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nyheder2020januar10

Taking one for the team: How bacteria self-destruct to fight viral infections

Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered how a new immune system works to protect bacteria from bacteriophages (phages), viruses that specifically infect bacteria. This new system is unusual in that it works by abortive infection—the infected bacterial cell self-destructs to keep the infection from spreading to other cells.

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Moffitt researchers identify molecular characteristics of leptomeningeal melanoma metastases

Very little information is known about the molecular development of leptomeningeal melanoma metastases (LMM), making it difficult to develop effective therapies. Researchers in Moffitt Cancer Center's Donald A. Adam Melanoma and Skin Cancer Center of Excellence and the Department of Neuro-Oncology sought to change this by performing an extensive analysis of the molecular characteristics of the cer

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Low-fat diet linked to lower testosterone levels in men

For the many men diagnosed with testosterone deficiency, losing weight can help increase testosterone levels. But certain diets — specifically a low-fat diet — may be associated with a small but significant reduction in testosterone, suggests a study in The Journal of Urology®, Official Journal of the American Urological Association (AUA). The Journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by

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MU scientists find oldest-known fossilized digestive tract — 550 million years

An analysis of tubular fossils by scientists led by Jim Schiffbauer at the University of Missouri provides evidence of a 550-million-year-old digestive tract — one of the oldest known examples of fossilized internal anatomical structures — and reveals what scientists believe is a possible answer to the question of how these animals are connected.

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Transformative 3D printing approach established from insight into developmental biology

Engineers need to get more creative in their approach to design and additive manufacturing (AM) systems, by taking inspiration from the way humans grow and develop, say researchers at the University of Birmingham.

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Research shows nasal spray antidote is easiest to give for opioid overdose

Of three possible ways for people to deliver the life-saving antidote naloxone to a person experiencing an opioid overdose, the use of a nasal spray was the quickest and easiest according to research conducted by William Eggleston, clinical assistant professor at Binghamton University, State University of New York, and colleagues at SUNY Upstate Medical University.

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Hummingbirds' rainbow colors come from pancake-shaped structures in their feathers

Hummingbirds are some of the most brightly-colored things in the entire world. Their feathers are iridescent— light bounces off them like a soap bubble, resulting in shimmering hues that shift as you look at them from different angles. While other birds like ducks can have bright feathers, nothing seems to come close to hummingbirds, and scientists weren't sure why. But a new study in Evolution sh

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Taking one for the team: How bacteria self-destruct to fight viral infections

Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered how a new immune system works to protect bacteria from bacteriophages (phages), viruses that specifically infect bacteria. This new system is unusual in that it works by abortive infection—the infected bacterial cell self-destructs to keep the infection from spreading to other cells.

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Cutting tongue fat can improve sleep apnea

Improvements in sleep apnea symptoms due to weight loss appear to be linked to fat reduction in the tongue, researchers have discovered. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the effect of weight loss on the upper airway in patients with obesity, researchers found that reducing tongue fat is a primary factor in lessening the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). "Most clinicians,

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Functional aprons that protect your clothes and look professional

Look and feel like a pro. (Peter Dawn via Unsplash/) Things can get messy fast in the kitchen. Save yourself from oil-stained shirts and chicken juice on your everyday jeans by using an apron. Not only do they protect you from getting messy, but they're often equipped with pockets to store cooking essentials like your phone, a recipe card, a thermometer, or a timer. If nothing else, putting on an

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A Teenager's Breakthrough Gene Therapy for Sickle Cell Disease

Doctors reset Helen Obando's DNA in an effort to cure her of a painful genetic blood disorder. She's the youngest person to receive the treatment.

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Climate change will displace millions. Here's how we prepare | Colette Pichon Battle

Scientists predict climate change will displace more than 180 million people by 2100 — a crisis of "climate migration" the world isn't ready for, says disaster recovery lawyer and Louisiana native Colette Pichon Battle. In this passionate, lyrical talk, she urges us to radically restructure the economic and social systems that are driving climate migration — and caused it in the first place — a

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Musik skapar universella känslor

Det finns stora likheter i hur all världens människor upplever musik, visar ny forskning.

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Long-term medication for schizophrenia is safe, study suggests

Researchers have studied the safety of very long-term antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia. According to the study mortality was higher during periods when patients were not on medication than when they were.

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An 18-carat gold nugget made of plastic

Researchers have created an incredibly lightweight 18-carat gold, using a matrix of plastic in place of metallic alloy elements.

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Lonely in a crowd: Overcoming loneliness with acceptance and wisdom

Researchers found the main characteristics of loneliness in a senior housing community and the strategies residents use to overcome it.

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Deep learning, 3D technology to improve structure modeling, create better drugs

Researchers have designed a novel approach to use deep learning to better understand how proteins interact in the body – paving the way to producing accurate structure models of protein interactions involved in various diseases and to design better drugs that specifically target protein interactions.

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Global warming is the kindling that caused extensive wildfire

Researchers identified Arctic Oscillation as the cause for the recent wildfires in Siberia. Their study forecasts wildfire activity in spring, helping to prevent carbon release and global warming.

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A stripped helium star solves the massive black hole mystery

Recently, a Chinese team of astronomers claimed to have discovered a black hole as massive as 70 solar masses, which, if confirmed, would severely challenge the current view of stellar evolution. Among those to take a closer look at the object were astronomers from the Universities of Erlangen-Nürnberg and Potsdam. They discovered that it may not necessarily be a black hole at all, but possibly a

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Unused stockpiles of nuclear waste could be more useful than we might think

Chemists have found a new use for the waste product of nuclear power — transforming an unused stockpile into a versatile compound which could be used to create valuable commodity chemicals as well as new energy sources.

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Experiment on beta-decay sheds light on fate of intermediate-mass stars

A group of scientists succeeded to experimentally determine characteristics of nuclear processes in matter ten million times denser and 25 times hotter than the center of our sun. A result of the measurement is that intermediate-mass stars are very likely to explode, and not, as assumed until now, collapse.

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The Books Briefing: First Exercise, Then Write

The vows to exercise and eat nutritiously that start off many a new year don't only benefit the body. Many writers, including Haruki Murakami and Mohsin Hamid, find that running or walking helps stimulate their creativity. Others draw connections between individual health and the wellness of society. While working on his book How to Be an Antiracist , Ibram X. Kendi received a diagnosis that forc

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Australians Battle Historic Fires — and Official Climate Inaction

Many Australians say Prime Minister Scott Morrison's policies have done too little to address climate change — despite clear evidence that it is producing ideal conditions for more deadly fires. But so far, Morrison and his allies — including conservative media — have been hesitant to engage with the science.

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Watch Russia, China, United States race to deploy 'blazingly fast' hypersonic weapons

A modern "space race" has formed in pursuit of supposedly unstoppable weaponry

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Deep learning, 3D technology to improve structure modeling, create better drugs

Researchers have designed a novel approach to use deep learning to better understand how proteins interact in the body – paving the way to producing accurate structure models of protein interactions involved in various diseases and to design better drugs that specifically target protein interactions.

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Unused stockpiles of nuclear waste could be more useful than we might think

Chemists have found a new use for the waste product of nuclear power — transforming an unused stockpile into a versatile compound which could be used to create valuable commodity chemicals as well as new energy sources.

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High-quality handlebar bags for your bike trip

Load it up. (Patrick Hendry via Unsplash/) If you are planning a bike tour, or if your bicycle is your primary method of transportation, a handlebar bag is all but required for hauling your necessities. When choosing one, you'll want to consider its material, size, and bonus features. Here are some of our recommendations. Comes with a removable shoulder strap. (Amazon/) Topo Designs is known for

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Reducing aluminium intake can minimize potential health risks

Consumers can take up aluminium compounds from various sources, such as food, cosmetic products like aluminium containing antiperspirants and toothpaste, food contact materials like uncoated aluminium menu or baking trays and drugs. For the first time, the BfR has now estimated the total aluminium intake for different age groups (infants, children and adolescents as well as adults) and carried out

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Skrappere krav skal komme 'falsk' grøn strøm til livs

Nye retningslinjer skal forhindre falsk varebetegnelse på grøn strøm. Men forbrugerne bør stadig være på vagt, lyder det fra Rådet for Grøn Omstilling.

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New function for potential tumor suppressor in brain development

The gene Cdkn1c could have been considered an open-and-shut case: Mice in which the gene is removed are larger and have bigger brains, so Cdkn1c should function to inhibit growth. This rationale has led to Cdkn1c being studied as a tumour suppressor gene. New research from the group of Simon Hippenmeyer, professor at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), has now uncovered

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New function for potential tumor suppressor in brain development

The gene Cdkn1c could have been considered an open-and-shut case: Mice in which the gene is removed are larger and have bigger brains, so Cdkn1c should function to inhibit growth. This rationale has led to Cdkn1c being studied as a tumour suppressor gene. New research from the group of Simon Hippenmeyer, professor at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), has now uncovered

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Stellar black holes: When David poses as Goliath

Stellar black holes form when massive stars end their life in a dramatic collapse. Observations have shown that stellar black holes typically have masses of about ten times that of the Sun, in accordance with the theory of stellar evolution. Recently, a Chinese team of astronomers claimed to have discovered a black hole as massive as 70 solar masses, which, if confirmed, would severely challenge t

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Can we really save the planet by making food 'from air' without farms?

A TV documentary claims we can save the world's wildlife by turning solar energy directly into food and rewilding farms

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We can't use genetics to predict how well children will do at school

It is claimed so-called polygenic scores for education could help teachers, but a large study shows they don't reveal anything useful about individuals

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Cancer By the Numbers

I mentioned cancer incidence versus cancer mortality the other day, and I wanted to highlight this NEJM paper , which is a recent and comprehensive look at the topic. You can see several different effects in the data. Hodgkin's lymphoma, for example, has shown a pretty steady incidence rate over the past 40 years, but steadily declining mortality, which indicates a steady improvement in overall t

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Why is it so hard for us to get peoples' pronouns right?

The American Dialect Society chose "they" as its "Word of the Decade." (abstract_art7/Shutterstock.com/) Reed Blaylock is a PhD candidate in linguistics at the University of Southern California, Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. This story originally featured on The Conversation . On January 3, the American Dialect Society held its 30th annual "Word of the Year" vote, which this yea

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New open-source software judges accuracy of computer predictions of cancer genetics

Researchers at the Crick, UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Oregon Health & Science University, the Oxford Big Data Institute, and the University of Toronto have created new open-source software which determines the accuracy of computer predictions of genetic variation within tumor samples.

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It's not about East and West, it's about top and bottom

Overall, 93% of the German populace feels valued in their everyday lives, whereas far fewer — but still one out two (52%) — feel disrespected. Disrespect, however, is most commonly experienced in the workplace. East and West Germans feel equally appreciated in their everyday lives — yet also equally disrespected. Rather, how much appreciation and disrespect a person experiences strongly depends

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What happens to deferred intentions in the brain?

Placing a checkmark on the to-do list is an extremely liberating feeling for many eager list lovers, especially when the task has been postponed for a long time. But what happens in our brain when we have completed a postponed task? Will it be deactivated? If so, how? A team of scientists from the Collaborative Research Centre 940 'Volition and Cognitive Control' at TU Dresden, together with two l

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Plant physiology: One size may not suit all

A new study published by biologists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich demonstrates that there are no simple or universal solutions to the problem of engineering plants to enable them to cope with the challenges posed by climate change.

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An 18-carat gold nugget made of plastic

ETH researchers have created an incredibly lightweight 18-carat gold, using a matrix of plastic in place of metallic alloy elements.

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Water governance: Could less sometimes be more?

Does the never-ending introduction of new regulations of environmental resources have a positive effect? Researchers (UNIGE/UNIL) analysed water governance regulations in six European countries from 1750 to 2006 and show that rules designed to improve resource management come into conflict in the long run, creating an equal number of positive and negative effects until the system falls apart. At t

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New function for potential tumor suppressor in brain development

New research from the group of Simon Hippenmeyer, professor at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), has now uncovered a novel, opposite role for Cdkn1c. When Cdkn1c is removed only in certain cells of the brain, these cells die, arguing for a new growth promoting role of Cdkn1c. The new research is published today in the journal Nature Communications

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'Deathly silent': Ecologist describes Australian wildfires' devastating aftermath

Nature, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00043-2 Out-of-control blazes have killed a billion wild animals. Those remaining will struggle to survive in a scorched landscape, Michael Clarke tells Nature.

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How Two Candidates Became Friends, and Ran a Joint Campaign

The Friendship Files features a conversation between The Atlantic 's Julie Beck and two or more friends, exploring the history and significance of their relationship. This week she speaks with two women who were the only Democrats running for board seats in their Illinois county in 2018. A campaign that could have been a competition between them instead became a collaboration, and a friendship. T

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Water governance: could less sometimes be more?

Researchers from UNIGE and UNIL analysed water governance in six European countries from 1750 onwards. They demonstrated that there has been an inflationary trend in the number of regulations, and that—far from improving the situation—this has led to serious malfunctions in the system.

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New approach for controlling qubits via microwave pulses reduces error rates and increases efficiency

A functional quantum computer is one of the most intriguing promises of quantum technology. With significantly increased computing power, quantum computers will be able to solve tasks that conventional computers cannot handle, such as understanding and inventing new materials or pharmaceuticals as well as testing the limits of cryptographic techniques.

