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Purifying water with the help of wood, bacteria and the sun
According to the United Nations, about one-fifth of the world's population lives in areas where water is scarce. Therefore, technologies to produce clean water from undrinkable sources, such as seawater, river or lake water, and contaminated water, are urgently needed. Now, researchers reporting in Nano Letters have developed a wood-based steam generator that, with the help of bacterial-produced n
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Drones Capture Close Encounters between Great White Sharks and Beachgoers
Over the past decade, the number of encounters between humans and sharks swimming off the coast of California has risen dramatically. Chris Lowe, director of the Shark Lab at California State… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Tackling coral reefs' thorny problem
Researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have revealed the evolutionary history of the crown-of-thorns starfish—a predator of coral that can devastate coral reefs. Their findings shed light on how the populations of these starfish have changed over time and could potentially help reduce their ecological destruction.
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How to reach another planet when a pandemic is hobbling yours
Nature, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02000-5 As the United States, China and the United Arab Emirates head to Mars, they must all commit to sharing what they find.
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Why scientists with children who have disabilities need a different career trajectory
Nature, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02043-8 As lockdowns ease, Olivier Pourret hopes that academia will take on board lessons about how to redefine career success.
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Women are most affected by pandemics — lessons from past outbreaks
Nature, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02006-z The social and economic impacts of COVID-19 fall harder on women than on men. Governments need to gather data and target policy to keep all citizens equally safe, sheltered and secure.
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OpenSAFELY: factors associated with COVID-19 death in 17 million patients
Nature, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4
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The foolish man built his house upon the sand
Nature, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02016-x The ties that bind us.
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How a small Arab nation built a Mars mission from scratch in six years
Nature, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-01862-z The United Arab Emirates' Hope orbiter is the Arab world's first interplanetary spacecraft — and has jump-started science in the country. Will the momentum last?
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Daily briefing: US international students face deportation if all their classes go online
Nature, Published online: 07 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02048-3 The United States will withdraw an exemption that allowed foreign students on some visas to take all their classes online because of COVID-19. Plus: a post-pandemic exit plan for leaving academia, and three daring missions count down to Mars.
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Can boosting interferons, the body's frontline virus fighters, beat COVID-19?
Some basic research supports treating early with synthetic interferons—but treating too late might make people sicker
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How to Read Covid-19 Research (and Actually Understand It)
Confused? Surprised? Wondering where the good parts are? Here are a few tips on reading scientific papers to help those of us following along at home.
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Citizen Science Projects Offer a Model for Coronavirus Apps
Americans don't like when their data is taken—but research shows they would be willing to donate it.
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These six photos were snapped by satellites. Can you figure out where?
We know you are bored at home right now—we are too. Here are some puzzles and brainteasers to challenge your family and friends with, either in person or over video chat. Some 5,000 satellites currently orbit Earth, beaming back data about our little blue planet from the vantage point of space. The results can be surprising, altering human perception of the ground beneath our feet. Here are six s
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New biomaterial could shield against harmful radiation
Packing for outer space? Here's one thing you won't want to forget.
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Purifying water with the help of wood, bacteria and the sun
According to the United Nations, about one-fifth of the world's population lives in areas where water is scarce. Therefore, technologies to produce clean water from undrinkable sources, such as seawater, river or lake water, and contaminated water, are urgently needed. Now, researchers reporting in Nano Letters have developed a wood-based steam generator that, with the help of bacterial-produced n
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Drones Capture Close Encounters between Great White Sharks and Beachgoers
Over the past decade, the number of encounters between humans and sharks swimming off the coast of California has risen dramatically. Chris Lowe, director of the Shark Lab at California State… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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More Evidence Raw Milk is Bad
More evidence that raw milk has no health benefit, but does carry higher health risks.
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Graphene: It is all about the toppings
Graphene consists of a single layer of carbon atoms. Exceptional electronic, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties have made graphene one of the most studied materials at the moment. For many applications in electronics and energy technology, however, graphene must be combined with other materials. Since graphene is so thin, its properties drastically change when other materials are brought
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Tobacco budworm moths have receptors in their eggs, laying organs that detect odorants
When most insects reproduce, they lay eggs that hatch into juveniles known as larvae. To provide good sources of food for the larvae, the adult insects have to carefully select where to lay the eggs. Host plants produce specific sets of chemicals known as odorants that the adult insects are able to smell using proteins called odorant receptors.
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Tobacco budworm moths have receptors in their eggs, laying organs that detect odorants
When most insects reproduce, they lay eggs that hatch into juveniles known as larvae. To provide good sources of food for the larvae, the adult insects have to carefully select where to lay the eggs. Host plants produce specific sets of chemicals known as odorants that the adult insects are able to smell using proteins called odorant receptors.
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Novel major locus regulates beak evolution of ground tit
Classical quantitative genetics has found that most phenotypes are polygenic traits. Under this polygenic model, natural selection often acts on many loci simultaneously, resulting in the combination of a few loci with major effects and many loci with small effects controlling adaptive changes in phenotypes, which presents challenges to the understanding of the genetic basis underlying polygenic t
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Shock waves from stellar explosions take preferential direction
In a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal, a team led by researchers at École Polytechnique have paved the way to unraveling the mystery as to why many supernova remnants that we observe from Earth are axisymmetric (elongated along one axis) rather than spherical.
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Detecting hidden nanostructures by converting light into sound
Researchers at ARCNL have found a way to detect nanostructures buried under many layers of opaque material using high-frequency sound waves induced by light. Their findings could have applications in the semiconductor manufacturing industry, such as wafer alignment. The researchers also revealed interesting new phenomena in photo-acoustics that have not been investigated before. Their results are
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Researchers develop a unique method for creating powder composites
Scientists from South Ural State University have developed a new method for creating powder metal composites. The method can reduce waste and improve the quality of electrical products and, as a result, increase the economic efficiency of production by 30%. The study was published in the journal Metallurgist.
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Spider silk made by photosynthetic bacteria
Spiders produce amazingly strong and lightweight threads called draglines that are made from silk proteins. Although they can be used to manufacture a number of useful materials, getting enough of the protein is difficult because only a small amount can be produced by each tiny spider. In a new study published in Communications Biology, a research team led by Keiji Numata at the RIKEN Center for S
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Researchers discover a novel mechanism regulating planar cell polarity
Planar cell polarity (PCP), a process in which the epithelial tissues are polarized within the plane of the epithelium, plays an important role in development and organ function. Defects in PCP are associated with a variety of human diseases including cancer metastasis, neurological disorders, skeletal dysplasias and congenital heart disease. The establishment of PCP is regulated by an evolutionar
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Milk lipids follow the evolution of mammals
Skoltech scientists have conducted a study of milk lipids and described the unique features of human breast milk as compared to bovids, pigs, and closely related primates. Their findings could be indicative of co-evolution of milk composition and the specific needs of the developing organism.
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The complex relationship between deforestation and diet diversity in the Amazon
Ten years ago, non-indigenous households from three communities in the Ucayali region in Peru regularly ate fish, wild fruits, and other products collected from the Amazon forest. Combined with whatever they grew and harvested on their lands, this contributed to a relatively diverse diet. Today, the same households have changed their production strategy and how they get food on the table. Agricult
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Vaccinations Have Sharply Declined Nationwide during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Rates of childhood immunization have fallen across the U.S., raising the risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks​ — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Vaccinations Have Sharply Declined Nationwide during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Rates of childhood immunization have fallen across the U.S., raising the risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks​ — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Novel major locus regulates beak evolution of ground tit
Classical quantitative genetics has found that most phenotypes are polygenic traits. Under this polygenic model, natural selection often acts on many loci simultaneously, resulting in the combination of a few loci with major effects and many loci with small effects controlling adaptive changes in phenotypes, which presents challenges to the understanding of the genetic basis underlying polygenic t
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Milk lipids follow the evolution of mammals
Skoltech scientists have conducted a study of milk lipids and described the unique features of human breast milk as compared to bovids, pigs, and closely related primates. Their findings could be indicative of co-evolution of milk composition and the specific needs of the developing organism.
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Spider silk made by photosynthetic bacteria
Spiders produce amazingly strong and lightweight threads called draglines that are made from silk proteins. Although they can be used to manufacture a number of useful materials, getting enough of the protein is difficult because only a small amount can be produced by each tiny spider. In a new study published in Communications Biology, a research team led by Keiji Numata at the RIKEN Center for S
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Researchers discover a novel mechanism regulating planar cell polarity
Planar cell polarity (PCP), a process in which the epithelial tissues are polarized within the plane of the epithelium, plays an important role in development and organ function. Defects in PCP are associated with a variety of human diseases including cancer metastasis, neurological disorders, skeletal dysplasias and congenital heart disease. The establishment of PCP is regulated by an evolutionar
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Counting the Infected
How The Times got access to a federal database of 1.5 million coronavirus cases — and what it revealed.
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Den første grønne methanol flyder fra nordjysk pilotanlæg
PLUS. Demonstrationsanlæg ved Aalborg Universitet har leveret proof-of-concept på teknologien til fremstilling af e-methanol på basis af brint, CO2 og vindmøllestrøm. Nu skal produktionen opskaleres i Skive.
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The Media Monsters in the National Dialog
Journalists are the bane of your existence. Which is why we need to talk about spelling and computer history. Seriously.
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Kai-Fu Lee Gives AI a B-Minus Grade in the Covid-19 Fight
Robots and computer programs can help with social distancing and food delivery, but have been less helpful in developing a vaccine.
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Garmin Instinct Solar Review: A Great Backcountry Partner
Our favorite rugged and affordable outdoor watch can now recharge with the power of the sun.
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Global Warming. Inequality. Covid-19. And Al Gore Is … Optimistic?
As vice president, he looked for big policy answers to hard global problems. Now he says all our crises are speeding us toward real solutions.
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Coronavirus Is Attacking the Navajo 'because We Have Built the Perfect Human for It to Invade'
A traditional Diné storyteller explains how disadvantage and injustice have shaped her people's encounter with COVID-19 — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Animals Use Social Distancing to Avoid Disease
Lobsters, birds and some primates use quarantine to ward off infections — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Animals Use Social Distancing to Avoid Disease
Lobsters, birds and some primates use quarantine to ward off infections — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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The internet is changing drastically for Hong Kong's citizens
The big picture: It's only been one week since China passed a controversial national security law that gives it vast new powers over Hong Kong, but the internet has already changed dramatically for people in the semi-autonomous city. What sort of powers? The law lets mainland Chinese officials operate in Hong Kong for the first time. It also gives Beijing the power to overrule local laws, and it
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Ökat välbefinnande hos äldre trots pandemin
I början av covid-pandemin ökade välbefinnandet hos svenskar mellan 65 och 71 år, jämfört med föregående fem år. Och de som undvek sociala kontakter mådde bättre än de som inte gjorde det. Det visar en ny studie från AgeCap, Centrum för åldrande och hälsa, vid Göteborgs universitet. AgeCap-forskarna Marie Kivi, Isabelle Hansson och Pär Bjälkebring, alla på psykologiska institutionen, samlade unde
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Duke group retracts Nature journal paper
A Nature journal is retracting a 2018 research letter about the genetics of flower patterns over concerns about the reliability of the data. The letter, "Two genetic changes in cis-regulatory elements caused evolution of petal spot position in Clarkia," appeared in Nature Plants and was written by a team of researchers at Duke University, including … Continue reading
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Dröm att jobba med hästar – trots bristande arbetsmiljö
Att jobba med hästar är en dröm för många, vilket också märks i hur högt yrket skattas av anställda vad gäller självförverkligande och livskvalitet. – Vi har aldrig sett så hög skattning av dessa faktorer i något yrke tidigare, säger Åsa Bergman Bruhn, forskare vid institutionen för Arbetsvetenskap vid Högskolan Dalarna.
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Coronavirus Live News and Updates
Amid push to reopen schools, Trump administration directive would require in-person classes.
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Is This the End of Oil and Gas Pipelines?
Defeats at three projects reflect increasingly sophisticated legal challenges, shifting economics and growing demands by states to fight climate change.
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Plasma proteomics reveals markers of metabolic stress in HIV infected children with severe acute malnutrition
Scientific Reports, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-68143-7
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Microinjection induces changes in the transcriptome of bovine oocytes
Scientific Reports, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-67603-4
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Ultraviolet aging study on bitumen modified by a composite of clay and fumed silica nanoparticles
Scientific Reports, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-68007-0
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Circuit Depth Reduction for Gate-Model Quantum Computers
Scientific Reports, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-67014-5
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Evaluation of various commodities for the development of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor
Scientific Reports, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-67363-1
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Combined PLT and NE to predict the prognosis of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer
Scientific Reports, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-66387-x
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Propofol suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting NET1 through downregulating ERK/VEGF signaling pathway
Scientific Reports, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-67693-0
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Sorption competition with natural organic matter as mechanism controlling silicon mobility in soil
Scientific Reports, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-68042-x
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Light phase detection with on-chip petahertz electronic networks
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17250-0 On-chip optical-field emission devices may be useful for fast electronics and signal processing. Here the authors show a compact on-chip light phase detector capable of monitoring photocurrents oscillating at optical frequencies using electrically connected arrays of plasmonic bow-tie nanoantennae.
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Unveiling hydrocerussite as an electrochemically stable active phase for efficient carbon dioxide electroreduction to formate
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17120-9 While electrochemical CO2 reduction represents a renewable means to produce high-value products, catalyst transformation may compete with desirable processes. Here, authors prevent catalyst self-reduction during CO2 electroreduction and show stable, formate-selective performances of hydrocerussite.
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Hybrid plasmonic nano-emitters with controlled single quantum emitter positioning on the local excitation field
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17248-8 The authors study, on hybrid plasmonic nano-emitters, the spatial overlap between the exciting optical near-field and the nanoscale active medium whose position is controlled via surface plasmon-triggered two-photon polymerization. They also demonstrate such systems down to the single photon level.
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Author Correction: Land-use change interacts with climate to determine elevational species redistribution
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17319-w
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Publisher Correction: Controllability governs the balance between Pavlovian and instrumental action selection
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17420-0
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Publisher Correction: Hydrolase–like catalysis and structural resolution of natural products by a metal–organic framework
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17170-z
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Quantum-dot assisted spectroscopy of degeneracy-lifted Landau levels in graphene
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17225-1 Here, the authors develop a spectroscopic technique whereby individual defects in an ultrathin hBN dielectric, placed in proximity to graphene, act as quantum dots. Dot-assisted tunneling is highly sensitive to the nearby graphene excitation spectrum, and allows probing of energy splitting in the excited Landau
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Highly reversible oxygen redox in layered compounds enabled by surface polyanions
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17126-3 Oxygen-anion redox in lithium-rich layered oxides can boost the capacity of lithium-ion battery cathodes. Here, the authors investigate the mechanism of surface degradation caused by oxygen oxidation and the kinetics of surface reconstruction.
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Deconstructing glioblastoma complexity reveals its pattern of development
Brain cancers have long been thought of as being resistant to treatments because of the presence of multiple types of cancer cells within each tumor. A new study uncovers a cancer cell hierarchy that originates from a single cancer cell type, which can be targeted to slow cancer growth.
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Spider silk made by photosynthetic bacteria
A research team in Japan reported that they succeeded in producing the spider silk — ultra-lightweight, though, biodegradable and biocompatible material — using photosynthetic bacteria. This study will open a new era in which bio-factories stably output the bulk of spider silk.
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Antigen Test For COVID-19 Isn't As Reliable As Genetic Test, Experts Caution
Doctors are using a new antigen test that is a faster method to spot people infected with the coronavirus. It's cheaper and simpler but may be less reliable.
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New Clues To ALS And Alzheimer's Disease From Physics
Structures inside healthy brain cells nimbly move from one state to the next to perform different functions. But in certain degenerative brain diseases, scientists now think, that process gets stuck. (Image credit: Jose Luis Calvo/ Science Source)
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Does conscious AI deserve rights?
Does AI—and, more specifically, conscious AI—deserve moral rights? In this thought exploration, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins , ethics and tech professor Joanna Bryson, philosopher and cognitive scientist Susan Schneider , physicist Max Tegmark , philosopher Peter Singer , and bioethicist Glenn Cohen all weigh in on the question of AI rights. Given the grave tragedy of slavery throughout
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Bias against black researchers harms science
Disparity hinders our understanding of why Bame communities suffer more from Covid-19
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Behind a Chemical Attack in Syria, a Lingering Battle Over Blame
Three years after the Syrian village of Khan Sheikhoun was devastated by a chemical weapons attack, MIT emeritus professor Ted Postol and others continue to dispute the findings of most other experts, who have placed the blame for the attack squarely — and, many argue, convincingly — on Syria's ruling regime.
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A Nationalist's Guide to Stepping Back From the Brink
When a deadly standoff on a disputed stretch of border between India and China resulted in the deaths of 20 Indian soldiers (and an unconfirmed number of Chinese casualties), a response from New Delhi seemed inevitable. It is the worst violence to take place between the two countries in nearly half a century—an incident that each side has since faulted the other for. It also comes at a time when
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New government unit to take over Covid response
There are questions over whether the Joint Biosecurity Centre has the expertise needed for the job.
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Coronavirus: 'The masks you throw away could end up killing a whale'
As the world battles the Covid-19 pandemic, more and more protective equipment is ending up in the sea.
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Response to stimulation in IVF may predict longer term health risks
A follow-up study of almost 20,000 young women who had a first cycle of IVF in Denmark between 1995 and 2014 indicates that those who responded poorly to treatment, with few eggs collected, are at a significantly increased risk of later age-related diseases.
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Blogger: GDPR gør det samme ved os som Covid: hysteriske og overdrevet forsigtige
Mens COVID-19 er en sygdom for mennesker, som myndighederne har udviklet retningslinjer for at undgå, er GDPR en sygdom for firmaer, som myndighederne også har udviklet retningslinjer for at undgå, lyder det fra Version2-blogger.
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The CNIO creates a collaborative platform to streamline brain metastasis research
The Brain Metastasis Cell Lines Panel (BrMPanel) is the first to compile information on +60 cell lines related to brain metastasis researchIt was spearheaded by CNIO researcher Manuel Valiente, who coordinated its 19 constituent international laboratories and seeks to turn it into a 'white paper' for research in this areaThe goal is to streamline brain metastasis research for the development of th
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Astronomers unveil epic X-ray map of the Universe
Nature, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02005-0 The latest science news, in brief.
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Miljøforskning fra DTU og MAN Energy Solutions er nu også blevet en kommerciel succes
PLUS. Med tre forskerpriser i lommen kan DTU og MAN Energy Solutions se tilbage på fem års intens forskning i at begrænse skibes udledning af sod og NOx. Nu sælges løsningen til rederier over hele verden.
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De første forskere med speciale i insektsygdomme uddannes fra KU
Københavns Universitet skal i et samarbejde mellem insektindustrien og andre europæiske universiteter…
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Il Piccolo Mulino Verduci Frodatore
"I choose to think of the paper-mills as something like a mediaeval monastic scriptorium, with one table of tonsured monks working on the text, while the limners at another table illuminate the Figures." – Smut Clyde
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Climate change turning US mountain lakes green with algae
Global warming is turning clear mountain lakes green in the western United States because of an increase in algae blooms "without historical precedent", researchers reported on Tuesday.
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NASA adds more safety fixes for Boeing's crew capsule
NASA has added more safety fixes for Boeing's space capsule before it can fly astronauts following a pair of close calls during last year's test flight.
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Kenya calls for help in fight against rising sexual abuse by foreigners
Anti-trafficking organisations say widespread trust in white outsiders makes children an easy target for abusers from the west Child protection organisations in Kenya say more needs to be done to protect young people from exploitation by overseas perpetrators, as the country reports a rising number of abuse cases. The warning follows the arrest of Gregory Dow, a 61-year-old missionary, who last m
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Climate warming increases Asian carp threat to Lake Michigan by offsetting quagga mussel 'ecological
The ongoing warming of Lake Michigan increases its susceptibility to Asian carp, in part by reducing the capacity of quagga mussels to act as an ecological barrier against the voracious algae-eating fish, according to a new University of Michigan-led study.
