Babies born into bilingual homes change the focus of their attention more quickly and more frequently than babies in homes where only one language is spoken, according to new research published in the journal Royal Society Open Science.
A simple computer-based program known as attention training may offer relief to teens with an anxiety disorder, according to a new study. Researchers discovered major reductions in anxiety among 64 youths after just four twice-weekly sessions of the attention training program. All the youths had diagnosed anxiety disorders and had completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)—the standard treatment
A team of researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis successfully converted human stem cells into cells capable of producing insulin. These insulin-producing cells were then able to control blood sugar levels in a demonstration involving diabetic mice. "These mice had very severe diabetes with blood sugar readings of more than 500 milligrams per deciliter of blood —
Pingpong may hold promise as a possible form of physical therapy for Parkinson's disease. People with Parkinson's who participated in a pingpong exercise program once a week for six months showed improvement in their Parkinson's symptoms, according to a preliminary study.
Although quitting smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy reduces the risk of low birth weight, it isn't enough to protect the unborn child from being born shorter and with smaller brain size, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows. The study looked at 1.4 million mother-child pairs in Finland.
Using e-cigarettes alters the mouth's microbiome — the community of bacteria and other microorganisms — and makes users more prone to inflammation and infection, finds a new study led by researchers at NYU College of Dentistry.
Study found that adequate sleep allowed students to cope with discrimination and challenges associated with ethnic or racial bias. It also helps them problem-solve more effectively and seek peer support when faced with hardships.
Hur påverkas vår hjärna av träning – och hur ser det ut med depression, demens och Parkinsons sjukdom bland dem som tränar jämfört med dem som inte är lika fysiskt aktiva? Den här gången fokuserar vi på vad som sker i hjärnan när man tränar.
Only five states can detect virus after testing kits found to be faulty – but Trump claims coronavirus 'is going to go away' WHO mission director warns world is 'simply not ready' for pandemic – follow live The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has warned that the coronavirus outbreak could cause "severe disruption" to the lives of ordinary Americans, and urged families and commu
Virus appeared in new cases in Italy, Spain, Austria, Switzerland and Croatia Coronavirus outbreak – live updates The spread of the coronavirus has accelerated across Europe with new cases in four countries and a rising death toll in Italy, which is desperately struggling to contain the outbreak. Concern about the proliferation of cases prompted a dozen UK schools to send home pupils and the teac
Lone Kabul laboratory preparing to treat patients in the midst of political turmoil and tentative peace talks, as border with Iran closed Coronavirus – latest updates Preparations for an outbreak of coronavirus were underway in Afghanistan as the country confirmed its first case in the western province of Herat, which borders Iran. Seven more suspected cases have been identified in Herat, and thr
At least now we know how COMPLETELY UNPREPARED THE WORLD IS Sign up here to get an email whenever First Dog cartoons are published Get all your needs met at the First Dog shop if what you need is First Dog merchandise and prints Continue reading…
Expert tells nations to access the expertise of China and prepare for a potential pandemic as the outbreak spreads across Europe Tenerife coronavirus: 1,000 guests at hotel quarantined Iran's deputy health minister: I have coronavirus Tell us: have you been affected by the coronavirus? What is coronavirus and what should I do if I have symptoms? 12.35am GMT I wanted to tell you that I got corona,
More cases in South Korea while first suspected infection is recorded in Latin America Coronavirus – latest updates Coronavirus has spread further around the world as a World Health Organisation expert warned that countries outside China are "simply not ready" for a pandemic. The virus has proliferated in parts of Asia, Europe and the Middle East in recent days, with the death toll rising in Iran
Nature, Published online: 25 February 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00555-x Trials for one coronavirus vaccine could start by the end of April, antihydrogen offers clues to the great matter-antimatter mystery and powerful tools for synthetic biologists.
In a study of more than 1,000 patients published in the journal Radiology, chest CT outperformed lab testing in the diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The researchers concluded that CT should be used as the primary screening tool for COVID-19.
As the ongoing coronavirus outbreak continues to spread, sickening and claiming the lives of patients around the world, a plethora of confusing and occasionally-conflicting information is spreading along with it. It doesn't help that it took so long for the World Health Organization (WHO) to nail down an official name for the disease. Nor is it ideal that the name we know it by, the name of the a
As they try to fight the COVID-19 outbreak , medical staff in China are suffering from the seemingly endless slog of work, new cases, and the coronavirus itself. Nurses in Wuhan, the city where the outbreak began, are fainting on the job, developing painful rashes, sores, hypoglycemia, and psychological exhaustion — and that's why two of them published an impassioned plea for help from the rest o
Selvom praktiserende læger skal forsøge at holde patienter med mulig COVID-19 væk, vil udbruddet stadig skabe en masse travlhed i almen praksis, vurderer Anders Beich. Tropper patienterne alligevel fysisk op, mangler der beskyttelsesudstyr og lokaler flere steder.
Amid concerns of an Italy-style breakout the government plan public information campaign Coronavirus latest – live updates Ministers are racing to prepare the UK for a potential sudden increase in the spread of the Coronavirus, with officials fearing it could take just 72 hours for an outbreak the size of Italy's to take hold. Amid growing concerns around the world about the pace of the spreading
Latest figures on new infections suggest Beijing's strict response to the crisis is paying off Coronavirus crisis – live updates The number of new coronavirus cases being officially reported outside China has overtaken those reported by Beijing for the first time since the outbreak began, the World Health Organization (WHO) has said. According to WHO, 427 cases were reported by 37 countries on Tu
According to a Feb. 13 report from the World Health Organization, the Wuhan coronavirus has stricken more than 46,000 people and has caused over 1,300 deaths since the first cases in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Now, researchers have designed compounds that block the replication of similar coronaviruses, as well as other disease-causing viruses, in the lab. The compounds have not yet been teste
Public health agency outlines general guidance after at least a dozen schools sent pupils home Coronavirus – latest updates Public Health England has said it is not advising that schools shut in an attempt to stem the spread of coronavirus. The organisation's medical director, Paul Cosford, said: "Schools have to take difficult decisions given the complexity of issues that they are facing. What I
Many experts believe this outbreak will soon be declared a pandemic. Even if it is not containable, it can still be slowed It now appears almost inevitable that the new coronavirus outbreak will soon be identified as a global pandemic . There has been a surge in cases in Iran, South Korea and Italy, and incidents confirmed in numerous countries, in addition to the almost 80,000 cases seen in China
It's possible the Summer Olympics in Tokyo will be canceled due to the international coronavirus outbreak, according to a high-ranking organizer of the event. It goes without saying, but the Olympic cancellation, were it to happen, would be one of historic proportions. If the Olympic committee determines that it wouldn't be safe to hold the massive event, "you're probably looking at a cancellatio
Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer says there is "no plan" for potential outbreaks in the U.S. The White House says it has the situation "contained" and has requested emergency funding. (Image credit: Bloomberg via Getty Images)
During an appearance in India this week, noted reality TV star and U.S. President Donald Trump appeared to confuse the COVID-19-causing coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 with Ebola, a completely separate deadly disease. The gaffe was notable, of course, because Trump is arguably the leader of the free world — but also because in years past, he was sharply critical of the previous administration's efforts to
Vaccine acceptance is a crucial public health issue, which has been exacerbated by the use of social media to spread content expressing vaccine hesitancy. Studies have shown that social media can provide new information regarding the dynamics of vaccine communication online, potentially affecting real-world vaccine behaviors. A team of United States-based researchers observed an example of this in
The CDC is warning Americans to prepare for outbreaks. (DepositPhoto/) The novel coronavirus will likely spread across U.S. communities, according to a recent update from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is not a question of "if" but "when" the COVID-19 virus escalates within our borders, Nancy Messonnier, the CDC's director of the National Center for Immunization and Resp
What are the symptoms caused by the Covid-19 virus from Wuhan in China, how does it spread from person to person, and when should you call a doctor? Find all our coronavirus coverage here Coronavirus: WHO expert warns world 'not ready' for pandemic Plans to shut schools and curb travel in UK if coronavirus spreads It is caused by a member of the coronavirus family that has never been encountered
Before you start stockpiling face masks, be aware that perverse perceptions of risk may help Covid-19 to spread Our friend and fellow disaster researcher was recently asked to self-quarantine for two weeks after returning from south-east Asia. Although he hadn't travelled to China, he had taken a plane home with others who were returning from Beijing. A few days before his voluntary quarantine was
The reaction to the outbreak has revealed the unreconstructed despotism of the Chinese state Over the past 70 years, the Chinese Communist party has subjected its country to a succession of manmade catastrophes, from the Great Famine , the Cultural Revolution and the Tiananmen Square massacre , to the forceful suppression of rights in Hong Kong and Tibet, and the mass internment of Uighurs in Xinj
A team HKUST scientists has recently identified a set of potential vaccine targets for SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, to guide experimental efforts towards vaccine development against novel pneumonia (COVID-19).
Doctors who use drugs that target antibiotic-resistant bacteria as a first-line defense against pneumonia should probably reconsider this approach, according to a new study of more than 88,000 veterans hospitalized with the disease. The study, conducted by University of Utah Health and VA Salt Lake City Health Care System researchers, found that pneumonia patients given these medications in the fi
Massive freshwater river flows stemming from glacier-fed flooding at the end of the last ice age surged across eastern Washington to the Columbia River and out to the North Pacific Ocean, where they triggered climate changes throughout the northern hemisphere, new research published today in Science Advances shows.