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First sighting of hot gas sloshing in galaxy cluster

ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has spied hot gas sloshing around within a galaxy cluster—a never-before-seen behaviour that may be driven by turbulent merger events.

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Research finds slave trade's effect on firm ownership persists today

The effects of the African slave trade persist today among businesses in parts of the continent, with companies more often tightly controlled by individuals or families—often because they have limited access to equity funding and shared ownership.

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An 18-carat gold nugget made of plastic

ETH researchers have created an incredibly lightweight 18-carat gold, using a matrix of plastic in place of metallic alloy elements.

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20 Technology Metatrends That Will Define the Next Decade

In the decade ahead, waves of exponential technological advancements are stacking atop one another, eclipsing decades of breakthroughs in scale and impact. Emerging from these waves are 20 "metatrends" likely to revolutionize entire industries (old and new), redefine tomorrow's generation of businesses and contemporary challenges, and transform our livelihoods from the bottom up. Among these meta

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Techtopia 137: Israel Inside – din bil styres af tech fra Israel

Israel producerer ikke en eneste bil, men alligevel er det lykkedes for landet at blive førende leverandør af teknologi til biler. Det skyldes blandt andet landets førerposition på kunstig intelligens.

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Response to fire impacts water levels 40 years into future

Salvage logging and re-seeding a forest after a wildfire helps reduce flooding and returns water levels to normal faster, according to a new article.

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Novel avian species: 10 new bird taxa in islands of Wallacea

A research team found five bird species and five subspecies new to science in three small island groups off Sulawesi, Indonesia. The islands are situated in Indonesia's Wallacea region, an archipelago at the interface between the Oriental and Australian biogeographical realms, named after Sir Alfred Wallace.

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40% of gun owners reported not locking all guns, even around kids

Gun owners will go to events to get free devices for locking up their firearms at home, but a survey of nearly 3,000 participants at such events in Washington found that 40% had unlocked guns at home, and the presence of children in the home did not make a difference.

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Decoding hidden brain chatter to advance neuroprostheses

Scientists eavesdropped on neurons and discovered a stable signal driving common movement skills like typing sneakers. They were able to preserve and reconstruct these patterns in what is a major advance for neuroprostheses for paralyzed patients.

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Long-term medication for schizophrenia is safe

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and their colleagues in Germany, the USA and Finland have studied the safety of very long-term antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia. According to the study, which is published in the scientific journal World Psychiatry, mortality was higher during periods when patients were not on medication than when they were.

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Explosion or collapse?

A group of scientists, among them several from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and from Technical University of Darmstadt, succeeded to experimentally determine characteristics of nuclear processes in matter ten million times denser and 25 times hotter than the center of our sun. A result of the measurement is that intermediate-mass stars are very likely to explode, and not, as assum

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Unused stockpiles of nuclear waste could be more useful than we might think

Chemists have found a new use for the waste product of nuclear power — transforming an unused stockpile into a versatile compound which could be used to create valuable commodity chemicals as well as new energy sources.

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When David poses as Goliath

Recently, a Chinese team of astronomers claimed to have discovered a black hole as massive as 70 solar masses, which, if confirmed, would severely challenge the current view of stellar evolution. Among those to take a closer look at the object were astronomers from the Universities of Erlangen-Nürnberg and Potsdam. They discovered that it may not necessarily be a black hole at all, but possibly a

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No need to draw blood — smart photonic contact lens for diabetic diagnosis and retinopathy treatment

Sei Kwang Hahn and his research team from POSTECH developed a smart LED contact lens. They are preparing for commercialization of wearable medical devices with PHI Biomed Company and Stanford University.

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Scientists develop 'Twitter' for cells

Computational biologists led by Professor Yvan Saeys (VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research) developed a new bioinformatics method to better study communication between cells. This method, called NicheNet, helps researchers to gain insight into how the gene expression of cells is regulated by interacting cells. NicheNet has a broad range of potential applications in fields like immunology and

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Global warming is the kindling that caused extensive wildfire

Professor Jong-Seong Kug and his research team identified Arctic Oscillation as the cause for the recent wildfires in Siberia. Their study forecasts wildfire activity in spring, helping to prevent carbon release and global warming.

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'Gift of life' marketing fails to motivate many donors

With a global shortage of both blood and organ donors, QUT researchers are suggesting language used to attract donors be changed, especially for organ donor donation. The behavioral economists say focusing on a sense of social obligation rather than 'gift of life term' terminology may have better cut-through with non-donors.

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4 tactics you can use to sway climate change deniers

You can sway people who deny human causes for climate change through conversations that appeal to their different identities, reframe solutions—or even embrace their climate views, according to new research. "I think in the climate change sphere there's this thinking of, 'there's the deniers over there, let's just not even engage with them—it's not worth it,'" says lead author Gabrielle Wong-Paro

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Et lyn over Stillehavet bragte danskere på forsiden af Science

PLUS. Nu giver danske forskere det første kig ind i de enorme kræfter, der er på spil i særlige lyn, som er fanget med kameraer på ISS.

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Satellite test shows objects in space fall at a rate to within two-trillionths of a percent of each other

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in France and one in the U.S. has found that objects of different mass dropped in space fall at a rate within two-trillionths of a percent of each other. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes their satellite-based physics study and what they learned from it.

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Pearls of wisdom

Since the late 19th century, pearl aquaculture has been a revered industry in Japan, enabling widespread cultivation and commercialization of beautiful pearls. From a genetic and evolutionary perspective, scientists have known little about the source of these pearls—the Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, until now.

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Rotting feral pig carcasses teach scientists what happens when tons of animals die all at once

The unprecedented wildfire raging across Australia is not only destroying human lives, but has killed hundreds of millions of animals – perhaps billions before it is all over.

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Chemists report a new use for the waste product of nuclear power generation

Chemists have found a new use for the waste product of nuclear power—transforming an unused and stockpile into a versatile compound which could be used to create valuable commodity chemicals as well as new energy sources.

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Scientists welcome reports of wolf pack in northern Colorado, call for reintroduction to ensure recovery

A pack of gray wolves may have been spotted in northwest Colorado just one day after a measure to reintroduce the species throughout the state won approval to appear on the 2020 ballot.

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Air pollution: Your exposure and health risk could depend on your class, ethnicity or gender

Poor air quality is responsible for over half a million deaths in Europe every year, but not everyone is equally at risk. Our new review found that across Europe, the most deprived people have the worst air quality. This means that the people already experiencing multiple deprivations because of their social class, ethnicity or gender, also have the unhealthiest environments to live in.

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Wildlife needs fire-damaged and dead trees after fires

Rather than an untidy mess, fire-damaged trees and half burnt logs left behind by a fire are valuable habitat for recovering wildlife, according to a group of leading Australian environmental scientists.

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Success of Indian food programmes depends on political enablement of state capacity

New research explains why food security interventions have been met with varying levels of success across Indian states.

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Pearls of wisdom

Since the late 19th century, pearl aquaculture has been a revered industry in Japan, enabling widespread cultivation and commercialization of beautiful pearls. From a genetic and evolutionary perspective, scientists have known little about the source of these pearls—the Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, until now.

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Rotting feral pig carcasses teach scientists what happens when tons of animals die all at once

The unprecedented wildfire raging across Australia is not only destroying human lives, but has killed hundreds of millions of animals – perhaps billions before it is all over.

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Scientists welcome reports of wolf pack in northern Colorado, call for reintroduction to ensure recovery

A pack of gray wolves may have been spotted in northwest Colorado just one day after a measure to reintroduce the species throughout the state won approval to appear on the 2020 ballot.

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Wildlife needs fire-damaged and dead trees after fires

Rather than an untidy mess, fire-damaged trees and half burnt logs left behind by a fire are valuable habitat for recovering wildlife, according to a group of leading Australian environmental scientists.

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New technique could accelerate waste-to-methane production

University of Alberta engineers have found a way to turn waste fat, oil and grease into a steady supply of renewable energy.

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10 new bird taxa discovered in islands of Wallacea

Birds are the best known class of animals, and since 1999, only five or six new species have been described each year on average. Recently, a joint research team from NUS and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) made a quantum leap in the discovery of cryptic avian diversity by uncovering five bird species and five subspecies new to science.

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Wave physics as an analog recurrent neural network

Analog machine learning hardware offers a promising alternative to digital counterparts as a more energy efficient and faster platform. Wave physics based on acoustics and optics is a natural candidate to build analog processors for time-varying signals. In a new report on Science AdvancesTyler W. Hughes and a research team in the departments of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at Stanfo

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Most people who need anti-overdose drug don't get it

Only a tiny minority of people at risk for an opioid overdose actually get a prescription for naloxone, a drug that could save their lives, a new study suggests. Further, the odds that some of the most at-risk groups, including those who have already survived a previous opioid overdose, will have a dose of the rescue drug on hand remain very low. In all, less than 2% of people who had at least on

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Our favorite Science illustrations of 2019

The Science Visuals design team's top picks for the year

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10 new bird taxa discovered in islands of Wallacea

Birds are the best known class of animals, and since 1999, only five or six new species have been described each year on average. Recently, a joint research team from NUS and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) made a quantum leap in the discovery of cryptic avian diversity by uncovering five bird species and five subspecies new to science.

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Decoding hidden brain chatter to advance neuroprostheses

Scientists eavesdropped on neurons and discovered a stable signal driving common movement skills like typing sneakers. They were able to preserve and reconstruct these patterns in what is a major advance for neuroprostheses for paralyzed patients.

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Gene network helps to turn white fat into beneficial calorie-burning fat

1.9 billion people in the world are overweight. Of these, 650 million people are obese, which increases the risk of secondary diseases such as cancer. Scientists have now examined how our fat metabolism affects our health. The team has uncovered a network of genes that could turn energy-storing fat into beneficial calorie-burning fat.

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Scientists use ancient marine fossils to unravel long-standing climate puzzle

Scientists have shed new light on the Earth's climate behavior during the last known period of global warming over 14 million years ago.

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Team led by NUS avian researcher discovered 10 new bird taxa in Wallacea

A research team led by Associate Professor Frank Rheindt from the National University of Singapore found five bird species and five subspecies new to science in three small island groups off Sulawesi, Indonesia. The islands are situated in Indonesia's Wallacea region, an archipelago at the interface between the Oriental and Australian biogeographical realms, named after Sir Alfred Wallace.

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Response to fire impacts water levels 40 years into future

Salvage logging and re-seeding a forest after a wildfire helps reduce flooding and returns water levels to normal faster, according to a new paper from a Washington State University researcher.

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Safety events: 40% of gun owners reported not locking all guns — even around kids

Gun owners will go to events to get free devices for locking up their firearms at home, but a survey of nearly 3,000 participants at such events in Washington found that 40% had unlocked guns at home, and the presence of children in the home did not make a difference.

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Sequencing the Unsequenceable: Processing FFPE Samples for Successful Target Enrichment

Download this application note from Twist Bioscience to discover a complete library preparation and target enrichment solution that generates ready-to-sequence multiplexed libraries directly from FFPE tissue of various qualities.

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AI skulle kunna avslöja grooming

Genom att låta ett dataprogram analysera många röster i varierande åldrar, skulle programmet kunna hitta markörer för att en person faktiskt förställer rösten, menar Sara Skoog Waller, psykologiforskare vid Högskolan i Gävle. Sara Skoog Waller har undersökt hur vi, bara genom att höra rösten, uppfattar egenskaper hos andra. Speciellt fokus har varit på åldersbedömningar och vad i rösten som ligge

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Woven City, Toyota's Prototype City of the Future

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US Electricity: Solar Up 15%, Wind Up 9%

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Export Controls Threaten the Future of AI Outposts in China

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Why the military might want robots that heal

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Antibiotics could be promising treatment for form of dementia

Researchers at the University of Kentucky's College of Medicine have found that a class of antibiotics called aminoglycosides could be a promising treatment for frontotemporal dementia.

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This Company Sells Cops a Spy Camera Hidden Inside a Tombstone

Spy Tech Through a public records request, activist group Open the Government obtained a copy of a brochure created by Special Services Group, a surveillance vendor that creates tece FBI. The brochure contains a truly bizarre collection of spy tech — including a camera hidden in a tombstone. Grave Robbers According to the brochure, the "Tombstone Cam" can capture audio and has a battery that last

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Patentmyndigheder: Nej, AI kan ikke registreres som opfinder

Hverken de britiske eller de europæiske patentmyndigheder vil anerkende en kunstig intelligens som opfinder, selv om der ikke er tvivl om, at programmet selv har opfundet to nye produkter.

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Gene Therapy Arrives

After false starts, drugs that manipulate the code of life are finally changing lives — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

The idea for gene therapy—a type of DNA-based medicine that inserts a healthy gene into cells to replace a mutated, disease-causing variant—was first published in 1972. After decades of disputed results, treatment failures and some deaths in experimental trials, the first gene therapy drug, for a type of skin cancer, was approved in China in 2003. The rest of the world was not easily convinced of the benefits, however, and it was not until 2017 that the U.S. approved one of these medicines. Since then, the pace of approvals has accelerated quickly. At least nine gene therapies have been approved for certain kinds of cancer, some viral infections and a few inherited disorders. A related drug type interferes with faulty genes by using stretches of DNA or RNA to hinder their workings. After nearly half a century, the concept of genetic medicine has become a reality.