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New study reveals people more likely to donate when reminded of own mortality
New research from the UBC Sauder School of Business shows that people are 30 per cent more likely to donate their assets when faced with their own mortality.
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One Key Metric Shows How States' Outbreaks in The US Have Gotten Out of Control
There's more to this than just increased testing.
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Climate warming increases Asian carp threat to Lake Michigan by offsetting quagga mussel 'ecological
The ongoing warming of Lake Michigan increases its susceptibility to Asian carp, in part by reducing the capacity of quagga mussels to act as an ecological barrier against the voracious algae-eating fish, according to a new University of Michigan-led study.
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Algae species discovered infesting NW Hawaiian waters has been identified
A newly-identified, fast-growing species of algae poses a major threat to coral reefs and the ocean ecosystem. It was previously discovered in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument by a team of researchers from the University of Hawaiʻi, Western Australian Herbarium, College of Charleston and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
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New study detects ringing of the global atmosphere
A ringing bell vibrates simultaneously at a low-pitched fundamental tone and at many higher-pitched overtones, producing a pleasant musical sound. A recent study, just published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences by scientists at Kyoto University and the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, shows that the Earth's entire atmosphere vibrates in an analogous manner, in a striking confirmation of t
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Algae species discovered infesting NW Hawaiian waters has been identified
A newly-identified, fast-growing species of algae poses a major threat to coral reefs and the ocean ecosystem. It was previously discovered in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument by a team of researchers from the University of Hawaiʻi, Western Australian Herbarium, College of Charleston and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
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Does early access to pension funds improve health?
In a recent study from Singapore, early access to pension wealth was associated with improved health status. The findings are published in Economic Inquiry.
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HKUST researchers discover a novel mechanism regulating planar cell polarity
Researchers of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) recently uncovered novel molecular mechanisms that regulate delivery of a planar cell polarity protein, Frizzled-6, to the cell surface. This finding provides important information to guide the rational design of inhibitors to downregulate planar cell polarity pathway for cancer treatment.
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Morphological description of the first protozoeal stage of the deep-sea shrimps Aristeus antennatus and Gennadas elegans, with a key
Scientific Reports, Published online: 07 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-68044-9 Morphological description of the first protozoeal stage of the deep-sea shrimps Aristeus antennatus and Gennadas elegans , with a key
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Electroacupuncture intervention of visceral hypersensitivity is involved in PAR-2-activation and CGRP-release in the spinal cord
Scientific Reports, Published online: 07 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-67702-2
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Ny rekord: Verden smed 54 mio. ton elektronikaffald ud sidste år – det meste ved vi ikke hvor bliver af
Affaldshåndteringen kan ikke følge med de stigende mængder af elektronikaffald, som verdenen producerer hvert år. Det betyder ifølge FN, at massevis af værdifulde råstoffer går tabt og samtidig udsættes flere for farlige kemikalier.
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Warning of serious brain disorders in people with mild coronavirus symptoms
UK neurologists publish details of mildly affected or recovering Covid-19 patients with serious or potentially fatal brain conditions Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Doctors may be missing signs of serious and potentially fatal brain disorders triggered by coronavirus, as they emerge in mildly affected or recovering patients, scientists have warned. Neurologists are
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Researchers find promising therapy to fight epidemic of liver disease
In an effort to combat a growing worldwide epidemic of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), scientists have discovered a new target and a new therapy that has shown promising results in preclinical mouse models, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
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New study reveals people more likely to donate when reminded of own mortality
New research from the UBC Sauder School of Business shows that people are 30 per cent more likely to donate their assets when faced with their own mortality.
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Towards climate resilient urban energy systems
Nik and colleagues evaluated the progress achieved in the energy sector to adapt to climate change, focusing on the climate resilience of urban energy systems. They investigated the relevant concepts, criteria, methods and gaps that exist to assess climate resilience. A framework is suggested to account for climate change including extreme events when designing urban energy systems, considering mu
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The story behind a uniquely dark, wetland soil
Areas where landslides are common make hydric soil identification tricky.
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The effects of smartphone use on parenting
Parents may worry that spending time on their smartphones has a negative impact on their relationships with their children. However, a new comprehensive analysis published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry found that this is unlikely to be the case.
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Does early access to pension funds improve health?
In a recent study from Singapore, early access to pension wealth was associated with improved health status. The findings are published in Economic Inquiry.
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Certain factors during infancy may affect bone health in adulthood
In a recent study, breast feeding during infancy was associated with a lower risk of lower limb fractures when children reached young adulthood, while maternal smoking was associated with a higher risk of upper limb fractures. The findings are published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.
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Links between parents' and children's asthma and allergies
New research published in Clinical & Experimental Allergy found that, compared with a father's traits related to allergies and asthma, a mother's traits create a higher risk that a child will develop these same traits in early childhood.
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Early clinical trial tests treatment strategy for pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer carries a poor prognosis, and it often goes undetected until advanced stages. A new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) study indicates that a certain cocktail of chemotherapy drugs may be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with a metastatic form of the disease.
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Does a child's height affect their future risk of obesity?
Children who are relatively tall for their age have a higher risk of developing obesity, according to a new study published in Obesity.
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Bacteria in infants' first stool may indicate their risk of obesity
Meconium–the earliest stool of an infant — is composed of materials ingested during the time the infant spends in the uterus. A new study published in Pediatric Obesity found that the types of normal bacteria found in the meconium may predict an infant's likelihood of later developing obesity.
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New trial results question standard treatment plan for rheumatoid arthritis
In a clinical trial of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, treatment with a drug called upadacitinib provided greater benefits than methotrexate, the most commonly used initial therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.
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Hearing and visual impairments linked to elevated dementia risk
Older adults with both hearing and visual impairments–or dual sensory impairment–had a significantly higher risk for dementia in a recent study published in Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring.
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Certain jobs linked to higher risk of knee osteoarthritis
Workers in jobs that typically involve heavy lifting, frequent climbing, prolonged kneeling, squatting, and standing face an increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. That's the conclusion of a new analysis published in Arthritis Care & Research.
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Numerous jobs linked to increased risk of knee osteoarthritis
A major review of knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to knee surgery, pain and loss of mobility, reveals widespread risk of OA, demonstrating a need for prevention outside of traditional workplaces. It the biggest meta-analysis and systematic review of the potentially debilitating knee OA and the first systematic review into the association between job 'titles' and knee OA – finding Increase
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Animals who try to sound 'bigger' are good at learning sounds
Some animals fake their body size by sounding 'bigger' than they actually are. Maxime Garcia from the University of Zurich and Andrea Ravignani from the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics studied 164 different mammals and found that animals who lower their voice to sound bigger are often skilled vocalists. Both strategies–sounding bigger and learning sounds–are likely driven by sexual se
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Roads as a contributor to landscape-scale variation in bird communities
Nature Communications, Published online: 07 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-16899-x Roads are widespread and can impact ecological communities. Cooke et al. use data for 75 bird species across Great Britain to show that common species are disproportionately abundant near roads, whereas rarer, smaller-bodied and migrant species are more likely to be negatively associated with roads.
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Israel in 'dangerous place' as virus infections surge
Top health official quits amid warnings that country has 'lost control of pandemic'
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Virus on retreat in Spain despite flare-ups, says health chief
Local outbreaks a worry but Fernando Simón confident overall infection rate is going down
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Global report: WHO says 'evidence emerging' of airborne coronavirus spread
WHO bows to pressure from scientists about risk from aerosol transmission; Brazil's Bolsonaro tests positive; Israel health chief resigns Coronavirus latest updates US still 'knee-deep' in pandemic says Fauci Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro tests positive for Covid-19 The World Health Organization has acknowledged new evidence that the coronavirus spreads more widely in the air than it had pre
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New Zealand: man with Covid-19 absconds from quarantine for supermarket 'dash'
Man charged over latest breach of quarantine as country deals with influx of returning citizens during the coronavirus pandemic Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage A man in compulsory isolation has absconded from a quarantine hotel in New Zealand to make a late-night "spur-of-the-moment" dash to the supermarket before testing positive for Covid-19 the following day. Abou
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Jeremy Hunt says Sage gave 'wrong' advice at start of pandemic
Former health secretary criticises scientific advisers for failing to propose test and trace strategy
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Earth's Magnetic Field Could Be Changing Much Faster Than We Ever Realised
Up to 10 times faster than previously thought.
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Stocks struggle as US virus outbreaks threaten recovery
Hong Kong currency unmoved but HSBC rattled by report Washington could target dollar peg
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Scientists offer roadmap for studying link between climate and armed conflict
Climate change — from rising temperatures and more severe heavy rain, to drought — is increasing risks for economies, human security, and conflict globally. Scientists are leading an effort to better assess the climate-conflict link to help societies manage the complex risks of increased violence from a changing climate.
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Neurons show distinct styles as they interact with the same muscle partner
A study shows a newfound diversity in how cells talk to the muscle they innervate, revealing that the subclasses of neurons have distinct propensities for change, or 'plasticity'.
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Metabolomics meets genomics to improve patient diagnosis
Researchers have improved their ability to identify the genetic cause of undiagnosed conditions.
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Cooling mechanism increases solar energy harvesting for self-powered outdoor sensors
Thermoelectric devices, which use the temperature difference between the top and bottom of the device to generate power, offer some promise for harnessing naturally occurring energy. Authors tested one made up of a wavelength-selective emitter that constantly cools the device during the day using radiative cooling. As a result, the top of the device is cooler than the bottom, causing a temperature
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Microplastic pollution harms lobster larvae, study finds
Microplastic fiber pollution in the ocean impacts larval lobsters at each stage of their development, according to new research. A study reports that the fibers affect the animals' feeding and respiration, and they could even prevent some larvae from reaching adulthood.
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New Zealand opposition MP who leaked details of Covid-19 patients steps down
Actions by Hamish Walker have dealt a blow to the National party weeks away from an election Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage An opposition MP in New Zealand has announced he will not stand at September's election after he confessed to leaking private details about all of the country's active Covid-19 cases to several news outlets. The leak by Hamish Walker, a member
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Common inherited genetic variant identified as frequent cause of deafness in adults
A common inherited genetic variant is a frequent cause of deafness in adults, meaning that many thousands of people are potentially at risk, reveals new research.
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Probiotics alone or combined with prebiotics may help ease depression
Probiotics either taken by themselves or when combined with prebiotics, may help to ease depression, suggests a review of the available evidence.
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Hvorfor rammes mænd typisk hårdere af COVID-19? Svaret findes måske i forbudte pizzabakker
PLUS. Et dansk forskningsprojekt søger i øjeblikket efter svaret på et af coronavirussens videnskabelige mysterier i de nu forbudte vand- og fedtafvisende kemikalier i pizzabakker, burgerpapir og muffinsforme.
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New evidence helps form digital reconstruction of most important medieval shrine
The shrine of Saint Thomas Becket, the most important pilgrimage destination in medieval England – visited for hundreds of years by pilgrims seeking miraculous healing – has been digitally reconstructed for the public, according to how experts believe it appeared before its destruction.
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When it comes to DNA repair, it's not one tool fits all
Researchers studied double-strand breaks with complex damage and found that enzyme tools to resect the breaks are highly specific to the type of break to be repaired.
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Predicting PTSD symptoms becomes possible with a new test
10-15% of people visiting emergency rooms eventually develop symptoms of long-lasting PTSD. Early treatment is available but there's been no way to tell who needs it. Using clinical data already being collected, machine learning can identify who's at risk. The psychological scars a traumatic experience can leave behind may have a more profound effect on a person than the original traumatic experi
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Ignoring Outrage, Trump Officially Pulls US Out of WHO During Virus Crisis
Withdrawing right in the middle of a worsening pandemic.
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Climate change may push Zika virus into southern and eastern Europe
Mosquitoes carrying Zika virus are infectious when temperatures are 19°C or higher – climate change may increase the virus's range into southern and eastern Europe and the northern US
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Vaginal mesh safety review highlights failures in UK health system
The UK's "unresponsive and defensive" healthcare system has failed women who developed life-changing conditions after pelvic mesh surgery, concludes a review into the treatment
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This Philosophical Argument Convinced People to Give More to Charity – Facts So Romantic
How much would you pay to prevent your own child becoming blind? Photograph by 1000Photography / Shutterstock Last fall Fiery Cushman, the director of the Moral Psychology Research Lab at Harvard, and I announced a contest: We would award $1,000 to the author of an argument that effectively convinces research participants to donate a surprise bonus payment to charity at rates statistically higher
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The Atlantic Daily: Police Abolition Is an Opportunity
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox . (HULTON ARCHIVE / GETTY / KATIE MARTIN / THE ATLANTIC) June's protests saw a series of victories for advocates of police reform. But the national conversation is far from over, and calls for furt
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Psychology's five major perspectives explained
Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, but did you know there are actually 5 different perspectives to psychology? The earliest study of human psychology can be traced back to 400-500 BC. The biological approach, the psychodynamic approach, the behavioral approach, the cognitive approach, and the humanistic approach offer valid yet opposing ideas on why humans behave the way
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AI for self-driving cars doesn't account for crime
Existing approaches to artificial intelligence for self-driving cars don't account for the fact that people might try to use the autonomous vehicles to do something bad, researchers report. For example, let's say that there is an autonomous vehicle with no passengers and it's about to crash into a car containing five people. It can avoid the collision by swerving out of the road, but it would the
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Drug could enhance cancer immunotherapy
A drug treatment could improve the effectiveness of immunotherapy for cancer patients, researchers report. "Immunotherapy has been one of the biggest breakthroughs in biomedical science and medicine of the last two decades. But it has limitations." The MDM2 gene promotes tumor growth and interferes with immunotherapy in some cancer patients. The researchers' new study in the journal Cell Death Di
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Increase in delirium, rare brain inflammation and stroke linked to COVID-19
Neurological complications of Covid-19 can include delirium, brain inflammation, stroke and nerve damage, finds a new UCL and UCLH-led study, published in the journal Brain.
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House panels use "emergency" to boost NIH, DOE science budgets
Emergency spending provision also helps DOE national labs, but not NSF or NASA
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Custom nanoparticle regresses tumors when exposed to light
A unique nanoparticle to deliver a localized cancer treatment inhibits tumor growth in mice, according to researchers.
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Strain of E. coli may offer protections against its more malevolent cousins
Researchers say E. coli Nissle may protect human cells against other more pathogenic strains of E. coli such as E. coli 0157:H7, which is commonly associated with contaminated hamburger meat.
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Boron nitride destroys PFAS 'forever' chemicals PFOA, GenX
Chemical engineers have discovered a photocatalyst that can destroy 99% of the 'forever' chemical PFOA in laboratory tests on polluted water. Researchers showed the boron nitride catalyst also destroys GenX, a PFOA replacement that's also an environmental problem.
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Science behind traditional mezcal-making technique
Researchers reveal for the first time why bubbles are a good gauge of alcohol content in mezcal, a traditional Mexican spirit.
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Custom nanoparticle regresses tumors when exposed to light
A unique nanoparticle to deliver a localized cancer treatment inhibits tumor growth in mice, according to researchers.
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Shock-dissipating fractal cubes could forge high-tech armor
3D printed cubes,with intricate fractal voids efficiently dissipate shockwaves, potentially leading to new types of lightweight armor and materials to better withstand explosions and impacts.
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How to tackle climate change, food security and land degradation
How can some of world's biggest problems — climate change, food security and land degradation — be tackled simultaneously? Some lesser-known options, such as integrated water management and increasing the organic content of soil, have fewer trade-offs than many well-known options, such as planting trees, according to a new study.
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Hummingbirds can count their way to food
Tiny flyers show a concept of "numerical order" rarely seen in the wild
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Animals who try to sound 'bigger' are good at learning sounds
Some animals fake their body size by sounding bigger than they actually are. Maxime Garcia from the University of Zurich and Andrea Ravignani from the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics studied 164 different mammals and found that animals that lower their voices to sound bigger are often skilled vocalists. Both strategies—sounding bigger and learning sounds—are likely driven by sexual sele
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Animals who try to sound 'bigger' are good at learning sounds
Some animals fake their body size by sounding bigger than they actually are. Maxime Garcia from the University of Zurich and Andrea Ravignani from the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics studied 164 different mammals and found that animals that lower their voices to sound bigger are often skilled vocalists. Both strategies—sounding bigger and learning sounds—are likely driven by sexual sele
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Bright feathers, bright brains: hummingbirds 'can order numerically'
Study claims tiny creatures can order things in sequence, but researchers say it does not confirm they can count Hummingbirds are not only bright in appearance but also in brain, it would seem, with new research suggesting the tiny creatures are able to understand a numerical concept of order. While hummingbirds have previously been found to visit flowers in particular sequences when foraging, re
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Coronavirus live news: US to leave WHO as organisation warns crisis accelerating
US gives notice of withdrawal next year; Joe Biden says he would return the US to the WHO if elected; Jair Bolsonaro tests positive for Covid-19. Follow the latest updates WHO acknowledges 'evidence emerging' of airborne spread US officially notifies World Health Organization of its withdrawal Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro tests positive for coronavirus Australia: Melbourne returns to six-we
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How long to play dead in order to stay alive?
Many animals remain motionless or play dead after being attacked by a predator in the hope that it will give up and move onto some other unfortunate prey.
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Famous 'Jurassic Park' dinosaur is less lizard, more bird
From movies to museum exhibits, the dinosaur Dilophosaurus is no stranger to pop culture. Many probably remember it best from the movie 'Jurassic Park,' where it's depicted as a venom-spitting beast with a rattling frill around its neck and two paddle-like crests on its head. But a new comprehensive analysis of Dilophosaurus fossils is helping to set the record straight, finding that the Dilophosa
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Algae species discovered infesting NW Hawaiian waters has been identified
A newly-identified, fast-growing species of algae poses a major threat to coral reefs and the ocean ecosystem in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
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Future Texas hurricanes: Fast like Ike or slow like Harvey?
Climate change will intensify winds that steer hurricanes north over Texas in the final 25 years of this century, increasing the odds for fast-moving storms like 2008's Ike compared to slow-movers like 2017's Harvey, according to new research.
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How long to play dead in order to stay alive?
Many animals remain motionless or play dead after being attacked by a predator in the hope that it will give up and move onto some other unfortunate prey.
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Clean energy grids and electric vehicles key to beating climate change and air pollution
Any uptake in electric vehicle use must be mirrored by the development of clean energy grids to mitigate both climate change and air pollution.
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Bat Says Hi as It Hunts
Velvety free-tailed bats produce sounds that help them locate insect prey but simultaneously identify them to their companions.
