As cases of Covid-19 continue to bleed supplies of N95 respirators dry, infectious disease researchers are scrambling to amass the safety equipment that keeps them safe during high-risk work — a process further jeopardized by panicked purchasing of the masks by members of the general public.
Ghost Flights A number of airlines are being forced to operate near-empty "ghost flights" after the coronavirus outbreak caused sweeping cancellations and demand for airfare to plummet across the globe. "Passenger demand for air travel has dramatically fallen due to COVID-19 and in some instances we are being forced to fly almost empty planes or lose our valuable slots," CEO of Virgin Atlantic Sh
Particularly with the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), viruses have a bad reputation these days. However, it is important to note that viruses come in many types and can infect not only humans but almost all life forms, and their infections are not always detrimental to the host….
It's nice of a few high street banks to offer repayment holidays but it's a piecemeal approach. Threadneedle Street must step up The Italian view of mortgages in the age of the coronavirus is big, bold and serious: payments can be suspended , says the government in Rome. So what about the UK? Where are our equivalent emergency measures, should they be needed? Well, there was a flurry of announcem
An extraordinary scoop by Sky News : the Chinese government is using a professional Mr. Bean impersonator to spread propaganda about its response to the deadly, COVID-19-causing coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Sky reports that the impersonator, a British man named Nigel Dixon, was trapped in Wuhan by the outbreak. Now, for some reason, he's appeared in a video by the state-run Xinhua News Agency, to prai
Chronic infection provokes alterations in inflammatory and suppressive pathways that potentially affect the function and integrity of multiple tissues, impacting both ongoing immune control and restorative immune therapies. Here we demonstrate that chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection rapidly triggers severe thymic depletion, mediated by CD8 T cell-intrinsic type I interferon…
Scientific American contributing editor W. Wayt Gibbs reports from the U.S. epicenter of the coronavirus outbreak: Kirkland, Wash. In this first installment of an ongoing series, he looks at why… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
UK and US had worst days trading since 2008 GFC; Global cases near 110,000; Grand Princess passengers disembark. Follow the latest news. Cruise ship carrying at least 21 with coronavirus docks in California US pledges more testing as Trump hints at aid for workers Quarantined US congressman flew with Trump on Air Force One Global stock markets post biggest falls since 2008 financial crisis Italia
As of Tuesday morning, the US has more than 500 confirmed cases across 35 states Coronavirus: live updates Coronavirus symptoms: what are they and should I see a doctor? The number of cases of Covid-19 (coronavirus) continues to grow in the US. Mike Pence, the US vice-president, is overseeing the US response to coronavirus. So far, 80% of patients experience a mild form of the illness, which can
Findings suggest the 14-day quarantine period used around world strikes a good balance Coronavirus – live updates People infected with coronavirus are symptom-free for an average of five days, according to a study that reinforces the need for strict quarantine measures. The analysis found that 5.1 days was the median length of time before people started showing signs of illness, although there wa
What is Covid-19, how does it spread, what are the symptoms, and at what point should you call a doctor? Find all our coronavirus coverage here How to protect yourself from infection Coronavirus – live news updates It is caused by a member of the coronavirus family that has never been encountered before. Like other coronaviruses, it has come from animals. Continue reading…
In response to the novel coronavirus, many South Korean universities have moved their teaching online. Students are still provided with the required number of class hours but without face-to-face contact with teachers.
The average time from exposure to onset of COVID-19 symptoms is 5.1 days, researchers report. This suggests that the 14-day quarantine period the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are using for individuals with likely exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the new coronavirus that causes the respiratory illness COVID-19, is a reasonable amount of time to monitor individuals for development of the di
Opposition claims not enough is being done to stimulate economy, despite Jacinda Ardern saying nation is in robust position to fight coronavirus The New Zealand government's economic response to coronavirus has been criticised as "startlingly flat-footed" and a symptom of "complacency". On Tuesday, the New Zealand stock market dropped 4.85% in the first half hour of trading, prompting opposition
Neurodegenerative diseases feature specific misfolded or misassembled proteins associated with neurotoxicity. The precise mechanisms by which protein aggregates first arise in the majority of sporadic cases have remained unclear. Likely, a first critical mass of misfolded proteins starts a vicious cycle of a prion-like expansion. We hypothesize that viruses, having…
Political leaders and central banks must listen to experts' advice on containing the outbreak Coronavirus – latest updates Last week, G7 finance ministers and central bank governors vowed to use "all appropriate policy tools" to contain the economic threat posed by the coronavirus. The question left unanswered is what is appropriate and what will work. The immediate response took the form of cent
Every country that confirms a local case of COVID-19 – and there are more than 70 such countries now – faces the daunting task of tracking down its initial patient. This is an important means to safeguard the broader population because locating everyone that this "patient zero" has come into contact with can help curb further transmission. But the people contracting this particular coronavirus do
Public Domain: NIAID Rocky Mountain Laboratories (RML), U.S. NIH One of the problems with tackling the coronavirus epidemic is that in the United States at least, a severe shortage of test kits has prevented doctors across the nation from measuring which individuals have coronavirus and which do not. As a result, the official US tally of roughly 700 cases is believed to be a significant undercoun
While most of us are attempting to stay calm and protect ourselves from the disease, others are keen to make a quick buck from the panic The coronavirus crisis has revealed five distinct personality types. First, the paper panickers (PPs): the people stockpiling toilet paper . While most PPs are well aware that loo roll is inedible and does not wipe away the virus, they do not seem to care; they a
Many see remdesivir as one of few drugs that has reasonable prospect of helping patients A US biotech firm has ramped up production of an experimental drug that has become a focal point for hopes of an effective treatment for coronavirus. The first clinical trial of the antiviral medicine remdesivir in Covid-19 patients is due to report its findings next month according to Gilead Sciences, which
Viruses have been well studied, but many mysteries linger. One such mystery is how a spherical virus circumvents energy barriers to form symmetric shells. A research team has made progress is solving this mystery. The team reports that an interplay of energies at the molecular level makes the formation of a shell possible.