GENE INSERTION

These treatments use a harmless virus to carry a good gene into cells, where the virus inserts it into the existing genome, canceling the effects of harmful mutations in another gene.

GENDICINE: China's regulatory agency approved the world's first commercially available gene therapy in 2003 to treat head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, a form of skin cancer. Gendicine is a virus engineered to carry a gene that has instructions for making a tumor-fighting protein. The virus introduces the gene into tumor cells, causing them to increase the expression of tumor-suppressing genes and immune response factors.The drug is still awaiting FDA approval.

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GLYBERA: The first gene therapy to be approved in the European Union treated lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD), a rare inherited disorder that can cause severe pancreatitis. The drug inserted the gene for lipoprotein lipase into muscle cells. But because LPLD occurs in so few patients, the drug was unprofitable. By 2017 its manufacturer declined to renew its marketing authorization; Glybera is no longer on the market.

Turning DNA into Drugs
Read more from this special report:

Turning DNA into Drugs

IMLYGIC: The drug was approved in China, the U.S. and the E.U. to treat melanoma in patients who have recurring skin lesions following initial surgery. Imlygic is a modified genetic therapy inserted directly into tumors with a viral vector, where the gene replicates and produces a protein that stimulates an immune response to kill cancer cells.

KYMRIAH: Developed for patients with B cell lymphoblastic leukemia, a type of cancer that affects white blood cells in children and young adults, Kymriah was approved by the FDA in 2017 and the E.U. in 2018. It works by introducing a new gene into a patient's own T cells that enables them to find and kill cancer cells.

LUXTURNA: The drug was approved by the FDA in 2017 and in the E.U. in 2018 to treat patients with a rare form of inherited blindness called biallelic RPE65 mutation-associated retinal dystrophy. The disease affects between 1,000 and 2,000 patients in the U.S. who have a mutation in both copies of a particular gene, RPE65. Luxturna delivers a normal copy of RPE65 to patients' retinal cells, allowing them to make a protein necessary for converting light to electrical signals and restoring their vision.

STRIMVELIS: About 15 patients are diagnosed in Europe every year with severe immunodeficiency from a rare inherited condition called adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID). These patients' bodies cannot make the ADA enzyme, which is vital for healthy white blood cells. Strimvelis, approved in the E.U. in 2016, works by introducing the gene responsible for producing ADA into stem cells taken from the patient's own marrow. The cells are then reintroduced into the patient's bloodstream, where they are transported to the bone marrow and begin producing normal white blood cells that can produce ADA.

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YESCARTA: Developed to treat a cancer called large B cell lymphoma, Yescarta was approved by the FDA in 2017 and in the E.U. in 2018. It is in clinical trials in China. Large B cell lymphoma affects white blood cells called lymphocytes. The treatment, part of an approach known as CAR-T cell therapy, uses a virus to insert a gene that codes for proteins called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) into a patient's T cells. When these cells are reintroduced into the patient's body, the CARs allow them to attach to and kill cancer cells in the bloodstream.

ZOLGENSMA: In May 2019 the FDA approved Zolgensma for children younger than two years with spinal muscular atrophy, a neuromuscular disorder that affects about one in 10,000 people worldwide. It is one of the leading genetic causes of infant mortality. Zolgensma delivers a healthy copy of the human SMN gene to a patient's motor neurons in a single treatment.

ZYNTEGLO: Granted approval in the E.U. in May 2019, Zynteglo treats a blood disorder called beta thalassemia that reduces a patient's ability to produce hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that contains iron, leading to life-threatening anemia. The therapy has been approved for individuals 12 years and older who require regular blood transfusions. It employs a virus to introduce healthy copies of the gene for making hemoglobin into stem cells taken from the patient.The cells are then reintroduced into the bloodstream and transported to the bone marrow, where they begin producing healthy red blood cells that can manufacture hemoglobin.

GENE INTERFERENCE

This approach uses a synthetic strand of RNA or DNA (called an oligonucleotide) that, when introduced into a patient's cell, can attach to a specific gene or its messenger molecules, effectively inactivating them. Some treatments use an antisense method, named for one DNA strand, and others rely on small interfering RNA strands, which stop instruction molecules that go from the gene to the cell's protein factories.

DEFITELIO: This drug contains a mixture of single-strand oligonucleotides obtained from the intestinal mucosa of pigs. It was approved (with limitations) in the U.S. and the E.U. in 2017 to treat severe cases of veno-occlusive disease, a disorder in which the small veins of the liver become obstructed, in patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

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EXONDYS 51: In 2016 the FDA granted approval to Exondys 51 amid some controversy regarding its efficacy; two members of the FDA review panel resigned in protest of the decision. The therapy is designed to treat a form of Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the RNA that codes for the protein that helps to connect muscle fibers' cytoskeletons to a surrounding matrix. Exondys 51 is effective in treating about 13 percent of the Duchenne population.

KYNAMRO: Approved by the FDA in in 2013, Kynamro is designed to inhibit—or effectively shut down production of—a protein that helps to produce low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Injected subcutaneously, this therapy is used to lower LDL levels in patients who have dangerously high cholesterol.

MACUGEN: Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss in people age 60 and older. It is caused by deterioration of the center of the retina due to leaking blood vessels. Approved in the U.S., Macugen inhibits these blood vessels from growing under the retina, thus treating the disorder.

SPINRAZA: With its FDA approval in 2016, Spinraza became the first gene-based therapy for spinal muscular atrophy. The inherited disorder is caused by low levels of SMN, a key protein for the maintenance of motor neurons. Spinraza binds to RNA from a "backup" gene called SMN2, converting that RNA into instructions for making fully functioning SMN proteins.

This article was originally published with the title "Gene Therapy Arrives" in Scientific American 322, 1, (January 2020)

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Dating of volcanic ash at Sangiran shows Homo erectus arrived later than thought

A team of researchers from Japan, Indonesia and Germany has found evidence that suggests Homo erectus arrived on the island of Java approximately 300,000 years later than thought. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes using two techniques to date the volcanic ash from which the oldest known fossils were unearthed, and what they found.

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Landsat 9: The pieces come together

Landsat 9's two science instruments are now attached to the spacecraft, bringing the mission one step closer to launch. In late December, the Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2) were both mechanically integrated on to the spacecraft bus at Northrop Grumman in Gilbert, Arizona.

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NASA's Lucy mission confirms discovery of Eurybates satellite

NASA's Lucy mission team is seeing double after discovering that Eurybates, the asteroid the spacecraft has targeted for flyby in 2027, has a small satellite. This "bonus" science exploration opportunity for the project was discovered using images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 in September 2018, December 2019, and January 2020.

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Gene Therapy Arrives

After false starts, drugs that manipulate the code of life are finally changing lives — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Study probes the origin of the very high energy gamma-ray source VER J1907+062

A new study based on high-quality radio observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has investigated the origin of a very high-energy gamma-ray source known as VER J1907+062. Results of the study, published December 27 on arXiv.org, suggest that VER J1907+062 consists of two separate gamma-ray sources.

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How technology designed for outer space can help detect disease on planet Earth

Sepsis, a life-threatening condition in which the body is fighting a severe infection that has spread via the bloodstream leading to poor circulation and lack of blood perfusion of vital tissues and organs, is one of the most significant causes of premature death in the world. In the UK alone there are 120,000 hospital admissions and 44,000 deaths due to the disease every year. 14,000 of these dea

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Can financial incentives equalize access to India's healthcare?

In the UK, it is taken for granted that healthcare is available to everyone for free via the National Health Service (NHS). But in many countries private companies provide healthcare, meaning that it's only accessible for those who can afford to pay for it.

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On the hunt for primordial black holes

The theory that dark matter could be made of primordial black holes a fraction of a millimeter in size has been ruled out by a team of researchers led by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU).

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A decade after the earthquake, Haiti still struggles to recover

More than 300,000 people were killed, several hundred thousand were injured and nearly 1.5 million were left homeless when magnitude 7 earthquake hit Haiti on Jan. 12, 2010.

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Study puts the 'Carib' in 'Caribbean,' boosting credibility of Columbus' cannibal claims

Christopher Columbus' accounts of the Caribbean include descriptions of fierce raiders who abducted women and cannibalized men — stories long dismissed as myths. But a new study of skulls suggests Columbus may have been telling the truth.

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Scientists image heart RNA structure for the first time

Scientists at Los Alamos and international partners have created the first 3-D images of a special type of RNA molecule that is critical for stem cell programming and known as the "dark matter" of the genome.

"As far as we know," said corresponding author Karissa Sanbonmatsu, "this is the first full 3-D structural study of any long, non-coding RNA (lncRNA) other than a partial structure." Sanbonmatsu is a structural biologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. "A better understanding of these RNAs could lead to new strategies in regenerative medicine for people with heart conditions due to cardiovascular disease or aging."

The team used a technique called small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) that reveals the 3-D envelope of the RNA molecule, according to Trushar Patel, a Canadian professor on the team. Next, with the help of machine learning and high-performance computing, they made atomistic models to fit inside the envelopes—this included the creation of an atomistic model that is also the longest of an isolated RNA (636 nucleotides) to date, said Doo Nam Kim, lead author on the Nature Communications paper.

"Our work represents the first step in showing that these difficult-to-image RNAs do possess 3-D structures, and that these molecular structures may very well determine how they operate," said Sanbonmatsu. "The RNA studied is called "Braveheart"—it triggers the transformation of stem  into heart cells," she said.

Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory

Before the  was sequenced in 2000, it was thought that it mostly contained instructions for proteins, the workhorse molecules of human cells. Scientists were shocked to discover that less than 10 percent of the  encoded proteins. Ever since, the other 90 percent was deemed to be "junk DNA" or "dark matter." Enter RNA, the molecular cousin of DNA. Scientists originally assumed the main purpose of RNA was simply to coordinate as a messenger for DNA in the synthesis of proteins. However, it has recently been shown that more than 90 percent of the genome encodes a new and mysterous class of RNAs, called long non-coding RNA molecules (lncRNA).

These RNA molecules help to control the turning on and off of genes; their malfunction causes birth defects, autism and even cancer in some cases. They are also key to reprogramming adult stem cells. Even though the  make up 90 percent of the genome, scientists have almost no idea how they work, or even what they look like. In this study, one of the largest RNA-only 3-D studies, the new 3-D images sets the stage for future studies that will shed more light on how they control genes.

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Scientists image heart RNA structure for the first time

Scientists at Los Alamos and international partners have created the first 3-D images of a special type of RNA molecule that is critical for stem cell programming and known as the "dark matter" of the genome.

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Visualizing chemical reactions, e.g. from H2 and CO2 to synthetic natural gas

Scientists have designed a reactor that can use IR thermography to visualize dynamic surface reactions and correlate it with other rapid gas analysis methods to obtain a holistic understanding of the reaction in rapidly changing conditions.

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Dynamic interplay between genome and environment in pearl oysters

Researchers have, using genome-wide genetic data from specimens collected across the western Pacific, elucidated how pearl oyster populations vary genetically and geographically.

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Anthropologist digitizes a changing culture from half a world away

In 2006, University of Virginia anthropologist Lise Dobrin received a document attached to an email from a man she knew in Papua New Guinea, where she had conducted fieldwork for her dissertation several years earlier. The document told the story of the history of the man's village. He wrote that he was afraid if he didn't write it, no one else would.

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Witnessing Australia's deadly bushfires

A few weeks ago, Robert Huish was on a jetliner headed for touchdown in Sydney, Australia when the pilot came over the speaker system in the cabin with a warning for passengers.

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Scientists develop 'Twitter' for cells

Computational biologists led by Prof. Yvan Saeys (VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research) developed a new bioinformatics method to better study communication between cells. This method, called NicheNet, helps researchers to gain insight into how the gene expression of cells is regulated by interacting cells. NicheNet has a broad range of potential applications in fields like immunology and tum

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Unexpected twist in a quantum system

Physicists at ETH Zurich have observed a surprising twist in a quantum system caused by the interplay between energy dissipation and coherent quantum dynamics. To explain it, they found a concrete analogy to mechanics.

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Antibiotics could be promising treatment for form of dementia

Researchers at the University of Kentucky's College of Medicine have found that a class of antibiotics called aminoglycosides could be a promising treatment for frontotemporal dementia.

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Scientists develop 'Twitter' for cells

Computational biologists led by Prof. Yvan Saeys (VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research) developed a new bioinformatics method to better study communication between cells. This method, called NicheNet, helps researchers to gain insight into how the gene expression of cells is regulated by interacting cells. NicheNet has a broad range of potential applications in fields like immunology and tum

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Roman Emperors had a really dangerous job

Being a Roman emperor might seem like a cushy gig, but it was a potentially deadly job, according to a new study. "Popular culture associates the lives of Roman emperors with luxury, cruelty, and debauchery, sometimes rightfully so," writes Joseph H. Saleh, a risk analysis expert who teaches in the Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. "One missing

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'Most realistic' plant-based steak revealed

Vegan alternatives to meat are popular but recreating the texture of steak is challenging The "most realistic" plant-based steak to date has been revealed, mimicking the texture and appearance of a real cut of meat. The fake steak's ingredients include pea, seaweed and beetroot juice, which are extruded into fine fibres to recreate muscle tissue. Its producer, the Spanish company Novameat, says t

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The Polio Dilemma

In 1988 there were 350,000 cases of polio worldwide. Polio is a virus that attacks the nervous system and can cause paralysis. Effective vaccines had already significantly reduced polio cases in developed nations, but it was still a scourge in poor countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) and others formed the Global Polio Eradication Initiative with the goal of eradicating polio from the w

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Inside the extraordinary experiment to save the Stradivarius sound

The masterpieces that Antonio Stradivari created three centuries ago will not live forever. One museum hopes digitizing their melodious voice will save them for future generations. (Isabella de Maddalena for The New York Times / Redux Pictures/) Antonio De Lorenzi takes a seat onstage in the concert hall of Museo del Violino in Cremona, Italy, and carefully tucks a Stradivarius under his chin. Th

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Gadget Lab Podcast: Wrapping Up CES 2020

The hosts look back at a show filled with fake-meat sliders, AI everything, and an ocean of electric scooters.