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Rubisco accumulation factor 1 (Raf1) plays essential roles in mediating Rubisco assembly and carboxysome biogenesis [Plant Biology]
Carboxysomes are membrane-free organelles for carbon assimilation in cyanobacteria. The carboxysome consists of a proteinaceous shell that structurally resembles virus capsids and internal enzymes including ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), the primary carbon-fixing enzyme in photosynthesis. The formation of carboxysomes requires hierarchical self-assembly of thousands of
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Basal ganglia beta oscillations during sleep underlie Parkinsonian insomnia [Neuroscience]
Sleep disorders are among the most debilitating comorbidities of Parkinson's disease (PD) and affect the majority of patients. Of these, the most common is insomnia, the difficulty to initiate and maintain sleep. The degree of insomnia correlates with PD severity and it responds to treatments that decrease pathological basal ganglia…
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Antiresorptive activity of osteoprotegerin requires an intact heparan sulfate-binding site [Medical Sciences]
Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a secreted decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor B ligand (RANKL), plays an essential role in regulating bone resorption. While much is known about the function of the N-terminal domains of OPG, which is responsible for binding to RANKL, the exact biological functions of the three…
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Deconstruction of biomass enabled by local demixing of cosolvents at cellulose and lignin surfaces [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
A particularly promising approach to deconstructing and fractionating lignocellulosic biomass to produce green renewable fuels and high-value chemicals pretreats the biomass with organic solvents in aqueous solution. Here, neutron scattering and molecular-dynamics simulations reveal the temperature-dependent morphological changes in poplar wood biomass during tetrahydrofuran (THF):water pretreatme
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Translation information processing is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent mechanism in Purkinje cells in murine posterior vermis [Neuroscience]
The cerebellar posterior vermis generates an estimation of our motion (translation) and orientation (tilt) in space using cues originating from semicircular canals and otolith organs. Theoretical work has laid out the basic computations necessary for this signal transformation, but details on the cellular loci and mechanisms responsible are lacking. Using…
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Maternal effect killing by a supergene controlling ant social organization [Evolution]
Supergenes underlie striking polymorphisms in nature, yet the evolutionary mechanisms by which they arise and persist remain enigmatic. These clusters of linked loci can spread in populations because they captured coadapted alleles or by selfishly distorting the laws of Mendelian inheritance. Here, we show that the supergene haplotype associated with…
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Continuous topological transition from metal to dielectric [Applied Physical Sciences]
Metal and dielectric have long been thought as two different states of matter possessing highly contrasting electric and optical properties. A metal is a material highly reflective to electromagnetic waves for frequencies up to the optical region. In contrast, a dielectric is transparent to electromagnetic waves. These two different classical…
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Template-stabilized oxidic nickel oxygen evolution catalysts [Chemistry]
Earth-abundant oxygen evolution catalysts (OECs) with extended stability in acid can be constructed by embedding active sites within an acid-stable metal-oxide framework. Here, we report stable NiPbOx films that are able to perform oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis for extended periods of operation (>20 h) in acidic solutions of pH…
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Symmetry breaking in particle-forming diblock polymer/homopolymer blends [Applied Physical Sciences]
Compositionally asymmetric diblock copolymers provide an attractive platform for understanding the emergence of tetragonally close-packed, Frank–Kasper phases in soft matter. Block-polymer phase behavior is governed by a straightforward competition between chain stretching and interfacial tension under the constraint of filling space at uniform density. Experiments have revealed that diblock copol
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Bacteria-derived metabolite, methylglyoxal, modulates the longevity of C. elegans through TORC2/SGK-1/DAF-16 signaling [Genetics]
Gut microbes play diverse roles in modulating host fitness, including longevity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their mediation of longevity remain poorly understood. We performed genome-wide screens using 3,792 Escherichia coli mutants and identified 44 E. coli mutants that modulated Caenorhabditis elegans longevity. Three of these mutants modulated C. elegans…
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Out-of-plane carrier spin in transition-metal dichalcogenides under electric current [Applied Physical Sciences]
Absence of spatial inversion symmetry allows a nonequilibrium spin polarization to be induced by electric currents, which, in two-dimensional systems, is conventionally analyzed using the Rashba model, leading to in-plane spin polarization. Given that the material realizations of out-of-plane current-induced spin polarization (CISP) are relatively fewer than that of in-plane…
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Characterizing soundscapes across diverse ecosystems using a universal acoustic feature set [Applied Mathematics]
Natural habitats are being impacted by human pressures at an alarming rate. Monitoring these ecosystem-level changes often requires labor-intensive surveys that are unable to detect rapid or unanticipated environmental changes. Here we have developed a generalizable, data-driven solution to this challenge using eco-acoustic data. We exploited a convolutional neural network…
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Shared up-regulation and contrasting down-regulation of gene expression distinguish desiccation-tolerant from intolerant green algae [Plant Biology]
Among green plants, desiccation tolerance is common in seeds and spores but rare in leaves and other vegetative green tissues. Over the last two decades, genes have been identified whose expression is induced by desiccation in diverse, desiccation-tolerant (DT) taxa, including, e.g., late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) and reactive oxygen…
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A plant DNA virus replicates in the salivary glands of its insect vector via recruitment of host DNA synthesis machinery [Agricultural Sciences]
Whereas most of the arthropod-borne animal viruses replicate in their vectors, this is less common for plant viruses. So far, only some plant RNA viruses have been demonstrated to replicate in insect vectors and plant hosts. How plant viruses evolved to replicate in the animal kingdom remains largely unknown. Geminiviruses…
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Hyponastic Leaves 1 protects pri-miRNAs from nuclear exosome attack [Plant Biology]
Biogenesis of plant microRNAs (miRNAs) takes place in nuclear dicing bodies (D-bodies), where the ribonulease III-type enzyme Dicer-like 1 (DCL1) processes primary transcripts of miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) into miRNA/miRNA* (*, passenger strand) duplexes from either base-to-loop or loop-to-base directions. Hyponastic Leaves 1 (HYL1), a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, is crucial for efficient…
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Assembly and regulation of the chlorhexidine-specific efflux pump AceI [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Few antibiotics are effective against Acinetobacter baumannii, one of the most successful pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired infections. Resistance to chlorhexidine, an antiseptic widely used to combat A. baumannii, is effected through the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family. The prototype membrane protein of this family, AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux pr
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Dynamic and asymmetric fluctuations in the microtubule wall captured by high-resolution cryoelectron microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Microtubules are tubular polymers with essential roles in numerous cellular activities. Structures of microtubules have been captured at increasing resolution by cryo-EM. However, dynamic properties of the microtubule are key to its function, and this behavior has proved difficult to characterize at a structural level due to limitations in existing…
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A frameshift variant in specificity protein 1 triggers superactivation of Sp1-mediated transcription in familial bone marrow failure [Genetics]
Inherited bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by defective hematopoiesis and often predisposing to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia. We have studied a large family consisting of several affected individuals with hematologic abnormalities, including one family member who died of acute leukemia….
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Bayesian inference of reassortment networks reveals fitness benefits of reassortment in human influenza viruses [Evolution]
Reassortment is an important source of genetic diversity in segmented viruses and is the main source of novel pathogenic influenza viruses. Despite this, studying the reassortment process has been constrained by the lack of a coherent, model-based inference framework. Here, we introduce a coalescent-based model that allows us to explicitly…
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Self-emitted surface corrugations in dynamic fracture of silicon single crystal [Physics]
When a dynamic crack front travels through material heterogeneities, elastic waves are emitted, which perturb the crack and change the morphology of the fracture surface. For asperity-free crystalline materials, crack propagation along preferential cleavage planes is expected to present a smooth crack front and form a mirror-like fracture surface. Surprisingly,…
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Universal inference [Statistics]
We propose a general method for constructing confidence sets and hypothesis tests that have finite-sample guarantees without regularity conditions. We refer to such procedures as "universal." The method is very simple and is based on a modified version of the usual likelihood-ratio statistic that we call "the split likelihood-ratio test"…
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Forgoing earned incentives to signal pure motives [Economic Sciences]
Policy makers, employers, and insurers often provide financial incentives to encourage citizens, employees, and customers to take actions that are good for them or for society (e.g., energy conservation, healthy living, safe driving). Although financial incentives are often effective at inducing good behavior, they've been shown to have self-image costs:…
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A TAL effector-like protein of an endofungal bacterium increases the stress tolerance and alters the transcriptome of the host [Evolution]
Symbioses of bacteria with fungi have only recently been described and are poorly understood. In the symbiosis of Mycetohabitans (formerly Burkholderia) rhizoxinica with the fungus Rhizopus microsporus, bacterial type III (T3) secretion is known to be essential. Proteins resembling T3-secreted transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors of plant pathogenic bacteria are encoded…
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Functionally distinct Purkinje cell types show temporal precision in encoding locomotion [Neuroscience]
Purkinje cells, the principal neurons of cerebellar computations, are believed to comprise a uniform neuronal population of cells, each with similar functional properties. Here, we show an undiscovered heterogeneity of adult zebrafish Purkinje cells, revealing the existence of anatomically and functionally distinct cell types. Dual patch-clamp recordings showed that the…
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Impaired estrogen signaling underlies regulatory T cell loss-of-function in the chronically inflamed intestine [Immunology and Inflammation]
Signaling of 17β-estradiol (estrogen) through its two nuclear receptors, α and β (ERα, ERβ), is an important mechanism of transcriptional regulation. Although ERs are broadly expressed by cells of the immune system, the mechanisms by which they modulate immune responses remain poorly understood. ERβ-specific signaling is reduced in patients with…
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A molecular mechanism for probabilistic bet hedging and its role in viral latency [Microbiology]
Probabilistic bet hedging, a strategy to maximize fitness in unpredictable environments by matching phenotypic variability to environmental variability, is theorized to account for the evolution of various fate-specification decisions, including viral latency. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying bet hedging remain unclear. Here, we report that large variability in protein abundance…
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Adiponectin and related C1q/TNF-related proteins bind selectively to anionic phospholipids and sphingolipids [Physiology]
Adiponectin (Acrp30) is an adipokine associated with protection from cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Although its effects are conventionally attributed to binding Adipor1/2 and T-cadherin, its abundance in circulation, role in ceramide metabolism, and homology to C1q suggest an overlooked role as a lipid-binding protein, possibly generalizable to other…
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The emergent interactions that govern biodiversity change [Ecology]
Observational studies have not yet shown that environmental variables can explain pervasive nonlinear patterns of species abundance, because those patterns could result from (indirect) interactions with other species (e.g., competition), and models only estimate direct responses. The experiments that could extract these indirect effects at regional to continental scales are…
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Vision perceptually restores auditory spectral dynamics in speech [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Visual speech facilitates auditory speech perception, but the visual cues responsible for these benefits and the information they provide remain unclear. Low-level models emphasize basic temporal cues provided by mouth movements, but these impoverished signals may not fully account for the richness of auditory information provided by visual speech. High-level…
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Structural basis for autophagy inhibition by the human Rubicon-Rab7 complex [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Rubicon is a potent negative regulator of autophagy and a potential target for autophagy-inducing therapeutics. Rubicon-mediated inhibition of autophagy requires the interaction of the C-terminal Rubicon homology (RH) domain of Rubicon with Rab7–GTP. Here we report the 2.8-Å crystal structure of the Rubicon RH domain in complex with Rab7–GTP. Our…
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The implications of silent transmission for the control of COVID-19 outbreaks [Population Biology]
Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), unprecedented movement restrictions and social distancing measures have been implemented worldwide. The socioeconomic repercussions have fueled calls to lift these measures. In the absence of population-wide restrictions, isolation of infected individuals is key to curtailing transmission. However, the effectiveness of symptom-based isola
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How frequency hopping suppresses pulse-echo ambiguity in bat biosonar [Neuroscience]
Big brown bats transmit wideband FM biosonar sounds that sweep from 55 to 25 kHz (first harmonic, FM1) and from 110 to 50 kHz (second harmonic, FM2). FM1 is required to perceive echo delay for target ranging; FM2 contributes only if corresponding FM1 frequencies are present. We show that echoes…
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Calpain inhibitor and ibudilast rescue {beta} cell functions in a cellular model of Wolfram syndrome [Physiology]
Wolfram syndrome is a rare multisystem disease characterized by childhood-onset diabetes mellitus and progressive neurodegeneration. Most cases are attributed to pathogenic variants in a single gene, Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1). There currently is no disease-modifying treatment for Wolfram syndrome, as the molecular consequences of the loss of WFS1 remain elusive….
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Selective amplification of ipRGC signals accounts for interictal photophobia in migraine [Neuroscience]
Second only to headache, photophobia is the most debilitating symptom reported by people with migraine. While the melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to play a role, how cone and melanopsin signals are integrated in this pathway to produce visual discomfort is poorly understood. We studied 60…
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Label-free optical detection of bioelectric potentials using electrochromic thin films [Applied Physical Sciences]
Understanding how a network of interconnected neurons receives, stores, and processes information in the human brain is one of the outstanding scientific challenges of our time. The ability to reliably detect neuroelectric activities is essential to addressing this challenge. Optical recording using voltage-sensitive fluorescent probes has provided unprecedented flexibility for…
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The environmental stress response causes ribosome loss in aneuploid yeast cells [Cell Biology]
Aneuploidy, a condition characterized by whole chromosome gains and losses, is often associated with significant cellular stress and decreased fitness. However, how cells respond to the aneuploid state has remained controversial. In aneuploid budding yeast, two opposing gene-expression patterns have been reported: the "environmental stress response" (ESR) and the "common…
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Lineage reconstruction from clonal correlations [Applied Mathematics]
A central task in developmental biology is to learn the sequence of fate decisions that leads to each mature cell type in a tissue or organism. Recently, clonal labeling of cells using DNA barcodes has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying cells that share a common ancestry of fate…
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Active photonic wireless power transfer into live tissues [Engineering]
Recent advances in soft materials and mechanics activate development of many new types of electrical medical implants. Electronic implants that provide exceptional functions, however, usually require more electrical power, resulting in shorter period of usages although many approaches have been suggested to harvest electrical power in human bodies by resolving…
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Six hundred years of South American tree rings reveal an increase in severe hydroclimatic events since mid-20th century [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
South American (SA) societies are highly vulnerable to droughts and pluvials, but lack of long-term climate observations severely limits our understanding of the global processes driving climatic variability in the region. The number and quality of SA climate-sensitive tree ring chronologies have significantly increased in recent decades, now providing a…
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The ecology of human-carnivore coexistence [Ecology]
With a shrinking supply of wilderness and growing recognition that top predators can have a profound influence on ecosystems, the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes has emerged as one of the greatest conservation challenges of our time. Carnivores fascinate society, yet these animals pose threats to people living…
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Upper Midwest lakes are supersaturated with N2 [Ecology]
Little is known about the exchange of gaseous nitrogen (N2) with the atmosphere in freshwater systems. Although the exchange of N2, driven by excess or deficiencies relative to saturation values, has little relevance to the atmospheric N2 pool due to its large size, it does play an important role in…
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Dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by Parkinson's disease-linked G2019S LRRK2 is dependent on kinase and GTPase activity [Neuroscience]
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of late-onset, autosomal-dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 functions as both a kinase and GTPase, and PD-linked mutations are known to influence both enzymatic activities. While PD-linked LRRK2 mutations can commonly induce neuronal damage in culture models, the…
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Inhibition of impulsive action by projection-defined prefrontal pyramidal neurons [Neuroscience]
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in curbing impulsive behavior, but the underlying circuit mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here we show that a subset of dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) layer 5 pyramidal neurons, which project to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia, play a key role in…
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Calibrating the coevolution of Ediacaran life and environment [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The rise of animals occurred during an interval of Earth history that witnessed dynamic marine redox conditions, potentially rapid plate motions, and uniquely large perturbations to global biogeochemical cycles. The largest of these perturbations, the Shuram carbon isotope excursion, has been invoked as a driving mechanism for Ediacaran environmental change,…
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Adversarial super-resolution of climatological wind and solar data [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Accurate and high-resolution data reflecting different climate scenarios are vital for policy makers when deciding on the development of future energy resources, electrical infrastructure, transportation networks, agriculture, and many other societally important systems. However, state-of-the-art long-term global climate simulations are unable to resolve the spatiotemporal characteristics necessar
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A partially disordered region connects gene repression and activation functions of EZH2 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), which minimally requires two other subunits, EED and SUZ12, for enzymatic activity. EZH2 has been traditionally known to mediate histone H3K27 trimethylation, a hallmark of silent chromatin. Emerging evidence indicates that EZH2 also activates…
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Individual differences determine the strength of ecological interactions [Ecology]
Biotic interactions are central to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In the vast majority of empirical studies, the strength of intraspecific interactions is estimated by using simple measures of population size. Biologists have long known that these are crude metrics, with experiments and theory suggesting that interactions between individuals should…
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A negative reciprocal regulatory axis between cyclin D1 and HNF4{alpha} modulates cell cycle progression and metabolism in the liver [Medical Sciences]
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a master regulator of liver function and a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we explore the reciprocal negative regulation of HNF4α and cyclin D1, a key cell cycle protein in the liver. Transcriptomic analysis of cultured hepatocyte and HCC cells…
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Genomic regions influencing aggressive behavior in honey bees are defined by colony allele frequencies [Genetics]
For social animals, the genotypes of group members affect the social environment, and thus individual behavior, often indirectly. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to determine the influence of individual vs. group genotypes on aggression in honey bees. Aggression in honey bees arises from the coordinated actions of colony members,…
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Correction to Supporting Information for Halpern et al., Opinion: Putting all foods on the same table: Achieving sustainable food systems requires full accounting [SI Correction]
OPINION Correction to Supporting Information for "Opinion: Putting all foods on the same table: Achieving sustainable food systems requires full accounting," by Benjamin S. Halpern, Richard S. Cottrell, Julia L. Blanchard, Lex Bouwman, Halley E. Froehlich, Jessica A. Gephart, Nis Sand Jacobsen, Caitlin D. Kuempel, Peter B. McIntyre, Marc Metian,…
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Children drinking private well water have higher blood lead than those with city water [Environmental Sciences]
Although the Flint, Michigan, water crisis renewed concerns about lead (Pb) in city drinking water, little attention has been paid to Pb in private wells, which provide drinking water for 13% of the US population. This study evaluates the risk of Pb exposure in children in households relying on private…
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Correction for Mastrangelo et al., Twin-chain polymer hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol) as new advanced tool for the cleaning of modern and contemporary art [Corrections]
CHEMISTRY, SOCIAL SCIENCES Correction for "Twin-chain polymer hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol) as new advanced tool for the cleaning of modern and contemporary art," by Rosangela Mastrangelo, David Chelazzi, Giovanna Poggi, Emiliano Fratini, Luciano Pensabene Buemi, Maria Laura Petruzzellis, and Piero Baglioni, which was first published March 9, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1911811117…
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Noninvasive acoustic manipulation of objects in a living body [Medical Sciences]
In certain medical applications, transmitting an ultrasound beam through the skin to manipulate a solid object within the human body would be beneficial. Such applications include, for example, controlling an ingestible camera or expelling a kidney stone. In this paper, ultrasound beams of specific shapes were designed by numerical modeling…
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Original antigenic sin priming of influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk antibodies [Microbiology]
Immunity to influenza viruses can be long-lived, but reinfections with antigenically distinct viral strains and subtypes are common. Reinfections can boost antibody responses against viral strains first encountered in childhood through a process termed "original antigenic sin." It is unknown how initial childhood exposures affect the induction of antibodies against…
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Evolution of abiotic cubane chemistries in a nucleic acid aptamer allows selective recognition of a malaria biomarker [Chemistry]
Nucleic acid aptamers selected through systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) fold into exquisite globular structures in complex with protein targets with diverse translational applications. Varying the chemistry of nucleotides allows evolution of nonnatural nucleic acids, but the extent to which exotic chemistries can be integrated into a…
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Flat latitudinal diversity gradient caused by the Permian-Triassic mass extinction [Evolution]
The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is recognized as one of the most pervasive, global patterns of present-day biodiversity. However, the controlling mechanisms have proved difficult to identify because many potential drivers covary in space. The geological record presents a unique opportunity for understanding the mechanisms which drive the LDG by…
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Correction for Luther et al., Hepatic gap junctions amplify alcohol liver injury by propagating cGAS-mediated IRF3 activation [Corrections]
MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for "Hepatic gap junctions amplify alcohol liver injury by propagating cGAS-mediated IRF3 activation," by Jay Luther, Sanjoy Khan, Manish K. Gala, Dmitry Kedrin, Gautham Sridharan, Russell P. Goodman, John J. Garber, Ricard Masia, Erik Diagacomo, Daniel Adams, Kevin R. King, Samuel Piaker, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Martin L. Yarmush,…
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A tiny ornithodiran archosaur from the Triassic of Madagascar and the role of miniaturization in dinosaur and pterosaur ancestry [Evolution]
Early members of the dinosaur–pterosaur clade Ornithodira are very rare in the fossil record, obscuring our understanding of the origins of this important group. Here, we describe an early ornithodiran (Kongonaphon kely gen. et sp. nov.) from the Mid-to-Upper Triassic of Madagascar that represents one of the smallest nonavian ornithodirans….