During the Last Glacial Maximum, expansive continental ice sheets lowered globally averaged sea level ~130 m, exposing a land bridge at the Bering Strait. During the subsequent deglaciation, sea level rose rapidly and ultimately flooded the Bering Strait, linking the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. Observational records of the Bering Strait flooding have suggested two apparently contradictory scenario
Wildfire can influence climate directly and indirectly, but little is known about the relationships between wildfire and climate during the Quaternary, especially how wildfire patterns varied over glacial–interglacial cycles. Here, we present a high-resolution soot record from the Chinese Loess Plateau; this is a record of large-scale, high-intensity fires over…
When consumers are trying to decide between traditional and online shopping, many factors come into play, such as price, quality, convenience and timeframe. Now, thanks to new research reported in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology, eco-conscious consumers could have another consideration: greenhouse gas emissions. In the study, researchers estimated that shopping at brick-and-mortar stores f
Seeds offer a level of resilience to the harmful effects of climate change in ecosystems across the globe. When seeds are dropped into the soil, often becoming dormant for many years until they are ready to grow into plants, they become part of the natural storage of seeds in "soil seed banks." These banks have been thought to better withstand extreme conditions than can the sprouted vegetation th
When it comes to encouraging manufacturers to reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a carrot might be more effective than a stick. That's the approach taken by a recent U.S. tax code rule that offers credits to companies that capture and then store or use CO2. The rule will likely spur innovations in carbon capture technology, according to an article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), t
Columbia River megafloods occurred repeatedly during the last deglaciation, but the impacts of this fresh water on Pacific hydrography are largely unknown. To reconstruct changes in ocean circulation during this period, we used a numerical model to simulate the flow trajectory of Columbia River megafloods and compiled records of sea surface temperature, paleo-salinity, and deep-water radiocarbon
Blooms of Zygnematophycean "glacier algae" lower the bare ice albedo of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), amplifying summer energy absorption at the ice surface and enhancing meltwater runoff from the largest cryospheric contributor to contemporary sea-level rise. Here, we provide a step change in current understanding of algal-driven ice sheet…
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2014-5 The front of the Getz Ice Shelf in West Antarctica creates an abrupt topographic step that deflects ocean currents, suppressing 70% of the heat delivery to the ice sheet.
Climate change is increasing the frequency and magnitude of temperature anomalies that cause coral bleaching, leading to widespread mortality of stony corals that can fundamentally alter reef structure and function. However, bleaching often is spatially variable for a given heat stress event, and drivers of this heterogeneity are not well…
A new study used data from the United States to analyze the costs and benefits of electricity production from coal-fired versus nuclear sources. The study's authors conclude that policymakers should look at nuclear power as a low-carbon electricity source, but that utilities will need to have incentives to do so.
Futurism fans: To create this content, a non-editorial team worked with an affiliate partner. We may collect a small commission on items purchased through this page. This post does not necessarily reflect the views or the endorsement of the Futurism.com editorial staff. Hangovers suck. This is not a controversial statement. You're probably well aware of this fact, as well as the corollary that ha
As nations prepare to mitigate climate change, decision makers need to understand how land use fits into the climate equation. A new study looked at land use changes over two decades and found a major shift from cropland to forests. That change made western Europe cooler.
Cats who suffered burns and smoke inhalation in recent California wildfires also had a high incidence of heart problems, according to a new study from researchers at the University of California, Davis, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital.
Centuries of archaeological research on the Inca Empire has netted a veritable library of knowledge. But new digital and data-driven projects led by Brown University scholars are proving that there is much more to discover about pre-colonial life in the Andes.
A new study exposes the fallacy of relying on pronunciation as a measure of linguistic proficiency. The study, 'Revisiting phonetic integration in bilingual borrowing', by Shana Poplack, Suzanne Robillard, Nathalie Dion (all from the University of Ottawa), and John. C. Paolillo (University of Indiana Bloomington) will be published in March 2020 issue of the scholarly journal Language.
More than eight million to 14 million tonnes of unreported fish catches are traded illicitly every year, costing the legitimate market between $9 billion and $17 billion in trade each year, according to new UBC research.
Plants obtain their energy from the sun. Other beings rely on eating to survive. Yet how does the energy flow inside ecosystems function and are there differences between ecosystems with many species in comparison to those with few species? Researchers have now examined these questions using a holistic approach by evaluating data gathered through a large-scale biodiversity experiment.
In the event of a bone fracture, fatty acids in our blood signal to stem cells that they have to develop into bone-forming cells. If there are no blood vessels nearby, the stem cells end up forming cartilage. The finding that specific nutrients directly influence the development of stem cells opens new avenues for stem cell research. Biomedical scientists from KU Leuven and Harvard University publ
https://www.ibiology.org/microbiology/kshv Britt Glaunsinger provides an overview of virology and KSHV. She describes how the study of viruses has guided the understanding of many fundamental cellular processes, from gene expression to cancer. Dr. Britt Glaunsinger provides an overview of virology, and describes how the study of viruses has guided the understanding of many fundamental cellular pr
Preclinical research shows a pivotal role for cellular metabolism to regulate the fate decision of naïve CD4 T cells as they differentiate into either destructive Th17 cells that mediate chronic inflammation or regulatory Treg T cells, a decision that occurs very early in the activation of CD4 T cells. This opens a possibility that manipulating the cellular metabolism of T cells may provide a ther
They propose to extract these phenols by use of choline chloride, otherwise known as vitamin B4. Environmentally safe, quick and inexpensive, this method can be used in analytical laboratories at factories, where it is necessary to determine the concentration of these alcohols in prepared foods.
Barium titanate is an important electroceramic material used in trillions of capacitors each year and found in most electronics. Penn State researchers have produced the material at record low temperatures, and the discovery could lead to more energy efficient manufacturing.
Sand dunes, like many ecosystems, have more than one comfort zone. Variations in moisture, especially, can shift them from active, blowing waves of dry sand to rolling mounds with soils held down by grass and low shrubs.
Entrepreneurs seeking funds on business-oriented crowdfunding platforms should avoid over-emphasising the social or environmental benefits of their start-ups or products if they are to maximise potential investment, a new study from the University of Bath and Polytechnic University of Milan shows.
Some species of deaf moths can absorb as much as 85 per cent of the incoming sound energy from predatory bats—who use echolocation to detect them. The findings, published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface today, reveal the moths, who are unable to hear the ultrasonic calls of bats, have evolved this clever defensive strategy to help it survive.
A little over a year after landing, China's spacecraft Chang'E-4 is continuing to unveil secrets from the far side of the Moon. The latest study, published on Feb. 26 in Science Advances, reveals what lurks below the surface.
The group of Dr. Hana Cahová of the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS, in collaboration with scientists from the Institute of Microbiology of the CAS, has discovered an entirely new class of dinucleoside polyphosphate 5'RNA caps in bacteria and described the function of alarmones and their mechanism of function. The discovery was recently published in the journal Nature Co
A new longitudinal study of fifth and sixth graders in Germany examined the relation between classmates' gender stereotypes and individual students' reading outcomes to shed light on how these stereotypes contribute to the gender gap in reading. The study concluded that girls experienced positive effects and boys experienced negative effects on their reading-related outcomes, specifically, their c
Drinking sugar-sweetened beverages daily was linked to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ('good' cholesterol), and higher triglyceride levels, both of which can increase cardiovascular disease risk. Drinking up to 12 ounces of 100% fruit juice per day was not associated with adverse changes in blood cholesterol or triglyceride levels.
Electrolyte supplements popular with endurance runners can't be relied on to keep essential sodium levels in balance, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and their collaborators.
Current diagnostic method for Barrett's oesophagus relies on invasive and costly endoscopy An electronic device that "sniffs" breath may offer a new way to identify people with a condition that can lead to cancer of the oesophagus, researchers have revealed. Recent figures suggest there are about 9,000 new cases of oesophageal cancer, or cancer of the food pipe, every year in the UK. Continue rea
University of Warwick researchers can now explain why some water droplets bounce like a beach ball off surfaces, without ever actually touching them. Now the design and engineering of future droplet technologies can be made more precise and efficient.
According to new research, more drive and novel and creative solutions are needed in retailing to tackle bread waste. Grocery stores could reduce bread waste by making the most of technology, marketing methods and engagement.
University of Pennsylvania biologists have challenged old notions that communities with mutualistic interactions–where the presence of one species benefits another–are unstable. Their model, instead, shows that such interactions can make communities even more stable in some scenarios.
The size of neutrons cannot be measured directly: it can only be determined from experiments involving other particles. While such calculations have so far been made in a very indirect way using old measurements with heavy atoms, a team at the Institute of Theoretical Physics at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) has taken a different approach. By combining their very accurate calculations with recent
A comparison of normal and germ-free mice revealed that as much as 70% of a mouse's gut chemistry is determined by its gut microbiome. Even in distant organs, such as the uterus or the brain, approximately 20% of molecules were different in the mice with gut microbes.
MIT researchers have developed an approach called SEPSTAT, for solid-phase extraction, preservation, storage, transportation, and analysis of trace contaminants. The method is based on a small, user-friendly device the team developed, which absorbs trace contaminants in water and preserves them in a dry state so the samples can be easily dropped in the mail and shipped to a laboratory for further
Controlling the uniformity of hydrogen isotope density ratio in fusion plasma is a problem for realizing fusion energy. The researchers have reached a key understanding of the process to make the hydrogen isotope ratio uniform using the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The uniformity is determined by isotope movement under the influence of plasma turbulence. This
Walking and running subjects our feet to forces in excess of body weight. The longitudinal arch of the feet was thought to be the reason the feet do not deform under such load. However, researchers from the University of Warwick, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University in Japan and Yale University have illustrated that the transverse arch may be more important for this stif
As social insects, ants are particularly dependent on optimizing their communication in order to ward off enemies and to recognize individuals from their own colony. They must also protect themselves against desiccation. Their bodies are covered with wax-like substances known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) that serve both purposes—communication and protection against desiccation.
A study by University of South Florida Health (USF Health) researchers discovered how a very large human non-protein coding gene regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) — a process that contributes to placental implantation during early pregnancy, as well as cancer progression and spread. EMT plays a key role in proper placenta growth, critical to the health of the mother and her gro
Heterogeneous catalysts are often preferred because of their robustness and lower operating costs, but homogenous catalysts still dominate when high selectivity is needed — finding superior heterogeneous catalysts has been a challenge. Work from NCCR MARVEL shows how MOF micropores can enhance selectivity to levels that cannot be achieved with existing catalysts. The easy experimental protocol an
A new study examines how color evolved in one of the flashiest groups of parrots — Australasian lorikeets — finding that different plumage patches on the birds evolved independently. The study helps explain why it's possible for the birds' faces and front sides to display a dazzling variety of colors — from vibrant ultraviolet blue only visible to other birds to deep crimson and black — while
Production of hydrogen fuel is a key goal towards the development of sustainable energy practices, but this process does not have feasible techniques yet. A team of Japanese scientists from Tokyo University of Science, led by Professor Ken-ichi Katsumata, have identified a novel technique of using rust and light to speed up hydrogen production from organic waste solution, a finding that can revolu
Scientists at Johns Hopkins report they have designed and successfully tested an experimental, super small package able to deliver molecular signals that tag implanted human cancer cells in mice and make them visible for destruction by the animals' immune systems. The new method was developed, say the researchers, to deliver an immune system 'uncloaking' device directly to cancer cells.