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Export Controls Threaten the Future of AI Outposts in China

As restrictions intensify, it will become more difficult for American companies to maintain labs in the talent-rich country.

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Image of the Day: Helpful Birds

Parrots aid each other in getting food from a researcher.

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SpaceX Tests Black Satellite to Reduce "Megaconstellation'"Threat to Astronomy

Latest launch includes "DarkSat" prototype to minimize reflection from fleets of broadband Internet satellites — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Detecting microplastics first step in assessing environmental harm

Amid growing alarm over the plastic that pollutes our environment, biomedical and optics researchers at the University of Rochester are working to better understand the prevalence of microplastics in drinking water and their potential impacts on human health.

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Climbing trees reveals a housing shortage for tree-rats and other endangered animals

Estimates of tree hollows—which form the houses of several endangered species in northern Australia—are much too high, researchers at Charles Darwin University in the Northern Territory have found.

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Simulation of dwarf galaxy reveals different routes for strontium enrichment

Simulations of a dwarf galaxy by RIKEN astrophysicists have revealed the various processes by which moderately heavy metals such as strontium are birthed. They have found that at least four kinds of stars are needed to explain the observed abundance of these metals in dwarf galaxies.

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Climbing trees reveals a housing shortage for tree-rats and other endangered animals

Estimates of tree hollows—which form the houses of several endangered species in northern Australia—are much too high, researchers at Charles Darwin University in the Northern Territory have found.

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Whale Food Could Feed the World

Originally published in January 1958 — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Strength from perpetual grief: How Aboriginal people experience the bushfire crisis

How do you support people forever attached to a landscape after an inferno tears through their homelands: decimating native food sources, burning through ancient scarred trees and destroying ancestral and totemic plants and animals?

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Study looks at how the global energy mix could change over the next 20 years

When it comes to fulfilling ambitious energy and climate commitments, few nations successfully walk their talk. A case in point is the Paris Agreement initiated four years ago. Nearly 200 signatory nations submitted voluntary pledges to cut their contribution to the world's greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, but many are not on track to fulfill these pledges. Moreover, only a small number of countr

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Mikroorganismer matas med giftgas för att producera biobränsle

I dag används olika processer för att omvandla organiskt avfall till biogas. Genom att koppla samman två olika processer, en för förgasning och en för jäsning, går det att få ut större mängder av värdefulla ämnen som väte och metan. Det gäller dock att ta hand om de mikroorganismer som gör jobbet. Skogsavfall som innehåller lignocellulosa är ett material som mikroorganismerna inte rår på så lätt.

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Trippy maths program could help figure out the shape of the universe

Mathematicians have come up with a way to explore strange 3D spaces that could be related to the shape of the universe

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Iranske hackere har længe prøvet at hacke USA's elforsyning

Flere eksperter og amerikanske myndigheder spår, at Iran vil hævne et amerikansk mord på en iransk general med hackerangreb. Men iranerne har længe forsøgt at hacke amerikanerne.

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PODCAST: Mysteriet om de genredigerede, kinesiske tvillinger og manglende debat om Lynetteholmen

Anlægget den kunstige ø Lynetteholmen vil udløse en dominoeffekt af anlægsinvesteringer, så den samlede pris bliver mindst 80 milliarder kr. Kina har mørklagt skandalen, hvor en forsker redigerede generne på tvillingerne Lulu og Nana.

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New research Reveals How Some People Function With Only Half a Brain

submitted by /u/smallpocketlibrary [link] [comments]

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Lunnefåglar använder verktyg

Annette Fayet vid Oxfords universitet har studerat lunnefåglar varje sommar sedan 2011, vid kolonier i Nordatlanten från Wales till Island. Hon har bara sett fåglarna använda kli-pinne några få gånger, men tycker ändå att fenomenet är väldigt intressant. Verktygsanvändning är aldrig tidigare dokumenterad bland sjöfåglar och de här observationerna tyder på att deras intelligens har nedvärderats, an

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Second U.S. Baby to Be Born From a Dead Donor's Uterus Is Delivered

Researchers at Penn Medicine in Philadelphia said the procedure could pave a new path to parenthood for women with uterine factor infertility.

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Stretched Too Thin by Social Media

Beware its power to reshape your web of relationships — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Whale Food Could Feed the World

Originally published in January 1958 — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Fossil Reveals Earth's Oldest Known Animal Guts

The find in a Nevada desert revealed an intestine inside a creature that looks like a worm made of a stack of ice cream cones.

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Nye oplysninger peger i retning af nedskydning – Iran fastholder teknisk fejl

PLUS. Det ukrainske passagerfly blev skudt ned ved et uheld ifølge amerikanske, canadiske og irakiske efterretninger. En ny video synes at støtte teorien.

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WWIII Memes, Oddly, Prove There's Hope for the Internet

Jokes about World War III aren't really funny—but they're also evidence of an engaged global debate.

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A New Law for Gig Workers Reaches Beyond Ride-Hail Drivers

AB 5 was designed to support Uber and Lyft contractors. But it also leaves therapists, truckers, and psychologists struggling to understand their new role.

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The 6 Best Toys at CES 2020: STEM, Robots, AR Board Games

At CES 2020, toy makers returned to the real world with games, bots, and AR board games. We played them all.

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Goldman's former tech chief moves into healthcare

Marty Chavez joins AI company Paige aiming to improve cancer treatment

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Video: Aerosol spread from Australian fires

Ferocious bushfires have been sweeping across Australia since September, fueled by record-breaking temperatures, drought and wind. The country has always experienced fires, but this season has been horrific. A staggering 10 million hectares of land have been burned, at least 24 people have been killed and it has been reported that almost half a billion animals have perished. The fires have not onl

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Australia: Like a furnace

Ferocious bushfires have been sweeping across Australia since September, fuelled by record-breaking temperatures, drought and wind. The country has always experienced fires, but this season has been horrific. A staggering 10 million hectares of land have been burned, at least 24 people have been killed and it has been reported that almost half a billion animals have perished.

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Seizure Medications Safer Than Previously Thought for Breastfed Babies

A new study, recently published in JAMA Neurology, further supports the safety of breastfeeding while taking medications for epilepsy. But there are a couple caveats to be aware of.

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Stretched Too Thin by Social Media

Beware its power to reshape your web of relationships — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Image: Faroe Islands as sen from Copernicus Sentinel-2

The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission takes us over the Faroe Islands, located halfway between Iceland and Norway in the North Atlantic Ocean. The Faroe Islands are an archipelago made up of 18 jagged islands and are a self-governing nation under the external sovereignty of the Kingdom of Denmark.

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Visualizing chemical reactions with infrared thermography

Infrared (IR) thermography is used to determine the temperature of organisms and objects with high precision without interfering with the system. A single image taken with an IR camera can capture the same amount of information as hundreds to millions of temperature sensors at once. Additionally, modern IR cameras can achieve fast acquisition frequencies of over 50 Hz, which allows the investigati

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Mens vi taler om sundhedsplatformen…

Sundhedsplatformen ligner en vanlig offentlig IT-katastrofe. Selvfølgelig skal vi brokke os, men det må ikke stjæle billedet og gøre os negative overfor den nye sundhedsteknologi, skriver professor Ole Rahbek..

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The Capitalist Way to Make Americans Stop Eating Meat

For the past 50 years, Americans have responded to the case against eating animals mostly by eating more animals. They have heard again and again about the moral and ecological costs of eating meat—from philosophers like Peter Singer and polemicists like Jonathan Safran Foer; from viral documentary footage of slaughterhouses and tortured poultry; from activist organizations like PETA and scientif

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To Stop Wildlife Crime, Conservationists Ask Why People Poach

A novel study in Nepal shines light on why people commit wildlife crime and how others might be dissuaded from doing so in the future — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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To Stop Wildlife Crime, Conservationists Ask Why People Poach

A novel study in Nepal shines light on why people commit wildlife crime and how others might be dissuaded from doing so in the future — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Plant life 'expanding over the Himalayas'

Vegetation is expanding at high altitudes across the Himalayas – including the Everest region.

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Strong winds create Australian 'megablaze'

Gale-force winds in Australia merged two enormous fires into a megablaze spanning an area four times the size of Greater London on Friday, while tens of thousands rallied to again demand action on climate change.

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Långtidsmedicinering vid schizofreni är säker

Forskare har undersökt säkerheten vid mycket långvarig antipsykotisk behandling vid schizofreni. Dödligheten var högre bland patienterna under perioder då de inte medicinerade jämfört med då de använde sig av antipsykotisk behandling. Personer med schizofreni lever i genomsnitt tio till tjugo år kortare än befolkningen i övrigt. Det har funnits en oro för att långvarig medicinering med antipsykot

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Scientists Take Stock of Australian Wildlife Devastated by Fires

The wildfires burning across Australia have caused significant damage to ecosystems and vulnerable species, yet some are faring worse than others.

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Humans are cooling down so average body temperature is no longer 37°C

Everybody knows that the normal human body temperature is 37°C, but that hasn't been true since the 19th century

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(Endnu) en speciallæges endeligt

2019 blev året, hvor jeg fik nok af Styrelsen for Patientsikkerhed og deres tilbagevendende ønske om redegørelser for min ordinationspraksis, mine kompetencer samt kopier af årevis af journalmateriale.

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What can old stars teach us about the birth of our galaxy?

With billions of stars in our galaxy, why should astronomers seek out the oldest ones? Age-dating stars is a complicated process, so astronomers use chemical compositions, telescopes, and prisms to determine the age of these ancient stars. Some telescopes used for this purpose are in extremely remote places, where you can observe the bright band of the Milky Way with the naked eye.

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3D Printing and the Murky Ethics of Replicating Bones

Rules governing how real human remains can be used, as well as whether individuals can buy and sell such remains, are already uneven worldwide, with different rules across different borders. 3D replications of real bones — a fast-growing capability — adds new and difficult ethical questions.

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Iran's Smart Strategy

The immediate crisis with Iran is over. The United States acted against an Iranian general, Iran responded, and both sides have stepped back from further open hostilities. Now the argument is under way about who won this round in a 40-year conflict. The Americans hit the Iranians hard, but Iran's response on the night of January 7 was calibrated and smart, which suggests that Tehran is better at

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How light pollution affects the lives of garden creatures

Artificial light severely disrupts feeding, breeding and communication among birds and other wildlife

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There are retractors in plastic surgery — and not just of the instrument kind

A plastic surgeon in Turkey has notched his fifth retraction for plagiarism and other issues. That makes him a retractor — even if most plastic surgeons would have something else in mind if they used that term. Ilteris Murat Emsen, then of the Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery at the Numune State Hospital … Continue reading

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Nyt nationalt forskningscenter vil spore kræft-tilbagefald fra blodprøver

Forskere fra Aarhus Universitetshospital vil gøre op med at spore kræft-tilbagefald med dyre scanninger og satser på at finde dem via kræft-DNA i blodprøver. Deres første blodtest til tarmkræft er så lovende, at et nationalt forskningscenter skal udbrede testen til alle kræftformer.

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12 år gammel klimarapport: I 2020 begynder massive skovbrande i Australien

En rapport fra 2008, bestilt af den australske regering, advarede om, at 2020 ville blive året med de første voldsommere brande på grund af global opvarmning.

Sæsonen med brande vil starte tidligere, slutte senere, og brandene vil være mere intense. Disse effekter vil vokse over tid, men være tydelige i 2020.«

Sådan lyder en af hovedkonklusionerne i en rapport fra 2008, som blev bestilt af den australske regering, der ønskede en vurdering af effekterne af den globale opvarmning på landet.

I dag er situationen, at Australien står i flammer, præcis som forudsagt. Nogle indbyggere i Sydney går rundt med masker på, og i byen Canberra er luftkvaliteten i øjeblikket den værste noget sted på kloden – værre end notorisk forurenede Delhi.

Uddrag af Garnaut Climate Change Review fra 2008 bliver delt af australiere på Twitter med opfordring til, at regeringen tager klimaforandringer mere alvorligt.
Uddrag af Garnaut Climate Change Review fra 2008 bliver delt af australiere på Twitter med opfordring til, at regeringen tager klimaforandringer mere alvorligt. Illustration: Garnaut Climate Change Review

Et område på mere end 10 millioner hektar er brændt. Til sammenligning er hele det danske landareal kun på 4,2 millioner hektar. Det danske skovareal er på 621.000 hektar.

Australien har også set 1.700 huse gå op i røg, mens 26 mennesker har mistet livet samt omkring en milliard dyr.