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Contrasting effects of climate change on seasonal survival of a hibernating mammal [Population Biology]
Seasonal environmental conditions shape the behavior and life history of virtually all organisms. Climate change is modifying these seasonal environmental conditions, which threatens to disrupt population dynamics. It is conceivable that climatic changes may be beneficial in one season but result in detrimental conditions in another because life-history strategies vary…
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Adherence to suicide reporting guidelines by news shared on a social networking platform [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Rates of suicide in the United States are at a more than 20-y high. Suicide contagion, or spread of suicide-related thoughts and behaviors through exposure to sensationalized and harmful content is a well-recognized phenomenon. Health authorities have published guidelines for news media reporting on suicide to help prevent contagion; however,…
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Default-mode network streams for coupling to language and control systems [Neuroscience]
The human brain is organized into large-scale networks identifiable using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). These functional networks correspond with broad cognitive domains; for example, the Default-mode network (DMN) is engaged during internally oriented cognition. However, functional networks may contain hierarchical substructures corresponding with more specific cognitive functions
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Higher manganese levels may reduce preeclampsia risk
In a new study, women with lower levels of manganese in early pregnancy were more likely to develop preeclampsia in late pregnancy. The study in Epidemiology suggests the possibility that boosting manganese levels in women before and during pregnancy could potentially reduce preeclampsia risk. Preeclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy and affects more than 100,000 women in the
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Experts: A mask cuts your coronavirus risk by 65%
Social distancing and wearing a mask prevent you from spreading COVID-19, but they also protect you from getting it, two experts explain in a new video discussion of coronavirus transmission. A range of new research on face coverings shows that the risk of infection to the wearer decreases by 65%, says Dean Blumberg , chief of pediatric infectious diseases at the University of California, Davis C
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Bat Says Hi as It Hunts
Velvety free-tailed bats produce sounds that help them locate insect prey but simultaneously identify them to their companions. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Bat Says Hi as It Hunts
Velvety free-tailed bats produce sounds that help them locate insect prey but simultaneously identify them to their companions. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Bat Says Hi as It Hunts
Velvety free-tailed bats produce sounds that help them locate insect prey but simultaneously identify them to their companions. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Algae species discovered infesting NW Hawaiian waters has been identified
A newly-identified, fast-growing species of algae poses a major threat to coral reefs and the ocean ecosystem in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
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Men and younger adults less active in lockdown
New research published in the journal BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine indicates that men and younger adults have been less physically active during the COVID-19 lockdown.
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Solar-powered chargers that will keep your battery full while off the grid
There's a lot more battery life in the sun. (Ferran Feixas via Unsplash/) Keeping your phone charged can be a challenge, especially when you are out and about. Plugging in your phone during a day at the office is a simple fix, but what about during a camping trip, day hike, beach excursion, or music festival? A solar-powered phone charger is a great way to be on the go and fully charged. These du
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Italian Institute Revokes Appointment of Cancer Researcher
Pier Paolo Pandolfi left Harvard University last year following allegations of sexual harassment, and has since been accused of research misconduct.
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Scrutinizing SpaceX, NASA Overlooked Some Boeing Software Problems
The agency identified the causes of mishaps in orbit during an uncrewed test flight of its Starliner spacecraft in December.
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Author Correction: Elpistostege and the origin of the vertebrate hand
Nature, Published online: 08 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2450-2
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Reliable portable water filters for traveling or hiking
Fresh H2O on the go. (Jeffrey Workman via Unsplash/) Lakes, streams, and even the run-down water fountain on the playground can seem like a tantalizing oasis when you're thirsty. At least until you think about all the bacteria in freshwater, or see someone use the fountain to give their dog a bath. In your daily life, a portable water filter can save you from buying expensive re-branded tap water
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Just before a massive outbreak, a California prison declined free coronavirus tests and urgent advice
Nature, Published online: 07 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02042-9 San Quentin prison is dealing with the third-largest coronavirus outbreak in the United States: researchers fear that other prisons are at risk.
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Criminal charges reveal the identity of the "invisible god" hacker
A notorious hacker who made an estimated $1.5 million by stealing information from more than 300 companies and governments in 44 countries has been identified as a 37-year-old man from Kazakhstan. Known as Fxmsp, the hacker became famous in 2019 when he advertised access and source code for leading cybersecurity companies, amid claims that he could make a customer " the invisible god of networks.
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School openings across globe suggest ways to keep coronavirus at bay, despite outbreaks
Science explores reopening strategies from South Africa to Finland to Israel
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It's time to grieve the world we've lost to climate change—and start to move on
Fighting for a better world means fighting our own despair as well. (Pixabay/) The following is an excerpt adapted from THE FUTURE EARTH by Eric Holthaus. We've all experienced profound loss in our lives—a bad breakup, incurable diseases, tragedies that feel like the world is crumbling in on top of us. What might it mean for an entire country or society or civilization to walk together, hand in h
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Sunak unveils £2bn scheme to avoid youth jobless disaster
Chancellor to announce creation of 'free labour' pool for companies for six months
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Milk lipids follow the evolution of mammals
Skoltech scientists conducted a study of milk lipids and described the unique features of human breast milk as compared to bovids, pigs, and closely related primates. Their findings could be indicative of co-evolution of milk composition and the specific needs of the developing organism
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New study detects ringing of the global atmosphere
A ringing bell vibrates simultaneously at a low-pitched fundamental tone and at many higher-pitched overtones, producing a pleasant musical sound. A recent study, just published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences by scientists at Kyoto University and the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, shows that the Earth's entire atmosphere vibrates in an analogous manner, in a striking confirmation of t
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A new hydrogel might be strong enough for knee replacements
Duke University researchers created a hydrogel that appears to be as strong and flexible as human cartilage. The blend of three polymers provides enough flexibility and durability to mimic the knee. The next step is to test this hydrogel in sheep; human use can take at least three years. While the human body is designed for decades of use, we are prone to breaking down at inopportune times. Our n
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NASA's InSight flexes its arm while its 'mole' hits pause
NASA's InSight lander has been using its robotic arm to help the heat probe known as the "mole" burrow into Mars. The mission is providing the first look at the Red Planet's deep interior to reveal details about the formation of Mars and, ultimately, all rocky planets, including Earth.
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Building NASA's Psyche: design done, now full speed ahead on hardware
Psyche, the NASA mission to explore a metal-rock asteroid of the same name, recently passed a crucial milestone that brings it closer to its August 2022 launch date. Now the mission is moving from planning and designing to high-gear manufacturing of the spacecraft hardware that will fly to its target in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.
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Bad E. coli we know, but good E. coli?
Typically, there aren't a lot of positive thoughts when E. coli, generally found in animal and human intestines, is mentioned. It's been blamed for closing beaches and swimming pools and shuttering restaurants because of contamination in salad bars, meats or other food items.
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There's Pink Snow in Europe. That Could Be Bad, Scientists Say
Dirty Snow If you were to trek up the Italian Alps right now, you'd find your boots covered in bizarrely pink snow. While it's a beautiful touch that turns the mountaintops into an alien landscape, Earther reports that the pink snow is actually a pretty bad sign. The pink color comes from blooming algae. And while the full extent of its impact on the environment is poorly understood, it could spe
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Bad E. coli we know, but good E. coli?
Typically, there aren't a lot of positive thoughts when E. coli, generally found in animal and human intestines, is mentioned. It's been blamed for closing beaches and swimming pools and shuttering restaurants because of contamination in salad bars, meats or other food items.
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Scientists offer roadmap for studying link between climate and armed conflict
Climate change—from rising temperatures and more severe heavy rain, to drought—is increasing risks for economies, human security, and conflict globally. Scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science are leading an effort to better assess the climate-conflict link to help societies manage the complex risks of increased violence from a changing climat
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Famous 'Jurassic Park' dinosaur is less lizard, more bird
From movies to museum exhibits, the dinosaur Dilophosaurus is no stranger to pop culture. Many probably remember it best from the movie 'Jurassic Park,' where it's depicted as a venom-spitting beast with a rattling frill around its neck and two paddle-like crests on its head. But a new comprehensive analysis of Dilophosaurus fossils is helping to set the record straight, finding that the Dilophosa
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Bad E. coli we know, but good E. coli?
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine say E. coli Nissle may protect human cells against other more pathogenic strains of E. coli such as E. coli 0157:H7, which is commonly associated with contaminated hamburger meat.
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Study reveals science behind traditional mezcal-making technique
Artisanal makers of mezcal have a tried and true way to tell when the drink has been distilled to the right alcohol level. They squirt some into a small container and look for little bubbles, known as pearls. If the alcohol content is too high or too low, the bubbles burst quickly. But if they linger for 30 seconds or so, the alcohol level is perfect and the mezcal is ready to drink.
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Custom nanoparticle regresses tumors when exposed to light
A unique nanoparticle to deliver a localized cancer treatment inhibits tumor growth in mice, according to a team of Penn State researchers.
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W.H.O. to Review Evidence of Airborne Transmission of Coronavirus
The World Health Organization plans to update its advice after hundreds of experts urged the agency to reconsider the risk of aerosol transmission.
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US Bars International Students from Online-Only Learning in Fall
Some in-person instruction will be required to maintain a student visa, and universities must tell the US government of their plans to open by July 15.
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US launches mass testing in virus hotspots
New cases and the number of fatalities rise sharply as data is collected after holiday weekend
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JNCCN study explores if insurance is keeping pace with trends in targeted cancer therapy
New research from the University of California, San Francisco (USCF) and City of Hope in the July 2020 issue of JNCCN–Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network examines coverage trends for circulating tumor DNA testing, also known as gene sequencing of ctDNA or 'liquid biopsies.' The researchers found coverage rate rose from 0% to 38% in three years. The policies also increased in scop
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Targeted taxes and school lunch policies benefit low-income populations
Targeted taxes on sweetened beverages and policies that strengthen nutritional standards for meals and beverages at schools may be effective tools for decreasing the purchase of sweetened drinks and reducing obesity among children living in poverty, according to two studies led by researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
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Exclusive: US National Science Foundation reveals first details on foreign-influence investigations
Nature, Published online: 07 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02051-8 The funding agency has taken action in 16–20 cases in which foreign ties were not properly reported.
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The future of digital communication and privacy | Will Cathcart
People send 100 billion WhatsApp messages every day — and they're all encrypted to protect them from potentially curious entities like companies, governments and even WhatsApp itself. With our increased reliance on digital communication tools during the COVID-19 pandemic, our fundamental right to privacy is more important than ever, says Will Cathcart, head of WhatsApp. He describes the tech and
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Scientists offer roadmap for studying link between climate and armed conflict
Climate change–from rising temperatures and more severe heavy rain, to drought–is increasing risks for economies, human security, and conflict globally. Scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science are leading an effort to better assess the climate-conflict link to help societies manage the complex risks of increased violence from a changing clim
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The Backlash Against PPP Is Why the U.S. Can't Have Nice Things
This story was updated on July 7 at 10:17 p.m. The pandemic is out of control, the economy is in the toilet, and the weather is unpleasant, but at least the schadenfreude is excellent this week. Yesterday the Small Business Administration released a list of loan recipients under the Paycheck Protection Program, part of the hastily passed CARES Act stimulus. The list is full of targets ripe for na
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Famous 'Jurassic Park' dinosaur is less lizard, more bird
From movies to museum exhibits, the dinosaur Dilophosaurus is no stranger to pop culture. Many probably remember it best from the movie "Jurassic Park," where it's depicted as a venom-spitting beast with a rattling frill around its neck and two paddle-like crests on its head.
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Boron nitride destroys 'forever' chemicals PFOA, GenX
Rice University chemical engineers found an efficient catalyst for destroying PFAS "forever" chemicals where they least expected.
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Heat will stay stuck on extra high for July in most of US
The heat is on. And for most of America it'll stay on through the rest of the month and maybe longer, meteorologists say.
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Early childhood education centers can boost parents' engagement at home
COVID-19 has temporarily shuttered many early childhood education centers across the country, shifting full-time child care and teaching responsibilities largely to parents.
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China Finally Figured Out What That Weird "Gel-Like" Substance from the Far Side of the Moon Was
Drum roll please… The "gel-like" material China dramatically announced that it had discovered on the far side of the Moon last year was, well, melted bits of Moon rock. That's the somewhat deflating realization a team of Chinese scientists made after they studied the substance, discovered by China's Yutu 2 rover last July, as Space.com first reported . On January 3 2019, China's Chang'e 4 lunar p
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How to tackle climate change, food security and land degradation
How can some of world's biggest problems—climate change, food security and land degradation—be tackled simultaneously?
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Aggressive seaweed smothers one of world's most remote reefs
Researchers say a recently discovered species of seaweed is killing large patches of coral on once-pristine reefs and is rapidly spreading across one of the most remote and protected ocean environments on earth.
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Hong Kong Is Already Being Censored by China's "Great Firewall"
Great Firewall With China's recent implementation of a new national security law that gave it vastly more power over Hong Kong, the region is already being silenced and censored through China's "Great Firewall." With police and the government wielding sweeping new controls over online communication, Vice News reports that Hong Kong's previously open and robust internet already seems to have scree
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Aggressive seaweed smothers one of world's most remote reefs
Researchers say a recently discovered species of seaweed is killing large patches of coral on once-pristine reefs and is rapidly spreading across one of the most remote and protected ocean environments on earth.
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Custom nanoparticle regresses tumors when exposed to light
A unique nanoparticle to deliver a localized cancer treatment inhibits tumor growth in mice, according to a team of Penn State researchers.
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New link between calcium and cardiolipin in heart defects
To function properly, the heart needs energy from cells' powerhouses, the mitochondria. In turn, mitochondria boost their energy output when calcium levels rise around them, a signal that more energy is needed. A new study shows that a shortage of cardiolipin, a type of fat, in the mitochondrial membrane, prevents calcium from entering mitochondria. The result helps explain heart and muscle weakne
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COVID-19 in patients who have received kidney transplants or are undergoing dialysis
A recent study found that most kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 do not need to be hospitalized. Another study found that patients on dialysis who develop COVID-19 may have symptoms that are different from other patients with the infectious disease.
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Neurons show distinct styles as they interact with the same muscle partner
A study in the Journal of Neuroscience shows a newfound diversity in how cells talk to the muscle they innervate, revealing that the subclasses of neurons have distinct propensities for change, or 'plasticity'.
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U.S. research cruises resume, gingerly
Marine scientists face new safety requirements for COVID-19
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Study reveals science behind traditional mezcal-making technique
Researchers reveal for the first time why bubbles are a good gauge of alcohol content in mezcal, a traditional Mexican spirit.
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Congress Budget Denies NASA Full Funding for Moon Missions
The Trump administration was hoping to flesh out NASA's budget to around $26 or $27 billion starting in 2021 — an increase in the neighborhood of $3 billion compared to 2020 intended to get the space agency back to the Moon by 2024. But according to a House appropriations bill released today, Congress has no intention of raising NASA's budget, setting aside the same $22.63 billion as last year. T
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Bring your old bike back to life with these pro restoration tips
Old bikes can still have a lot of life left in them. (Stan Horaczek /) Like so many things during the COVID-19 pandemic, buying a new bicycle is a lot more difficult than usual right now. Local bike shops are having difficulty keeping anything even relatively affordable in stock, while the racks at big department stores remain largely empty. The shortage has wheeled old bikes into the spotlight.
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Boron nitride destroys PFAS 'forever' chemicals PFOA, GenX
Rice University chemical engineers have discovered a photocatalyst that can destroy 99% of the 'forever' chemical PFOA in laboratory tests on polluted water. Researchers showed the boron nitride catalyst also destroys GenX, a PFOA replacement that's also an environmental problem.
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Shock-dissipating fractal cubes could forge high-tech armor
Tiny, 3-D printed cubes of plastic, with intricate fractal voids built into them, have proven to be effective at dissipating shockwaves, potentially leading to new types of lightweight armor and structural materials effective against explosions and impacts.
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Scientists observe catalyst during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for the first time
Suitable catalysts are of great importance for efficient power-to-X applications—but the molecular processes occurring during their use have not yet been fully understood. Using X-rays from a synchrotron particle accelerator, scientists of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now been able to observe for the first time a catalyst during the Fischer-Tropsch reaction that facilitates the
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Forbidden herbs? The effects of cannabis were a controversial topic 250 years ago
Should cannabis be legalized for medicinal purposes or will it remain an illegal drug? This has been discussed in many countries for years—and has been a point of contention for much longer than expected: Already in Mexico in the 18th century, priest and scientist José Antonio Alzate y Ramírez campaigned for the healing effects of the controversial plant—against the position of the Spanish Crown a
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What makes ships mysteriously slow down or stop, even though engines are running?
What makes ships mysteriously slow down or even stop as they travel, even though their engines are working properly? This was first observed in 1893 and was described experimentally in 1904 without all the secrets of this "dead water" being understood. A team has explained this phenomenon for the first time.
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A key gene modifies regulatory T cells to fine-tune the immune response
The human immune system is a finely-tuned machine, balancing when to release a cellular army to deal with pathogens, with when to rein in that army, stopping an onslaught from attacking the body itself. Now, researchers have discovered a way to control regulatory T cells, immune cells that act as a cease-fire signal, telling the immune system when to stand down.
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Double take: New study analyzes global, multiple-tailed lizards
Research into abnormal regeneration events in lizards has led to the first published scientific review on the prevalence of lizards that have re-generated not just one, but two, or even up to six, tails.
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Motherhood overrides the brain's decision-making
Motherhood takes over the brain's decision-making regions to prioritize caring for offspring, according to new research.
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Physicist optimizes DNA microscopy technique to improve imaging speed, add color
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy can be used to visualize structures smaller than 200 nanometers, i.e., below the diffraction limit of light. One of the microscopy techniques, called DNA-PAINT, was developed by Ralf Jungmann, research group leader at the MPI of Biochemistry and Professor for Experimental Physics at LMU, together with colleagues. The technique uses short 'imagers', dye-labe
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Using sound to study underwater volcanoes
Imagine placing a rock on a piece of suspended cardboard. If the cardboard is strong and hearty, like the cover of a hardback book, the rock can sit there for a long time and the board will barely flex due to the weight of the rock. But if the cardboard is flimsy, more like poster board, it will start to give beneath the weight of the rock, distorting in shape and structure.
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The complex relationship between deforestation and diet diversity in the Amazon
As increasing areas of the Amazonian rainforest are converted into agricultural land, scientists are examining how this is linked with local communities' food access. Newly published research shows that over the period of 15 years, deforestation and reduction of agricultural diversity are associated with reduced diversity in human diets.
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Early childhood education centers can boost parents' engagement at home
When early childhood education centers communicate well with parents, those parents are more likely to engage in educational activities with their children at home, a new University of Arizona study finds.
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Targeting bacterial biofilm lynchpin prevents, treats recalcitrant biofilm-mediated infections
A new study highlights two approaches with substantive efficacy and potential for broad application to combat biofilm-mediated diseases.
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Future Texas hurricanes: Fast like Ike or slow like Harvey?
Climate change will intensify winds that steer hurricanes north over Texas in the final 25 years of this century, increasing the odds for fast-moving storms like 2008's Ike compared to slow-movers like 2017's Harvey, according to new research.
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Scientists introduce new method for machine learning classifications in quantum computing
Quantum information scientists have introduced a new method for machine-learning classifications in quantum computing. The non-linear quantum kernels in a quantum binary classifier provide new insights for improving the accuracy of quantum machine learning, deemed able to outperform the current AI technology.
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Eliminate Wasteful Sticky Notes With This Brilliantly Designed Desktop Whiteboard
If you're still using sticky notes to write yourself quick, temporary memos around your desk, there's something you ought to know: with 50-billion sticky notes produced annually, they account for an unconscionable loss of trees on our planet. And as much as we all enjoy a well-placed sticky note from time to time, it's time to seek out more Eco-conscious alternatives, like whiteboards . Of course
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Making a list of all creatures, great and small
A new article outlines a roadmap for creating, for the first time, an agreed list of all the world's species, from mammals and birds to plants, fungi and microbes.
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Engineered killer immune cells target tumors and their immunosuppressive allies
Scientists have engineered natural killer immune cells that not only kill head and neck tumor cells in mice but also reduce the immune-suppressing myeloid cells that allow tumors to evade the immune response.
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Liquid crystal integrated metalens for versatile color focus
A research team recently demonstrated active manipulation of chromatic dispersion, achieving achromatic focusing within a designated broadband.
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New room-temperature liquid-metal battery could be the path to powering the future
Researchers have created a new liquid battery with components that can remain molten at room temperature. Other liquid batteries must be kept at 240 degrees Celsius for their components to stay molten.