With a new CRISPR gene-editing methodology, scientists from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign inactivated one of the genes responsible for an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis — a debilitating and fatal neurological disease for which there is no cure. The novel treatment slowed disease progression, improved muscle function and extended lifespan in mice with an aggressiv
Functional metrics in ecology — indicators based on the biological features of the organisms, in this case, water invertebrates — could help researchers to detect the impacts of human origins in temporary rivers.
Many satellites are in space to take photos. But a vibrating satellite, like a camera in shaky hands, can't get a sharp image. Pointing it at a precise location to take a photo or perform another task, is another important function requiring accuracy. Vedant, an aerospace engineering doctoral student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was developing a way to eliminate vibrations on
New Curtin University-led research has found that the smallest type of killer whale has 28 different complex calls, comprising a combination of burst-pulse sounds and whistles, which they use to communicate with family members about the changing landscape and habitat.
In estuaries around the world, tiny trematode worms take over the bodies of aquatic snails. These parasitic flatworms invade the snail's body and use its systems to support their colony, sometimes for over a decade, "driving them around like cars," according to senior author Ryan Hechinger, professor of marine sciences at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Dieg
Vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) failed to completely sterilize surgical tools 76% of the time when the tools were soiled with salts or blood and not cleaned prior to sterilization, according to a study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
For the first time, a team of scientists at the University of Central Florida has created functional nanomaterials with hollow interiors that can be used to create highly sensitive biosensors for early cancer detection.
Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have made a breakthrough that may eventually lead to improved therapeutic options for people living with asthma. The researchers have uncovered a critical role for a protein (Caspase-11), which had previously never been implicated in the disease, and which may offer a promising target for drug designers.
Researchers at the Technion have created a biological computer, constructed within a bacterial cell and capable of monitoring different substances in the environment. Currently, the computer identifies and reports on toxic and other materials. Next up: the ability to warn about hemorrhaging in the human body.
Researchers of Valencia's Polytechnic University (UPV) and the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) have used tools that regulate gene expression in order to produce tomato plants that are resistant to the spotted wilt virus (TSWV), thus proving the usefulness of this type of strategy to generate crops that are resistant to viral infections. The results of this project have been published in T
An international team of scientists from ITMO University and George Washington University (U.S.) created an algorithm for studying the evolutionary history of species with whole-genome duplications, chiefly yeast and plants.
An international team of researchers has developed an enzyme produced from agricultural waste that could be used as an important additive in laundry detergents.By using an enzyme produced from a by-product of mustard seeds, they hope to develop a low-cost naturally derived version of lipase, the second largest commercially produced enzyme, which is used in various industries for the production of
Melbourne researchers have uncovered important differences between the male and female immune system which may explain why men are more susceptible to obesity and metabolism-related associated diseases, such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. It has long been known that men are more likely than women to develop unhealthy obesity and related metabolic diseases, while women are more prone to cer
A new type of battery combines negative capacitance and negative resistance within the same cell, allowing the cell to self-charge without losing energy, which has important implications for long-term storage and improved output power for batteries. Researchers report making their very simple battery with two different metals, as electrodes and a lithium or sodium glass electrolyte between them.
A new University of Michigan-led study of individually radio-tracked tropical fish in a Bahamian mangrove estuary highlights the importance of highly active individuals in maintaining ecosystem health.
Prediction skill is a key test of models for epidemic dynamics. However, future validation of models against out-of-sample data is rare, partly because of a lack of timely surveillance data. We address this gap by analyzing the response of rotavirus dynamics to infant vaccination. Syndromic surveillance of emergency department visits for diarrhea in New York City reveals a marked decline in diarr
A new analysis of 92 studies from 27 countries conducted by ecologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst suggests that many recent multi-species studies of wildlife communities often incorrectly use the analytical tools and methods available. Technology such as trail cameras and drones have 'revolutionized wildlife monitoring studies' in recent years, says organismic and evolutionary biol
As the hitchhikers of the marine world, the remora fish is well known for getting free rides by gripping onto hosts with its suction disc, a highly modified dorsal fin on its head. Now, work investigating the suction disc—appearing February 26 in the journal Matter—reveals that one of the secrets to the fish's strong grip lies within the unique architecture of the lip of the disc.
Adolescents who are bullied about their weight or body shape may be more likely to use alcohol or marijuana than those who are not bullied, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.
A new study led by the University of Washington has found that not all forms of nature are created equal when considering benefits to people's well-being. Experiencing wildness, specifically, is particularly important for physical and mental health.
San Francisco's women firefighters are exposed to higher levels of certain toxic PFAS chemicals than women working in downtown San Francisco offices, shows a new study led by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, the University of California, San Francisco, and Silent Spring Institute.
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2041-2 The catalytic subunit of DNA-PK autophosphorylates and contributes to ribosome biogenesis and haematopoiesis by binding to the U3 small nucleolar RNA.
For women receiving breast implants during reconstructive or cosmetic breast surgery, scarring around the implant – called capsular contracture – is a common, costly, and painful complication. The anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids, found in fish oil, might help to avoid abnormal capsule formation suggests an experimental study in the March issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
A portable 'electronic nose' can accurately pick up the precursor condition to food pipe (esophageal) cancer, known as Barrett's esophagus, indicates a proof of principle study, published online in the journal Gut.
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have identified a molecular pathway that when silenced could restore the normal function of immune cells in people with fatty liver disease. The findings could lead to new strategies for treating the condition, which is a major health risk for people with obesity. The study is published in the scientific journal Science Translational Medicine.
Rates of diagnosed attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in veterans receiving care in the VA health system more than doubled during the past decade, reports a study in the March issue of Medical Care. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.
A recent study published in Nature has reported two conserved epigenetic regulators as novel anti-aging targets. The research, by scientists from Dr. CAI Shiqing's Lab at the Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and Dr. JIANG Lubing's team at Institut Pasteur of Shanghai of CAS, identified conserved
The research team found that CBG had antibacterial activity against drug-resistant MRSA. It prevented the ability of that bacteria to form biofilms, which are communities of microorganisms that attach to each other and to surfaces; and it destroyed preformed biofilms and cells resistant to antibiotics. CBG achieved this by targeting the cell membrane of the bacteria. These findings in the laborato
A new treatment – called gefapixant – may reduce the frequency of coughing, including in patients who have suffered from a chronic cough for more than 15 years, according to results from a phase 2b clinical trial which lasted 12 weeks and included 253 people, published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine journal.
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2037-y Two epigenetic regulators—identified in an RNA interference screen in Caenhorhabditis elegans, and conserved in mammals—diminish mitochondrial function and accelerate the age-related deterioration of behaviour.
Do campaign contributions from oil and gas companies influence legislators to vote against the environment, or do these companies invest in legislators that have a proven antienvironmental voting record? Using 28 y of campaign contribution data, we find that evidence consistently supports the investment hypothesis: The more a given member…
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2045-y The widespread intraplate volcanism in northeast China and the unusual 'petit-spot' volcanoes offshore Japan could have resulted from the interaction of the subducting Pacific slab with a hydrous mantle transition zone.
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2040-3 Visceral adipose tissue contains populations of regulatory T cells that exhibit sexual dimorphism, determined by the surrounding niche, and differ between male and female mice in terms of cell number, phenotype, transcriptional landscape and chromatin accessibility.
A Team around Anthropologist Ron Pinhasi from the University of Vienna — together with researchers from the University of Florence and Harvard University — found out that prehistoric migration from Africa, Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean islands took place long before the era of the Mediterranean seafaring civilizations. For their analysis they used the DNA of prehistoric individuals from S
San Francisco's women firefighters are exposed to higher levels of certain toxic PFAS chemicals than women working in downtown San Francisco offices, shows a new study. The study represents one of the first published results from the Women Firefighter Biomonitoring Collaborative, a long-term investigation into breast cancer risks faced by women firefighters.
My friend Mike Solomon, who has died aged 52 of cancer, was a clinical psychologist at the Tavistock clinic in London, working with children and young people with social, emotional and mental health problems. He thrived on building relationships and was often to be found having a clinical "session" with young people on a football pitch or at a bus stop. Continue reading…
In a special report published today in the journal Pediatrics, Roberts Individualized Medical Genetics Center researchers, physicians, and genetic and financial counselors describe the success of the model, their plans to build on that success for the future, and the important lessons learned from their first four years in operation.
Heterotropic allosteric activation of protein function, in which binding of one ligand thermodynamically activates the binding of another, different ligand or substrate, is a fundamental control mechanism in metabolism and as such has been a long-aspired capability in protein design. Here we show that greatly increasing the magnitude of a…
Equity expert Sara Sanford offers a certified playbook that helps companies go beyond good intentions, using a data-driven standard to actively counter unconscious bias and foster gender equity — by changing how workplaces operate, not just how people think.
"Aaronson may have finally realized the need to modify his behavior when his young children confronted him one day and complained, "Daddy, we're afraid of you". After he told us this story he added that perhaps he was being too harsh at work as well."
"They are creating a universe in which they're stripping adult women of common sense, autonomy, and responsibility," Donna Rotunno, one of Harvey Weinstein's defense attorneys, said during the closing arguments of her client's criminal trial. She was taking aim, most directly, at the case's prosecution. But she was also suggesting, in the cosmic sweep of her accusation, a broader indictment: of t
People with high attachment anxiety and people with high attachment avoidance both reported low life satisfaction and low relationship satisfaction in a new study. Those with attachment anxiety also reported low financial satisfaction, the researchers found. The study also shows that those with high attachment anxiety and those with high attachment avoidance engaged in more irresponsible financia
Corruption is a constant threat in Kenya, says social entrepreneur Wanjira Mathai — and to stop it there (or anywhere else), we need to intervene early. Following the legacy of her mother, political activist and Nobel Prize recipient Wangari Maathai, Mathai shares three strategies to uproot a culture of corruption by teaching children and young people about leadership, purpose and integrity.
Public representation of science in the media still struggles to reflect the true diversity of those who work in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). According to a 2019 report from the Women's Leadership Institute Australia, women are quoted as sources in just 33% of science news stories.
Although aerobic respiration is a hallmark of eukaryotes, a few unicellular lineages, growing in hypoxic environments, have secondarily lost this ability. In the absence of oxygen, the mitochondria of these organisms have lost all or parts of their genomes and evolved into mitochondria-related organelles (MROs). There has been debate regarding…
Companies like to highlight when they do good things for society, such as making charitable donations, becoming more environmentally friendly or improving the diversity of their workforce. Broadly, these behaviors come under the umbrella of corporate social responsibility. Companies do them to increase customer loyalty and, ultimately, earn more revenue.