How can K-12 school leaders prepare for weeks or months of teaching online? "…this is not like an extended snow day. Some of the teachers are going to get sick." The COVID-19 virus has started to close schools and college campuses in the United States. Public health officials predict that coronavirus cases will only continue to rise. Here, Ryan Baker, director of the Penn Center for Learning Anal
When a mysterious new coronavirus started to spread out of Wuhan, China, last year, fear began to grow that it would turn into a new global pandemic. Now, months after reports of an outbreak began, the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has infected nearly 100,000 and killed just over 3,300 people around the world — a rapid spread in which some historians see parallels to deadly historical diseases. Graham M
In a televised address today, Italian prime minister Giuseppe Conte announced that coronavirus quarantine measures would be extended nationwide with travel only permitted for work or family emergencies, as the BBC reports . In the address, Conte said that the best thing was for citizens to stay at home, in large part to protect the most fragile members of society. Outside of China, Italy now has
"We are out of time," Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said yesterday evening. "We have to stay home." With those words , he announced the most stringent restrictions on freedom of movement imposed in Europe since the Second World War: 60 million Italians can now move around only for pressing reasons of work, health, or other extenuating necessity—and then only with written permission. Conte
People who rate themselves as highly knowledgeable about a new infectious disease threat could also be more likely to believe they don't know enough, a new study suggests. In the case of this study, the infectious disease threat was the Zika virus. But the authors of the new study say the results could apply to the recent novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak.
The 1918 influenza A virus (IAV) caused the most severe flu pandemic in recorded human history. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is an important virulence factor of the 1918 IAV. NS1 antagonizes host defense mechanisms through interactions with multiple host factors. One pathway by which NS1 increases virulence is through the…
An analysis of publicly available data on infections from the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, that causes the respiratory illness COVID-19 yielded an estimate of 5.1 days for the median disease incubation period, according to a new study.
No evidence virus passes to foetus during pregnancy, according to latest research Coronavirus – latest updates Pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to severe Covid-19 symptoms and there is no evidence that the virus can pass to a baby during pregnancy, according to new guidance . The guidelines, issued by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Royal College of Midwi
Do campaign contributions from oil and gas companies influence legislators to vote against the environment, or do these companies invest in legislators that have a proven antienvironmental voting record? Using 28 y of campaign contribution data, we find that evidence consistently supports the investment hypothesis: The more a given member…
Part of the challenge during the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has been that scientists and public health officials are still struggling to understand what makes the coronavirus tick. Now, though, researchers are starting to examine the growing dataset of cases — and fill in the gaps about how the SARS-CoV-2 virus moves through individual bodies and society at large. In a new paper published in the A
A secret report by the Director of National Intelligence says that the United States is starkly unprepared for a global pandemic — and the White House is blocking its release. At least, that's according to two senior government officials who blabbed to Time about the report, which was scheduled to be released early February, according to the magazine. But, says Time , plans to release it were scr
Our answers to some of the most common questions we've been getting about COVID-19. (Pexels/) Follow all of PopSci's COVID-19 coverage here , including travel advice , pregnancy concerns , and the latest findings on the virus itself . Since the novel coronavirus began spreading throughout China in January, it has reached 104 additional countries and infected 109,577 people globally. So far, 3,809
Med hjälp av Summit, världens mest kraftfulla superdator, har forskare vid Oak Ridge National Laboratory i USA på kort tid lyckats identifiera 77 läkemedelsmolekyler som skulle kunna ha effekt på coronaviruset SARS-CoV-2.
It's Tuesday, March 10. Ordered here by the number of delegates up for grabs: Michigan, Washington State, Missouri, Mississippi, Idaho, and North Dakota vote (in ND's case, by caucus) today. In the rest of today's newsletter: Out with the handshakes, in with the hand sanitizer—Joe Biden and Bernie Sanders have both canceled rallies planned for tonight. Plus: From "Never Trump" to "Why not Trump."
Updated on March 10 at 4:58 p.m. ET. T he first thing to go was the rope line. Until this weekend, former Vice President Joe Biden would end his scripted rallies with a far more intimate tradition of campaign politics—by greeting his supporters personally, and physically. He'd press the flesh, high-fiving, shaking hands, leaning in close for photos with dozens, if not hundreds, of people crowded
Nearly two weeks after the new coronavirus was first found to be spreading among Americans, the United States remains dangerously limited in its capacity to test people for the illness, an ongoing investigation from The Atlantic has found. After surveying local data from across the country, we can only verify that 4,384 people have been tested for the coronavirus nationwide, as of today at 4 p.m.