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Oncotarget: Correction of NSE concentration improves diagnostic accuracy in lung cancer
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 27 published "Correction of the NSE concentration in hemolyzed serum samples improves its diagnostic accuracy in small-cell lung cancer" by Genet et al. which reported that this study aimed to develop a hemolysis correction equation and evaluate its role in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) diagnostics.
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Making a list of all creatures, great and small
A paper published July 7, 2020 in the open access journal PLOS Biology outlines a roadmap for creating, for the first time, an agreed list of all the world's species, from mammals and birds to plants, fungi and microbes.
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Why We Can't Stop Talking About 'Karen' — and Why Labels and Memes Speak to Us
A meme is often more than a joke — the social media critique of 'Karens' often has a deeper message.
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Fashion's Racism and Classism Are Finally Out of Style
Luxury fashion's love of hierarchies has never been subtle. Telling people what they should look like often also requires telling them what's unacceptable: To spend money on feeling better, people first need to feel bad. For decades, the industry tolerated nearly no dark skin, fat bodies, wrinkles, or outward indications that a person wasn't summoned from the recesses of a French executive's brai
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Pop Smoke Made the Soundtrack of a Lost Summer
Some albums demand ascetic listening, the kind that happens best in solitude or while wearing noise-canceling headphones. Such music has its place, especially in the colder months. But summer is made for the populist records—albums ideally consumed secondhand, whether blaring from the bass-heavy stereos of cars parading down hot, crowded streets or wafting from the open windows of apartments down
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Intense Arctic Wildfires Set a Pollution Record
High temperatures and dry soil mean ideal conditions for fires. Blazes in June produced more carbon emissions than any other fires in almost two decades of monitoring.
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Scientists put forward plan to create universal species list
Single classification system could end centuries of disagreement and improve global efforts to tackle biodiversity loss A plan to create the first universally recognised list of species on Earth has prompted hopes of an end to centuries of disagreement and confusion over how to classify the world's library of life. The 10-point plan aims to finally bring order with an authoritative list of the wo
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Making a list of all creatures, great and small
A paper published July 7, 2020 in the open access journal PLOS Biology outlines a roadmap for creating, for the first time, an agreed list of all the world's species, from mammals and birds to plants, fungi and microbes.
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Oncotarget: Clonality and antigen-specific responses shape prognostic effects
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 27 reported that to delineate the complexity of anti-tumor T-cell responses, the author's utilized a computational method for de novo assembly of sequences from CDR3 regions of 369 high-grade serous ovarian cancers from TCGA, and then applied deep TCR-sequencing for analyses of paired tumor and peripheral blood specimens from an independent cohort of 99 ovarian cancer p
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How to tackle climate change, food security and land degradation
How can some of world's biggest problems — climate change, food security and land degradation — be tackled simultaneously? Some lesser-known options, such as integrated water management and increasing the organic content of soil, have fewer trade-offs than many well-known options, such as planting trees, according to a Rutgers-led study in the journal Global Change Biology.
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Shock-dissipating fractal cubes could forge high-tech armor
3D printed cubes,with intricate fractal voids efficiently dissipate shockwaves, potentially leading to new types of lightweight armor and materials to better withstand explosions and impacts.
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Making a list of all creatures, great and small
A paper published July 7, 2020 in the open access journal PLOS Biology outlines a roadmap for creating, for the first time, an agreed list of all the world's species, from mammals and birds to plants, fungi and microbes.
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Researchers from All Over the World Pitch In to Fight COVID-19
Scientists are lending their expertise—whatever it may be—to help develop tests, medical devices, and other tools to try to save lives during the pandemic.
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Activists have shut down two major fossil fuel pipelines—at least for now
Protestors in Washington, D.C. (Vlad Tchompalov/) Despite the current administration's continued moves to grind away at foundational environmental laws, advocates are claiming major victories in courthouses. This week, less than 24 hours apart, two high-profile oil pipelines have been crushed—at least temporarily. On Sunday, energy companies scrapped their proposal for a 600-mile pipeline carryin
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Colombian Engineers' Ventilators to Be Tested in COVID Patients
In just a few months, researchers have constructed low-cost ventilators that can keep sedated pigs alive. Getting them to work safely and reliably in people is the next challenge.
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Best dandruff shampoos for a happy, flake free scalp
Stay flake-free. (Ezequiel Garrido via Unsplash/) Dandruff isn't just a bit embarrassing, it's incredibly uncomfortable. There's nothing worse than an itchy, irritated scalp, even without the insult of flakiness. Luckily, there's a whole range of dandruff shampoos that clear away buildup and moisturize both your scalp and your hair—leaving your head itch-free and your locks silky smooth. We've ch
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Colombian Engineers' Ventilators to Be Tested in COVID Patients
In just a few months, researchers have constructed low-cost ventilators that can keep sedated pigs alive. Getting them to work safely and reliably in people is the next challenge.
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Engineers use electricity to clean up toxic water
Powerful electrochemical process destroys water contaminants, such as pesticides. Wastewater is a significant environment issue. Researchers say the technology could be readily applied to the wine industry, paper processing and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
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Mike Rowe's Aerial Tram Job | Dirty Jobs: Rowe'd Trip
Mike Rowe and crew recall the Palm Springs aerial tram episode of Dirty Jobs. Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Follow Us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Discovery Join Us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Discovery We're on Instagram! https://instagram.com/Discovery From: Discovery
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Risk of airborne coronavirus spread being underplayed, say researchers
Over 200 scientists have signed a letter calling for the world to recognise the potential for the coronavirus to be transmitted through small airborne droplets, and to take steps to protect against them
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Covid-19 news: Everyone should wear face coverings, says Royal Society
The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic
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Your top 3 ideal qualities in a partner aren't so unique
The qualities people list as ideal in potential partners don't really reflect personal preferences so much as they are just generally positive qualities, according to new research. "We wanted to see whether those top three attributes really mattered for the person who listed them. As it turns out, they didn't." Perhaps our ideal partner is funny, attractive, and inquisitive. Or maybe they're down
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This Company Wants to Rewrite the Future of Genetic Disease—Without Crispr Gene Editing
Tessera Therapeutics is developing a new class of gene editors capable of precisely plugging in long stretches of DNA—something that Crispr can't do.
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The Colorful Blooms of Castelluccio, Italy
In central Italy, the small village of Castelluccio sits atop a hill overlooking the Piano Grande — a broad basin surrounded by the Sibillini Mountains—where fields of lentils and poppies bloom every year, carpeting the landscape with a colorful quilt of blossoming flowers. Every summer the phenomenon is viewed by thousands of tourists, and this year, the photographers Antonio Masiello and Tizian
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More U.S. Homes Are at Risk of Repeat Flooding
The significant growth in such properties has come despite billions spent to protect them — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Women's egg quality dependent on metabolic factors
Increasing the levels of a chemical found in all human cells could boost a woman's fertility and help select the best eggs for IVF.
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Limitations of super-resolution microscopy overcome
The smallest cell structures can now be imaged even better: The combination of two microscopy methods makes fluorescence imaging with molecular resolution possible for the first time.
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Scientists create new device to light up the way for quantum technologies
Researchers have created an innovative new device that will emit single particles of light, or photons, from quantum dots that are the key to practical quantum computers, quantum communications, and other quantum devices.
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Interplay of impact, moral goals influences charitable giving to different causes
With the rise of globalization, geographic borders are becoming less relevant for making charitable donations, which means nonprofits and charities can make more effective pitches to donors by emphasizing higher-level concepts such as morality and idealistic values, said Carlos Torelli, a professor of business administration and the James F. Towey Faculty Fellow at Illinois.
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Brain structural elements in psychiatric disorders
While researchers have previously identified brain structural signatures associated with individual neurological diseases using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a team of scientists has now compared data from multiple studies to find brain structural abnormalities shared between four different neuropsychiatric conditions. The researchers also found brain signatures that were un
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Climate change may cause extreme waves in Arctic
Extreme ocean surface waves with a devastating impact on coastal communities and infrastructure in the Arctic may become larger due to climate change, according to a new study.
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Higher manganese levels in early pregnancy linked to lower preeclampsia risk
An analysis of data from more than 1,300 women followed prospectively through pregnancy found that women with lower levels of the essential mineral manganese in early pregnancy were more likely to develop the serious high blood pressure syndrome called preeclampsia in late pregnancy.
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Poor sleep at night 'spills over' into children's emotional lives
Poor sleep harms children's mental health and emotional stability according to a new study.
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New collection of stars, not born in our galaxy, discovered in Milky Way
Astrophysicists announced the discovery of Nyx, a new collection of 250 stars that they believe are the remnant of a dwarf galaxy that merged with the Milky Way eons ago. The research combined massive cosmological simulations and observational data from the Gaia space observatory. It required large scale supercomputers and deep learning algorithms. The team plans to explore Nyx further using groun
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Contest between superconductivity and insulating states in Magic Angle Graphene
A team of researchers develop a set of entirely novel knobs to control correlated electrons and demonstrate that superconductivity can exist without insulating phases in Magic Angle Twisted Bi-layer Graphene.
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Oncotarget: Australian experience of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 27 published "Australian experience of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in lung neuroendocrine tumours" by Lim et al. which reported peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an approved treatment modality for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, although Phase III randomised clinical trial data is not available for NETs of other site of origin, in
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BIO Integration Journal, volume 1, issue number 1, publishes
New journal BIO Integration (BIOI) has been launched with the publication of volume 1, issue 1.
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A systems approach delivers a functional microRNA catalog and expanded targets for seizure suppression in temporal lobe epilepsy [Neuroscience]
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common drug-resistant form of epilepsy in adults. The reorganization of neural networks and the gene expression landscape underlying pathophysiologic network behavior in brain structures such as the hippocampus has been suggested to be controlled, in part, by microRNAs. To systematically assess their significance, we…
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Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase promotes the inflammatory and autophagy responses in Huntington disease [Neuroscience]
Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an expansion mutation of the N-terminal polyglutamine of huntingtin (mHTT). mHTT is ubiquitously present, but it induces noticeable damage to the brain's striatum, thereby affecting motor, psychiatric, and cognitive functions. The striatal damage and progression of HD are associated with the inflammatory response; however,…
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The role of carbonic anhydrases in extinction of contextual fear memory [Pharmacology]
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in mammals with 16 isoforms that differ in terms of catalytic activity as well as cellular and tissue distribution. CAs catalyze the conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons and are involved in various physiological processes, including learning and memory. Here we…
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Bacterial metabolism rescues the inhibition of intestinal drug absorption by food and drug additives [Pharmacology]
Food and drug products contain diverse and abundant small-molecule additives (excipients) with unclear impacts on human physiology, drug safety, and response. Here, we evaluate their potential impact on intestinal drug absorption. By screening 136 unique compounds for inhibition of the key intestinal transporter OATP2B1 we identified and validated 24 potent…
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Real-time monitoring of the in vivo redox state transition using the ratiometric redox state sensor protein FROG/B [Plant Biology]
The intracellular redox state is one of the key factors regulating various physiological phenomena in the cell. Monitoring this state is therefore important for understanding physiological homeostasis in cells. Various fluorescent sensor proteins have already been developed to monitor intracellular redox state. We also developed fluorescent redox sensor proteins named…
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Fluctuating auxin response gradients determine pavement cell-shape acquisition [Plant Biology]
Puzzle-shaped pavement cells provide a powerful model system to investigate the cellular and subcellular processes underlying complex cell-shape determination in plants. To better understand pavement cell-shape acquisition and the role of auxin in this process, we focused on the spirals of young stomatal lineage ground cells of Arabidopsis leaf epidermis….
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Snapping mechanics of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) [Plant Biology]
The mechanical principles for fast snapping in the iconic Venus flytrap are not yet fully understood. In this study, we obtained time-resolved strain distributions via three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) for the outer and inner trap-lobe surfaces throughout the closing motion. In combination with finite element models, the various possible…
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Antifungal symbiotic peptide NCR044 exhibits unique structure and multifaceted mechanisms of action that confer plant protection [Plant Biology]
In the indeterminate nodules of a model legume Medicago truncatula, ∼700 nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides with conserved cysteine signature are expressed. NCR peptides are highly diverse in sequence, and some of these cationic peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding…
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Lack of awareness despite complex visual processing: Evidence from event-related potentials in a case of selective metamorphopsia [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Visual awareness is thought to result from integration of low- and high-level processing; instances of integration failure provide a crucial window into the cognitive and neural bases of awareness. We present neurophysiological evidence of complex cognitive processing in the absence of awareness, raising questions about the conditions necessary for visual…
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Humans navigate with stereo olfaction [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Human navigation relies on inputs to our paired eyes and ears. Although we also have two nasal passages, there has been little empirical indication that internostril differences yield directionality in human olfaction without involving the trigeminal system. By using optic flow that captures the pattern of apparent motion of surface…
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Circulating immune cell phenotype dynamics reflect the strength of tumor-immune cell interactions in patients during immunotherapy [Systems Biology]
The extent to which immune cell phenotypes in the peripheral blood reflect within-tumor immune activity prior to and early in cancer therapy is unclear. To address this question, we studied the population dynamics of tumor and immune cells, and immune phenotypic changes, using clinical tumor and immune cell measurements and…
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Correction for Hwang et al., GABA-stimulated adipose-derived stem cells suppress subcutaneous adipose inflammation in obesity [Correction]
IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for "GABA-stimulated adipose-derived stem cells suppress subcutaneous adipose inflammation in obesity," by Injae Hwang, Kyuri Jo, Kyung Cheul Shin, Jong In Kim, Yul Ji, Yoon Jeong Park, Jeu Park, Yong Geun Jeon, Sojeong Ka, Sujin Suk, Hye Lim Noh, Sung Sik Choe, Assim A. Alfadda, Jason…
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Correction for Murakami et al., Bile acids and ceramide overcome the entry restriction for GII.3 human norovirus replication in human intestinal enteroids [Correction]
MICROBIOLOGY Correction for "Bile acids and ceramide overcome the entry restriction for GII.3 human norovirus replication in human intestinal enteroids," by Kosuke Murakami, Victoria R. Tenge, Umesh C. Karandikar, Shih-Ching Lin, Sasirekha Ramani, Khalil Ettayebi, Sue E. Crawford, Xi-Lei Zeng, Frederick H. Neill, B. Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, Kazuhiko Katayama, David Y….
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Correction for Makary et al., Loss of nucleus accumbens low-frequency fluctuations is a signature of chronic pain [Correction]
NEUROSCIENCE Correction for "Loss of nucleus accumbens low-frequency fluctuations is a signature of chronic pain," by Meena M. Makary, Pablo Polosecki, Guillermo A. Cecchi, Ivan E. DeAraujo, Daniel S. Barron, Todd R. Constable, Peter G. Whang, Donna A. Thomas, Hani Mowafi, Dana M. Small, and Paul Geha, which was first…
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Correction for Ding et al., Regulators of nitric oxide signaling triggered by host perception in a plant pathogen [Correction]
PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for "Regulators of nitric oxide signaling triggered by host perception in a plant pathogen," by Yi Ding, Donald M. Gardiner, Di Xiao, and Kemal Kazan, which was first published May 6, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1918977117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 11147–11157). The authors note that when the article…
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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Rapid snapping in Venus flytraps Venus flytrap accelerates snapping and increases odds of capturing prey. Image credit: Plant Biomechanics Group Freiburg. When triggered, the lobes of the Venus flytrap buckle and snap shut with a movement that lasts 100–300 milliseconds. Although many details about the trap, such as the triggering…
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Colloidal interactions get patchy and directional [Applied Physical Sciences]
Biology is the master of self-assembly, and proteins are the proof. Relying on interactions specified by the sequence of amino acids, proteins are able to precisely assemble into a multitude of intricate configurations, each with a unique functionality dictated by its three-dimensional structure. At an abstract level, one can think…
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ROAMing in mutable voids: Polymer free volumes from wobbling vibrational probes [Chemistry]
Polymers and polymeric materials exhibit flexibility between neighboring components of their molecular chains, permitting disordered conformations relative to the crystalline state. The disordered chain conformations lead to entanglements between neighboring chains, and the local intersections of polymer chains lead to voids in the material. Such voids or holes are named…
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Silencing the genome with linker histones [Cell Biology]
Eukaryotic genomes at their core consist of a nucleoprotein complex termed chromatin. The subunit of chromatin is the nucleosome, which is formed from 146 bp of DNA wrapped around an octamer of core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). An array of nucleosomes connected by intervening linker DNA segments…
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A{beta} peptide and fibrinogen weave a web of destruction in cerebral amyloid angiopathy [Neuroscience]
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by disruption of the normal brain architecture which is driven by the formation of two pathological structures, including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, derived from Aβ precursor protein (AβPP), is the major component of senile plaques in the brain and cerebrovasculature….
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A tractable latent variable model for nonlinear dimensionality reduction [Applied Mathematics]
We propose a latent variable model to discover faithful low-dimensional representations of high-dimensional data. The model computes a low-dimensional embedding that aims to preserve neighborhood relationships encoded by a sparse graph. The model both leverages and extends current leading approaches to this problem. Like t-distributed Stochastic Neighborhood Embedding, the model…
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Growth and arrest of topological cycles in small physical networks [Applied Physical Sciences]
The chordless cycle sizes of spatially embedded networks are demonstrated to follow an exponential growth law similar to random graphs if the number of nodes Nx is below a critical value N*. For covalent polymer networks, increasing the network size, as measured by the number of cross-link nodes, beyond N*…
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Metallic surface states in a correlated d-electron topological Kondo insulator candidate FeSb2 [Applied Physical Sciences]
The resistance of a conventional insulator diverges as temperature approaches zero. The peculiar low-temperature resistivity saturation in the 4f Kondo insulator (KI) SmB6 has spurred proposals of a correlation-driven topological Kondo insulator (TKI) with exotic ground states. However, the scarcity of model TKI material families leaves difficulties in disentangling key…
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A wealth of genotype-specific proteoforms fine-tunes hemoglobin scavenging by haptoglobin [Biochemistry]
The serum haptoglobin protein (Hp) scavenges toxic hemoglobin (Hb) leaked into the bloodstream from erythrocytes. In humans, there are two frequently occurring allelic forms of Hp, resulting in three genotypes: Homozygous Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-2, and heterozygous Hp 2-1. The Hp genetic polymorphism has an intriguing effect on the…
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The alarmones (p)ppGpp directly regulate translation initiation during entry into quiescence [Biochemistry]
Many bacteria exist in a state of metabolic quiescence where energy consumption must be minimized so as to maximize available resources over a potentially extended period of time. As protein synthesis is the most energy intensive metabolic process in a bacterial cell, it would be an appropriate target for down-regulation…
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Evolution-inspired design of multicolored photoswitches from a single cyanobacteriochrome scaffold [Biochemistry]
Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are small, bistable linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-binding light sensors which are typically found as modular components in multidomain cyanobacterial signaling proteins. The CBCR family has been categorized into many lineages that roughly correlate with their spectral diversity, but CBCRs possessing a conserved DXCF motif are found in multiple lineages….
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Multifaceted deregulation of gene expression and protein synthesis with age [Biochemistry]
Protein synthesis represents a major metabolic activity of the cell. However, how it is affected by aging and how this in turn impacts cell function remains largely unexplored. To address this question, herein we characterized age-related changes in both the transcriptome and translatome of mouse tissues over the entire life…
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Subunit composition of the mammalian serine-palmitoyltransferase defines the spectrum of straight and methyl-branched long-chain bases [Biochemistry]
Sphingolipids (SLs) are chemically diverse lipids that have important structural and signaling functions within mammalian cells. SLs are commonly defined by the presence of a long-chain base (LCB) that is normally formed by the conjugation of l-serine and palmitoyl-CoA. This pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent reaction is mediated by the enzyme serine-palmitoyltransferase…
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Two radical-dependent mechanisms for anaerobic degradation of the globally abundant organosulfur compound dihydroxypropanesulfonate [Biochemistry]
2(S)-dihydroxypropanesulfonate (DHPS) is a microbial degradation product of 6-deoxy-6-sulfo-d-glucopyranose (sulfoquinovose), a component of plant sulfolipid with an estimated annual production of 1010 tons. DHPS is also at millimolar levels in highly abundant marine phytoplankton. Its degradation and sulfur recycling by microbes, thus, play important roles in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle….