Recently, a research team from University of Science and Technology of China proposed a nacre-inspired coating on the separator to improve the safety of lithium battery under external impact. The study was published in Advanced Materials. They developed an alkaline-solution-induced etching method in the aragonite platelets to dissolve the protein matrix along with some parts of amorphous calcium c
Science and scientists are converging around the knowledge that our planet, with us in the driver's seat, is moving into the Anthropocene. This is a new geological epoch in which humanity's actions are changing the face of the earth and how planetary systems—such as global nitrogen and phosphorus cycles – work.
In PNAS, Sylvester et al. (1) assess the functional connectivity of the human amygdala with well-established brain networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This focus on the amygdala was chosen because this region has been often implicated in psychiatric conditions. Better understanding of its connectivity and functions may therefore…
A team of researchers at Stanford University has developed a theoretical way to cool down heated objects. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes their study of heat radiation and how it might be boosted to cool down a desired object.
Researchers at Columbia Engineering announced today that they have introduced a new type of robotic finger with a sense of touch. Their finger can localize touch with very high precision–<1mm–over a large, multicurved surface, much like its human counterpart.
A new study analyzes mountains of data to see which industries have the highest level of employee volatility. Volatility isn't always a bad thing, but it is always good to know about. Moving to new jobs within the same industry is often a route to higher wages. Have you ever felt like its time to look for another job but weren't quite sure what prompted it? Conversely, have you ever worried that
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2004-7 The synthesis of uranium- and thorium-containing metallabiphenylenes demonstrates the ability of the actinides to stabilize aromatic/antiaromatic structures where transition metals have failed.
The latest US Preventive Services Task Force evidence report on screening for cognitive impairment in older adults raises many questions, but provides few answers for healthcare providers, patients, and families.
Decreased folate levels in the bloodstream have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, shedding light on why those patients are more susceptible to heart and vascular disease, according to research published today in JAMA Network Open by experts at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
Adults do not need tetanus or diphtheria booster shots if they've already completed their childhood vaccination series against these rare, but debilitating diseases, new research indicates. The study found no significant difference in disease rates between countries that require adults to receive tetanus and diphtheria booster shots and those that don't.
In recent decades, the search for high-performance thermal insulation for buildings has prompted manufacturers to turn to aerogels. Invented in the 1930s, these remarkable materials are translucent, ultraporous, lighter than a marshmallow, strong enough to support a brick, and an unparalleled barrier to heat flow, making them ideal for keeping heat inside on a cold winter day and outside when summ
The age at which a woman's periods stop, and the menopause starts, doesn't seem to be linked to the development of the risk factors typically associated with cardiovascular disease, suggests research published online in the journal Heart.
The first optogenetic ALS animal model is developed using zebrafish, in which the key symptoms of ALS, including TDP-43 aggregation, are reproducible in the intact neuromuscular system by external light illumination. This model helps to understand when and how healthy motor neurons begin to become abnormal and pathological in ALS.
Developing lymphocytes diversify their antigen receptor (AgR) loci by variable (diversity) joining (V[D]J) recombination. Here, using the micrococcal nuclease (MNase)-based chromatin accessibility (MACC) assay with low-cell count input, we profile both small-scale (kilobase) and large-scale (megabase) changes in chromatin accessibility and nucleosome occupancy in primary cells during lymphoid deve
Approximately $68 trillion will pass from boomers to millennials over the next few decades in what's known as the Great Wealth Transfer. 90% of family wealth is gone by the time the third generation comes around, primarily due to familial conflict. Social capital advisor Richard Tafel suggests 4 steps families should follow so they transfer wealth in a way that does the most amount of social good
In a first-of-its-kind study using advanced brain imaging techniques, a commonly used anti-psychotic medication was associated with potentially adverse changes in brain structure. This study was the first in humans to evaluate the effects of this type of medication on the brain using a gold-standard design: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The study could have an immediate imp
A new app called IoT Assistant informs users about what Internet of Things technologies are around them and what data they're collecting, researchers report. People navigating through the digital landscape of the internet today are bombarded with notices about how their data is collected. But in the physical world where Internet of Things technologies increasingly track our activities–few, if any
For the first time, scientists have engineered and switched on a working neural net that allows biological and silicon-based artificial brain cells to communicate back and forth. Researchers in Switzerland, Italy, and the U.K. connected a series of neurons: two high-tech artificial neurons and one biological neuron cultured from a mouse's brain, that were able to communicate back and forth over t
A 2009 report by the National Academy of Sciences was highly critical of many forensic practices. This report concluded that significant changes and advances were required to ensure the reliability across the forensic sciences. We examine the reliability of one such forensic technique used for identification based on purported distinct…
Mini-Moon The Earth might have a second Moon — albeit a tiny and temporary one. "Earth has a new temporarily captured object/Possible mini-moon called 2020 CD3," wrote Kacper Wierzchos, astronomer and self-described "comet hunter" at the Catalina Sky Survey, in a Tuesday tweet . "On the night of Feb. 15, my Catalina Sky Survey teammate Teddy Pruyne and I found a 20th magnitude object." Captured!
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) with molecule-functionalized tips has emerged as the primary experimental technique for probing the atomic structure of organic molecules on surfaces. Most experiments have been limited to nearly planar aromatic molecules due to difficulties with interpretation of highly distorted AFM images originating from nonplanar molecules. Here, we develop a deep learning infra
All hail Baby Yoda, king of the toys. (Stan Horaczek /) Toy Fair happens every year in New York City. The big manufacturers pack their luggage full of fun stuff and lug it to the Big Apple and display it at the Javits Center on the west side of Manhattan. It's aimed predominantly at buyers and suppliers hoping that the items can actually make it onto store shelves, but the press gets to take a lo
Soft-bodied aquatic invertebrates, such as sea slugs and snails, are capable of diverse locomotion modes under water. Recapitulation of such multimodal aquatic locomotion in small-scale soft robots is challenging, due to difficulties in precise spatiotemporal control of deformations and inefficient underwater actuation of existing stimuli-responsive materials. Solving this challenge and…
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with higher measures of tumor mutations that show up in a blood test generally have a better clinical response to PD-1-based immunotherapy treatments than patients with a lower measure of mutations.
Malaria parasites suppress host immune responses to facilitate their survival, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we found that blood-stage malaria parasites predominantly induced CD4 + Foxp3 + CD25 + regulatory T cells to release soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sFGL2), which substantially enhanced the infection. This was attributed to the capacity of sFGL2 to inhibit macropha
Uncharged bottlebrush polymer melts and highly charged polyelectrolytes in solution exhibit correlation peaks in scattering measurements and simulations. Given the striking superficial similarities of these scattering features, there may be a deeper structural interrelationship in these chemically different classes of materials. Correspondingly, we constructed a library of isotopically labeled bot
New research uncovers the underlying rules that, when broken, contribute to neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS. Clumps of proteins inside cells are a common thread in many neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrig's disease. These clumps, or solid aggregates of proteins, appear to be the result of an abnormality in the process known as liquid-liqu
Organic-inorganic halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) form an attractive class of materials for optoelectronic applications. Their charge transport properties are, however, inferior compared to materials such as graphene. Conversely, graphene contains a charge generation efficiency that is too low for applications in optoelectronics. In a new report, Basudev Pradhan and a research team at the Na
Forskare vid Stanford university, USA, har tagit fram ett litiumjonbatteri som kan driva bärbar elektronik i mindre skala – samtidigt som det sträcks ut med 70 procent och viks dubbelt. Lösningen bygger på ett nytt, elastiskt, ledande polymer, kallat SLIC, supramolecular lithium ion conductor. Till skillnad från andra böjbara batterier där elektrolyten (den del som leder joner mellan anod och kato
Existing transfer technologies in the construction of film-based electronics and devices are deeply established in the framework of native solid substrates. Here, we report a capillary approach that enables a fast, robust, and reliable transfer of soft films from liquid in a defect-free manner. This capillary transfer is underpinned by…
Over the past two nights in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, thousands of spectators jammed into Sambadromes to watch the annual spectacle of samba-school floats, dancers, and extravagant costumes during Carnival. Over the past couple of weeks, even more people took part in the many blocos , or street parties, dancing and drinking into the wee hours of the night. Collected below are images of Carniv
The health risks of e-cigarettes have come into focus after the deaths of several 'vapers' due to lung injury in the USA recently. These health risks were discussed in press reports on eight young people who were poisoned in Bremerhaven in October 2019. Patients suffered from convulsive seizures, impaired consciousness and memory, and heart palpitations.
Cats who suffered burns and smoke inhalation in recent California wildfires also had a high incidence of heart problems, a new study shows. Researchers studied 51 cats referred for treatment after the 2017 Tubbs Fire in Santa Rosa and the 2018 Camp Fire in Paradise. Echocardiograms, or heart ultrasounds, showed the cats had significant cardiovascular effects, including a much higher incidence of
The latest image from the international Gemini Observatory showcases the striking planetary nebula CVMP 1. This object is the result of the death throes of a giant star and is a glorious but relatively short-lived astronomical spectacle. As the progenitor star of this planetary nebula slowly cools, this celestial hourglass will run out of time and will slowly fade from view over many thousands of
Vehicles with long-range DF-26 missiles during a military parade in Beijing, China, in September 2015. (Ge jinfh/) China's long-range missiles play a central role in the country's military plans . And, in the event of armed conflict between that nation and the US, they're the weapon the American military worries the most about. Despite their pivotal role in Chinese war-fighting strategy, the serv
Chronic infection provokes alterations in inflammatory and suppressive pathways that potentially affect the function and integrity of multiple tissues, impacting both ongoing immune control and restorative immune therapies. Here we demonstrate that chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection rapidly triggers severe thymic depletion, mediated by CD8 T cell-intrinsic type I interferon…
People who have been treated in intensive care commonly suffer from residual cognitive impairment, but the reason for this is unknown. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden now link cognitive impairment with lasting inflammation and a potential treatment target. The results are presented in the scientific journal Intensive Care Medicine.
Shelley White-Means, Ph.D., a professor at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, is the principal investigator of a paper published this month in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health that found breast cancer support groups play a major role in helping underserved African-American women at risk for or diagnosed with breast cancer in Memphis.
Firefighters have higher rates of some cancers than the general population, which might not be surprising given the many potential carcinogens they encounter while battling blazes. However, previous studies of chemical exposures in this occupation have focused almost exclusively on men. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology have compared poly- and perfluorinated sub
Competition and predation may not be the driving force behind adaptation that scientists thought, according to new research. Species adapt to their local climates, but how often they adapt to their local communities remains a mystery. To find answers, researchers examined over 125 studies testing local adaptation in over 100 species of plants and animals. "Local adaptation occurs when a populatio
Anthropologists have found out that prehistoric migration from Africa, Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean islands took place long before the era of the Mediterranean seafaring civilizations. For their analysis they used the DNA of prehistoric individuals from Sicily, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands.