In January 2018, Theresa May, then the prime minister of the United Kingdom, made an unusual appointment: Tracey Crouch would serve as the world's first minister for loneliness. The position, May said, would address the fact that, for an estimated 9 million U.K. citizens, "loneliness is the sad reality of modern life." At the time, Alice Aedy , a British filmmaker in her 20s, was disconcerted by
"America vs. Socialism" was the theme of the Conservative Political Action Conference last month, though as fights go this one was pretty one-sided. An anti-socialist message thrummed through the halls while the crowds celebrated free-market capitalism over $4 cups of coffee and $20 chicken-salad sandwiches wrapped in cellophane. As the panelists likened socialism to a disease, an actual disease,
Donald Trump, Nigel Farage and the Twitterati should leave the public announcements to the epidemiologists I'm no financial expert, but – if you ask me – why not withdraw every last penny from your bank account, head to your nearest casino and put it all on red? You could literally double your money. Sure, something else could happen entirely. But all investments are risky, right? And, like I said
In the global health war against the COVID-19 coronavirus, there are two measures we know of that effectively prevent the spread of the outbreak while the world waits on a vaccine: Quarantine/social isolation, and cleaning your hands. But what's the best — if not only surefire way — to get that right? Washing them with soap and water. Not hand sanitizer. Not just water. It's soap and water. This
Freezer sales at AO.com and John Lewis soar as Iceland reports surge in frozen food purchases Coronavirus – latest updates Sales of both freezers and frozen food have surged in the UK amid panic buying by Britons worried about the spread of coronavirus. The online appliance retailer AO.com said freezer sales jumped more than 200% last week as worried shoppers sought to increase their ability to s
UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres warned Tuesday that while the global outbreak of coronavirus may have caused a temporary drop in emissions that cause global warming, it would not end the problem and might even divert attention from the fight.
In Florence, where I live, the squares are empty. Despite political infighting, Italy is showing how to quell the panic On Monday evening the Italian prime minister, Giuseppe Conte, announced that the whole of Italy was to be designated a "protected zone", and placed under lockdown as cases of Covid-19 in the country rose to 9,172, with 463 deaths. For the next month, until 3 April, 60 million Ita
From Milan to Palermo in Sicily, few people are even venturing out for a coffee in the local bar Coronavirus latest | At a glance Bar Il Sant'Andrea is something of a barometer for the liveliness of Orvieto, a hilltop town of about 4,000 people in Italy's central Umbria region. On a typical morning, it would be buzzing with customers having coffee, chatting or reading the newspapers. On Tuesday,
The novel coronavirus has so far infected more than 110,000 people and killed nearly 4,000. "Stay-at-home" companies — like Netflix and Amazon — seem to be uniquely poised to weather the outbreak. Media companies also appear to be profiting from surges in coronavirus-related traffic. The novel coronavirus, which causes the disease COVID-19, has infected 110,000 people and killed 4,000 across six
It's hard not to worry, but we have to hope the epidemiologists are giving the UK government the right advice In a epidemic, nothing spreads as fast as fear. There are only so many pictures of Italy's deserted cafes and empty streets that the average Briton can look at without beginning to wonder why we're not on lockdown too. Social media only feeds the hysteria, spawning endless scary-looking g
Whether your mild or moderate symptoms mean you have a cold, the flu, or COVID-19 doesn't change the medical advice right now. Stay home, rest, and call or email your doctor if symptoms worsen. (Image credit: Guido Mieth/Getty Images)
Steven Zarnfaller's elderly cousin couldn't risk attending his wedding. Last week, Zarnfaller got a call from the 78-year-old, who has been like a mother to him. Given the news about the coronavirus, she told him, it was too dangerous for her to fly from New York to Oakland, California, for his April 5 ceremony. Since COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, appears to be especially deadl
Driverless in Seattle Driverless delivery vehicle startup Neolix is raking in new customers as cities in China are under full lockdown due to the coronavirus outbreak. The company has gotten orders for 200 tiny robotic vehicles, up from 125 since last May, according to Bloomberg , including commerce juggernauts Alibaba and JD.com. The company's small autonomous delivery vehicles have proven extre
Financial markets are in meltdown mode as the coronavirus courses rapidly and all too undetectably throughout the world. But there is a simple thing the U.S. government can do right now, which would both slow the viral spread and limit the economic harm. Give people and companies money. Perhaps that intervention strikes you as a non sequitur. Dollar bills aren't medicine, COVID-19 doesn't discrim
How dating apps are adapting to love in the time of coronavirus Dating apps are adapting to love in the time of coronavirus, warning their users of the elevated risks of going on dates while trying to ensure they do not switch off entirely when the time comes to self-isolate. OKCupid, which prides itself on its data-led approach to dating, asking users to fill in detailed questionnaires and match
The cruise ship industry is going through a bit of a PR crisis, courtesy of the coronavirus outbreak. Thousands of passengers have had to be quarantined for weeks on end, trapped inside tight quarters on board a number of ships . Now, it sounds like a number of quarantined passengers have — understandably — caught a bad case of cabin fever (pun intended), with food getting tight while the number
I can tell that the current events are getting a bit overwhelming by the difficulty of writing about other topics here! I'm not specifically on a coronavirus topic today, but rather on what some of the news coverage is saying about our expectations for medical research. One of the things people have noted about my two recent posts on potential therapies is that I have not been too optimistic abou
In a recent study published in Marine Ecology Progress Series, researchers at California Polytechnic State University revealed that in addition to seasonal changes in winds and ocean temperatures, natural climate cycles greatly influenced the base of the food web at the Cal Poly Pier in San Luis Obispo Bay, an embayment located in Central California in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem
Awareness of climate change and its impacts is not enough to move people to action. New research on how people's worldview affects their perceptions and actions could help policymakers and activists reframe the discussion around climate change mitigation.