Advaret i 2008, 2009, 2017, 2018 og 2019

Den australske regering var fuldt ud advaret om situationen i dag. Både i rapporten fra 2008 og i efterfølgende rapporter såsom en såkaldt CSIRO-rapport fra 2009 fra landets nationale forskningscenter.

Her advarede forskerne om, at et særlig brandfarligt meteorologisk fænomen ville være op til fire gange mere sandsynligt i en fremtid med global opvarmning – og lignende advarsler blev gentaget i rapporter i 2017, 2018 og 2019, skriver Slate.com.

Læs også: To mio. californiske elkunder får afbrudt strømmen for at forhindre skovbrand

I dag er økonomen Ross Garnaut, der stod i spidsen for rapporten i 2008, ikke glad for, at han havde ret i sine forudsigelser. Som en kommentar til den nuværende situation siger han til SBS News:

»Jeg er mest ked af det, fordi jeg ikke kunne trænge igennem. Jeg havde fået muligheden for at fortælle australierne om emnet, og jeg var ikke god nok til at overbevise australierne om, at det var i vores nationale interesse at være medspillere i den globale kamp for at stoppe effekterne af klimaforandringer.«

CO2-kvoter og CO2-skat blev aldrig indført

Garnaut-rapporten anbefalede direkte indførelsen af CO2-kvoter, men de blev aldrig gennemført, ligesom en CO2-skat også var et forslag, der aldrig blev vedtaget af politikerne.

Den nuværende regering, og især premierminister Scott Morrison, har fået kritik for at afvise en kobling mellem global opvarmning og skovbrande, men har de seneste uger gentaget samme budskab i flere australske og internationale medier, nemlig at klimaforandringer er »en ud af mange faktorer«.

Ifølge premierministeren selv har han »altid anerkendt, at der er en forbindelse mellem disse vejrfænomener og disse mere omfattende skovbrande og effekterne af globale klimaforandringer,« lyder det blandt andre til Bloomberg.

Varmest og tørrest år nogensinde målt

I Australien startede brandene i september, en måned tidligere end normalt.

Og de har nu ødelagt et større område end brandene i Amazonas sidste år og brandene i Californien forrige år tilsammen, herunder regnskove i New South Wales og det sydlige Queensland, der historisk set aldrig brænder, fordi der er for vådt.

Læs også: Amazonas brænder: Er Jordens lunge kollapset?

Den 18. december blev målt til den varmeste dag nogensinde i Australien med en maksimum-temperatur på 41,9 grader celsius. Og den 8. januar kunne landets mereteologiske institut fortælle, at 2019 både var det varmeste og tørreste år, der nogensinde var blevet målt.

To større vejrfænomener er blandt forklaringerne på brandene.

En stærk indisk Niño, også kaldet Det Indiske Ocean Dipol, skubber varmt vand væk fra Australien og mod Afrika, mens den antarktiske oscillation (SAM) har drevet varme tørre vinde fra Australiens ørkener i landets midte mod østkysten.

De to fænomener skaber tilsammen et giftigt vejrmiks, som er set før i historien, men aldrig i så lang tid.

Og i dag er de krydret med en global temperaturstigning på 1 grad celsius sammenlignet med 1910.

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Turks and Caicos corals: Disease threatens barrier reef

There is alarm at the speed that stony coral tissue loss disease is killing the Caribbean reef.

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Australia to cull thousands of camels

Feral camels and horses will be shot dead as they are damaging settlements in search of water.

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How you attach to people may explain a lot about your inner life

Early interactions with caregivers can dramatically affect your beliefs about yourself, your expectations of others, and how you cope with stress and regulate your emotions as an adult In 2006, a team of Norwegian researchers set out to study how experienced psychotherapists help people to change. Led by Michael Rønnestad, a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Oslo, the team fol

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Phase-coherent lightwave communications with frequency combs

Nature Communications, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-14010-7 Frequency combs have the potential to be used as multi-wavelength sources in future optical communications through fiber. Here the authors demonstrate joint phase processing of multi-wavelength comb transmission, and show two schemes to improve performance and reduce complexity.

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Edge stabilization in reduced-dimensional perovskites

Nature Communications, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13944-2 Reduced-dimensional halide perovskites are promising for light-emitting diodes but suffer from photo-degradation. Here Quan et al. identify the edge of the perovskite nanoplatelets as the degradation channels and use phosphine oxides to passivate the edges and boost device performance and lifetime.

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Structural basis of liprin-α-promoted LAR-RPTP clustering for modulation of phosphatase activity

Nature Communications, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13949-x Leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) mediate guided axon growth and synapse formation and liprin-α proteins are their intracellular binding partners. Here the authors present the crystal structure of the phosphatase domains from the LAR-RPTP family member LAR bou

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Cold-induced urticarial autoinflammatory syndrome related to factor XII activation

Nature Communications, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13984-8 Systemic autoinflammatory syndromes such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) are rare and often involve genes related to the inflammasome. Here, the authors report a syndrome characterised by systemic inflammation and cold-induced urticarial rash associated with a Factor XII-activating mutation.

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Highly efficient all-inorganic perovskite solar cells with suppressed non-radiative recombination by a Lewis base

Nature Communications, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13909-5 There has been a hot competition to optimize the device performance for all-inorganic perovskite solar cells. Here Wang et al. employ a Lewis base molecule to suppresses the non-radiative recombination in the inverted device and achieve a champion efficiency of 16.1%.

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Imprinted Cdkn1c genomic locus cell-autonomously promotes cell survival in cerebral cortex development

Nature Communications, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-14077-2 How the imprinted Cdkn1c locus regulates corticogenesis is unclear. Here, the authors dissect the level of cell-autonomy of imprinted Cdkn1c gene function in mouse corticogenesis and identify this as regulating radial glial progenitor cell and projection neuron survival.

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Arf1-mediated lipid metabolism sustains cancer cells and its ablation induces anti-tumor immune responses in mice

Nature Communications, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-14046-9 Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been shown as the origin for therapeutic resistance and patient relapse. Here, the authors show that targeting Arf1-mediated lipid metabolism in CSC induces cell death but also an immunogenic anti-cancer response.

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Reversible manipulation of the magnetic state in SrRuO3 through electric-field controlled proton evolution

Nature Communications, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13999-1 Ionic substitution is a useful way to manipulate structural, electronic, magnetic phase transitions in strongly correlated materials. Here, the authors report electric-field controlled protonation in SrRuO3, resulting in a large structural expansion and a ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition.

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»Gambler-politik« på Lynetteholmen: Eksperter savner overblik og overvejelser

PLUS. Det er svært at få et overblik over Københavns mega­projekt og konsekvenserne for resten af landsdelen. Fagfolk vil have genetableret et uafhængigt organ for planlægning i hele hovedstadsregionen.

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Cracks in Arctic sea ice turn low clouds on and off

The prevailing view has been that more leads are associated with more low-level clouds during winter. But University of Utah atmospheric scientists noticed something strange in their study of these leads: when lead occurrence was greater, there were fewer, not more clouds.

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Plants found to speak roundworm's language

Nematodes are tiny, ubiquitous roundworms that infect plant roots, causing more than $100 billion in crop damage worldwide each year. New research has found that plants enter into a 'chemical dialog' with the worms to repel infestations, providing insights into how farmers could fight these pests.

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Study puts the 'Carib' in 'Caribbean,' boosting credibility of Columbus' cannibal claims

Christopher Columbus' accounts of the Caribbean include descriptions of fierce raiders who abducted women and cannibalized men — stories long dismissed as myths. But a new study of skulls suggests Columbus may have been telling the truth.

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Satellite constellations harvest energy for near-total global coverage

A National Science Foundation-sponsored collaboration led by Patrick Reed, the Joseph C. Ford Professor of Engineering at Cornell University, has discovered the right combination of factors to make a four-satellite constellation possible, which could drive advances in telecommunication, navigation and remote sensing.

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Molecular 'doormen' open the way to potential obesity treatment

Fat cells are filled with droplets coated by molecules that act like hotel doormen: These 'doormen' control cellular access for nutrients as well as for the exit of energy-supplying molecules called lipids. In healthy individuals, outgoing and incoming traffic in fat cells is finely balanced, supplying energy while preventing excessive spread of undesirable fat in the belly.

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Academics must balance privacy and honesty to become great role models

Nature, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00037-0 Diversity initiatives applaud role models but academics who are carers can have trouble relinquishing family privacy to share their experiences, says Sascha K. Hooker

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Automated gigapixel circumferential surface microscopy of the prostate

Scientific Reports, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56939-1

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Humans judge faces in incomplete photographs as physically more attractive

Scientific Reports, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56437-4

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In silico analysis of alternative splicing on drug-target gene interactions

Scientific Reports, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56894-x

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Evaluation of Ozone Removal by Spent Coffee Grounds

Scientific Reports, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56668-5

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In vivo evidence of significant placental growth factor release by normal pregnancy placentas

Scientific Reports, Published online: 10 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56906-w

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Plants are growing higher up Mount Everest as the climate warms

There are more plants living high on the slopes of the Himalayas than there were 25 years ago – and the new vegetation could affect the flow of vital rivers

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It's 2020. American elections are still "frighteningly easy" targets.

Election tech giants were called before Congress weeks before the 2020 primary season begins. All of them support greater transparency.

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Pete Buttigieg Ran. Eric Garcetti Didn't.

LOS ANGELES—Eric Garcetti would like to apologize for the cliché. We are in a juice bar in Brentwood, California, and the mayor of Los Angeles is singing along to the Coldplay song on the sound system. He loves this song, he tells me. He's having tea. It's all very Southern California. A year ago, he was finalizing preparations for a presidential run , telling me that mayor was the perfect positi

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The Story Elizabeth Warren Isn't Telling

K atrina Cochran can still remember clearly how her close friend Liz Herring would needle her about her liberal politics when the two would sit next to each other at Northwest Classen High School in Oklahoma, and during the years after. "Besides the Democratic Party," Herring, whose success on the debate team would win her a college scholarship, would say, "what other subversive organizations are

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Sweeps Of Homeless Camps In California Aggravate Key Health Issues

Cities have tasked police and sanitation workers with dismantling homeless camps that they say pose a risk to health and safety. But that's meant some displaced people are losing needed medications. (Image credit: Anna Maria Barry-Jester/Kaiser Health News)

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Study puts the 'Carib' in 'Caribbean,' boosting credibility of Columbus' cannibal claims

Christopher Columbus' accounts of the Caribbean include harrowing descriptions of fierce raiders who abducted women and cannibalized men—stories long dismissed as myths.

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Satellite constellations harvest energy for near-total global coverage

Think of it as a celestial parlor game: What is the minimum number of satellites needed to see every point on Earth? And how might those satellites stay in orbit and maintain continuous 24/7 coverage while contending with Earth's gravity field, its lumpy mass, the pull of the sun and moon, and pressure from solar radiation?

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Plants found to speak roundworm's language

Nematodes are tiny, ubiquitous roundworms that infect plant roots, causing more than $100 billion in crop damage worldwide each year. New research has found that plants manipulate the worms' pheromones to repel infestations, providing insights into how farmers could fight these pests.

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Cracks in Arctic sea ice turn low clouds on and off

The prevailing view has been that more leads are associated with more low-level clouds during winter. But University of Utah atmospheric scientists noticed something strange in their study of these leads: when lead occurrence was greater, there were fewer, not more clouds.

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Plants found to speak roundworm's language

Nematodes are tiny, ubiquitous roundworms that infect plant roots, causing more than $100 billion in crop damage worldwide each year. New research has found that plants manipulate the worms' pheromones to repel infestations, providing insights into how farmers could fight these pests.

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Australia bushfires spark 'unprecedented' climate disinformation

Australia's bushfire emergency has sparked an online disinformation campaign "unprecedented" in the country's history, researchers told AFP Friday, with bots deployed to shift blame for the blazes away from climate change.

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UK ban on US chlorinated chicken 'to continue after Brexit'

Chicken and hormone-fed beef bans will continue post-Brexit, the environment secretary says.

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Mystisk virus har ramt Kina: Slå koldt vand i blodet, siger forsker

PLUS. En ny virus har gjort 59 kinesere syge, og der er rygter om både sars- og mers-lignende virusser. Seruminstituttet mangler information.

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River people: Life along Asia's key waterways

From the flood-ravaged banks of the Brahmaputra to the disappearing wetlands of the Mekong, Asia's main waterways—and the people that live along them—are fighting for survival.

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New study finds 8% of Chinese men are problem drinkers

A new large study of Chinese adults, published by the scientific journal Addiction, has found that eight percent of men in China are problem drinkers, and that problem drinking is more prevalent among men of lower socioeconomic status and in rural areas. Problem drinking is associated with significantly increased risk of physical and mental health problems and premature death.

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New assessment method reveals many fish stocks are in urgent need of sustainable management

A newly developed method for assessing how abundant fish populations are and how fishing is affecting them revealed that several fish stocks across oceans are far below internationally agreed minimum levels and in urgent need of sustainable management.

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New assessment method reveals many fish stocks are in urgent need of sustainable management

A newly developed method for assessing how abundant fish populations are and how fishing is affecting them revealed that several fish stocks across oceans are far below internationally agreed minimum levels and in urgent need of sustainable management.

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Hell and ice water: Glacier melt threatens Pakistan's future

The villagers of Hassanabad live in constant fear.