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A combined activation mechanism for the glucagon receptor [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We report on a combined activation mechanism for a class B G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR), the glucagon receptor. By computing the conformational free-energy landscape associated with the activation of the receptor–agonist complex and comparing it with that obtained with the ternary complex (receptor–agonist–G protein) we show that the agonist stabilizes the…
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Discontinuous fibrous Bouligand architecture enabling formidable fracture resistance with crack orientation insensitivity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Bioinspired architectural design for composites with much higher fracture resistance than that of individual constituent remains a major challenge for engineers and scientists. Inspired by the survival war between the mantis shrimps and abalones, we design a discontinuous fibrous Bouligand (DFB) architecture, a combination of Bouligand and nacreous staggered structures….
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Loss of a single methylation in 23S rRNA delays 50S assembly at multiple late stages and impairs translation initiation and elongation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Ribosome biogenesis is a complex process, and dozens of factors are required to facilitate and regulate the subunit assembly in bacteria. The 2′-O-methylation of U2552 in 23S rRNA by methyltransferase RrmJ is a crucial step in late-stage assembly of the 50S subunit. Its absence results in severe growth defect and…
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Repulsive guidance molecules lock growth differentiation factor 5 in an inhibitory complex [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) are cell surface proteins that regulate the development and homeostasis of many tissues and organs, including the nervous, skeletal, and immune systems. They control fundamental biological processes, such as migration and differentiation by direct interaction with the Neogenin (NEO1) receptor and function as coreceptors for the…
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The mechanochemistry of the kinesin-2 KIF3AC heterodimer is related to strain-dependent kinetic properties of KIF3A and KIF3C [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
KIF3AC is a mammalian neuron-specific kinesin-2 implicated in intracellular cargo transport. It is a heterodimer of KIF3A and KIF3C motor polypeptides which have distinct biochemical and motile properties as engineered homodimers. Single-molecule motility assays show that KIF3AC moves processively along microtubules at a rate faster than expected given the motility…
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Closing and opening of the RNA polymerase trigger loop [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The RNA polymerase (RNAP) trigger loop (TL) is a mobile structural element of the RNAP active center that, based on crystal structures, has been proposed to cycle between an "unfolded"/"open" state that allows an NTP substrate to enter the active center and a "folded"/"closed" state that holds the NTP substrate…
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Phase transition of RNA-protein complexes into ordered hollow condensates [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Liquid−liquid phase separation of multivalent intrinsically disordered protein−RNA complexes is ubiquitous in both natural and biomimetic systems. So far, isotropic liquid droplets are the most commonly observed topology of RNA−protein condensates in experiments and simulations. Here, by systematically studying the phase behavior of RNA−protein complexes across varied mixture compositions, we…
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Primordial emergence of a nucleic acid-binding protein via phase separation and statistical ornithine-to-arginine conversion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
De novo emergence demands a transition from disordered polypeptides into structured proteins with well-defined functions. However, can polypeptides confer functions of evolutionary relevance, and how might such polypeptides evolve into modern proteins? The earliest proteins present an even greater challenge, as they were likely based on abiotic, spontaneously synthesized amino…
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Muscle myosins form folded monomers, dimers, and tetramers during filament polymerization in vitro [Cell Biology]
Muscle contraction depends on the cyclical interaction of myosin and actin filaments. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of polymerization and depolymerization of muscle myosins. Muscle myosin 2 monomers exist in two states: one with a folded tail that interacts with the heads (10S) and one with an…
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Cell stemness is maintained upon concurrent expression of RB and the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 [Cell Biology]
Stemness encompasses the capability of a cell for self-renewal and differentiation. The stem cell maintains a balance between proliferation, quiescence, and regeneration via interactions with the microenvironment. Previously, we showed that ectopic expression of the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 (MRPS18-2) led to immortalization of primary fibroblasts, accompanied by induction of…
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Symmetric arrangement of mitochondria:plasma membrane contacts between adjacent photoreceptor cells regulated by Opa1 [Cell Biology]
Mitochondria are known to play an essential role in photoreceptor function and survival that enables normal vision. Within photoreceptors, mitochondria are elongated and extend most of the inner-segment length, where they supply energy for protein synthesis and the phototransduction machinery in the outer segment, as well as acting as a…
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The C terminus of p73 is essential for hippocampal development [Cell Biology]
The p53 family member p73 has a complex gene structure, including alternative promoters and alternative splicing of the 3′ UTR. This results in a complex range of isoforms whose biological relevance largely remains to be determined. By deleting exon 13 (which encodes a sterile α motif) from the Trp73 gene,…
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Infrared spectroscopy of neutral water clusters at finite temperature: Evidence for a noncyclic pentamer [Chemistry]
Infrared spectroscopic study of neutral water clusters is crucial to understanding of the hydrogen-bonding networks in liquid water and ice. Here we report infrared spectra of size-selected neutral water clusters, (H2O)n (n = 3−6), in the OH stretching vibration region, based on threshold photoionization using a tunable vacuum ultraviolet free-electron…
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Enantioselective terpolymerization of racemic and meso-epoxides with anhydrides for preparation of chiral polyesters [Chemistry]
The preparation of stereochemistry- and sequence-defined polymers, in which different monomer units are arranged in an ordered fashion just like biopolymers, is of great interest and has been a long-standing goal for chemists due to the expectation of unique macroscopic properties. Here, we describe the enantioselective terpolymerization of racemic terminal…
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Temperature-dependent kinetic pathways featuring distinctive thermal-activation mechanisms in structural evolution of ice VII [Chemistry]
Ice amorphization, low- to high-density amorphous (LDA-HDA) transition, as well as (re)crystallization in ice, under compression have been studied extensively due to their fundamental importance in materials science and polyamorphism. However, the nature of the multiple-step "reverse" transformation from metastable high-pressure ice to the stable crystalline form under reduced pressure…
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Functions of paralogous RNA polymerase III subunits POLR3G and POLR3GL in mouse development [Developmental Biology]
Mammalian cells contain two isoforms of RNA polymerase III (Pol III) that differ in only a single subunit, with POLR3G in one form (Pol IIIα) and the related POLR3GL in the other form (Pol IIIβ). Previous research indicates that POLR3G and POLR3GL are differentially expressed, with POLR3G expression being highly…
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Hedgehog-FGF signaling axis patterns anterior mesoderm during gastrulation [Developmental Biology]
The mechanisms used by embryos to pattern tissues across their axes has fascinated developmental biologists since the founding of embryology. Here, using single-cell technology, we interrogate complex patterning defects and define a Hedgehog (Hh)–fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling axis required for anterior mesoderm lineage development during gastrulation. Single-cell transcriptome analysis.
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Vertical angular momentum constraint on lunar formation and orbital history [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The Moon likely formed in a giant impact that left behind a fast-rotating Earth, but the details are still uncertain. Here, we examine the implications of a constraint that has not been fully exploited: The component of the Earth–Moon system's angular momentum that is perpendicular to the Earth's orbital plane…
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Experimental evidence of dispersal of invasive cyprinid eggs inside migratory waterfowl [Ecology]
Fish have somehow colonized isolated water bodies all over the world without human assistance. It has long been speculated that these colonization events are assisted by waterbirds, transporting fish eggs attached to their feet and feathers, yet empirical support for this is lacking. Recently, it was suggested that endozoochory (i.e.,…
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Discovery of widely available abyssal rock patches reveals overlooked habitat type and prompts rethinking deep-sea biodiversity [Ecology]
Habitat heterogeneity and species diversity are often linked. On the deep seafloor, sediment variability and hard-substrate availability influence geographic patterns of species richness and turnover. The assumption of a generally homogeneous, sedimented abyssal seafloor is at odds with the fact that the faunal diversity in some abyssal regions exceeds that…
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Cost, risk, and avoidance of inbreeding in a cooperatively breeding bird [Ecology]
Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that…
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Plasmon-enabled degradation of organic micropollutants in water by visible-light illumination of Janus gold nanorods [Engineering]
The development of sustainable methods for the degradation of pollutants in water is an ongoing critical challenge. Anthropogenic organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, present in our water supplies in trace quantities, are currently not remediated by conventional treatment processes. Here, we report an initial demonstration of the oxidative degradation of…
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Photo-cross-linkable, insulating silk fibroin for bioelectronics with enhanced cell affinity [Engineering]
Bioelectronic scaffolds that support devices while promoting tissue integration could enable tissue hybrids with augmented electronic capabilities. Here, we demonstrate a photo–cross-linkable silk fibroin (PSF) derivative and investigate its structural, electrical, and chemical properties. Lithographically defined PSF films offered tunable thickness and <1-µm spatial resolution and could be releas
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Acoustic trapping of microbubbles in complex environments and controlled payload release [Engineering]
Contactless manipulation of microparticles using acoustic waves holds promise for applications ranging from cell sorting to three-dimensional (3D) printing and tissue engineering. However, the unique potential of acoustic trapping to be applied in biomedical settings remains largely untapped. In particular, the main advantage of acoustic trapping over optical trapping, namely…
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Instant tough bioadhesive with triggerable benign detachment [Engineering]
Bioadhesives such as tissue adhesives, hemostatic agents, and tissue sealants have potential advantages over sutures and staples for wound closure, hemostasis, and integration of implantable devices onto wet tissues. However, existing bioadhesives display several limitations including slow adhesion formation, weak bonding, low biocompatibility, poor mechanical match with tissues, and/or lack…
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Mass measurements during lymphocytic leukemia cell polyploidization decouple cell cycle- and cell size-dependent growth [Engineering]
Cell size is believed to influence cell growth and metabolism. Consistently, several studies have revealed that large cells have lower mass accumulation rates per unit mass (i.e., growth efficiency) than intermediate-sized cells in the same population. Size-dependent growth is commonly attributed to transport limitations, such as increased diffusion timescales and…
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Slower nutrient stream suppresses Subarctic Atlantic Ocean biological productivity in global warming [Environmental Sciences]
Earth system models (ESMs) project that global warming suppresses biological productivity in the Subarctic Atlantic Ocean as increasing ocean surface buoyancy suppresses two physical drivers of nutrient supply: vertical mixing and meridional circulation. However, the quantitative sensitivity of productivity to surface buoyancy is uncertain and the relative importance of the…
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Minimal cobalt metabolism in the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus [Environmental Sciences]
Despite very low concentrations of cobalt in marine waters, cyanobacteria in the genus Prochlorococcus retain the genetic machinery for the synthesis and use of cobalt-bearing cofactors (cobalamins) in their genomes. We explore cobalt metabolism in a Prochlorococcus isolate from the equatorial Pacific Ocean (strain MIT9215) through a series of growth…
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Extreme climate after massive eruption of Alaska's Okmok volcano in 43 BCE and effects on the late Roman Republic and Ptolemaic Kingdom [Environmental Sciences]
The assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE triggered a power struggle that ultimately ended the Roman Republic and, eventually, the Ptolemaic Kingdom, leading to the rise of the Roman Empire. Climate proxies and written documents indicate that this struggle occurred during a period of unusually inclement weather, famine, and…
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Mating in the absence of fertilization promotes a growth-reproduction versus lifespan trade-off in female mice [Evolution]
Trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and lifespan constrain animal life histories, leading to evolutionary diversification of life history cycles in different environments. In female mammals, gestation and lactation are expected to impose the major costs of reproduction, driving reproductive trade-offs, although mating also requires interactions with males that could themselves influence…
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Genetic dominance governs the evolution and spread of mobile genetic elements in bacteria [Evolution]
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs), such as plasmids, promote bacterial evolution through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, the rules governing the repertoire of traits encoded on MGEs remain unclear. In this study, we uncovered the central role of genetic dominance shaping genetic cargo in MGEs, using antibiotic resistance as a model…
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HSF1 inhibition attenuates HIV-1 latency reversal mediated by several candidate LRAs In Vitro and Ex Vivo [Immunology and Inflammation]
HIV-1 latency is a major barrier to cure. Identification of small molecules that destabilize latency and allow immune clearance of infected cells could lead to treatment-free remission. In vitro models of HIV-1 latency involving cell lines or primary cells have been developed for characterization of HIV-1 latency and high-throughput screening…
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Three types of HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblasts that have distinct immune regulatory properties [Immunology and Inflammation]
During pregnancy, invading HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) play a key role in placental development, uterine spiral artery remodeling, and prevention of detrimental maternal immune responses to placental and fetal antigens. Failures of these processes are suggested to play a role in the development of pregnancy complications, but very little is…
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Spatiotemporal dynamics of innate immune signaling via RIG-I-like receptors [Immunology and Inflammation]
RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 comprise the RIG-I–like receptors (RLRs). RIG-I and MDA5 are essential pathogen recognition receptors sensing viral infections while LGP2 has been described as both RLR cofactor and negative regulator. After sensing and binding to viral RNA, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), RIG-I and MDA5 undergo cytosol-to-membrane relocalization to…
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PPAR{alpha} exacerbates necroptosis, leading to increased mortality in postinfluenza bacterial superinfection [Immunology and Inflammation]
Patients infected with influenza are at high risk of secondary bacterial infection, which is a major proximate cause of morbidity and mortality. We have shown that in mice, prior infection with influenza results in increased inflammation and mortality upon Staphylococcus aureus infection, recapitulating the human disease. Lipidomic profiling of the…
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Pervasive changes of mRNA splicing in upf1-deficient zebrafish identify rpl10a as a regulator of T cell development [Immunology and Inflammation]
The transcriptome of eukaryotic cells is constantly monitored for errors to avoid the production of undesired protein variants. The evolutionarily conserved nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway degrades aberrant mRNAs, but also functions in the regulation of transcript abundance in response to changed physiological states. Here, we describe a zebrafish mutant…
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Lck bound to coreceptor is less active than free Lck [Immunology and Inflammation]
Src family kinase Lck plays critical roles during T cell development and activation, as it phosphorylates the TCR/CD3 complex to initiate TCR signaling. Lck is present either in coreceptor-bound or coreceptor-unbound (free) forms, and we here present evidence that the two pools of Lck have different molecular properties. We discovered…
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Clonally expanding smooth muscle cells promote atherosclerosis by escaping efferocytosis and activating the complement cascade [Medical Sciences]
Atherosclerosis is the process underlying heart attack and stroke. Despite decades of research, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Dogma suggests that atherosclerotic plaques expand primarily via the accumulation of cholesterol and inflammatory cells. However, recent evidence suggests that a substantial portion of the plaque may arise from a subset of "dedifferentiated"…
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Peroxidasin-mediated bromine enrichment of basement membranes [Medical Sciences]
Bromine and peroxidasin (an extracellular peroxidase) are essential for generating sulfilimine cross-links between a methionine and a hydroxylysine within collagen IV, a basement membrane protein. The sulfilimine cross-links increase the structural integrity of basement membranes. The formation of sulfilimine cross-links depends on the ability of peroxidasin to use bromide and…
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Vitamin B12 and folic acid alleviate symptoms of nutritional deficiency by antagonizing aryl hydrocarbon receptor [Medical Sciences]
Despite broad appreciation of their clinical utility, it has been unclear how vitamin B12 and folic acid (FA) function at the molecular level to directly prevent their hallmark symptoms of deficiency like anemia or birth defects. To this point, B12 and FA have largely been studied as cofactors for enzymes…
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TERT promoter mutation determines apoptotic and therapeutic responses of BRAF-mutant cancers to BRAF and MEK inhibitors: Achilles Heel [Medical Sciences]
Combination use of BRAF V600E inhibitor dabrafenib and MEK inhibitor trametinib has become a standard treatment for human cancers harboring BRAF V600E. Its anticancer efficacies vary, however, with dramatic efficacy in some patients and drug resistance/tumor recurrence in others, which is poorly understood. Using thyroid cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer…
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Up-regulated cytotrophoblast DOCK4 contributes to over-invasion in placenta accreta spectrum [Medical Sciences]
In humans, a subset of placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) invades the uterus and its vasculature, anchoring the pregnancy and ensuring adequate blood flow to the fetus. Appropriate depth is critical. Shallow invasion increases the risk of pregnancy complications, e.g., severe preeclampsia. Overly deep invasion, the hallmark of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS),…
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A role for NPY-NPY2R signaling in albuminuric kidney disease [Medical Sciences]
Albuminuria is an independent risk factor for the progression to end-stage kidney failure, cardiovascular morbidity, and premature death. As such, discovering signaling pathways that modulate albuminuria is desirable. Here, we studied the transcriptomes of podocytes, key cells in the prevention of albuminuria, under diabetic conditions. We found that Neuropeptide Y…
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Cell profiling of mouse acute kidney injury reveals conserved cellular responses to injury [Medical Sciences]
After acute kidney injury (AKI), patients either recover or alternatively develop fibrosis and chronic kidney disease. Interactions between injured epithelia, stroma, and inflammatory cells determine whether kidneys repair or undergo fibrosis, but the molecular events that drive these processes are poorly understood. Here, we use single nucleus RNA sequencing of…
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HGT in the human and skin commensal Malassezia: A bacterially derived flavohemoglobin is required for NO resistance and host interaction [Microbiology]
The skin of humans and animals is colonized by commensal and pathogenic fungi and bacteria that share this ecological niche and have established microbial interactions. Malassezia are the most abundant fungal skin inhabitant of warm-blooded animals and have been implicated in skin diseases and systemic disorders, including Crohn's disease and…
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Modulation of the bacterial CobB sirtuin deacylase activity by N-terminal acetylation [Microbiology]
In eukaryotic cells, the N-terminal amino moiety of many proteins is modified by N-acetyltransferases (NATs). This protein modification can alter the folding of the target protein; can affect binding interactions of the target protein with substrates, allosteric effectors, or other proteins; or can trigger protein degradation. In prokaryotes, only ribosomal…
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Oligodendrocytes that survive acute coronavirus infection induce prolonged inflammatory responses in the CNS [Microbiology]
Neurotropic strains of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a coronavirus, cause acute and chronic demyelinating encephalomyelitis with similarities to the human disease multiple sclerosis. Here, using a lineage-tracking system, we show that some cells, primarily oligodendrocytes (OLs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), survive the acute MHV infection, are associated with regions…
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Macrofaunal control of microbial community structure in continental margin sediments [Microbiology]
Through a process called "bioturbation," burrowing macrofauna have altered the seafloor habitat and modified global carbon cycling since the Cambrian. However, the impact of macrofauna on the community structure of microorganisms is poorly understood. Here, we show that microbial communities across bioturbated, but geochemically and sedimentologically divergent, continental margin sites…
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Bacterial-induced cell fusion is a danger signal triggering cGAS-STING pathway via micronuclei formation [Microbiology]
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics with high morbidity and mortality. The facultative intracellular bacterium induces host cell fusion through its type VI secretion system 5 (T6SS5) as an important part of its pathogenesis in mammalian hosts. This allows it…
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TNF deficiency dysregulates inflammatory cytokine production, leading to lung pathology and death during respiratory poxvirus infection [Microbiology]
Excessive tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known to cause significant pathology. Paradoxically, deficiency in TNF (TNF−/−) also caused substantial pathology during respiratory ectromelia virus (ECTV) infection, a surrogate model for smallpox. TNF−/− mice succumbed to fulminant disease whereas wild-type mice, and those engineered to express only transmembrane TNF (mTNF), fully…
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DNA-induced 2'3'-cGAMP enhances haplotype-specific human STING cleavage by dengue protease [Microbiology]
The cytosolic DNA sensor cGMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) synthesizes the noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide 2′3′-cGAMP to activate the adaptor protein stimulator of IFN genes (STING), thus awakening host immunity in response to DNA pathogen infection. However, dengue virus (DENV), an RNA virus without a DNA stage in its life cycle, also manipulates…
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The stem cell marker Prom1 promotes axon regeneration by down-regulating cholesterol synthesis via Smad signaling [Neuroscience]
Axon regeneration is regulated by a neuron-intrinsic transcriptional program that is suppressed during development but that can be reactivated following peripheral nerve injury. Here we identify Prom1, which encodes the stem cell marker prominin-1, as a regulator of the axon regeneration program. Prom1 expression is developmentally down-regulated, and the genetic…
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A basal ganglia-like cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic network mediates feeding behavior [Neuroscience]
The insular cortex (INS) is extensively connected to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), and both regions send convergent projections into the caudal lateral hypothalamus (LHA) encompassing the parasubthalamic nucleus (PSTN). However, the organization of the network between these structures has not been clearly delineated in the literature, although…
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Population inversion X-ray laser oscillator [Physics]
Oscillators are at the heart of optical lasers, providing stable, transform-limited pulses. Until now, laser oscillators have been available only in the infrared to visible and near-ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. In this paper, we present a study of an oscillator operating in the 5- to 12-keV photon-energy range. We show…
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Bond-breaking induced Lifshitz transition in robust Dirac semimetal VAI3 [Physics]
Topological electrons in semimetals are usually vulnerable to chemical doping and environment change, which restricts their potential application in future electronic devices. In this paper, we report that the type-II Dirac semimetal VAl3 hosts exceptional, robust topological electrons which can tolerate extreme change of chemical composition. The Dirac electrons remain…
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Electronically driven spin-reorientation transition of the correlated polar metal Ca3Ru2O7 [Physics]
The interplay between spin–orbit coupling and structural inversion symmetry breaking in solids has generated much interest due to the nontrivial spin and magnetic textures which can result. Such studies are typically focused on systems where large atomic number elements lead to strong spin–orbit coupling, in turn rendering electronic correlations weak….