Leiden chemists have created a new ultrathin membrane only one molecule thick. The membrane can produce a hundred times more power from seawater than the best membranes used today. The researchers have published their findings in Nature Nanotechnology.
Murdoch University researchers have delivered a new cultivar of French Serradella that is set to increase the sustainability of Wheatbelt crop-pasture rotations and lower the carbon footprint of cropping by as much as 50 percent.
New research has shown that large ecosystems such as rainforests and coral reefs can collapse at a significantly faster rate than previously understood. The findings suggest that ecosystems the size of the Amazon forests could collapse in only 49 years and the Caribbean coral reefs in just 15 years.
Our recent paper (1) reports the development and pilot-scale validation of viscoelastic carrier fluids for ammonium polyphosphate (APP), the primary retardant used in wildland firefighting, to improve retention on common ignition-prone vegetation to protect through environmental exposure. In response to our paper, Santín et al. (2) state that while our…
Exclusive: Australia needs the expertise to predict changes which have a major impact across the country, a review finds A government-backed review of Australia's climate science capability has identified "critical gaps" in the nation's ability to understand the processes that underpin climate change, with atmospheric modelling lagging other countries. It found Australia was in danger of losing "
The climate crisis can't be averted, it's here. And with human suffering now a reality, governments can no longer stand idly by You may have read that there are just eight, or 10, or 12 years to save the world from the climate crisis. There are not. It is already here, gaining strength every day as carbon emissions pour into the atmosphere. It is a slow-motion disaster. Action to avert the worst
The coral reef ecosystem in the Red Sea's Gulf of Aqaba is strikingly resilient to rising sea temperatures, say researchers. Rapid ocean warming due to climate change is predicted to decimate 70 to 90% of the world's coral reefs by mid-century, cite the researchers in their appeal to UNESCO to declare the Red Sea's 2,500 miles of coral reef as a Marine World Heritage Site. They also recommend add
Upstart video makers have benefited young and old audiences alike. But how do these YouTube science communicators source their facts? (Rachit Tank/Unsplash/) Dan Garisto is a science journalist based in New York. He writes about physics and has been published in outlets including Scientific American , Symmetry , Science News , Hakai , and Nature News . This story originally featured on Undark . S
F our years ago , when Russia's internet trolls wanted the American electorate to lose confidence in democracy, they had to work hard at it—by recirculating cynical postings from obscure social-media accounts, or by making up their own. The message then was that everything in American society had been rigged: elections, football games, the stock market, primaries, polls, the media, "the system."
A study of the second HIV patient to undergo successful stem cell transplantation from donors with a HIV-resistant gene, finds that there was no active viral infection in the patient's blood 30 months after they stopped anti-retroviral therapy, according to a case report published in The Lancet HIV journal and presented at CROI (Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections).
Study analysed data from more than 170,000 women born in Denmark between 1930 and 1996 Girls who are tall and lean in childhood are more at risk of later developing endometriosis, research has found. Endometriosis is a painful, often debilitating, condition in which tissue similar to that found lining the womb is found elsewhere in the body, such as the bowel or ovaries. When it breaks down and b
Why is it so difficult to correct the scientific record in sports science? In the first installment in this series of guest posts, Matthew Tenan, a data scientist with a PhD in neuroscience, began the story of how he and some colleagues came to scrutinize a paper. In this post, he explains what happened next. … Continue reading
Microscopic particles, called STAR particles, could potentially offer better treatment of skin diseases like psoriasis, warts, and certain kinds of skin cancer. Skin diseases affect half of the world's population, but many treatments are not effective, require frequent injections, or cause significant side effects. In a new study in the journal Nature Medicine , Mark Prausnitz and the researchers
Three plant science journals—the American Journal of Botany (AJB), Applications in Plant Sciences (APPS), and the International Journal of Plant Sciences (IJPS)—have joined efforts to provide a broad look at how plants interact with their environment. The journals have published cross-journal special issues featuring research on plant stress, reproduction, and mutualisms (AJB); novel methods a
Although aerobic respiration is a hallmark of eukaryotes, a few unicellular lineages, growing in hypoxic environments, have secondarily lost this ability. In the absence of oxygen, the mitochondria of these organisms have lost all or parts of their genomes and evolved into mitochondria-related organelles (MROs). There has been debate regarding…
Emerging evidence suggests the Pseudomonas aeruginosa accessory genome is enriched with uncharacterized virulence genes. Identification and characterization of such genes may reveal novel pathogenic mechanisms used by particularly virulent isolates. Here, we utilized a mouse bacteremia model to quantify the virulence of 100 individual P. aeruginosa bloodstream isolates and performed…
Nature, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00672-7 For three years, part of DARPA has funded two teams for each project: one for research and one for reproducibility. The investment is paying off.