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Dispatches from the wettest place on earth

Every drop of rain water trickling down Tyllod Khongwir's rusty tin roof and into her house is collected—even though she lives in one of the wettest places on earth.

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Australian animals face extinction threat as bushfire toll mounts

When volunteer Sarah Price found a baby kangaroo frightened but miraculously alive in the pouch of its dying mother surrounded by the embers of Australia's bushfires, it seemed fitting to name him Chance.

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'Everything is lost': Life on the edge of the Brahmaputra

Once a vast river island in the heart of the Brahmaputra, now Majuli's days are numbered: Experts warn it may disappear entirely by 2040 as ever more violent flooding swells the river, wreaking havoc on the lives of those that live along its banks.

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Asia's Great Rivers: Climate crisis, pollution put billions at risk

The year is 2100. The glaciers of the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region—the world's "Third Pole"—are vanishing as the planet warms, the ice that once fed the great rivers of Asia is all but lost, and with it much of the water needed to nurture and grow a continent.

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The 97 kms between China and mastery of the Mekong

Ninety-seven kilometres of rocks in Thai waters stand between Beijing and dominance over the Mekong, a mighty river that feeds millions as it threads south from the Tibetan plateau through five countries before emptying into the South China Sea.

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Deep learning, 3-D technology to improve structure modeling, create better drugs

Proteins are often called the working molecules of the human body. A typical body has more than 20,000 different types of proteins, each of which are involved in many functions essential to human life.

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Deep learning, 3-D technology to improve structure modeling, create better drugs

Proteins are often called the working molecules of the human body. A typical body has more than 20,000 different types of proteins, each of which are involved in many functions essential to human life.

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Fra tv-revolution til drengerøvslegetøj: Her er de største gadgets fra 10 års tech-messer

Vi kigger tilbage på messen CES, hvor nogle gadgets levede op til hypen, mens andre floppede.

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Lonely in a crowd: Overcoming loneliness with acceptance and wisdom

Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine found the main characteristics of loneliness in a senior housing community and the strategies residents use to overcome it.

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Nästa generations sårbehandling under utveckling

Forskare i Lund har utvecklat en ny behandlande gel som utnyttjar naturliga mekanismer för att förebygga och behandla sårinfektioner. Forskarna hoppas att upptäckten kan leda till nya behandlingar för förbättrad sårläkning.

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Roomba Maker Developing Robot With Arms That May Do the Dishes

submitted by /u/ChickenTeriyakiBoy1 [link] [comments]

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Diode Lasers Jump to the Deep Ultraviolet

submitted by /u/scriv2 [link] [comments]

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Citizens battle to save China's sickly 'mother river'

Water has been a source of death as well as a source of life for a generation in Shenqiu, a region fed by a tributary of China's heavily polluted Yangtze river and pockmarked with notorious "cancer villages".

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The Hypocrisy of Harry and Meghan's Decision

In January 2014, the then-president of France, François Hollande, arrived in England for talks with Prime Minister David Cameron on military and nuclear cooperation. No one in the British press really cared about the official reason for the visit, though. At the time, Hollande was living at the Élysée Palace with his girlfriend, but he had just been revealed to have been having an affair with a F

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Photos of the Week: Devil Dance, Seal Wave, Loch Awe

Wildfires in Australia, an earthquake in Puerto Rico, Epiphany Day in Bulgaria, Texas Longhorns in Denver, a volcanic eruption in Mexico, the Dakar Rally in Saudi Arabia, starlings above Israel, fashion in London, ice sculptures in China, and much more.

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Brittle Stars Can "See" without Eyes

The starfish relatives can recognize patterns using photoreceptors on their arms—and their color-changing abilities could have something to do with it. Christopher Intagliata reports.

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Got Sleep Apnea? Tongue Fat May Be to Blame

Study identifies having a fat tongue as a primary factor in the common sleep disorder. Dog with tongue.jpg Image credits: fongleon356/Shutterstock Human Friday, January 10, 2020 – 00:15 Yuen Yiu, Staff Writer (Inside Science) — Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in which people stop breathing in their sleep due to blockage of their upper airway. A recent paper published in the America

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Deep learning, 3D technology to improve structure modeling, create better drugs

Purdue University researchers have designed a novel approach to use deep learning to better understand how proteins interact in the body – paving the way to producing accurate structure models of protein interactions involved in various diseases and to design better drugs that specifically target protein interactions.

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Pearls of wisdom

Researchers in the Marine Genomics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), in collaboration with scientists from Mie Prefecture, Japan, have, using genome-wide genetic data from specimens collected across the western Pacific, elucidated how pearl oyster populations vary genetically and geographically.

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Visualizing chemical reactions, e.g. from H2 and CO2 to synthetic natural gas

Scientists at EPFL have designed a reactor that can use IR thermography to visualize dynamic surface reactions and correlate it with other rapid gas analysis methods to obtain a holistic understanding of the reaction in rapidly changing conditions.

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Losing tongue fat improves sleep apnea

Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the effect of weight loss on the upper airway in obese patients, researchers found that reducing tongue fat is a primary factor in lessening the severity of OSA.

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Excess Tongue Fat Could Be Leading to Sleep Apnea, Scientists Find

A 10-percent reduction in body weight improves sleep apnea symptoms, thanks to a slimmer tongue.

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Roy Baumeister on the power of negativity – Science Weekly podcast

Roy Baumeister is a social psychologist whose work focuses on the role of negativity in our perceptions. Together with US journalist John Tierney he is the author of a new book, The Power of Bad: How the Negativity Effect Rules Us and How We Can Rule It. Sitting down with Ian Sample, Baumeister talks about how he became interested in negativity and how we may be able to combat its impact on the w

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Roy Baumeister on the power of negativity – Science Weekly podcast

Roy Baumeister is a social psychologist whose work focuses on the role of negativity in our perceptions. Together with US journalist John Tierney he is the author of a new book, The Power of Bad: How the Negativity Effect Rules Us and How We Can Rule It. Sitting down with Ian Sample, Baumeister talks about how he became interested in negativity and how we may be able to combat its impact on the wa

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We now have a designer baby app

submitted by /u/heytony02 [link] [comments]

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Brittle Stars Can "See" without Eyes

The starfish relatives can recognize patterns using photoreceptors on their arms—and their color-changing abilities could have something to do with it. Christopher Intagliata reports. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Second U.S. Baby to Be Born From a Dead Donor's Uterus Is Delivered

Researchers at Penn Medicine in Philadelphia said the procedure could pave a new path to parenthood for women with uterine factor infertility.

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Brittle Stars Can "See" without Eyes

The starfish relatives can recognize patterns using photoreceptors on their arms—and their color-changing abilities could have something to do with it. Christopher Intagliata reports. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Derfor bruger Amnesty overvågningscookies trods egen kritik af samme: »De fungerer som gatekeepers«

Tech-giganter som Facebook og Google overtræder menneskers ret til privatliv ved at indsamle omfattende mængder af personfølsomme oplysninger ifølge Amnesty International. Men besøger man Amnesty Internationals danske hjemmeside bliver man mødt af flere tredjepartscookies fra netop Facebook og Go…

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Lynetteholmen udløser dominoeffekt til 80 milliarder

PLUS. Med til Lynetteholmen hører metro, havnetunnel og flytning af rensningsanlæg til endnu en kunstig ø ud for Hvidovre. Men den overordnede debat mangler totalt, mener eksperter.

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What Is Even Going on Out There?

To be alive in 2020 and connected to the immense information network is to experience a rich confusion of images, videos, social-media posts, and reportage about everything, all the time. The latest example: a Ukrainian-airliner crash outside Tehran. The plane, a Boeing 737-800, crashed shortly after takeoff yesterday, killing everyone aboard. There were unconfirmed rumors and general confusion a

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iRobot Terra Robot Lawn Mower – First Impressions

submitted by /u/HN_Crosspost_Bot [link] [comments]

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California Governor Pushes $1.4 Billion Plan To Tackle Homelessness

submitted by /u/izumi3682 [link] [comments]

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Loss of TSC complex enhances gluconeogenesis via upregulation of Dlk1-Dio3 locus miRNAs [Cell Biology]

Loss of the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1) in the liver promotes gluconeogenesis and glucose intolerance. We asked whether this could be attributed to aberrant expression of small RNAs. We performed small-RNA sequencing on liver of Tsc1-knockout mice, and found that miRNAs of the delta-like homolog 1 (Dlk1)–deiodinase…

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A randomized trial of a lab-embedded discourse intervention to improve research ethics [Social Sciences]

We report a randomized trial of a research ethics training intervention designed to enhance ethics communication in university science and engineering laboratories, focusing specifically on authorship and data management. The intervention is a project-based research ethics curriculum that was designed to enhance the ability of science and engineering research laboratory…

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A promiscuous inflammasome sparks replication of a common tumor virus [Microbiology]

Viruses activate inflammasomes but then subvert resulting inflammatory responses to avoid elimination. We asked whether viruses could instead use such activated or primed inflammasomes to directly aid their propagation and spread. Since herpesviruses are experts at coopting cellular functions, we investigated whether Epstein−Barr virus (EBV), an oncoherpesvirus, exploits inflammasomes to…

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Infrared optical and thermal properties of microstructures in butterfly wings [Engineering]

While surface microstructures of butterfly wings have been extensively studied for their structural coloration or optical properties within the visible spectrum, their properties in infrared wavelengths with potential ties to thermoregulation are relatively unknown. The midinfrared wavelengths of 7.5 to 14 µm are particularly important for radiative heat transfer in…

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Structural insight into T cell coinhibition by PD-1H (VISTA) [Immunology and Inflammation]

Programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H), a CD28/B7 family molecule, coinhibits T cell activation and is an attractive immunotherapeutic target for cancer and inflammatory diseases. The molecular basis of its function, however, is unknown. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that PD-1H has a very long Ig variable region (IgV)-like domain and extraordinarily high histidine…

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Innate immune receptor NOD2 mediates LGR5+ intestinal stem cell protection against ROS cytotoxicity via mitophagy stimulation [Cell Biology]

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) agonist muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a peptidoglycan motif common to all bacteria, supports leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5)+ intestinal stem cell (ISC) survival through NOD2 activation upon an otherwise lethal oxidative stress-mediated signal. However, the underlying protective mechanisms remai

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Anaerobic bacteria need their vitamin B12 to digest estrogen [Commentaries]

Often described as nature's most beautiful cofactor (1), vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a complex and fascinating organometallic molecule that, although made only by some prokaryotes, has key functional roles in microbes, animals, and humans (2). Its two major biological forms, methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), have a central cobalt atom…

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New possible strategy for treating chronic pain due to burns may help sufferers including veterans

New research shows how second-degree burns cause hard-to-treat chronic pain, and this understanding may be key to treating these complications, common in war veterans This research, published in Physiological Reports, suggests that burns cause changes to neurons in multiple parts of the spinal cord, even far from the injury site, which can contribute to chronic pain and other long-term complicatio

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Scientists capture for first time, light flashes from human eye during radiotherapy

People have long reported seeing flashes of light during brain radiotherapy. Until now, no one has been able to capture evidence of this sensation in humans, and only theory, models, and speculation exist to explain it. Scientists, for the first time, have not only caught real-time observation of this phenomenon, but explain how the light is produced in the eye when radiation passes through it.

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Grass growing around Mount Everest as global heating intensifies

Impact of increase in shrubs and grasses not yet known but scientists say it could increase flooding in the region Shrubs and grasses are springing up around Mount Everest and across the Himalayas, one of the most rapidly heating regions of the planet. Related: 1.9 billion people at risk from mountain water shortages, study shows Continue reading…

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Plant life expanding in the Everest region

Plant life is expanding in the area around Mount Everest, and across the Himalayan region, new research shows.

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The Atlantic Politics Daily: The World's Nuclear Guardrails Are Vanishing

It's Thursday, January 9. 176 people died in a downed civilian airliner leaving Tehran on Wednesday. Details are still emerging. In today's newsletter: The dawning of the age of … nuclear proliferation? Plus: Virginia and the Equal Rights Amendment, and a theory of Trump's thinking on Iran. * « TODAY IN POLITICS » Anti-war activists protest in front of the White House. (ANDREW CABALLERO-REYNOLDS

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Plant life expanding in the Everest region

Plant life is expanding in the area around Mount Everest, and across the Himalayan region, new research shows.

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Vaping Kills a 15-Year-Old in Texas

The teenager was the youngest to die so far in the outbreak of lung illnesses that affected thousands of people.

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Sustainable supply of minerals and metals key to a low-carbon energy future

The global low-carbon revolution could be at risk unless new international agreements and governance mechanisms are put in place to ensure a sustainable supply of rare minerals and metals, a new academic study has warned.

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Colorectal cancer risk remains despite modern treatment for ulcerative colitis

Patients with the inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis have a higher risk of dying from colorectal cancer, despite modern therapy, even though the risk has declined in recent years. This is according to a new study published in the scientific journal The Lancet by a team of Swedish and Danish researchers.

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The Lancet: Study suggests mental health impact of ongoing social unrest in Hong Kong

The ongoing social unrest in Hong Kong may be affecting the mental health of the general adult population — potentially leading to substantial increases in demand for mental and psychosocial support services, according to a 10-year observational study published in The Lancet.