Many roots of organic chemistry, and of medicinal chemistry in particular, often originate in what might seem like an unlikely place: the dyestuff industry of the late 19th century. I had already known this to some degree, but writing the historical vignettes in The Chemistry Book really brought it home to me. And if you go further back, dyes and pigments in general have been a huge driving force
A new study has shown that connectedness to nature makes children more likely to perform sustainable behaviors, which in turn gives them greater levels of happiness. In light of these findings and the current environmental issues facing our planet, the research team highlight the need for initiatives and education that promotes contact with nature — for the good of the planet and for children's w
Dune systems can have alternative stable states that coexist under certain environmental conditions: a vegetated, stabilized state and a bare active state. This behavior implies the possibility of abrupt transitions from one state to another in response to gradual environmental change. Here, we synthesize stratigraphic records covering 12,000 years of dynamics of this system at 144 localities acr
PLUS. Det er uambitiøst, når klimaminister Dan Jørgensen siger, at Danmarks CO2-regnskab ikke vil blive forbedret ved bedre udnyttelse af overskudsvarme fra datacentre. Sådan lyder kritikken fra Datacenterindustrien, som især ærgrer sig over nye afgiftsregler for brug af overskudsvarme.
Nature Communications, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14633-1 Aperiodic structure imaging suffers limitations when utilizing Fourier analysis. The authors report an algorithm that quantitatively overcomes these limitations based on nonconvex optimization, demonstrated by studying aperiodic structures via the phase sensitive interference in STM images.
Nucleomorphs are relic endosymbiont nuclei so far found only in two algal groups, cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes, which have been studied to model the evolutionary process of integrating an endosymbiont alga into a host-governed plastid (organellogenesis). However, past studies suggest that DNA transfer from the endosymbiont to host nuclei had already…
Multicellularity is a key evolutionary innovation, leading to coordinated activity and resource sharing among cells, which generally occurs via the physical exchange of chemical compounds. However, filamentous cable bacteria display a unique metabolism in which redox transformations in distant cells are coupled via long-distance electron transport rather than an exchange…
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00424-7 A key DNA-repair enzyme has a surprising role during the early steps in the assembly of ribosomes — the molecular machines that translate the genetic code into protein.
A more nuanced billing code could encourage doctors to take a more nuanced approach. (DepositPhoto/) We now know that obesity, a chronic disease that affects almost half of the United States population and contributes to millions of deaths worldwide, isn't just about how much you weigh . A huge variety of factors , from physical and mental health to genetics and upbringing, all contribute to the
Unlike other snakes, most species of Rhabdophis possess glands in their dorsal skin, sometimes limited to the neck, known as nucho-dorsal and nuchal glands, respectively. Those glands contain powerful cardiotonic steroids known as bufadienolides, which can be deployed as a defense against predators. Bufadienolides otherwise occur only in toads (Bufonidae)…
As people live longer, ages at death are becoming more similar. This dual advance over the last two centuries, a central aim of public health policies, is a major achievement of modern civilization. Some recent exceptions to the joint rise of life expectancy and life span equality, however, make it…
Plants obtain their energy from the sun. Other beings rely on eating to survive. Yet how does the energy flow inside ecosystems function and are there differences between ecosystems with many species in comparison to those with few species? Researchers have now examined these questions using a holistic approach by evaluating data gathered through a large-scale biodiversity experiment.
So far, kidney transplantation has generally not been offered to elderly patients (>75 years) because of the perioperative risks. Nor has it been clearly established whether transplanted patients in this age benefit significantly. In a new study published in NDT, the graft survival proved to be excellent, and nearly all patients remained dialysis-free. Is it time to rethink established common prac
The quantum mechanical properties of electrons are beginning to open the door to a new class of sensors and computers with abilities far beyond what their counterparts based in classical physics can accomplish. Quantum states are notoriously difficult to read or write, however, and to make things worse, uncertainty about those states' starting conditions can make experiments more laborious or even
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2054-x In mouse models of pulmonary metastasis, adjuvant epigenetic therapy targeting myeloid-derived suppressor cells disrupts the premetastatic microenvironment after resection of primary tumours and inhibits the dissemination of residual tumour cells.
Commonly used methods for estimating parameters of a spatial dynamic panel data model include the two-stage least squares, quasi-maximum likelihood, and generalized moments. In this paper, we present an approach that uses the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a spatial weight matrix to directly construct consistent least-squares estimators of parameters of…
Determining the requirements for efficient oxygen (O2) activation is key to understanding how enzymes maintain efficacy and mitigate unproductive, often detrimental reactivity. For the α-ketoglutarate (αKG)–dependent nonheme iron enzymes, both a concerted mechanism (both cofactor and substrate binding prior to reaction with O2) and a sequential mechanism (cofactor binding and…
Researchers in this observational study evaluated dimensions of the aorta in 442 older competitive runners and rowers (ages 50 to 75) to examine the association between long-term endurance exercise and enlargement of the artery.
Josh Gates travels to the Holy Land to dig in with an archaeologist who has recently discovered new Dead Sea Scrolls. Stream Full Episodes of Expedition Unknown: https://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/expedition-unknown/ Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Join us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Discovery Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Discovery We're on Instagra
Review study examines why people are suffering heart attacks during high intensity and endurance exercises such as marathons and triathlons. runningheartattk1.jpg Image credits: Composite image by Abigail Malate . Human Wednesday, February 26, 2020 – 08:15 Yuen Yiu, Staff Writer (Inside Science) — In the ancient Greek legend, the messenger Pheidippides ran from the battlefield of Marathon to At
The 20S core particle (CP) proteasome is a molecular assembly catalyzing the degradation of misfolded proteins or proteins no longer required for function. It is composed of four stacked heptameric rings that form a barrel-like structure, sequestering proteolytic sites inside its lumen. Proteasome function is regulated by gates derived from…
Nature Communications, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14871-3 Fatigue-resistant adhesion is of interest for a range of applications, but has been limited in synthetic hydrogels. Here, the authors report on a synthetic hydrogel with ordered nanocrystalline domains resulting in high fatigue-resistant adhesion and demonstrate the coating of different surfaces.
The Fujifilm X-T4 is X-built around a trans CMOS 4 sensor and X-Processor 4 for fast AF and a wide dynamic range. (Jeanette D. Moses/) Fujifilm just announced the arrival of the X-T4, a camera with a 26.1 megapixel back-side illuminated CMOS sensor, a larger battery than its predecessors, a redesigned body, and an overhauled in-body image stabilization system. The mechanical shutter can shoot 15
In "The Science of Storytelling," journalist Will Storr investigates the science behind great storytelling. While good plots are important, Storr writes that great stories revolve around complex characters. As in life, readers are drawn to flawed characters, yet many writers become too attached to their protagonists. We are all hallucinating. No one dropped LSD into the water supply—they didn't h
The mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (Mpi) locus in Semibalanus balanoides has been studied as a candidate gene for balancing selection for more than two decades. Previous work has shown that Mpi allozyme genotypes (fast and slow) have different frequencies across Atlantic intertidal zones due to selection on postsettlement survival (i.e., allele zonation)….
Grudge Match A planetary scientist who used to work for NASA says he's determined which "ringed planet" emoji is the best. James O'Donoghue, now working for Japan's space agency JAXA, published his definitive ranking on Twitter on Wednesday morning. In it, he called Twitter's attempt at Saturn "the most offensive" — while Whatsapp's emoji took the coveted top spot. I'm a planetary scientist with
Targaryendraco wiedenrothi has been renamed after House of Targaryen in George RR Martin's fantasy saga George RR Martin is celebrating after a palaeontologist, who named a new genus of pterosaur after the dragons of House Targaryen, agreed with him that dragons should have two, rather than four, legs. The fossilised bones of Targaryendraco wiedenrothi , which lived 130m years ago, were discovere
The latest image from the international Gemini Observatory showcases the striking planetary nebula CVMP 1. This object is the result of the death throes of a giant star and is a glorious but relatively short-lived astronomical spectacle. As the progenitor star of this planetary nebula slowly cools, this celestial hourglass will run out of time and will slowly fade from view over many thousands of
Researchers have created the first catalogue of genes that comprise the community of microbes, which inhabit the human vagina. The catalogue, called human vaginal non-redundant gene catalog (VIRGO), was recently released as a public resource that can be used by researchers to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of the role of vaginal microorganisms in women's health and to potentially develop
EPFL scientists have developed a new type of microscope slide that can boost the amount of light in fluorescence microscopy by a factor of up to 25. These new slides can both amplify and direct light, making them ideal for applications ranging from early-stage diagnosis to the rapid archiving of pathology samples.
Terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) motifs are sequences at the 5′ ends of mRNAs that link their translation to the mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) nutrient-sensing signaling pathway. They are commonly regarded as discrete elements that reside on ∼100 mRNAs that mostly encode translation factors. However, the full spectrum of TOP sequences and…
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2047-9 Metabolomics data from germ-free and specific-pathogen-free mice reveal effects of the microbiome on host chemistry, identifying conjugations of bile acids that are also enriched in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or cystic fibrosis.
Grid diagrams with their relatively simple mathematical formalism provide a convenient way to generate and model projections of various knots. It has been an open question whether these 2D diagrams can be used to model a complex 3D process such as the topoisomerase-mediated preferential unknotting of DNA molecules. We model here topoisomerase-mediated passages of double-stranded DNA segments thro
När skogen gallras blottas lavskrikans bon för nötskrikor som plundrar boet på både ägg och ungar. Genom att anpassa gallringens intensitet går det att skydda fågeln, menar forskare som analyserat häckningsframgången i förhållande till undervegetation runt boet och dess avstånd till hus. Är det rätt att begränsa skogsbruk för att skydda lavskrikan? Frågan har under de senaste åren engagerat markä
With careful tuning of heat and pressure, it's possible to produce pure diamonds from a type of hydrogen and carbon molecule found in crude oil and natural gas, a new study shows. "What's exciting about this paper is it shows a way of cheating the thermodynamics of what's typically required for diamond formation," says Rodney Ewing, professor of nuclear security at Stanford University and a coaut
A new study found that exposure to heatwaves during the last week of pregnancy was strongly linked to an increased risk of preterm delivery — the hotter the temperature or the longer the heatwave, the greater the risk.