A recent study, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has presented a new biofuel system that uses lignin found in biomass for the production of hydrogen.
We tested the hypothesis that underrepresented students in active-learning classrooms experience narrower achievement gaps than underrepresented students in traditional lecturing classrooms, averaged across all science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and courses. We conducted a comprehensive search for both published and unpublished studies that compared the performance of
Splish splash and have a blast. (Jakob Owens via Unsplash/) We have become a culture that demands our music, our way, at all times. Not only do our devices need to stream whatever song we come up with on a whim, we need wireless, portable speakers to blow it out when we do so. And if we want to do all of this in a pool? You'd better believe we will demand that, too. Finding Bluetooth-enabled spea
A system that uses hyperspectral imaging and machine learning could detect the specific wavelength of methane emissions, researchers propose. Though not as prevalent in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, methane is a far more potent greenhouse gas. Occurring naturally as well as being humanmade, methane is much shorter-lived than CO 2 , but it is fast acting and 20 to 80 times as effective at trap
Developing lymphocytes diversify their antigen receptor (AgR) loci by variable (diversity) joining (V[D]J) recombination. Here, using the micrococcal nuclease (MNase)-based chromatin accessibility (MACC) assay with low-cell count input, we profile both small-scale (kilobase) and large-scale (megabase) changes in chromatin accessibility and nucleosome occupancy in primary cells during lymphoid deve
Somatosensory neurons have historically been classified by a variety of approaches, including structural, anatomical, and genetic markers; electrophysiological properties; pharmacological sensitivities; and more recently, transcriptional profile differentiation. These methodologies, used separately, have yielded inconsistent classification schemes. Here, we describe phenotypic differences in respo
MYC controls the transcription of large numbers of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Since MYC is a ubiquitous oncoprotein, some of these lncRNAs probably play a significant role in cancer. We applied CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) to the identification of MYC-regulated lncRNAs that are required for MYC-driven cell proliferation in the P493-6…
In the field of 2-D electronics, the norm used to be that graphene is the main protagonist and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is its insulating passive support. Researchers of the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM) within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS, South Korea) made a discovery that might change the role of hBN. They have reported that stacking of ultrathin sheets of hBN
Evolution isn't always a one-way street toward increasing specialization, according to new research. Occasionally, evolution can take a species back to a more generalist stage, the researchers report. Turtle ant soldiers scuttle around sporting shiny, adorably oversized heads. They use their heads to block the entrances of their nests—essentially acting as living doors. Not all heads are shaped a
Young people who have tried e-cigarettes but have never smoked before are nearly five times more likely to go on to try smoking, a new study has found. However, the findings do not provide clear support for the claim that e-cigarettes cause young people to start smoking (the so-called possible 'gateway effect').
Researchers at UC have discovered a previously unknown mechanism that could explain the reason behind decreased immune function in cancer patients and could be a new therapeutic target for immunotherapy for those with head and neck cancers.
Insulin action in the liver is critical for glucose homeostasis through regulation of glycogen synthesis and glucose output. Arrestin domain-containing 3 (Arrdc3) is a member of the α-arrestin family previously linked to human obesity. Here, we show that Arrdc3 is differentially regulated by insulin in vivo in mice undergoing euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic…
Wildfire can influence climate directly and indirectly, but little is known about the relationships between wildfire and climate during the Quaternary, especially how wildfire patterns varied over glacial–interglacial cycles. Here, we present a high-resolution soot record from the Chinese Loess Plateau; this is a record of large-scale, high-intensity fires over…
A 2009 report by the National Academy of Sciences was highly critical of many forensic practices. This report concluded that significant changes and advances were required to ensure the reliability across the forensic sciences. We examine the reliability of one such forensic technique used for identification based on purported distinct…
Sedan 2014 har man med framgång odlat sallat i rymden. I en ny studie visar forskare att den är ätbar och lika nyttig som på jorden. Tillgången till annat än dagens paketerade mat i rymden är avgörande för längre resor i rymden. Vad kommer egentligen stå på rymdmenyn i framtiden?
A computational approach inspired by the growth patterns of a bright yellow slime mold has enabled a team of astronomers and computer scientists to trace the filaments of the cosmic web that connects galaxies throughout the universe.
With atomic force microscopy, tiny structures can be imaged. But usually there is a trade of: In order to create pictures quickly, very stiff materials have to be used in the microscope, but they can damage delicate structures such as living cells. Scientists have now found a way around this dilemma.
Scientific Reports, Published online: 11 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-61342-2 Author Correction: Clinical and serological evaluation of capybaras ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ) successively exposed to an Amblyomma sculptum -derived strain of Rickettsia rickettsii
The long-lost capital of the ancient Maya kingdom Sak Tz'i' has turned up in the backyard of a Mexican cattle rancher. Charles Golden, associate professor of anthropology at Brandeis University, in collaboration with Brown University bioarchaeologist Andrew Scherer, and a team of researchers from Mexico, Canada, and the United States, began excavating the site in June 2018. Among their findings i
Rwanda, land of a thousand invisible hills. It's an overcast morning in Kigali, capital of Africa's most densely populated country. The sound of a bamboo broom scraping the tarmac accompanies a solitary sweeper engaged in the Sisyphean task of keeping the hotel frontage spick and span. Overhead, a black kite looms into view. Then another, then a third, swooping down like dementors out of the mist.