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Artificial gills for humans, so we wan "breathe" under water.

submitted by /u/tinkrman [link] [comments]

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A simplified way to turn food waste into hydrogen energyhttps://www.h2-view.com/story/turning-food-waste-into-hydrogen/

Scientists from Purdue University in the US have developed a new way of producing hydrogen from food waste.

The new method developed by scientists uses yeast to break down the food waste and turn it into clean hydrogen for further use with minimal pre-processing steps in approximately 18-24 hours.

"We wanted to create a simple way to turn all that food waste into a source of clean energy," said Robert Kramer, NiSource Charitable Foundation Professor of Energy and the Environment and Professor of Physics at Purdue University Northwest.

"Our system basically allows a user to take food waste, grind it, place it in a reactor and use our process to create hydrogen in about 18-24 hours. That's much faster than the days it takes with other methods."

Kramer has estimated that the new Purdue system could lead to a 20%-25% increase in efficiency when producing hydrogen from food waste compared with current methods.

The Professor also says the method can be easily multiplexed with solar thermal technology to make a stand-alone power source in addition to being a clean fuel source and having multiple applications in the agro-food and transportation industries.

Until now, production of hydrogen for use as clean fuel has been mainly through bacterial degradation of food waste, which can lead to slow production rates and complex pre-processing of the raw material.

The Purdue University team worked with the Purdue Research Foundation Office of Technology Commercialisation to patent the technology.<?>

Solar-powered GENNY pulls clean water from the air

Watergen's GENNY runs on a simple mechanism. It draws moist air in through a filter at the back of the device like a dehumidifier then cleans and dispenses it out the front like a standard water cooler. (As a bonus, it'll purify the air around it too). It can dispense 13 liters of water per day with 9 KWH of energy and works in 15-40 degrees celsius with a relative humidity of more than 25 per cent.

The latest model, Solar GENNY, runs on the same technology but runs fully on natural energy, which is a major step forward. It can assist with living off the grid but could have real value delivering precious drinking water to less-developed areas or crisis zones.

Packaged with the four 23-foot solar panels to run it — provided by a third party solar company — and including installation costs, it should cost $5-8,000. While it's neither compact nor cheap at this moment, the prospect of a no-waste solution to the world's water scarcity warrants attention. It essentially turns air and sun into clean water.

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The fourth industrial revolution could lead to a dark future. If adoption of new technologies is rapid and pervasive, then the displacement of human workers may overwhelm the capacity of economies to provide alternative forms of work.

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A police department collected 65,000 face scans — but the system hasn't been connected to a single arrest

Chicago Coyote: Urban Attacks Are Rare, but Frightening

Two people were injured in Chicago, a reminder that as more coyotes move to the cities, some conflicts are inevitable.

A coyote attacked a 5-year-old boy near the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum in Chicago on Wednesday, sending him to the hospital.

He was in stable condition, the Chicago Fire Department reported.

Later that day, a coyote bit an adult man on the buttocks, according to news accounts. The man showed up at another Chicago hospital with a minor injury. Since a coyote had not been caught, it was not clear whether the same animal had assaulted both people.

The individual attacks, particularly of a child, are frightening. Although such events are rare, they are now common enough in major urban areas to be familiar. The reason is the extraordinary number of coyotes now living in the midst of densely settled cities.

Coyotes have long been present in much of North America, but since 1900 their range has grown enormously, expanding east, north and south. In more recent decades, they have moved into urban areas. Coyotes have been colonizing the canyons of Los Angeles at least since the 1970s. First seen in the Bronx in the 1990s, coyotes have grown in numbers on the streets of Manhattan, and have attacked children in the New York suburbs.

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An Iranian Hacking Campaign, Social Media Surveillance, and More News

Catch up on the most important news from today in two minutes or less.

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Researchers solve protein structure associated with inherited retinal diseases

Researchers have reported the first structural model for a key enzyme, and its activating protein, that can play a role in some genetically inherited eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and night blindness.

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Neurons' energy organelle protected from damage linked to ALS, Alzheimer's

Mitochondrial damage is increasingly recognized as a key factor underlying neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and ALS. A new screening platform has identified a set of drug-like compounds that may protect them.

A sophisticated new screening platform developed by scientists at Scripps Research has enabled them to discover a set of drug-like compounds, including an ingredient found in sore throat lozenges, that may powerfully protect brain cells from dangerous stresses found in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

The screening platform, described in a paper in Science Advances, allows researchers for the first time to rapidly test "libraries" of thousands of molecules to find those that provide broad protection to mitochondria in neurons. Mitochondria are tiny oxygen reactors that supply cells with most of their energy. They are especially important for the health and survival of neurons. Mitochondrial damage is increasingly recognized as a major factor, and in some cases a cause, for diseases of neuronal degeneration such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and ALS.

The scientists, in an initial demonstration of their platform, used it to rapidly screen a library of 2,400 compounds, from which they found more than a dozen that boost the health of neuronal mitochondria and provide broad protection from stresses found in neurodegenerative disorders.

The researchers are now testing the most potent of these mitochondria-protectors in animal models of Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and other diseases, with the ultimate goal of developing one or more into new drugs.

"It hasn't yet been emphasized in the search for effective therapeutics, but mitochondrial failure is a feature of many neurodegenerative disorders and something that must be corrected if neurons are to survive," says principal investigator Ronald Davis, PhD, professor in the Department of Neuroscience at Scripps Research. "So I'm a big believer that finding mitochondria-protecting molecules is the way to go against these diseases."

Scientists in prior studies have developed screens for molecules that can enhance mitochondrial function, but only by focusing on mitochondria in cells from outside the brain. A screening system that measures mitochondrial health in mature neurons requires cultures of such neurons, which are relatively difficult to maintain — in part because they do not divide to make new neurons. Davis was convinced, however, that only this more difficult approach, which others including pharmaceutical researchers have avoided, would enable the discovery of compounds that protect brain cells by protecting their mitochondria.

The screening system developed by Davis and his team uses cultured neurons from mouse brains in which mitochondria are labeled with fluorescent tags. Sophisticated microscope imaging and semi-automated image analysis enables the researchers to quickly record mitochondrial numbers, shapes and other visible markers of health in the neurons before and after exposure to different compounds.

In an initial test, the team found that compounds with reported benefits for mitochondria in other cell types had no obvious positive effects for mitochondria in neurons. The researchers then screened their library of 2,400 compounds, which included many existing drug compounds, and found 149 with significant positive effects on neuronal mitochondria.

With further tests the scientists winnowed these "hits" down to a much smaller number, and found several that could robustly protect mouse neuron mitochondria from three stresses known to harm mitochondria in Alzheimer's: small, toxic clusters of the amyloid beta protein; the neurotransmitter glutamate, which can excite neurons to death; and peroxide, a highly reactive molecule that can be released from damaged mitochondria and go on to harm healthy mitochondria.

The compounds with beneficial effects protected the neuronal mitochondria in some ways more than others, and evidently worked via a variety of biological mechanisms. For example, dyclonine, an anesthetic found in some sore-throat products, protected cultured neurons against glutamate and peroxide toxicity. Dyclonine also increased the energy production of healthy mitochondria as well as the activity of their host neurons' synapses — connection points to other neurons. Dyclonine seemed so promising that the researchers put it in the water supply of live mice, and again found evidence that it powerfully boosted the health of the mitochondria in the animals' brains.

"It remains a mystery why dyclonine and other local anesthetics have such effects on mitochondria in neurons — we certainly didn't anticipate this," Davis says. "But the compounds we identified give us strong hope that we'll see beneficial effects when we test them in animal models of specific neurodegenerative diseases, as we're now doing."


Story Source:

Materials provided by Scripps Research InstituteNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Boglarka H. Varkuti, Miklos Kepiro, Ze Liu, Kyle Vick, Yosef Avchalumov, Rodrigo Pacifico, Courtney M. MacMullen, Theodore M. Kamenecka, Sathyanarayanan V. Puthanveettil, Ronald L. Davis. Neuron-based high-content assay and screen for CNS active mitotherapeuticsScience Advances, 2020; 6 (2): eaaw8702 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw8702

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Light your photos like a pro

Ah, that golden sunset glow… (Jamie Street via Unsplash/) Photography is all about light. If you've got a beautiful golden sunset glow, almost any photo you take will look better than the same scene shot in the harsh midday glare. Most of the times though, the difference between good, flattering light, and finding your subjects' face covered in dense, inescapable shadows, is not that clear. But

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Molecular factories: The combination between nature and chemistry is functional

Researchers at the University of Basel have succeeded in developing molecular factories that mimic nature. To achieve this they loaded artificial organelles inside micrometer-sized natural blisters (vesicles) produced by cells. These molecular factories remain intact even after injection into an animal model and demonstrate no toxicity.

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Tea drinkers live longer

Drinking tea at least three times a week is linked with a longer and healthier life, according to a new study.

"Habitual tea consumption is associated with lower risks of cardiovascular disease and all-cause death," said first author Dr. Xinyan Wang, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China. "The favourable health effects are the most robust for green tea and for long-term habitual tea drinkers."

The analysis included 100,902 participants of the China-PAR project2 with no history of heart attack, stroke, or cancer. Participants were classified into two groups: habitual tea drinkers (three or more times a week) and never or non-habitual tea drinkers (less than three times a week) and followed-up for a median of 7.3 years.

Habitual tea consumption was associated with more healthy years of life and longer life expectancy.

For example, the analyses estimated that 50-year-old habitual tea drinkers would develop coronary heart disease and stroke 1.41 years later and live 1.26 years longer than those who never or seldom drank tea.

Compared with never or non-habitual tea drinkers, habitual tea consumers had a 20% lower risk of incident heart disease and stroke, 22% lower risk of fatal heart disease and stroke, and 15% decreased risk of all-cause death.

The potential influence of changes in tea drinking behaviour were analysed in a subset of 14,081 participants with assessments at two time points. The average duration between the two surveys was 8.2 years, and the median follow-up after the second survey was 5.3 years.

Habitual tea drinkers who maintained their habit in both surveys had a 39% lower risk of incident heart disease and stroke, 56% lower risk of fatal heart disease and stroke, and 29% decreased risk of all-cause death compared to consistent never or non-habitual tea drinkers.

Senior author Dr. Dongfeng Gu, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, said: "The protective effects of tea were most pronounced among the consistent habitual tea drinking group. Mechanism studies have suggested that the main bioactive compounds in tea, namely polyphenols, are not stored in the body long-term. Thus, frequent tea intake over an extended period may be necessary for the cardioprotective effect."

In a subanalysis by type of tea, drinking green tea was linked with approximately 25% lower risks for incident heart disease and stroke, fatal heart disease and stroke, and all-cause death. However, no significant associations were observed for black tea.

Dr. Gu noted that a preference for green tea is unique to East Asia. "In our study population, 49% of habitual tea drinkers consumed green tea most frequently, while only 8% preferred black tea. The small proportion of habitual black tea drinkers might make it more difficult to observe robust associations, but our findings hint at a differential effect between tea types."

Two factors may be at play. First, green tea is a rich source of polyphenols which protect against cardiovascular disease and its risk factors including high blood pressure and dyslipidaemia. Black tea is fully fermented and during this process polyphenols are oxidised into pigments and may lose their antioxidant effects. Second, black tea is often served with milk, which previous research has shown may counteract the favourable health effects of tea on vascular function.

Gender-specific analyses showed that the protective effects of habitual tea consumption were pronounced and robust across different outcomes for men, but only modest for women. Dr. Wang said: "One reason might be that 48% of men were habitual tea consumers compared to just 20% of women. Secondly, women had much lower incidence of, and mortality from, heart disease and stroke. These differences made it more likely to find statistically significant results among men."

She added: "The China-PAR project is ongoing, and with more person-years of follow-up among women the associations may become more pronounced."

The authors concluded that randomised trials are warranted to confirm the findings and provide evidence for dietary guidelines and lifestyle recommendations.


Story Source:

Materials provided by European Society of CardiologyNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Xinyan Wang, Fangchao Liu, Jianxin Li, Xueli Yang, Jichun Chen, Jie Cao, Xigui Wu, Xiangfeng Lu, Jianfeng Huang, Ying Li, Liancheng Zhao, Chong Shen, Dongsheng Hu, Ling Yu, Xiaoqing Liu, Xianping Wu, Shouling Wu, Dongfeng Gu. Tea consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: The China-PAR projectEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 2020; 204748731989468 DOI: 10.1177/2047487319894685

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Recurrent miscarriage: Diabetes drug could lead to new treatment

A drug designed to tackle diabetes could also be repurposed as the first treatment to prevent miscarriage by targeting the lining of the womb itself, according to a clinical trial.

A drug designed to tackle diabetes could also be repurposed as the first treatment to prevent miscarriage by targeting the lining of the womb itself, according to a clinical trial led by the University of Warwick.

The treatment works by increasing the amount of stem cells in the lining of the womb, improving conditions in the womb to support pregnancy.

The research by Warwick Medical School is reported today (9 January) in the journal EBioMedicine from research conducted with University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire and supported by the NIHR Coventry and Warwickshire Clinical Research Facility. The research was funded by and took place at Tommy's National Miscarriage Research Centre.

Recurrent miscarriage is defined as the loss of two or more consecutive pregnancies, with additional miscarriages decreasing the likelihood of a successful pregnancy. Previous research by the Warwick team revealed that a lack of stem cells in the womb lining is causing thousands of women to suffer from recurrent miscarriages. The team also demonstrated that stem cells protect specialised cells, called decidual cells, from excessive stress and inflammation. Decidual cells surround the implanting embryo and excessive stress can cause breakdown of the womb lining in pregnancy.