Scientists are asking for the public's help to find the origin of hundreds of thousands of galaxies that have been discovered by the largest radio telescope ever built: LOFAR. Where do these mysterious objects that extend for thousands of light-years come from? A new citizen science project, LOFAR Radio Galaxy Zoo, gives anyone with a computer the exciting possibility to join the quest to find out
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00469-8 The dense soup of matter in the core of neutron stars is hard to model, but particle-accelerator experiments in which energetic electrons scatter off atomic nuclei could help to explore this high-density regime.
HIV-1 capsid core disassembly (uncoating) must occur before integration of viral genomic DNA into the host chromosomes, yet remarkably, the timing and cellular location of uncoating is unknown. Previous studies have proposed that intact viral cores are too large to fit through nuclear pores and uncoating occurs in the cytoplasm…
Artificial Intelligence is an amalgam of key technologies including machine learning, deep learning, computer vision, natural language processing (NLP) and strong AI. As per Global Market Insights, projected revenue for the Consumer Electronics market will be USD 1.5 Trillion by 2024. Artificial Intelligence (AI) & Consumer Electronics (CE) Industr y With the emergence of new groundbreaking tec
Big data can provide archaeologists with a sweeping, big-picture view of the subjects they study on the ground, new research shows. Centuries of archaeological research on the Inca Empire has netted a veritable library of knowledge. But new digital and data-driven projects are proving that there is much more to discover about precolonial life in the Andes. "Some questions are really hard to answe
While pluralism is considered a condition, toleration is the response to it. To recognize and accept a diverse range of perspectives on ethical views is to exhibit tolerance. Singapore Management University professor Chandran Kukathas points to toleration as a cornerstone of the classical liberal tradition. In fact, liberal thought arises from the reality that people disagree substantially on any
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made the most sensitive measurements to date of how quickly electric charge moves in silicon, a gauge of its performance as a semiconductor.
"Complete silence is very addictive," says Rebecca Knill, a writer who has cochlear implants that enable her to hear. In this funny, insightful talk, she explores the evolution of assistive listening technology, the outdated way people still respond to deafness and how we can shift our cultural understanding of ability to build a more inclusive world. "Technology has come so far," Knill says. "Our
Angiogenesis is stimulated by nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells (ECs). Although proangiogenic actions of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been extensively studied, the mechanistic role of NO in this action remains obscure. Here, we used a gelatin hydrogel that releases NO upon crosslinking by a transglutaminase reaction ("NO gel"). Then, the source-specific behaviors of b
Illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing is widespread; it is therefore likely that illicit trade in marine fish catch is also common worldwide. We combine ecological-economic databases to estimate the magnitude of illicit trade in marine fish catch and its impacts on people. Globally, between 8 and 14 million metric tons of unreported catches are potentially traded illicitly yearly, suggesti
Dissatisfaction with democracy in developed nations is at a record high. Since 1995, the University of Cambridge's Centre for the Future of Democracy has gauged people's views on democracy. Their most recent report , spanning 154 nations, reveals some of the highest levels of discontent since records began. Dissatisfaction with democracy is at its highest since records began. United States and Br
Current approaches for biodiversity conservation and management focus on sustaining high levels of diversity among species to maintain ecosystem function. We show that the diversity among individuals within a single population drives function at the ecosystem scale. Specifically, nutrient supply from individual fish differs from the population average >80% of the time, and accounting for this ind
Type III IFN lambdas (IFN-λ) have recently been described as important mediators of immune responses at barrier surfaces. However, their role in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a condition characterized by aberrant type I IFN signaling, has not been determined. Here, we identify a nonredundant role for…
Accumulating evidence suggests participation of RNA-binding proteins with intrinsically disordered domains (IDPs) in the DNA damage response (DDR). These IDPs form liquid compartments at DNA damage sites in a poly(ADP ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner. However, it is greatly unknown how the IDPs are involved in DDR. We have shown previously that…
PLUS. Ved hjælp af røntgen har japanske forskere undersøgt vand og fundet to forskellige strukturer af flydende vand. Dansk DTU-forsker er enig i, at den viden kan have betydning for levende organismer.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T immunotherapy has yielded impressive results in several B cell malignancies, establishing itself as a powerful means to redirect the natural properties of T lymphocytes. In this strategy, the T cell genome is modified by the integration of lentiviral vectors encoding CAR that direct tumor cell killing….
Bucking the advice of university investigators, a journal founded by Hans Eysenck has issued expressions of concern — not retractions — for three articles by the deceased psychologist whose work has been dogged by controversy since the 1980s. The move comes barely a week after other journals opted to retract 13 papers by Eysenck, who … Continue reading
A new special issue of the journal The Gerontologist from The Gerontological Society of America explores how contemporary trends in immigration, migration, and refugee movement affect how people age and how societies care for aging people.
Cloud Nein The year is 2023. You go to take a drag of your Juul — but your phone's Bluetooth won't connect to the vape, meaning it won't dispense that sweet, sweet nicotine fix. It sounds too silly to be real, but The Wall Street Journal is reporting this week that Juul's going to pitch the FDA on just such a system: a Bluetooth-enabled vape that won't let you puff until you've connected it to an
A research team has described five new cases of a rare disease — known as KAT6A syndrome — of which there are only eighty dominant cases worldwide. This neurological and developmental disorder, caused by alterations in the lysine acetyltransferase 6A gene (KAT6A), involves intellectual disability, language impairment, low muscle tone, cardiovascular malformation and eye defects, among other affe
Dr. Won-chul Cho of Hydrogen Research Department of the Korea Institute of Energy Research has developed a separator membrane that significantly reduces gas crossover while exhibiting high performance comparable to the commercial separator for alkaline water electrolyzer. The research has been published in the International Journal of Energy Research, the world's leading authority on nuclear power
Senescence, the physiological decline associated with aging, is pervasive in nature. The age at onset and rate of senescent decline vary widely among species, among populations of the same species, and even among individuals within the same population (1). Understanding the reasons for this variability is of great importance for…
Traditionally, statistical procedures have been derived via analytic calculations whose validity often relies on sample size growing to infinity. We use tools from deep learning to develop a new approach, adversarial Monte Carlo meta-learning, for constructing optimal statistical procedures. Statistical problems are framed as two-player games in which Nature adversarially selects a distribution t
Why have a boring, flat leather belt when you can have one that looks like weathered wood? (Courtesy of Aprille Tomlinson/) The iconic American cowboy's style invokes a feeling of ruggedness and free spirit, so it's no surprise the functional fashion of the wild, wild West is once again trendy in mainstream fashion. Distressed boot-cut jeans, a cowboy hat, and a pair high-end boots make wearers f
Engineers at the University of California San Diego and the University of California Berkeley have created light-based technology that can detect biological substances with a molecular mass more than two orders of magnitude smaller than previously possible. The advance was made possible by building a device that shrinks light while exploiting mathematical singularities known as exceptional points
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2050-1 Lipid starvation results in skeletal progenitors favouring commitment to chondrogenic over osteogenic fate, a process mediated by FOXO transcription factors and SOX9.
Scientists are using a very small visible beam to burn laser-induced graphene, a foamy form of carbon, into microscopic patterns. The labs of Rice University chemist James Tour, which discovered the original method to turn a common polymer into graphene in 2014, and Tennessee/Oak Ridge National Laboratory materials scientist Philip Rack revealed they can now watch the conductive material form as
As a prototype of genomics-guided precision medicine, individualized thiopurine dosing based on pharmacogenetics is a highly effective way to mitigate hematopoietic toxicity of this class of drugs. Recently, NUDT15 deficiency was identified as a genetic cause of thiopurine toxicity, and NUDT15-informed preemptive dose reduction was quickly adopted in clinical settings….
En ny matematisk modell visar på mångfalden i livets utvecklingshistoria. Den visar hur nutida organismgrupper uppstår genom en så kallad födelse- och dödsprocess, dessutom ger den ett svar på Darwins "förhatliga gåta" om blomväxternas ursprung. På vilket sätt många av de stora organismgrupperna har uppstått tycks vara höljt i dunkel. Ett berömt exempel är blomväxternas ursprung, som Darwin kalla
Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) receiving treatment with opioid agonists (medications such as methadone or buprenorphine) had an 80 percent lower risk of dying from an opioid overdose compared to patients in treatment without the use of medications.
Increased fat distribution during menopause has long been shown to increase insulin resistance and the risk of diabetes. A new study based on data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) shows that being metabolically unhealthy increases diabetes risk, even in women of normal weight. Results are published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00468-9 Metallic glasses are much stronger than conventional metals, but form certain instabilities under stress that lead to fracture. A process known as rejuvenation has been shown to solve this problem.
Some molecules, including most of the ones in living organisms, have shapes that can exist in two different mirror-image versions. The right- and left-handed versions can sometimes have different properties, such that only one of them carries out the molecule's functions. Now, a team of physicists has found that a similarly asymmetrical pattern can be induced and measured at will in certain exotic
The mangrove-lined estuary on Abaco Island in the Bahamas. (Craig Layman/) For the mangrove forests that line the coast of Abaco Island in the Bahamas, fish pee is a precious resource. While fish such as cubera and gray snappers roam the mangroves in search of a meal, they excrete "fish pee" through their gills which, among other substances, contains the valuable nutrient nitrogen. However, it tu
Sr2RuO4 has long been the focus of intense research interest because of conjectures that it is a correlated topological superconductor. It is the momentum space (k-space) structure of the superconducting energy gap Δi(k) on each band i that encodes its unknown superconducting order parameter. However, because the energy scales are…
A new study shows that people with opioid use disorder who enter inpatient medically managed withdrawal treatment (detox) do not usually receive further treatment, including medication for opioid use disorder or additional inpatient treatment. Those who did receive further treatment with medication (methadone, buprenorphine or naltrexone) or residential treatment were more likely to survive to 12
After decades of focusing almost exclusively on Western populations, psychology and other social sciences have at last begun to diversify their samples. Massive efforts have been made to compare cultures around the globe on basic psychological processes, and researchers have amassed much evidence for differences between "the West and the…
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a common treatment for patients with gastric cancer. Although its benefits have been demonstrated, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is underutilized in gastric cancer management, because of the lack of biomarkers for patient selection and a limited understanding of resistance mechanisms. Here, we performed whole-genome, whole-exome, and RNA sequencing on 84 clinical samples (i
Traditionally, precipitates in a material are thought to serve as obstacles to dislocation glide and cause hardening of the material. This conventional wisdom, however, fails to explain recent discoveries of ultrahigh-strength and large-ductility materials with a high density of nanoscale precipitates, as obstacles to dislocation glide often lead to high…
Nature Communications, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14909-6 Though tribotronics, e.g., semiconductor electronics that utilize triboelectricity, is a promising technology, current devices have limited application in micro/nano electronics. Here, the authors report a triboelectrification-gated transistor with triboelectric modulation at the nanoscale.
