Immunity is Enough?
Scientists initially estimated that 60 to 70 percent of the population needed to acquire resistance to the coronavirus to banish it. Now Dr. Anthony Fauci and others are quietly shifting that number upward.
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A new TanSat XCO2 global product for climate studies
The 1st Chinese carbon dioxide (CO2) monitoring satellite mission, TanSat, was launched in 2016. The 1st TanSat global map of CO2 dry-air mixing ratio (XCO2) measurements over land was released as version 1 data product with an accuracy of 2.11 ppmv (parts per million by volume) in 2017. A new (version 2) TanSat global XCO2 product is now released.
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Protein tells developing cells to stick together
Tohoku University scientists have, for the first time, provided experimental evidence that cell stickiness helps them stay sorted within correct compartments during development. How tightly cells clump together, known as cell adhesion, appears to be enabled by a protein better known for its role in the immune system. The findings were detailed in the journal Nature Communications.
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Discovery of aging mechanism for hematopoietic stem cells
By transferring mouse aged hematopoietic stem cells (aged HSCs) to the environment of young mice (bone marrow niche), it was demonstrated that the pattern of stem cell gene expression was rejuvenated to that of young hematopoietic stem cells.
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Multi-population risk scores could improve risk prediction for inflammatory bowel diseases, study finds
New study illustrates how studying diverse populations can help predict patient outcomes and reduce health disparities
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Scientists pioneer new method of measuring electricity in cells
Electricity is a key ingredient in living bodies. We know that voltage differences are important in biological systems; they drive the beating of the heart and allow neurons to communicate with one another. But for decades, it wasn't possible to measure voltage differences between organelles—the membrane-wrapped structures inside the cell—and the rest of the cell.
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New chemistry for controlling the volume of liquid in volumetric additive manufacturing
A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Germany has developed new chemistry for improved control of the volume of liquid in volumetric additive manufacturing. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes their process and how well it worked when tested.
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Early mammal with remarkably precise bite
Paleontologists have succeeded in reconstructing the chewing motion of an early mammal that lived almost 150 million years ago. This showed that its teeth worked extremely precisely and surprisingly efficiently.
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Japanese spacecraft's gifts: Asteroid chips like charcoal
They resemble small fragments of charcoal, but the soil samples collected from an asteroid and returned to Earth by a Japanese spacecraft were hardly disappointing.
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Spotting elephants from space: A satellite revolution
Using the highest resolution satellite imagery currently available—Worldview 3—from Maxar Technologies and deep learning, (TensorFlow API, Google Brain) researchers at the University of Oxford Wildlife Conservation Research Unit and Machine Learning Research Group have detected elephants from space with comparable accuracy to human detection capabilities.
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Spotting elephants from space: A satellite revolution
Using the highest resolution satellite imagery currently available—Worldview 3—from Maxar Technologies and deep learning, (TensorFlow API, Google Brain) researchers at the University of Oxford Wildlife Conservation Research Unit and Machine Learning Research Group have detected elephants from space with comparable accuracy to human detection capabilities.
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Chip ditches blood test snapshots for real-time checks
A new device can continuously sense levels of virtually any protein or molecule in the blood, researchers report. They say it could be transformative for disease detection, patient monitoring, and biomedical research. "A blood test is great, but it can't tell you, for example, whether insulin or glucose levels are increasing or decreasing in a patient." For even the most routine of medical checku
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Modeling can help balance economy, health during pandemic
This summer, when bars and restaurants and stores began to reopen across the United States, people headed out despite the continuing threat of COVID-19.
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Shapeshifting crystals: Varying stability in different forms of gallium selenide monolayers
The gallium selenide monolayer has been recently discovered to have an alternative crystal structure and has diverse potential applications in electronics. Understanding its properties is crucial to understand its functions. Now, scientists from the Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and the University of Tokyo have explored its structural stability, electronic states and transform
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Hiking guides as a bridge leading to increased tourism sustainability in protected areas
A multidisciplinary survey focusing on the role ecotourism has in sustainable development, led by the University of Tuscia (Viterbo, Italy) and published in Ecology and Society, reveals the great potential that hiking guides have in conveying principles of sustainability to tourists. The study highlights the main goals of sustainable development in four major national parks in the Apennines (Italy
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How British people weathered exceptionally cold winters
As global temperatures rise, snowy winters could become a thing of the past in much of the UK, according to a recent Met Office analysis. Aside from depriving schoolchildren of the sheer fun of a snow day, climate change could lead the popular imaginary of British winters into uncharted territory.
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If a planet has a lot of methane in its atmosphere, life is the most likely cause
The ultra-powerful James Webb Space Telescope will launch soon. Once it's deployed and in position at the Earth-Sun Lagrange Point 2, it'll begin work. One of its jobs is to examine the atmospheres of exoplanets and look for biosignatures. It should be simple, right? Just scan the atmosphere until you find oxygen, then close your laptop and head to the pub: Fanfare, confetti, Nobel prize.
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Team finds surprising connection between dinosaurs and mammals
When thinking of fierce predators of the past, it's difficult not to imagine dinosaurs, considering theropods are well known for having blade-like teeth with serrated cutting edges used for biting and ripping their prey.
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Shapeshifting crystals-varying stability in different forms of gallium selenide monolayers
The gallium selenide monolayer has been recently discovered to have an alternative crystal structure and has diverse potential applications in electronics. Understanding its properties is crucial to understand its functions. Now, scientists from the Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and the University of Tokyo have explored its structural stability, electronic states, and transfor
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Human-made landscape promotes coexistence of two normally separated Andean warblers
In the mountains of world, species adapt to habitats in specific elevation zones that do not overlap with other species' elevation zones. Polish ornithologists, following the old traditions of Polish ornithology in South America, discovered that two Andean warbler species that typically occur at different elevations and hunt by tricking insects to escape can co-occur at the same elevation due to f
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