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Economic and social consequences of human mobility restrictions under COVID-19 [Physics]
In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several national governments have applied lockdown restrictions to reduce the infection rate. Here we perform a massive analysis on near–real-time Italian mobility data provided by Facebook to investigate how lockdown strategies affect economic conditions of individuals and local governments. We model…
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Laccase3-based extracellular domain provides possible positional information for directing Casparian strip formation in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
The Casparian strip (CS) is a tight junction-like structure formed by lignin impregnation on the walls of endodermal cells in plant roots. The CS membrane domain (CSDM), demarked by the CASP proteins, is important for orienting lignification enzymes. Here, we report that an endodermis-expressed multicopper oxidase, LACCASE3 (LAC3) in Arabidopsis,…
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A digital media literacy intervention increases discernment between mainstream and false news in the United States and India [Political Sciences]
Widespread belief in misinformation circulating online is a critical challenge for modern societies. While research to date has focused on psychological and political antecedents to this phenomenon, few studies have explored the role of digital media literacy shortfalls. Using data from preregistered survey experiments conducted around recent elections in the…
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Opinion: In the wake of COVID-19, academia needs new solutions to ensure gender equity [Social Sciences]
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has upended almost every facet of academia (1). Almost overnight the system faced a sudden transition to remote teaching and learning, changes in grading systems, and the loss of access to research resources. Additionally, shifts in household labor, childcare, eldercare, and physical confinement have…
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Toward a science of delivering aid with dignity: Experimental evidence and local forecasts from Kenya [Social Sciences]
How can governments and nonprofits design aid programs that afford dignity and facilitate beneficial outcomes for recipients? We conceptualize dignity as a state that manifests when the stigma associated with receiving aid is countered and recipients are empowered, both in culturally resonant ways. Yet materials from the largest cash transfer…
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How to Unmake a Memory
submitted by /u/pssyched [link] [comments]
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Doomscrolling Is Slowly Eroding Your Mental Health
submitted by /u/Zen_Coyote [link] [comments]
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Neuroplasticity
submitted by /u/InsightfulThinkers [link] [comments]
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Discover THE NEUROSCIENCE BEHIND SELF REFLECTED from GREG DUNN NEURO ART
submitted by /u/Small-Pocket-Library [link] [comments]
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Lysende sølv-skyer over Danmark: Derfor opstår det særlige vejrfænomen
Fænomenet kan skyldes vulkanudbrud, meteorer og raketopsendelser.
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This Is Not a Normal Mental-Health Disaster
The SARS pandemic tore through Hong Kong like a summer thunderstorm. It arrived abruptly, hit hard, and then was gone. Just three months separated the first infection, in March 2003, from the last, in June. But the suffering did not end when the case count hit zero. Over the next four years, scientists at the Chinese University of Hong Kong discovered something worrisome . More than 40 percent of
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Limitations of super-resolution microscopy overcome
The smallest cell structures can now be imaged even better: The combination of two microscopy methods makes fluorescence imaging with molecular resolution possible for the first time.
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Predicting fire risk
Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed a method that uses machine learning to predict seasonal fire risk in Africa, where half of the world's wildfire-related carbon emissions originate.
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Why ancient people pushed deep into Mexico's pitch-black caverns
Nature, Published online: 07 July 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02031-y Early residents of the Yucatán Peninsula mined a precious pigment from a vast labyrinth of subterranean passages.
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Putting the Brakes on SARS-CoV-2: Neutralizing Antibodies
Experts will discuss potential neutralizing antibodies currently under investigation for SARS-CoV-2 treatment.
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Oncotarget: Epigenetic feedback and stochastic partitioning can drive resistance to EMT
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 27 published "Epigenetic feedback and stochastic partitioning during cell division can drive resistance to EMT" by Jia et al. which reported that Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse process mesenchymal-epithelial transition are central to metastatic aggressiveness and therapy resistance in solid tumors.
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A 3D biofabricated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma tissue model
The cover for issue 27 of Oncotarget features Figure 4, "(A) Bimodal imaging examples of control and treated tumors (red) before and after the treatment period," by Browning, et al. and reported that the authors developed a 3-dimensional bioprinted skin model of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) tumors together with a microscopy assay to test chemotherapeutic effects in tissue.
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Breakthrough machine learning approach quickly produces higher-resolution climate data
Researchers at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed a novel machine learning approach to quickly enhance the resolution of wind velocity data by 50 times and solar irradiance data by 25 times–an enhancement that has never been achieved before with climate data.
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Dopamine neurons mull over your options
Researchers have found that dopamine neurons in the brain can represent the decision-making process when making economic choices. As monkeys contemplated whether or not to choose an item, a subset of dopamine neurons transitioned from indicating the item's value to indicating the monkey's ultimate decision. Encoding of the decision into these dopamine neurons happened earlier than it did in other
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Flu in early life determines our susceptibility to future infections
Early infections of influenza A can help predict how the virus will affect people across different ages in the future and could impact the effectiveness of flu vaccines, says a new study.
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Microscopic structures could improve perovskite solar cells
Solar cells based on perovskite compounds could soon make electricity generation from sunlight even more efficient and cheaper. The laboratory efficiency of these perovskite solar cells already exceeds that of the well-known silicon solar cells. An international team has found microscopic structures in perovskite crystals that can guide the charge transport in the solar cell. Clever alignment of t
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Research reveals regulatory features of maize genome during early reproductive development
A team of researchers has mapped out the non-coding, 'functional' genome in maize during an early developmental window critical to formation of pollen-bearing tassels and grain-bearing ears.
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Circular RNA makes fruit flies live longer
The molecule influences the insulin signalling pathway and thus prolongs life.
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The collective power of the solar system's dark, icy bodies
Two new studies by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder may help to solve one of the biggest mysteries about the dark, icy bodies of the outer solar system: why so many of them don't circle the sun the way they should.
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The cosmic commute towards star and planet formation
Interconnected gas flows reveal how star-forming gas is assembled in galaxies.
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Strange bedfellows: How butterfly caterpillars sustain their association with cocktail ants
The spectacular leaps of gazelles, group living in deer and monkeys, and fast flight in many insects are all linked by a common phenomenon—predation. In its various forms, predation has driven the evolution of a plethora of specialized structures (morphology) and behaviors among organisms. Insects, being especially vulnerable because of their small size, have evolved various strategies to avoid pr
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Esa and Nasa line up satellites to measure Antarctic sea-ice
Aligning polar satellites will enable the first ever reliable maps of Antarctic sea-ice thickness.
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This Luxury Nuclear Apocalypse Bunker Has a Swimming Pool, Movie Theater and Sauna
Apocalypse in Luxury While humanity is still dealing with an ongoing pandemic of disastrous proportions, some Americans are preparing for a very different doomsday scenario: waiting out a nuclear winter inside luxurious underground bunkers. CNET 's Claire Reilly recently got an exclusive look at just how lavish this kind of apocalyptic lifestyle could be — if you can afford it, that is. Survival
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Gesundheit
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Strange bedfellows: How butterfly caterpillars sustain their association with cocktail ants
The spectacular leaps of gazelles, group living in deer and monkeys, and fast flight in many insects are all linked by a common phenomenon—predation. In its various forms, predation has driven the evolution of a plethora of specialized structures (morphology) and behaviors among organisms. Insects, being especially vulnerable because of their small size, have evolved various strategies to avoid pr
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Conservation agriculture increases carbon sequestration in extensive crops
Agricultural activity is responsible for about 12% of the total emissions of greenhouse gases in Spain. Nevertheless, adopting good agricultural practices can help reverse this situation, by increasing the sequestration of organic carbon in soil. With the goal of compensating for CO2 emissions produced by agricultural activity by means of fixing organic carbon in soil, the 4perMille initiative cam
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On-chip spin-Hall nanograting for simultaneously detecting phase and polarization singularities
A plasmonic spin-Hall nanograting structure that simultaneously detects both the polarization and phase singularities of the incident beam is reported. The nanograting is symmetry-breaking with different periods for the upper and lower parts, which enables the unidirectional excitation of the SPP depending on the topological charge of the incident beam. Additionally, spin-Hall meta-slits are integ
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A Plan to Make Police Data Open Source Started on Reddit
The Police Data Accessibility Project aims to request, download, clean, and standardize public records that right now are overly difficult to find.
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Curiosity Mars rover's summer road trip has begun
NASA's Curiosity Mars rover has started a road trip that will continue through the summer across roughly a mile (1.6 kilometers) of terrain. By trip's end, the rover will be able to ascend to the next section of the 3-mile-tall Martian (5-kilometer-tall) mountain it's been exploring since 2014, searching for conditions that may have supported ancient microbial life.
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Scientists Speak Out Against China's GATTACA-esque DNA Collection
Last month, news broke of the horrifying scope of China's plan to build a genetic database of every man and boy in the country. For years, police have been harvesting blood samples from men and schoolchildren in order to build a gigantic, genetic family tree that the state claims is meant to aid law enforcement. Once China hits roughly 70 million samples, which is ten percent of the country's mal
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Researchers create air filter that can kill the coronavirus
Researchers from the University of Houston, in collaboration with others, have designed a "catch and kill" air filter that can trap the virus responsible for COVID-19, killing it instantly.
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The limitations of super-resolution microscopy overcome
With high-resolution microscopy, it is theoretically possible to image cell structures with a resolution of a few nanometres. However, this has not yet been possible in practice.
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Agriculture – a climate villain? Maybe not!
The UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) claims that agriculture is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases, and is thus by many observers considered as a climate villain.
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Excitation of robust materials
So-called topological materials have special electronic properties, which are very robust against external perturbations. In tungsten ditelluride such a topologically protected state can be "broken up" using special laser pulses within picoseconds and thus change its properties. This could be a key requirement for realising extremely fast, optoelectronic switches. For the first time, physicists
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The limitations of super-resolution microscopy overcome
With high-resolution microscopy, it is theoretically possible to image cell structures with a resolution of a few nanometres. However, this has not yet been possible in practice.
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For cleaner air, water, and soil
The air around us is getting more and more polluted. No wonder many scientists strive to find a way to purify it. Thanks to the work of an international team led by prof. Juan Carlos Colmenares from the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, we are a big step closer to achieving this goal. The team found a way to make an efficient reactive adsorbent able to purify air from va
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Agriculture: A climate villain? Maybe not!
The UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) claims that agriculture is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases, and is thus by many observers considered as a climate villain. This conclusion, however, is based on a paradigm that can be questioned, writes Per Frankelius, Linkoping University, in an article in Agronomy Journal.
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Examining trapped ion technology for next generation quantum computers
Quantum computers (QC) are poised to drive important advances in several domains, including medicine, material science and internet security. While current QC systems are small, several industry and academic efforts are underway to build large systems with many hundred qubits.
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A chemical cocktail of air pollution in Beijing, China during COVID-19 outbreak
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spreads rapidly around the world, and has limited people's outdoor activities substantially. Air quality is therefore expected to be improved due to reduced anthropogenic emissions. However, in some megacities it has not been improved as expected and severe haze episodes still occurred during the COVID-19 lockdown.
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Desk-based jobs may offer protection against poor cognition in later life
People who work in jobs that require less physical activity – typically office and desk-based jobs – are at a lower risk of subsequent poor cognition than those whose work is more physically active, suggests new research.
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1.5 billion people will depend on water from mountains
Global water consumption has increased almost fourfold in the past 100 years, and many regions can only meet their water demand thanks to essential contributions from mountain regions. In 30 years, almost a quarter of the world's lowland population will strongly depend on runoff from the mountains. Only sustainable development can ensure the important function of mountain areas as Earth's "water
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Flashes bright when squeezed tight: How single-celled organisms light up the oceans
Research explains how a unicellular marine organism generates light as a response to mechanical stimulation, lighting up breaking waves at night.
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To protect threatened beetle, entomologists hope new colony takes hold
As thousands of hopeful coronavirus shut-ins look forward to heading to Atlantic beaches for the July 4 holiday, University of Massachusetts Amherst entomologist Rodger Gwiazdowski and colleagues are also heading to the beach—but they'll visit the last quiet natural one protected by the National Park Service at Sandy Hook, New Jersey.
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Why hasn't the UK seen a second wave of the coronavirus?
Scientists have repeatedly warned of a second surge of covid-19 infections as restrictions ease in the UK, but it hasn't happened – were they wrong or is it still to come?
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Metabolomics meets genomics to improve patient diagnosis
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine have improved their ability to identify the genetic cause of undiagnosed conditions.
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To protect threatened beetle, entomologists hope new colony takes hold
As thousands of hopeful coronavirus shut-ins look forward to heading to Atlantic beaches for the July 4 holiday, University of Massachusetts Amherst entomologist Rodger Gwiazdowski and colleagues are also heading to the beach—but they'll visit the last quiet natural one protected by the National Park Service at Sandy Hook, New Jersey.
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Why nature, history and American culture all make social isolation difficult
As politicians consider ways to stem the rising number of COVID-19 cases, public spaces have become battlegrounds for those tired of the closures.
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A new understanding of protein movement
Many of the most promising medicines under development are proteins, often antibodies, to help patients fight disease. These proteins must be purified as part of the manufacturing process—a task that can be tricky and result in costly waste.
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Consumer advocacy groups are mostly funded by Big Pharma, according to new research
Two-thirds of American consumer advocacy groups are funded by pharmaceutical companies. The authors of an article in Journal of Bioethical Inquiry say this compromises their advocacy. Groups like the National Alliance on Mental Illness act more like lobbyists than patient advocates. In 1905, the muckraking journalist, Samuel Hopkins Adams, published an 11-part series on patent medicines for Colli
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Fauci: US is 'still knee-deep in first wave' of pandemic as it passes 130,000 deaths
Top public health expert urges further action as new cases surge to record highs of around 50,000 a day across country The United States is "still knee-deep in the first wave" of the coronavirus pandemic, one of the country's top public health experts has warned, as the country surpassed 130,000 Covid-19 deaths and new polling indicates Donald Trump's approval rating over his handling of the cris
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Scientists use nanoparticle-delivered gene therapy to inhibit blinding eye disease in rodents
In experiments in rats and mice, two Johns Hopkins scientists—an engineer and an ophthalmologist—report the successful use of nanoparticles to deliver gene therapy for blinding eye disease. A uniquely engineered large molecule allows researchers to compact large bundles of therapeutic DNA to be delivered into the cells of the eye.
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High-throughput sequencing tracks historical spread of grapevine viruses
Grapevine is infected by more than 90 viruses, with new viral species discovered yearly as a result of the newer technology introduced by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS). Within the last decade, HTS is used for virome identification (the assemblage of viral genomes), which in turn helps plant pathologists with future research.
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High-throughput sequencing tracks historical spread of grapevine viruses
Grapevine is infected by more than 90 viruses, with new viral species discovered yearly as a result of the newer technology introduced by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS). Within the last decade, HTS is used for virome identification (the assemblage of viral genomes), which in turn helps plant pathologists with future research.
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RNA key in helping stem cells know what to become
Look deep inside our cells, and you'll find that each has an identical genome -a complete set of genes that provides the instructions for our cells' form and function.
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Scientists: Flying By Venus to Get to Mars Would Be Cheaper, Faster
A crewed mission to Mars is still many years out — if not decades. But as rocket technology makes massive strides, scientists are starting to wonder what the best way to get there could be. And one new idea, Space.com reports , involves a side trip to another of our star system's planetary bodies. To make visits to the Red Planet cheaper and faster, scientists are arguing that making a Venus flyb
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New collection of stars, not born in our galaxy, discovered in Milky Way
Astronomers can go their whole career without finding a new object in the sky. But for Lina Necib, a postdoctoral scholar in theoretical physics at Caltech, the discovery of a cluster of stars in the Milky Way, but not born of the Milky Way, came early—with a little help from supercomputers, the Gaia space observatory, and new deep learning methods.
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RNA key in helping stem cells know what to become
Look deep inside our cells, and you'll find that each has an identical genome -a complete set of genes that provides the instructions for our cells' form and function.
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NASA finds powerful storm's around Tropical Storm Cristina's center
A low-pressure area strengthened quickly and became Tropical Storm Cristina in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and infrared imagery from NASA revealed the powerful thunderstorms fueling that intensification.
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Contest between superconductivity and insulating states in 'magic angle' graphene
If you stack two layers of graphene one on top of the other, and rotate them at an angle of 1.1º (no more and no less) from each other—the so-called 'magic-angle,' experiments have proven that the material can behave like an insulator, where no electrical current can flow, and at the same can also behave like a superconductor, where electrical currents can flow without resistance.
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Edouard now post-tropical in NASA-NOAA satellite imagery
When NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the western North Atlantic Ocean on July 6, it provided forecasters with a visible image of Edouard after it transitioned into a post-tropical cyclone.
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'Growing' active sites on quantum dots for robust hydrogen photogeneration
Very recently, Chinese researchers had achieved site- and spatial- selective integration of earth-abundant metal ions (e.g., Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+) in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for efficient and robust photocatalytic H2 evolution from water.
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Study reveals many Great Lakes state parks impacted by record-high water levels
Every summer millions of people visit parks and protected areas along the shorelines of the Great Lakes to camp, hike, swim and explore nature's beauty.
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Climate change may cause extreme waves in Arctic
Extreme ocean surface waves with a devastating impact on coastal communities and infrastructure in the Arctic may become larger due to climate change, according to a new study.
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The cosmic commute towards star and planet formation
The molecular gas in galaxies is organized into a hierarchy of structures. The molecular material in giant molecular gas clouds travels along intricate networks of filamentary gas lanes towards the congested centers of gas and dust where it is compressed into stars and planets, much like the millions of people commuting to cities for work around the world.
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Research reveals regulatory features of maize genome during early reproductive development
Growth and development of all organisms depends on coordinated regulation of gene expression in time and space, and this is largely controlled by non-coding sequences in the genome. A major challenge in genomics-enabled crop improvement is functional annotation of cis-regulatory elements in crop genomes and the ability to harness these sequences, either through breeding or biotechnology, to fine-t
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Research reveals regulatory features of maize genome during early reproductive development
Growth and development of all organisms depends on coordinated regulation of gene expression in time and space, and this is largely controlled by non-coding sequences in the genome. A major challenge in genomics-enabled crop improvement is functional annotation of cis-regulatory elements in crop genomes and the ability to harness these sequences, either through breeding or biotechnology, to fine-t
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Who might the government seek to blame for the UK's Covid-19 failings?
Ministers have been accused of trying to shift the narrative over response to pandemic Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage While ministers insist that it is too early to fully consider what lessons might be learned from the coronavirus outbreak, the UK's death toll – the highest in Europe – is expected to prompt an inquiry into the handling of the pandemic. In recent wee
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Survey: 7 in 10 respondents worry poor health will limit their life experiences
Seven in 10 US adults worry poor health will prevent them from doing all the things they'd like to do in life, according to a new survey[1] from the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association.
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Medicare's race, ethnic data often undercounts minority populations, study finds
The information critical to a nationwide priority of reducing health care disparities among minorities is incomplete and inaccurate, according to a new Rutgers study.