Missed Test NASA has learned that Boeing did not perform a "full, end-to-end integrated test" of its astronaut-ferrying Starliner spacecraft with the rocket that's supposed to launch it into orbit, the United Launch Alliance's Atlas V, the Orlando Sentinel reports . Members of NASA's safety advisory panel told journalists that such a test is needed to ensure that all software systems respond to e
Insect nervous systems offer unique advantages for studying interactions between sensory systems and behavior, given their complexity with high tractability. By examining the neural coding of salient environmental stimuli and resulting behavioral output in the context of environmental stressors, we gain an understanding of the effects of these stressors on…
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2055-9 Neuron-tracing and labelling experiments in Drosophila females reveal the neural circuitry that coordinates mating and egg laying, and the role of sex peptide from male seminal fluid in triggering these neurons.
That new song you heard the other day might not really be new, according to a pair of programmer-musicians. Damien Riehl and Noah Rubin created an algorithm to generate every possible melody, and they copyrighted it. This isn't a scheme to sue people, though. Quite the opposite, in fact. Riehl and Rubin have released the contents of their universal melody hard drive into the public domain in hope
The big news in cosmology for several years has been the mounting evidence that the universe is expanding faster than expected. When cosmologists extrapolate data from the early universe to predict what the cosmos should be like now, they predict a relatively slow cosmic expansion rate. When they directly measure the speed at which astronomical objects are hurtling away from us, they find that sp
Cytostasis is the most salient manifestation of the potent antimicrobial activity of nitric oxide (NO), yet the mechanism by which NO disrupts bacterial cell division is unknown. Here, we show that in respiring Escherichia coli, Salmonella , and Bacillus subtilis , NO arrests the first step in division, namely, the GTP-dependent assembly of the bacterial tubulin homolog FtsZ into a cytokinetic ri
High-pH alkaline lakes are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth and prime targets in the search for life on Mars; however, a robust proxy for such settings does not yet exist. Nitrogen isotope fractionation resulting from NH 3 volatilization at high pH has the potential to fill this gap. To validate this idea, we analyzed samples from the Nördlinger Ries, a Miocene impact crater lake th
PLUS. Uden brug af katalysatorer fremstiller forskere fra Stanford University nu rene, syntetiske diamanter med et lavt energiforbrug. Der er stadig bump på vejen før diamanter bliver det nye supermateriale til halvledere, glas og medicin.
Oncotarget Volume 11 Issue 8 features Figure 8, 'MLN4924 treatment induces DNA damage by stabilizing CDT1 and accumulates the cells in S phase which are enhanced by MLN4924/cisplatin co-treatment,' by Misra, et al.
One year into Philadelphia's 1.5-cents-per-ounce 'soda tax,' new findings show that the law had minimal to no influence on what Philadelphians are drinking. The results were published this month in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health from researchers at Drexel University's Dornsife School of Public Health.
While pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are a large class of molecular weapons employed by organisms across the animal kingdom (1), notably, pathogenic bacteria, many mechanistic steps of pore formation in target membranes are unknown. In PNAS, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, Vӧgele et al. (2) observed how central lipids corresponding to…
Nature Communications, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14697-z De novo mutations significantly contribute to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here, the authors demonstrate that ASD-associated de novo mutations in the POGZ gene, one of a high-confidence ASD gene, lead to ASD-related impaired neuronal development and disrupted mature cortical network function.
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2025-2 This Review examines inflammatory bowel disease in the context of human genetics studies that help to identify pathways that regulate homeostasis of the mucosal immune system and discusses future prospects for disease-subtype classification and therapeutic intervention.
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2056-8 Large-scale single-cell sequencing of RNA and T cell receptors in samples from patients with cancer shows clonotypic expansion of effector-like T cells not only in tumour tissue but also in normal adjacent tissues and peripheral blood, which associates with clinical response to cancer immunotherapy.
After a two-year legal saga, Safehouse says it will open next week, allowing users to administer illegal drugs under supervision. Federal officials say they will try to stop the site from opening. (Image credit: Natalie Piserchio for NPR)
Insects living in the temperate zone enter a physiological state of arrested or slowed development to overcome an adverse season, such as winter. Developmental arrest, called diapause, occurs at a species-specific developmental stage, and embryonic and pupal diapauses have been extensively studied in mostly holometabolous insects. Some other insects overwinter…
It is now well established that glasses feature quasilocalized nonphononic excitations—coined "soft spots"—, which follow a universal ω4 density of states in the limit of low frequencies ω. All glass-specific properties, such as the dependence on the preparation protocol or composition, are encapsulated in the nonuniversal prefactor of the universal…
An investigational drug that binds bile acids in the stomach can reduce the severity of heartburn symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) when combined with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), a new study suggests.
At the World Economic Forum in Davos, the elite of the elite gather to hatch plans for the future of the planet. I asked some of this year's participants to tell me one thing they think will happen by 2030 that most people don't realize.
Nature Communications, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14890-0 Land cover change contributes to regional climate trends. Here, the authors use high-resolution land cover maps and state-of-the-art climate modelling to assess land cover change effects across Europe over 1992-2015, showing widespread cooling after agricultural abandonment but also different, region-specifi
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2021-6 High-energy electron scattering that can isolate pairs of nucleons in high-momentum configurations reveals a transition to spin-independent scalar forces at small separation distances, supporting the use of point-like nucleon models to describe dense nuclear systems.
Climate change and population growth have increased demand for water in arid regions. For over half a century, cloud seeding has been evaluated as a technology to increase water supply; statistical approaches have compared seeded to nonseeded events through precipitation gauge analyses. Here, a physically based approach to quantify snowfall…
Black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, leading to a strong but uncertain warming effect on climate. A key challenge in modeling and quantifying BC's radiative effect on climate is predicting enhancements in light absorption that result from internal mixing between BC and other aerosol components. Modeling and laboratory studies show…
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are a diverse class of membrane-active proteins employed primarily by bacteria for unregulated perforation of lipid membranes (1). Based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (2), electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) structures (3), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments (4), we recently identified two distinct pathways for lipid efflux from…
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) has long been implicated in maintaining behavioral homeostasis essential for the survival of an individual. However, recent evidence suggests its more widespread roles in behavioral coordination, extending to the social domain. The neuronal and circuit mechanisms behind the LH processing of social information are unknown. Here,…
On February 6, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to enforce a previously-issued policy on unauthorized flavored cartridge-based e-cigarette products with the goal of addressing the current epidemic of youth use of e-cigarettes. A new study by researchers at Penn State finds that adults enjoy sweet e-cigarette flavors just as much as teens, suggesting that the policy may have conseque
Booted While it's extremely unlikely, there is a chance that incoming stars that whip past the Earth could fling it out of the solar system, argues astrophycisist Paul Sutter on Space.com — the same scientist, you'll recall, who released instructions for building your own DIY wormhole last year. The apocalyptic result, according to Sutter: Our planet is hurtled "into the depths of interstellar sp
University of Maryland School of Medicine's (UMSOM) Institute for Genome Sciences (IGS) researchers have created the first catalogue of genes that comprise the community of microbes, which inhabit the human vagina. The catalogue, called human vaginal non-redundant gene catalog (VIRGO), was recently released as a public resource that can be used by researchers to facilitate a more in-depth understa
Nuclear physicists have entered a new era for probing the strongest force in the universe at its very heart with a novel method of accessing the space between protons and neutrons in dense environments. The research, which was carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, has been published in the journal Nature and opens the door for more precision stud
Nature Communications, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14824-w The authors use a combination of perceptual decision making in rats and computational modeling to explore the interplay of priors and sensory cues. They find that rats can learn to either alternate or repeat their actions based on reward likelihood and the influence of bias on their actions disappears after
Studying eczema, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that boosting the number of natural killer cells in the blood is a possible treatment strategy for the skin condition and also may help with related health problems, such as asthma.
Researchers have introduced a new type of robotic finger with a sense of touch. Their finger can localize touch with very high precision –<1mm– over a large, multicurved surface, much like its human counterpart.
A critical problem in the fight against bacterial infection is the rising rates of resistance and the lack of new antibiotics. The discovery of new targets or new antibacterial mechanisms is a potential solution but is becoming more difficult. Here we report an antibacterial mechanism that safeguards intestine cells from…
Beat the cold. (Karen Cantú Q via Unsplash/) It's easy to forget to put on a scarf before you go outside, but then you walk into the cold and the regret hits you like an avalanche. The right neck blanket will help keep you warm, whether you're opting for a down jacket or a light bomber. Of course, you'll want to consider material, style, and length based on the conditions and event you're donning
Measuring a quantum system causes it to change — one of the strange but fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. Researchers at Stockholm University have now been able to demonstrate how this change happens. The results are published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Silicon, the best-known semiconductor, is ubiquitous in electronic devices including cellphones, laptops and the electronics in cars. Now, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made the most sensitive measurements to date of how quickly electric charge moves in silicon, a gauge of its performance as a semiconductor. Using a novel method, they have discovered
Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a new method to peer deep into the nanostructure of biomaterials without damaging the sample. This novel technique can confirm structural features in starch, a carbohydrate important in biofuel production.
Liquid-to-liquid extraction is the basic process used in hydrometallurgy for recycling metals and decontaminating solvents (to recover molecules that can be re-used or to decontaminate them). Until now, the "recipes" used in chemical processes have been based on operating feedback and theories that are only partly understood. No physical and chemical predictive models have been available to optimi
For someone outside quantum computing, who has encountered "supremacy" mainly in the context of political or current affairs, its meaning can't help but be loaded. Image by BeeBright / Shutterstock Forget for a moment that you know the meaning of "quantum supremacy," the idea of a quantum computer outdoing its conventional counterpart. What does the phrase instantly bring to mind? Perhaps the ide
BAM S survey of 2018 extreme weather The Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society has published a collection of articles examining unusually extreme weather events of 2018 and connections of those to climate change. These investigations are listed separately below but thanks to the generosity of AMS appear free for public access as a single PDF, Explaining Extreme Weather Events of 2018 fr
Buruli ulcer, a neglected tropical infectious disease, is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans . Without treatment, its lesions can progress to chronic skin ulcers, but spontaneous healing is observed in 5% of cases, suggesting the possible establishment of a host strategy counteracting the effects of M. ulcerans . We reveal here a skin-specific local humoral signature of the spontaneous healing proc
For the vast majority of people, the benefits of physical exercise outweigh the risks. However, for those who have inadequate training or who have underlying heart problems that may not have been detected, the risks of heart issues from extreme exercise, such as participation in marathons and triathlons, are increased.