A new class of diabetes drugs called gliptins targets an enzyme involved in the recruitment of circulating stem cells to the womb. The researchers investigated whether inhibiting this enzyme, called DPP4, using a particular drug, sitagliptin, would improve conditions in the womb for pregnancy.

In a pilot clinical trial, thirty-eight women aged 18 to 42 who had experienced a large number of recurrent miscarriages (average five) were given either an oral course of sitagliptin or a placebo for three menstrual cycles. Biopsies of the womb were taken at the start of the course of treatment and afterwards to determine the number of stem cells present before and after the course.

They found an average increase in stem cell count of 68% in those women who took the full course of sitagliptin. This compares to no significant increase in those in the control group receiving an identical placebo pill. They also saw a 50% decrease in the number of 'stressed' cells present in the lining of the womb. There were minimal side effects for the participants.

The researchers now hope to take the treatment to clinical trial and, if successful, it would be the first targeted specifically at the lining of the womb to prevent miscarriage.

Professor Jan Brosens, of Warwick Medical School and Consultant in Reproductive Health at University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, said: "There are currently very few effective treatments for miscarriage and this is the first that aims at normalising the womb before pregnancy. Although miscarriages can be caused by genetic errors in the embryo, an abnormal womb lining causes the loss of chromosomal normal pregnancies. We hope that this new treatment will prevent such losses and reduce both the physical and psychological burden of recurrent miscarriage."

Professor Siobhan Quenby from Warwick Clinical Trials Unit and an Honorary Consultant at University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, said: "We have improved the environment that an embryo develops in and in doing so we hope to improve the chances of a successful pregnancy. Although this research was specifically designed to test whether we could increase the presence of stem cells in the womb, follow-up of participants found that there were no further losses of normal pregnancies in those who took sitagliptin. These are very early results and the treatment now needs to be further tested in a large-scale clinical trial."

Jane Brewin, Chief Executive at Tommy's said: "For far too long it has often been said by many health professionals that miscarriage is not preventable, and parents have been left with little hope given the paucity of treatment options available. This situation prompted Tommy's to invest in the Tommy's National Centre for Miscarriage Research and this breakthrough research by the world leading team at Warwick shows great promise for an effective treatment which will reduce miscarriage and possibly later pregnancy loss too. A large-scale trial is needed to verify the findings and we hope that this will get underway quickly."

Stem cells play a key role in creating the decidual cells in the womb lining which support the placenta throughout pregnancy. Insufficient stem cells in the womb lining leads to an excess of stressed and inflammatory decidual cells, which in turn may cause placental bleeding and miscarriage. Sitagliptin was effective not only in increasing stem cells in the womb lining but also decreasing the abundance of stressed decidual cells.


Story Source:

Materials provided by University of WarwickNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Shreeya Tewary, Emma S. Lucas, Risa Fujihara, Peter K. Kimani, Angela Polanco, Paul J. Brighton, Joanne Muter, Katherine J. Fishwick, Maria José Minhoto Diniz Da Costa, Lauren J. Ewington, Lauren Lacey, Satoru Takeda, Jan J. Brosens, Siobhan Quenby. Impact of sitagliptin on endometrial mesenchymal stem-like progenitor cells: A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled feasibility trialEBioMedicine, 2020; 102597 DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.102597

Cite This Page:

University of Warwick. "Recurrent miscarriage: Diabetes drug could lead to new treatment." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 January 2020. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200109105504.htm>.

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Losing a night of sleep may increase blood levels of Alzheimer's biomarker

A preliminary study has found that when young, healthy men were deprived of just one night of sleep, they had higher levels of tau — a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease — in their blood than when they had a full, uninterrupted night of rest.

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New insulin compound could improve therapy for diabetes patients

Researchers have successfully created a non-fibrillating form of human insulin in a discovery that could improve the clinical delivery and cost of insulin for people living with diabetes.

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Heart disease linked to a higher risk of kidney failure

In adults followed for a median of 17.5 years, cardiovascular diseases–including heart failure, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, and stroke–were each linked with a higher risk of developing kidney failure. Heart failure was associated with the highest risk: adults hospitalized with heart failure had an 11.4-times higher risk of developing kidney failure than individuals without cardi

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Tell Me A Story: What Narratives Reveal About The Mind

We live in a world of stories. They're in movies, books, and plays. They're even in the things that we buy. (Image credit: Jupiterimages/Getty Images)

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Baby and adult brains 'sync up' during play

A team of researchers has conducted the first study of how baby and adult brains interact during natural play, and they found measurable connections in their neural activity. In other words, baby and adult brain activity rose and fell together as they shared toys and eye contact.

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Large 'herbivores of the sea' help keep coral reefs healthy

Selective fishing can disrupt the delicate balance maintained between corals and algae in embattled Caribbean coral reefs.

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Machine learning shapes microwaves for a computer's eyes

To improve object identification and speed in fields where both are critical — such as autonomous vehicles, security screening and motion sensing — engineers have developed a method to identify objects using microwaves that improves accuracy while reducing the associated computing time and power requirements. This machine-learning approach cuts out the middleman, skipping the step of creating an

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From as young as 4, children see males as more powerful than females

As early as 4 years old, children associate power and masculinity, even in countries considered to be more egalitarian like Norway. Researchers also show that in some situations the power-masculinity association does not manifest in girls.

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Molecular factories: The combination between nature and chemistry is functional

Researchers at the University of Basel have succeeded in developing molecular factories that mimic nature. To achieve this they loaded artificial organelles inside micrometer-sized natural blisters (vesicles) produced by cells. These molecular factories remain intact even after injection into an animal model and demonstrate no toxicity.

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Archaeologists of the Future: Sorry About All the Livestock

Booming populations of cows, sheep, pigs and chickens inhabit the Earth — so their remains might rule our fossil record, too.

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As New Telescopes Prepare to Fly Into Orbit, Hubble Still Has a Big Role to Play

Upcoming telescopes like the James Webb Space Telescope will work together with the iconic observatory to find new and amazing images.

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Twitch's Non-Gamers Are Finally Having Their Moment

After years of ridicule, streamers who 'just chat' prove that there's room for gabbing, not just gaming, on the platform.

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Copper-based nanomaterials can kill cancer cells in mice

Scientists have succeeded in killing tumor cells in mice using nano-sized copper compounds together with immunotherapy. After the therapy, the cancer did not return.

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About 300 sea turtles die in Mexico from red tide

Mexican environmental authorities said Thursday that 292 sea turtles found dead on the country's southern Pacific coast since Christmas died as a result of a red tide algae bloom.

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Researchers discover new building blocks of catalyst zeolite nanopores

Zeolites crystals, used among other things for refining petroleum to gasoline and biomass into biofuels, are the most-used catalysts by weight on the planet, and discovering mechanisms of how they form has been of intense interest to the chemical industry and related researchers, say chemist Scott Auerbach and colleagues at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. They hope their advance on a new

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About 300 sea turtles die in Mexico from red tide

Mexican environmental authorities said Thursday that 292 sea turtles found dead on the country's southern Pacific coast since Christmas died as a result of a red tide algae bloom.

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Lucy mission now has a new destination

Less than two years before launch, scientists associated with NASA's Lucy mission, led by Southwest Research Institute, have discovered an additional small asteroid that will be visited by the Lucy spacecraft. Set to launch in 2021, its 12-year journey of almost 4 billion miles will explore the Trojan asteroids, a population of ancient small bodies that share an orbit with Jupiter.

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Rejuvenating the brain with stem cells

The older we get the more our brains will find it difficult to learn and remember new things. The research group used a method to stimulate the small pool of neural stem cells that reside in the brain in order to increase their number and the number of neurons generated by those stem cells. Additional neurons could survive and form new contacts with neighboring cells in the brain of old mice.

We all will experience it at some point, unfortunately: The older we get the more our brains will find it difficult to learn and remember new things. What the reasons underlying these impairments are is yet unclear but scientists at the Center for Regenerative Therapies of TU Dresden (CRTD) wanted to investigate if increasing the number of stem cells in the brain would help in recovering cognitive functions, such as learning and memory, that are lost during ageing.

To investigate this, the research group led by Prof. Federico Calegari used a method developed in his lab to stimulate the small pool of neural stem cells that reside in the brain in order to increase their number and, as a result, to also increase the number of neurons generated by those stem cells. Surprisingly, additional neurons could survive and form new contacts with neighbouring cells in the brain of old mice. Next, the scientists examined a key cognitive ability that is lost, similarly in mice and in humans, during ageing: navigation.

It is well known that individuals learn to navigate in a new environment in a different way depending on whether they are young or old. When young, the brain can build and remember a cognitive map of the environment but this ability fades away in older brains. As an alternative solution to the problem, older brains without a cognitive map of the environment need to learn the fixed series of turns and twists that are needed to reach a certain destination. While the two strategies may superficially appear similar, only a cognitive map can allow individuals to navigate efficiently when starting from a new location or when in need of reaching a new destination.

Would boosting the number of neurons be sufficient to counteract the decreasing performance of the brain in navigation and slow down this ageing process? The teams of Prof. Calegari (CRTD) together with Prof. Gerd Kempermann (German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases DZNE / CRTD) and Dr. Kentaroh Takagaki (Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg) found the answer to this challenging question and published it this week in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

The answer is "Yes": Old mice with more stem cells and neurons recovered their lost ability to build a map of the environment and remembered it for longer times making them more similar to young mice. Even better, when neural stem cells were stimulated in the brain of young mice, cognitive impairments were delayed and memory was better preserved over the entire course of the animal natural life.

In young individuals, a brain area called the hippocampus is crucial for remembering places and events, and is also responsible for creating maps of new environments. However, old individuals use other structures that are more related to the development of habits. It was very interesting to see that adding more neurons in the hippocampus of old mice allowed them to use strategies typical of young animals. It was not only about how fast they were learning but, rather, how different the learning process itself was ," explains Gabriel Berdugo-Vega, first author of the study.

"Also humans have a few stem cells in the brain and these stem cells are known to severely reduce in numbers over the course of life. Identifying the causes underlying cognitive deficits in ageing and rescuing them is crucial for our rapidly ageing societies. Our work demonstrates that age-related impairments can be rescued by hijacking the endogenous neurogenic potential of the brain, thus, rejuvenating its function. Being a human myself with my own stem cells and being the senior author of this study, I felt that I had a personal interest in this topic." says Prof. Federico Calegari, senior author of this study.

The research group of Prof. Federico Calegari focuses on mammalian neural stem cells in the context of development, evolution and cognitive function at the CRTD. The institute is the academic home for scientists from more than 30 nations. Their mission is to discover the principles of cell and tissue regeneration and leveraging this for recognition, treatment and reversal of diseases. The CRTD links the bench to the clinic, scientists to clinicians to pool expertise in stem cells, developmental biology, gene-editing and regeneration towards innovative therapies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, haematological diseases such as leukaemia, metabolic diseases such as diabetes, retina and bone diseases.

This study was funded by TU Dresden / CRTD through the German Excellence Initiative, the German Research Foundation and a European grant from the H2020 programme. In addition, it was supported by the Faculty of Natural Sciences of Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, the Dresden International Graduate School for Biomedicine and Bioengineering (DIGS-BB) and the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE).


Story Source:

Materials provided by Technische Universität DresdenNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Gabriel Berdugo-Vega, Gonzalo Arias-Gil, Adrian López-Fernández, Benedetta Artegiani, Joanna M. Wasielewska, Chi-Chieh Lee, Michael T. Lippert, Gerd Kempermann, Kentaroh Takagaki, Federico Calegari. Increasing neurogenesis refines hippocampal activity rejuvenating navigational learning strategies and contextual memory throughout lifeNature Communications, 2020; 11 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-14026-z

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Molecular probe maps misfolded proteome state in live cells

The folding state of the proteins in live cells often reflect the cell's general health. Scientists have developed a molecular probe that senses the state of the proteome — the entire set of the proteins — by measuring the polarity of the protein environment. The fluorescence signal of the probe quantifies unfolding and its chameleon-like color shift maps the cellular regions of enhanced misfold

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Improved functioning of diverse landscape mosaics

It is well-established that biodiverse ecosystems generally function better than monocultures. Ecologists have now shown that the same is true on a larger scale: Having a mix of different land-covers including grassland, forest, urban areas and water bodies improves the functioning and stability of a landscape — irrespective of the plant species diversity, region and climate.

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Copper-based nanomaterials can kill cancer cells in mice

Scientists have succeeded in killing tumor cells in mice using nano-sized copper compounds together with immunotherapy. After the therapy, the cancer did not return.

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In health care, does 'hotspotting' make patients better?

The new health care practice of 'hotspotting' — in which providers identify very high-cost patients and attempt to reduce their medical spending while improving care — has virtually no impact on patient outcomes, according to a new study.

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Large 'herbivores of the sea' help keep coral reefs healthy

Selective fishing can disrupt the delicate balance maintained between corals and algae in embattled Caribbean coral reefs. Removing large parrotfish, which graze on algae like large land mammals graze on grasses, can allow the algae to overtake the corals, with potentially dire consequences for reef health. New experimental research suggests that maintaining a healthy size distribution of parrotfi

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