Soft-bodied aquatic invertebrates, such as sea slugs and snails, are capable of diverse locomotion modes under water. Recapitulation of such multimodal aquatic locomotion in small-scale soft robots is challenging, due to difficulties in precise spatiotemporal control of deformations and inefficient underwater actuation of existing stimuli-responsive materials. Solving this challenge and…
A new cellular biology study, published last month in the journal Structure by scientists at Vanderbilt, reports a shape-shifting structure in the human body which plays an important role in the timely delivery of fats and proteins.
This is the second part of the Bologna whistleblower account. As the university was burying their own misconduct findings, Oxford University Press and their ignoble editor were busy punishing and gaslighting the whistleblower.
Uncharged bottlebrush polymer melts and highly charged polyelectrolytes in solution exhibit correlation peaks in scattering measurements and simulations. Given the striking superficial similarities of these scattering features, there may be a deeper structural interrelationship in these chemically different classes of materials. Correspondingly, we constructed a library of isotopically labeled bot
Using nano-sized spheres as a starting point, researcher Juan Wang of the University of Twente (MESA+ Institute) creates fascinating structures that can have a wide range of shapes and functionalities. They can even achieve a beautiful flower-like appearance with nanowires connected by gold nanospheres. The new nanostructures can be designed for detecting chemical or biological substances at their
The growth of the internet has spawned new "attention markets," in which people devote increasing amounts of time to consuming online content, but the neurobehavioral mechanisms that drive engagement in these markets have yet to be elucidated. We used functional MRI (FMRI) to examine whether individuals' neural responses to videos…
Stay fresh. (Jude Infantini via Unsplash/) Think for a second how ingrained bread is in our culture. We "break bread" with family, friends, and frenemies as a way of problem solving. It's a slang term for money. The value of new inventions is still rated against sliced bread. So, if you're going to start making such a time-honored concoction as the humble loaf of bread, you'll want a gadget that
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15061-x Synthetic RNA-based circuits allow for gene regulation without the risk of mutagenesis. Here the authors demonstrate a Caliciviral VPg-based Translational activator which allows translational activation of synthetic mRNAs.
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have shown that the Atox1 protein, found in breast cancer cells, participates in the process by which cancer cells metastasise. The protein could therefore be a potential biomarker for assessing the aggressiveness of the disease, as well as a possible target for new drugs. The research was recently published in the journal PNAS.
Proteinet Atox1, som finns i bröstcancerceller, deltar i den process som gör att cancercellerna bildar metastaser. Det kopparbindande proteinet kan därmed både bli en möjlig biomarkör för sjukdomens aggressivitet, och en möjlig måltavla för nya läkemedel, enligt forskare vid Chalmers. Bröstcancer är den vanligaste cancerformen hos kvinnor världen över. Tidig diagnostisering och behandling är avgö
Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have developed a new imaging agent that could let doctors identify not only multiple types of tumors but the surrounding normal cells that the cancer takes over and uses as a shield to protect itself from attempts to destroy it.
Existing transfer technologies in the construction of film-based electronics and devices are deeply established in the framework of native solid substrates. Here, we report a capillary approach that enables a fast, robust, and reliable transfer of soft films from liquid in a defect-free manner. This capillary transfer is underpinned by…
Nearly 94% of defendants in Cuyahoga County drug court have been exposed to trauma and many suffer from symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), according to a new Case Western Reserve University study.
A role for microglia in neuropsychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder (MDD), has been postulated. Regulation of microglial phenotype by immune receptors has become a central topic in many neurological conditions. We explored preclinical and clinical evidence for the role of the CD300f immune receptor in the fine regulation of…
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are assemblies of extracellular matrix molecules, which surround the cell body and dendrites of many types of neuron and regulate neural plasticity. PNNs are prominently expressed around neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), but their role in adult cerebellar plasticity and behavior is far from clear….
A new psychological study suggests that children and teens are worried about political issues, though it's unclear that children's and teens' worry is a cause for concern, or that it is interfering with their mental health functioning.
Researchers of Sechenov University together with their colleagues from Australia used the microfluidics technology to develop a device able to isolate cancer cells from urine of patients with prostate cancer. The study showed high sensitivity and specificity of the new method in diagnosing prostate cancer. The results obtained were published in Cancers.
Researchers have developed a method for predicting circulatory failure in patients in intensive care units — enabling clinicians to intervene at an early stage. Their approach uses machine learning methods to evaluate an extensive body of patient data.
Researchers in the Department of Physics at King's College London have discovered that collagen fibrils can withstand a significantly higher amount of strain than previously thought, broadening our understanding of tissue mechanics.
A study provides new details about the collective motion of individual agents in a liquid-crystal-like system, which could help in better understanding bacterial colonies, structures and systems in the human body, and other forms of active matter.
Cattle feeders choose distillers grains in feedlot diets as an inexpensive alternative to corn and soybean meal. But until now, no one had studied the effects of the common feed ingredient on bull development and fertility. With bull fertility to blame for a significant portion of reproductive failures in cow-calf operations, University of Illinois researchers decided it was worth a look.