Researchers from the Institute of Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, teaming up with scientists from Singapore and the US, have found that nanoscale precipitates provide a unique sustainable dislocation source at sufficiently high stress.
SpaceX can move forward with its plans to build rockets in Los Angeles following a unanimous vote by the LA City Council . The 12-0 vote paves the way for Elon Musk's spaceflight company to use a large tract of land at the Port of Los Angeles to conduct research and build components for the upcoming Starship rocket. This spacecraft could eventually take humans to the moon and Mars. Residents of L
Speldesign har absolut en plats i stadsplanering visar ny forskning vid BTH. Genom att spela och leka i staden möjliggörs rörelseutrymme, som ställer frågor om hur människor använder publika platser och till vad. Annika Olofsdotter Bergströms forskning handlar om hur människan intra-agerar med omgivningen, det vill säga om relationen mellan människan och platsen, föremål, väder, erfarenheter och
New research from an interdisciplinary Cornell team has found that as little as 10 minutes in a natural setting can help college students feel happier and lessen the effects of both physical and mental stress.
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2011-8 Optical chiral induction and spontaneous gyrotropic electronic order are realized in the transition-metal chalcogenide 1T-TiSe2 by using illumination with mid-infrared circularly polarized light and simultaneous cooling below the critical temperature.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of STAT3, a transcription factor pivotal to various cellular processes including Th17 cell differentiation, has been implicated in MS. Here, we report that STAT3 is activated in infiltrating monocytic cells near active MS lesions and…
Administering stem cell or enzyme therapy in utero may be a path to alleviating some congenital diseases that often result in losing a pregnancy, according to a new study in mice by UC San Francisco researchers, who showed that stem cells can enter the fetal brain during prenatal development and make up for cells that fail to make an essential protein.
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2016-3 Bulk metallic glasses can acquire the ability to strain-harden through a mechanical rejuvenation treatment at room temperature that retains their non-crystalline structure.
New wearable radio-frequency coils could make medical imaging tests like MRIs and mammograms more comfortable, researchers report. Researchers took technology used in the defense and aerospace industries to create their new method for some medical imaging. Anyone who has had a mammogram or an MRI knows how uncomfortable and awkward the tests can be. That's largely because they often use rigid rad
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2044-z Analyses reveal a previously undescribed transmembrane protein fold in the endoplasmic reticulum-based glucosyltransferase ALG6 and provide a structural basis for understanding the glucose transfer mechanism.
A new study has uncovered key details for how the Salmonella bacteria that causes typhoid fever identifies a host's immune cells and delivers toxins that disrupt the immune system and allow the pathogen to spread.
Pingpong may hold promise as a possible form of physical therapy for Parkinson's disease. People with Parkinson's who participated in a pingpong exercise program once a week for six months showed improvement in their Parkinson's symptoms, according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 72nd Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada, April 25 to
Most ordinary matter is held together by an invisible subatomic glue known as the strong nuclear force—one of the four fundamental forces in nature, along with gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak force. The strong nuclear force is responsible for the push and pull between protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus, which keeps an atom from collapsing in on itself.
From the Department of Sociological Nonshockers comes a study proclaiming that America's baby boomers are, in fact, blazing up, bogarting the blunt, inhaling indica, bonging the bud, smoking the stickyicky — however you say it, the conclusion is clear: adults over the age of 65 are consuming marijuana at steadily increasing rates. The study , published Monday in medical journal JAMA , comes via r
Adults who drank sugary beverages daily had an increased risk of developing abnormal blood cholesterol and triglycerides compared to those who did not, according to new findings from a prospective study by researchers at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University.
A long-haul truck driver fell asleep during his shift in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, on Jan. 13. Heading north on Route 147, he drifted into the eastbound shoulder for almost 375 feet, struck the side of the road and flipped his rig. Thankfully, the driver only suffered a minor injury and nobody else was harmed.
A retrospective study from the University of Missouri School of Medicine and MU Health Care showed patients who underwent surveillance imaging after surgery for brain tumor resection did not have better outcomes than patients who did not have imaging and returned when they felt symptoms of recurrence.
Results from one of the first studies to determine the effects of pre-surgical, or neoadjuvant, chemotherapy on the breast cancer genome offer up two key insights. One is a before treatment finding that can help predict which patients would most benefit from pre-surgical chemo, and the other an after treatment finding which sheds light on how cancer cells survive chemotherapy. Findings appear in C
The deadly brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM) is often resistant to chemotherapy and radiation, but new research shows targeting stromal cells — the cells that serve as the connective tissue of the organs — may be an effective way of overcoming that resistance.
Dr. Won-chul Cho of the Hydrogen Research Department of the Korea Institute of Energy Research (President Jong-nam Kim) has developed a separator membrane that significantly reduces gas crossover while exhibiting high performance comparable to the commercial separator used with alkaline water electrolyzer process. The research has been published in the International Journal of Energy Research, the
Aging manifests with architectural alteration and functional decline of multiple organs throughout an organism. In mammals, aged skin is accompanied by a marked reduction in hair cycling and appearance of bald patches, leading researchers to propose that hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are either lost, differentiate, or change to an…
Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00510-w After a century of digging, archaeologists are still tantalized by the secrets of the 7,000-year-old city of Megiddo. By Andrew Robinson.
The atmosphere of the Archean eon—one-third of Earth's history—is important for understanding the evolution of our planet and Earth-like exoplanets. New geological proxies combined with models constrain atmospheric composition. They imply surface O 2 levels –6 times present, N 2 levels that were similar to today or possibly a few times lower, and CO 2 and CH 4 levels ranging ~10 to 2500 and 10 2
"He's going to be really tall!" exclaims your mother-in-law, watching your 2-year-old run in circles around the room. "How would you know?" you reply, attempting to protect him from the glass table. "Height at 2, multiplied by two. Everyone knows that! He'll be well over 6 feet." The 2 x 2 rule, popular on the internet and at playgrounds, feels like a classic old wives' tale. Of course, old wives
New research finds that different species of honeycreepers on the Hawaiian island of Kauai are singing the same songs, with less complex vocal signals, due to the decreasing size of their populations. The repercussions could affect the birds' abilities to mate and communicate, imperiling generations to come.
I n June 1968 , the Supreme Court issued a 9–0 ruling giving back Sylvester Smith and her four young children their welfare benefits, and striking down the "man in the house" rule. At the time, Alabama was one of a number of states, many in the South, that removed families from the welfare rolls if the mother was having sexual relations with a man, even if he was not living with her and was not s
Andrew Sabisky, a UK government adviser, recently resigned over comments supporting eugenics. Around the same time, the evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins—best known for his book The Selfish Gene—provoked controversy when tweeting that while eugenics is morally deplorable, it "would work."
The CAS key lab of quantum information, led by Prof. Guo Guangcan, Li Chuanfeng, Xiang Guoyong and collaborators, reports enhancing the performance of quantum orienteering with entangling measurements via photonic quantum walks. These results were published online by Physical Review Letters on February 13th.
The habenula, an ancient small brain area in the epithalamus, densely expresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is critical for nicotine intake and aversion. As such, identification of strategies to manipulate habenular activity may yield approaches to treat nicotine addiction. Here we show that GPR151, an orphan G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) highly…
In an era when millions of songwriters upload music to the internet—and just about any song can find itself plucked from obscurity by TikTok teens —it seems inevitable that the same melodies end up in different songs. There have been a number of high-profile music copyright-infringement cases, including a multimillion-dollar decision against Katy Perry for her song " Dark Horse ." A jury found th
Biological researcher Helen Fisher's 2005 fMRI study on couples in love proved that romantic love is primarily a motivation system that can be similar to what we experience during addiction. Cognitive scientists at MIT explain that we experience peak processing and memory power at around age 18. We experience a lot of firsts (such as our first love) at a time when our brains are still developing
W ell , that was loud. The seven Democrats vying for the party's presidential nomination shouted their way through the 10th debate tonight in Charleston, South Carolina, ahead of Saturday's primary. They interrupted one another, bickered with one another, and bitterly accused one another of all manner of political and moral failings. "I'm not out of time!" former Vice President Joe Biden snapped
On 3 January 2019, China's Chang'E-4 (CE-4) successfully landed on the eastern floor of Von Kármán crater within the South Pole–Aitken Basin, becoming the first spacecraft in history to land on the Moon's farside. Here, we report the observations made by the Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the Yutu-2 rover during the first two lunar days. We found a signal penetration at the CE-4 landing si
There are a few moments, reading Joan Didion's 1996 novel, The Last Thing He Wanted , when it's possible to sense why someone saw cinematic potential in this exceptionally interior and evasive story. This is a tale about gunrunning in tropical climes, about beachside murders and political corruption. But its author also wants to deconstruct the prototypical elements of storytelling, such as chara
What is it about Peter Pan ? The essential themes of J. M. Barrie's 1904 "fairy play" have been repeated throughout pop culture so many times, in so many forms, that they've essentially become modern myth. A magical getaway from a staid reality to a world of adventure, centered around a hero blessed with eternal youth—it's easy to see the appeal in that elemental mix of excitement and danger. But
Bernie Sanders faced more pointed attacks last night over his potential vulnerabilities than he ever has at a debate. But the blustery and disorderly session once again failed to fully explore what could be the Vermont senator's greatest general-election weakness: the massive size and scope of his spending and tax proposals, which, depending on the estimate, would cost $50 trillion to $60 trillio
Using the AstroSat satellite, astronomers have investigated a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) known as 4U 1323-62, reporting the detection of thermonuclear X-ray bursts and dips from the source. The discovery was presented in a paper published February 19 on the arXiv pre-print repository.
"Ethical Use" On Monday, the Pentagon announced the official adoption of a series of new principles for ethical use of artificial intelligence in warfare, the Associated Press reports . The principles were formed out of a commission with the (darkly Newspeak-y) name the Defense Innovation Board, which released its recommendations (title: " AI Principles: Recommendations on the Ethical Use of Arti
Fungi disperse spores to move across landscapes and spore liberation takes different patterns. Many species release spores intermittently; others release spores at specific times of day. Despite intriguing evidence of periodicity, why (and if) the timing of spore release would matter to a fungus remains an open question. Here we…