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RNA key in helping stem cells know what to become
If every cell has the same genetic blueprint, why does an eye cell look and act so differently than a brain cell or skin cell? In a new study published this week, researchers come one step closer to solving this mystery, showing RNA plays a critical role.
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A new understanding of protein movement
A team of UD engineers has uncovered the role of surface diffusion in protein transport, which could aid biopharmaceutical processing. This work will lead to the creation of new ways to reduce waste during the expensive drug manufacturing process, enabling more efficient ways of designing and developing manufacturing techniques.
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NASA finds powerful storm's around Tropical Storm Cristina's center
A low-pressure area strengthened quickly and became Tropical Storm Cristina in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and infrared imagery from NASA revealed the powerful thunderstorms fueling that intensification.
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Our animal inheritance: Humans perk up their ears, too, when they hear interesting sounds
Many animals move their ears to better focus their attention on a novel sound. That humans also have this capability was not known until now. A research team now has demonstrated that we make minute, unconscious movements of our ears that are directed towards the sound want to focus our attention on. The team discovered this ability by measuring electrical signals in the muscles of the vestigial m
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Beyond the AI hype cycle: Trust and the future of AI
There's no shortage of promises when it comes to AI. Some say it will solve all problems while others warn it will bring about the end of the world as we know it. Both positions regularly play out in Hollywood plotlines like Westworld, Carbon Black, Minority Report, Her, and Ex Machina . Those stories are compelling because they require us as creators and consumers of AI technology to decide whet
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Researchers develop novel approach to modeling yet-unconfirmed rare nuclear process
Researchers have taken a major step toward a theoretical first-principles description of neutrinoless double-beta decay. Observing this yet-unconfirmed rare nuclear process would have important implications for particle physics and cosmology. Theoretical simulations are essential to planning and evaluating proposed experiments.
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Study: Troubling connection between workplace pregnancy discrimination and health of mothers, babies
Perceived pregnancy discrimination indirectly relates to increased levels of postpartum depressive symptoms for mothers and lower birth weights, lower gestational ages and increased numbers of doctor visits for babies, according to a management study led by Baylor University.
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Antioxidants in corn line could aid human IBD protection, therapy
Flavonoids from a specific line of corn act as anti-inflammatory agents in the guts of mice with an inflammatory-bowel-disease-like condition, according to a team of researchers who said flavonoid-rich corn should be studied to determine its potential to provide a protective effect on human health.
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TARA biosystems demonstrates in vitro cardiac biology model mimics human drug response
TARA Biosystems today reported study results demonstrating the ability of TARA's in vitro human cardiac models to reproduce drug responses similar to those observed in humans.
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Edouard now post-tropical in NASA-NOAA satellite imagery
When NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the western North Atlantic Ocean on July 6, it provided forecasters with a visible image of Edouard after it transitioned into a post-tropical cyclone.
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Researchers develop novel approach to modeling yet-unconfirmed rare nuclear process
Researchers have taken a major step toward a theoretical first-principles description of neutrinoless double-beta decay. Observing this yet-unconfirmed rare nuclear process would have important implications for particle physics and cosmology. Theoretical simulations are essential to planning and evaluating proposed experiments.
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A tiny ancient relative of dinosaurs and pterosaurs discovered
Dinosaurs and pterosaurs may be known for their remarkable size, but a newly described species that lived around 237 million years ago suggests that they originated from extremely small ancestors. The fossil reptile, named Kongonaphon kely, or 'tiny bug slayer,' would have stood just 10 centimeters tall. The study may help explain the origins of flight in pterosaurs, the presence of 'fuzz' on both
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This Company Is Making Corporate Training Videos Using Deepfakes
Automated Actors Studios are running into trouble navigating coronavirus lockdowns, to say nothing of the health risks that currently make holding video shoots a particularly bad idea. That means a shortage of media for companies that might need new instructional videos, promotional materials, or any other footage. That's why, Wired reports , more companies are investigating a high-tech workaroun
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Brazil's president Bolsonaro tests positive for coronavirus
Far-right leader reports fever and says high death toll is because of 'fear of the virus'
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As teens delay driver licensing, they miss key safety instruction
Teens are getting licensed to drive later than they used to and missing critical safety training as a result, according to Yale researchers.
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Contest between superconductivity and insulating states in Magic Angle Graphene
A team of ICFO researchers, in collaboration with scientists from MIT, NIMS (Japan), and Imperial College London, develop a set of entirely novel knobs to control correlated electrons and demonstrate that superconductivity can exist without insulating phases in Magic Angle Twisted Bi-layer Graphene. The study has been published in Nature.
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A novel active photonic wireless system to power medical implants
Medical implants, such as pacemakers, serve various functions in patients and help to improve their quality of life. But, to power these devices, re-implants and invasive surgery are often required, which may lead to a risk of surgical complications. In search of a more permanent solution, scientists at GIST, Korea, developed a unique photonic device that reduces the need for re-implants, paving t
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New collection of stars, not born in our galaxy, discovered in Milky Way
Astrophysicists announced the discovery of Nyx, a new collection of 250 stars that they believe are the remnant of a dwarf galaxy that merged with the Milky Way eons ago. The research combined massive cosmological simulations and observational data from the Gaia space observatory. It required large scale supercomputers and deep learning algorithms. The team plans to explore Nyx further using groun
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Gut Piezo1 regulates gut and bone homeostasis via RNA sensing.
Gut enterochromaffin cells regulate gut and bone homeostasis via serotonin production. A recent report suggested that gut microbes regulate serotonin levels, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unexplored. Here, Piezo1 is reported to be crucial for serotonin production from gut. Researchers discovered that bacterial derived RNA could activate Piezo1, leading to the production of serotonin
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Restructuring a general surgery residency program in epicenter of COVID-19 pandemic
A New York hospital's restructuring of general surgery resident teams and educational infrastructure in response to the COVID-19 pandemic is detailed in this article.
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A novel therapeutic target for recovery after stroke
IBS researchers have discovered a new mechanism to explain the effects of subcortical strokes and a new possible therapeutic approach.
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'Growing' active sites on quantum dots for robust H2 photogeneration
Chinese researchers had achieved site- and spatial- selective integration of earth-abundant metal ions in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for efficient and robust photocatalytic H 2 evolution from water.
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A key gene modifies regulatory T cells to fine-tune the immune response
The human immune system is a finely-tuned machine, balancing when to release a cellular army to deal with pathogens, with when to rein in that army, stopping an onslaught from attacking the body itself. Now, Salk researchers have discovered a way to control regulatory T cells, immune cells that act as a cease-fire signal, telling the immune system when to stand down.
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Sensory neurons outside the brain drive autistic social behaviors, Penn study suggests
A new study from Penn Medicine lends further evidence that the social behaviors tied to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) emerge from abnormal function of sensory neurons outside the brain.
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Protein linked to cancer acts as a viscous glue in cell division
The protein PRC1, a telltale sign in many cancer types including prostate, ovarian, and breast cancer, act as a "viscous glue" during cell division, precisely controlling the speed at which two sets of DNA are separated as a single cell divides. The finding could explain why too much or too little PRC1 disrupts that process and causes genome errors linked to cancer.
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Portable system boosts laser precision, at room temperature
Physicists at MIT have designed a quantum "light squeezer" that reduces quantum noise in an incoming laser beam by 15 percent. It is the first system of its kind to work at room temperature, making it amenable to a compact, portable setup that may be added to high-precision experiments to improve laser measurements where quantum noise is a limiting factor.
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Newer solar power equipment ages better than older units
Utility-scale photovoltaics are the largest sector of the overall solar market within the US and the fastest-growing form of renewable power generation, and this fleet of utility-scale photovoltaic projects is relatively young and hasn't been operating long enough to establish a lengthy history of operational field service. In the Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, researchers assess the
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Among older adults, statin use tied to decreased risk of death
A new study led by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital and the VA Boston Healthcare System leverages national data from the U.S. Veterans Health Administration Services and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to shed new light on the role statins may play for older adults who have not yet experienced a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular event.
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Cooling mechanism increases solar energy harvesting for self-powered outdoor sensors
Thermoelectric devices, which use the temperature difference between the top and bottom of the device to generate power, offer some promise for harnessing naturally occurring energy. In Applied Physics Letters, authors tested one made up of a wavelength-selective emitter that constantly cools the device during the day using radiative cooling. As a result, the top of the device is cooler than the b
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First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the Gulf Stream
A new study provides first direct evidence for Gulf Stream blender effect, identifying a new mechanism of mixing water across the swift-moving current. The results have important implications for weather, climate and fisheries because ocean mixing plays a critical role in these processes. The Gulf Stream is one of the largest drivers of climate and biological productivity from Florida to Newfoundl
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Group genomics drive aggression in honey bees
Researchers often study the genomes of individual organisms to try to tease out the relationship between genes and behavior. A new study of Africanized honey bees reveals, however, that the genetic inheritance of individual bees has little influence on their propensity for aggression. Instead, the genomic traits of the hive as a whole are strongly associated with how fiercely its soldiers attack.
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Machine learning reveals vulnerabilities in 3D-printed carbon-fiber composites
Components made of glass- and carbon- fiber reinforced composites, soaring in high-performance applications, can be 3D printed. A team of researchers has found that the printer head toolpaths are easy to reproduce — and therefore steal — with machine learning (ML) tools applied to the microstructures of the part obtained by a CT scan.
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Epigenetics: What the embryo can teach us about cell reprogramming
Cell reprogramming provides an outstanding opportunity for the artificial generation of stem cells for regenerative medicine approaches in the clinic. As current cell reprogramming methods are low in efficiency, researchers around the globe aim to learn lessons from the early embryo which might lead them to a more efficient and faster generation of high-quality, fully reprogrammed stem cells.
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Light a critical factor in limiting carbon uptake, even in the north
A new study demonstrates that even when temperatures warm and cold stress is limited, light is still a major factor in limiting carbon uptake of northern high latitudes. The team analyzed satellite observations, field measurements, and model simulations and showed that there is a prevalent radiation limitation on carbon uptake in northern ecosystems, especially in autumn.
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The US May Ban TikTok, Trump Administration Says
Secretary of State Mike Pompeo told reporters on Monday that the current administration is "certainly looking at" banning Chinese social media apps including TikTok, Reuters reports . The smash hit video-sharing app has been criticized for facilitating the collection of personal information by the Chinese government — a claim that its parent company ByteDance denies. "I don't want to get out in f
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COVID-related discrimination disproportionately impacts racial minorities
Discrimination by someone who perceives you to be infected with coronavirus is an experience nearly a quarter of all U.S. residents have in common—particularly racial minorities.
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Dozens of endangered dorcas gazelles killed by poachers in Niger
Around 40 dorcas gazelles, an endangered species, have been slaughtered by poachers in one of Africa's largest nature reserves, environmental authorities said Tuesday.
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Dozens of endangered dorcas gazelles killed by poachers in Niger
Around 40 dorcas gazelles, an endangered species, have been slaughtered by poachers in one of Africa's largest nature reserves, environmental authorities said Tuesday.
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First time buyer? You'll get the best treatment if you have a British or French accent
If you're a first time buyer with a British or French accent then the chances are you will be treated to the highest level of customer service by estate agents, according to a new, mystery shopping-style study from researchers at the University of Sheffield.
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Interplay of impact, moral goals influences charitable giving to different causes
Charitable giving is a nearly half-trillion-dollar sector of the U.S. economy, but what accounts for why some individuals, foundations and corporations give locally while others give to charities on the other side of the globe? According to a new paper co-written by a University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign expert in consumer behavior and global marketing, the dynamic interplay between the acce
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Evidence for rapid growth of 'orthodox' Anglican churches in sub Saharan Africa questioned
New research published by an Aberdeen academic has drawn into question claims that churches in the global south have experienced a growth in new converts as a result of their 'orthodoxy', particularly when it comes to the LGBTQ movement.
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The collective power of the solar system's dark, icy bodies
The outermost reaches of our solar system are a strange place—filled with dark and icy bodies with nicknames like Sedna, Biden and The Goblin, each of which span several hundred miles across.
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Europe wants to use hydrogen to slow climate change – will it work?
The European Commission is set to announce a new strategy to turn the universe's most abundant element into a way for the EU to decarbonise polluting industries and transport
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How to rethink capitalism and government for a post-pandemic world | Mariana Mazzucato
In the face of three simultaneous crises — health, the economy and climate — do we have a chance to do capitalism differently? Economist Mariana Mazzucato explains why we shouldn't try to go back to normal after the pandemic but should instead rethink how governments work together with businesses to solve big problems. Learn more about how governments can play a dynamic, proactive role in shapin
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Indoor pizza maker for excellent DIY pies
Pizza anytime. (Ivan Torres via Unsplash/) You don't have to be a chef to make pizza at home. Since home-cooking is growing ever more popular, picking up the proper equipment can transform the quality of your pies. While supporting your local pizza joint is important, some of us also want to try our hands at making pizza at home, and we can do it on a budget or at a slightly higher price point. F
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'Light squeezer' reduces quantum noise in lasers, could enhance quantum computing and gravitational-wave detection
Physicists at MIT have designed a quantum "light squeezer" that reduces quantum noise in an incoming laser beam by 15 percent. It is the first system of its kind to work at room temperature, making it amenable to a compact, portable setup that may be added to high-precision experiments to improve laser measurements where quantum noise is a limiting factor.
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Cooling mechanism increases solar energy harvesting for self-powered outdoor sensors
Sensors placed in the environment spend long periods of time outdoors through all weather conditions, and they must continuously power themselves in order to collect data. Many, like photovoltaic cells, use the sun to produce electricity, but powering outdoor sensors at night is a challenge.
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Protein linked to cancer acts as a viscous glue in cell division
An over-abundance of the protein PRC1, which is essential to cell division, is a telltale sign in many cancer types, including prostate, ovarian, and breast cancer. New research, published online today in Developmental Cell, shows that PRC1 acts as a "viscous glue" during cell division, precisely controlling the speed at which two sets of DNA are separated as a single cell divides. The finding cou
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Colleges that emphasize activism have more civically engaged students
Students tend to be more engaged in activism if the school that they attend emphasizes social and political issues, according to new research featuring faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.
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The study of lysosomal function during cell division and chromosomal instability
A team from the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the University of Barcelona (UB), in collaboration with a researcher from the Mayo Clinic and the University of Minnesota, have described that lysosomes and autophagy processes are active during mitosis and are necessary for a correct cell division. Lysosomes and autophagy eliminate and recycle damaged cellular components; thus,
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Study: Surgical delay associated with increased risk in some gastrointestinal malignancies
Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, widespread cancellations of electively-scheduled or "non-emergency" operations were implemented to free up hospital beds and conserve protective equipment for health care workers. In a new study published in the Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, a team of investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center examined the effects of delaying surgery for gastrointe
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Insufficient sleep harms children's mental health
Poor sleep harms children's mental health and emotional stability according to a new study published by University of Houston professor of psychology and director of the Sleep and Anxiety Center of Houston, Candice Alfano.
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Higher manganese levels in early pregnancy linked to lower preeclampsia risk
An analysis of data from more than 1,300 women followed prospectively through pregnancy found that women with lower levels of the essential mineral manganese in early pregnancy were more likely to develop the serious high blood pressure syndrome called preeclampsia in late pregnancy.
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FEFU astrophysicists revealed ten-μm silicate feature in large dust particles
Astrophysicists of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) with colleagues from Russia and oversea have revealed that large and dense particles with irregular shapes possess a 10 nm silicate feature introduced in lots of comets and protoplanetary discs. The results based on the study of 15 olivine samples do not correspond to the particles calculated using the Mie theory (used to model the comet par
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Circular RNA makes fruit flies live longer
The molecule influences the insulin signalling pathway and thus prolongs life
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Research reveals regulatory features of maize genome during early reproductive development
A team of researchers led by Andrea Eveland, Ph.D., assistant member, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, has mapped out the non-coding, 'functional' genome in maize during an early developmental window critical to formation of pollen-bearing tassels and grain-bearing ears.
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Protein linked to cancer acts as a viscous glue in cell division
An over-abundance of the protein PRC1, which is essential to cell division, is a telltale sign in many cancer types, including prostate, ovarian, and breast cancer. New research, published online today in Developmental Cell, shows that PRC1 acts as a "viscous glue" during cell division, precisely controlling the speed at which two sets of DNA are separated as a single cell divides. The finding cou
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The study of lysosomal function during cell division and chromosomal instability
A team from the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the University of Barcelona (UB), in collaboration with a researcher from the Mayo Clinic and the University of Minnesota, have described that lysosomes and autophagy processes are active during mitosis and are necessary for a correct cell division. Lysosomes and autophagy eliminate and recycle damaged cellular components; thus,
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Brain, behavior problems follow Zika in newborn monkeys
Zika virus infection soon after birth leads to long-term brain and behavior problems, according to research with rhesus monkeys. The brain and behavior problems include persistent socioemotional, cognitive, and motor deficits, as well as abnormalities in brain structure and function. More than 85 countries and territories have reported evidence of mosquito-acquired Zika virus infection, for which
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Coconut confusion reveals consumer conundrum
Coconut oil production may be more damaging to the environment than palm oil, researchers say.
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Nitrogen pollution policies around the world lag behind scientific knowledge
National and regional policies aimed at addressing pollution fueled by nitrogen lag behind scientific knowledge of the problem.
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How COVID-19 Will Change the Way We Fight Wildfires
Prepare for the return of the Smokey Bear method as social distancing prevents firefighters from using more modern strategies
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Essential cookware for your camping trip
Dine under the stars. (Gary Sandoz via Unsplash/) Regret is a common feeling when you're setting up camp in the woods for the weekend. There's the regret that comes from weighing down your pack with books and games you were never going to read or play, and the extra-poignant regret of missing something crucial—like a lighter, or your camp stove. These lightweight and compact mess kits and utensil
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The best stationary bikes to help you crush cardio training at home
Comfortable exercise bikes for your home. (Amazon/) At-home workout equipment that offers a fitness-studio-like experience is more appealing than ever. Peloton, which sells spin bikes along with subscription-based access to live workout classes, is the most hyped option by far. But while the company's no-interest financing option is tempting, the reasonable monthly payments add up to one very exp
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No-contact door-openers to help keep germs at bay
Open any door without using your hands. (Dil via Unsplash/) Microbes are everywhere, and the fascinating variety of germs that make up the human microbiome can both positively and negatively affect your health. For some people, carrying a simple tool to minimize contact with surfaces like doors and elevator buttons makes it easier to navigate trips outside the home. While copper and brass (an all
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Artificial tones in perception experiments could be missing the mark, research
Researchers at McMaster University who study how the brain processes sound have discovered the common practice of using artificial tones in perception experiments could mean scientists are overlooking important and interesting discoveries in the field of brain research.
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Climate change may cause extreme waves in Arctic
Extreme ocean surface waves with a devastating impact on coastal communities and infrastructure in the Arctic may become larger due to climate change, according to a new study.
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The cosmic commute towards star and planet formation
Interconnected gas flows reveal how star-forming gas is assembled in galaxies.
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The collective power of the solar system's dark, icy bodies
Two new studies by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder may help to solve one of the biggest mysteries about the dark, icy bodies of the outer solar system: why so many of them don't circle the sun the way they should.
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Social media can identify fathers at risk of postpartum depression
Fathers' social media posts were evaluated for changes in behavior (engagement with the platform), emotions, linguistic style, and discussion topics following the birth of their child.
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Electrons in the fast lane
Microscopic structures could further improve perovskite solar cells
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Video: How COVID-19 is affecting support for mail-in voting
How will opinions change as cases across the country fluctuate—particularly in states, such as Arizona or Florida, where cases are rising sharply? .
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Ottessa Moshfegh's Riveting Meta-Mysteries
Jake Belcher "I've disguised the ugly truth in a kind of spiffy noir package," Ottessa Moshfegh said about her debut novel, Eileen , published in 2015 . Convinced that readers wouldn't pick up a novel about a self-loathing woman with little desire to please others, she masked her " freak book" as a mystery. To Moshfegh's frustration, readers still fixated on the grossness of Eileen—a laxative-add
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