While lifestyle choices and genetics go a long way toward predicting longevity, a new study shows that certain community characteristics also play important roles. American communities with more fast food restaurants, a larger share of extraction industry-based jobs, or higher population density have shorter life expectancies, according to researchers.
She had to sleep on it. The letter was in her inbox; friends and colleagues, throughout the Republican national-security circles where Rebeccah Heinrichs had made her career, were signing on. It called then-candidate Donald Trump "fundamentally dishonest" and claimed that if elected president, he would use his power "in ways that make America less safe." She wasn't crazy about the tone in some sp
When chemical engineer Michael Dickey talks about his research on liquid metals, he knows what to expect. "People usually say mercury or the Terminator," he says, alluding to the shape-shifting killer robot from the 1992 movie Terminator 2: Judgment Day. Even many researchers, he says, aren't familiar with the unique…
NEUROSCIENCE Correction for "Disease onset in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism correlates with expansion of a hexameric repeat within an SVA retrotransposon in TAF1," by D. Cristopher Bragg, Kotchaphorn Mangkalaphiban, Christine A. Vaine, Nichita J. Kulkarni, David Shin, Rachita Yadav, Jyotsna Dhakal, Mai-Linh Ton, Anne Cheng, Christopher T. Russo, Mark Ang, Patrick Acuña,…
IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for "Phenotypical microRNA screen reveals a noncanonical role of CDK2 in regulating neutrophil migration," by Alan Y. Hsu, Decheng Wang, Sheng Liu, Justice Lu, Ramizah Syahirah, David A. Bennin, Anna Huttenlocher, David M. Umulis, Jun Wan, and Qing Deng, which was first published August 26, 2019;…
CELL BIOLOGY Correction for "Reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus by a dual-responsive fluorescent EBNA1-targeting agent with Zn2+-chelating function," by Lijun Jiang, Hong Lok Lung, Tao Huang, Rongfeng Lan, Shuai Zha, Lai Sheung Chan, Waygen Thor, Tik-Hung Tsoi, Ho-Fai Chau, Cecilia Boreström, Steven L. Cobb, Sai Wah Tsao, Zhao-Xiang Bian, Ga-Lai Law,…
ENGINEERING Correction for "Deep elastic strain engineering of bandgap through machine learning," by Zhe Shi, Evgenii Tsymbalov, Ming Dao, Subra Suresh, Alexander Shapeev, and Ju Li, which was first published February 15, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1818555116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 4117–4122). The authors note that "In Fig. 2A, the 6D…
MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction to Supporting Information for "Perfluorocarbon nanoparticle-mediated platelet inhibition promotes intratumoral infiltration of T cells and boosts immunotherapy," by Zaigang Zhou, Baoli Zhang, Wenjing Zai, Lin Kang, Ahu Yuan, Yiqiao Hu, and Jinhui Wu, which was first published May 29, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1901987116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116,…
Annemarie Perez Boerema from Alexey Amunts lab has reconstructed the atomic models of new forms of Photosystem I in collaboration with scientists from Israel and China. The studies, published in two Nature Plants articles, expand on the fundamental understanding of how bioenergetic complexes are assembled and regulated in the photosynthetic membranes of cyanobacteria and algae.
Infection by Rhinovirus-C (RV-C), a species of Picornaviridae Enterovirus, is strongly associated with childhood asthma exacerbations. Cellular binding and entry by all RV-C, which trigger these episodes, is mediated by the first extracellular domain (EC1) of cadherin-related protein 3 (CDHR3), a surface cadherin-like protein expressed primarily on the apical surfaces…
The role of stromal fibroblasts in chronic inflammation is unfolding. In rheumatoid arthritis, leukocyte-derived cytokines TNF and IL-17A work together, activating fibroblasts to become a dominant source of the hallmark cytokine IL-6. However, IL-17A alone has minimal effect on fibroblasts. To identify key mediators of the synergistic response to TNF…
Nature, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00713-1 A pizza hangs in the balance in a bet over the progress of quantum computing. Plus, how transgenic animal models are advancing the fight against the coronavirus and a chance to win one of the most-loved Quirks of Nature cartoons ever.
What does an extinct mollusk have to do with the Moon? This is one of those amazing science stories that ties together multiple disciplines and lines of evidence into one elegant narrative. In this case a detailed analysis of a 70 million year old mollusk shell has given scientists a critical piece of information that will help them model the Earth-Moon system. Let's start with the Moon – astrono
Among all of the Super Elongation Complex (SEC) components, ELL1 (also known as ELL) is the only bona fide elongation factor that directly stimulates transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. However, the mechanism(s) of functional regulation of ELL1 (referred to as ELL hereafter), through its stabilization, is completely unknown. Here,…
Plastics are a victim of their own success, so inexpensive, easy to use and versatile that the world is awash in plastic waste. Now researchers have reported a new method of producing polyolefins — made from hydrocarbons and the most common building block of plastics — structured to address one of the biggest stumbling blocks to plastics recycling.
The next wave of quantum, optical and electronic devices will be built from powerful two-dimensional materials. These materials can host room temperature qubits thereby enabling solid-state quantum technologies that are inherently more powerful than their classical counterparts.
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14336-7 Cell surface proteins mediate the interactions between cells and their extracellular environment. Here the authors design synthetic biomemetic receptor-like sensors that facilitate programmable interactions between bacteria and their target.
Active and stable metal-free heterogeneous catalysts for CO2 fixation are required to reduce the current high level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is driving climate change. In this work, we show that defects in nanosilica (E′ centers, oxygen vacancies, and nonbridging oxygen hole centers) convert CO2 to methane…
Does prosocial behavior promote happiness? We test this longstanding hypothesis in a behavioral experiment that extends the scope of previous research. In our Saving a Life paradigm, every participant either saved one human life in expectation by triggering a targeted donation of 350 euros or received an amount of 100…
Texans who are college-educated, live in suburban or urban areas, have higher median incomes and are ethnically white are less likely to vaccinate their children, according to analysis by researchers at the University of Texas at Austin.
Heterotropic allosteric activation of protein function, in which binding of one ligand thermodynamically activates the binding of another, different ligand or substrate, is a fundamental control mechanism in metabolism and as such has been a long-aspired capability in protein design. Here we show that greatly increasing the magnitude of a…
Scientific Reports, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-61367-7 Developing the Ternary ZnO Doped MoS 2 Nanostructures Grafted on CNT and Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) for Photocatalytic Degradation of Aniline
Molecular genetic diagnostics refers to the branch of clinical medicine dedicated to finding the proximate mutational cause of an abnormality (1). More for practical than theoretical reasons, it generally assumes that a genetic variant is both necessary and sufficient to cause the defect, and hence that there is no need…
Physicians who identify as 'general practitioners' are a group distinct from board-certified 'family physicians,' according to a new study that was supported, in part, by the American Board of Family Medicine Foundation. The authors recommend that GPs and FPs be considered separate groups for research, workforce and policy purposes.
Nucleomorphs are relic endosymbiont nuclei so far found only in two algal groups, cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes, which have been studied to model the evolutionary process of integrating an endosymbiont alga into a host-governed plastid (organellogenesis). However, past studies suggest that DNA transfer from the endosymbiont to host nuclei had already…
Lyman-alpha blobs (LABs) are gigantic clouds of hydrogen gas that produce a special type of ultraviolet light known as Lyman-alpha emission. An extremely powerful energy source must produce this radiation, but scientists debate what that energy source is. A study of Lyman-alpha blob 6 (LAB-6) is the first LAB with strong evidence of an infalling gas feature. The findings suggest that star-forming
The virus that causes barley yellow dwarf, the most widespread disease of cereal crops, manipulates its host plant and insect vector to promote its own survival, according to an international team of researchers. The group found that the virus raises the temperature of its host plants along with the heat-tolerance of its aphid vectors to create regions on the plants where aphids can feed free from
A canine study carried out at the University of Helsinki has described a gene variant in the regulatory region of the retina resulting in the abnormal function of retinal genes and, eventually, in the loss of vision in dogs. The study can benefit the diagnostics and treatment of retinitis pigmentosa, a disease suffered by two million human beings globally.
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15033-1 Nature has developed the ability to produce a wide range of optical effects most notably in the butterfly wing. Here, the authors report on the analysis of the structures responsible for ultra-black coloration across different butterflies and combine this with modelling to identify the key characteristics
Multicellularity is a key evolutionary innovation, leading to coordinated activity and resource sharing among cells, which generally occurs via the physical exchange of chemical compounds. However, filamentous cable bacteria display a unique metabolism in which redox transformations in distant cells are coupled via long-distance electron transport rather than an exchange…
If you want to build or fix something in space, you might think you'd need a human to do it. But what if you didn't? What if robotic spacecraft could be used to refuel satellites in orbit, add new instruments to outdated machinery and even build entire structures while in space?
Robert Bruno is a professor of labor and employment relations at the Urbana campus of the University of Illinois and the director of the Labor Education Program in Chicago. Bruno, an expert in labor history and politics, spoke with News Bureau business and law editor Phil Ciciora about the lack of paid sick leave in the U.S.
Technology and devices aren't inherently distracting, says behavioral design expert Nir Eyal. Distraction comes from internal triggers of discomfort. So, the answer to avoiding distraction isn't a total digital detox, but instead developing healthy ways of identifying and coping with these internal triggers. Eyal points to three main strategies: reimagining the trigger as a sensation of curiosity
There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of bowel cancer in adults under the age of 50, according to new research from the University of Bristol, UWE Bristol and University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust (UH Bristol).
As people live longer, ages at death are becoming more similar. This dual advance over the last two centuries, a central aim of public health policies, is a major achievement of modern civilization. Some recent exceptions to the joint rise of life expectancy and life span equality, however, make it…
Moderate-temperature thermal sources often radiate waste heat as a by-product of mechanical work, chemical or nuclear reactions, or information processing. In a new report in Science, Paul S. Davids and a research team at the Sandia National Laboratory in the U.S., demonstrated the conversion of thermal radiation into electrical power. For this, they used a bipolar grating-coupled complimentary me
SpaceX founder Elon Musk on Monday dismissed scientists' concerns that his company's Starlink constellation of internet satellites would obscure the view of the night sky, predicting the network "will not cause any impact whatsoever in astronomical discoveries."
Mars or Die At the Satellite 2020 conference in Washington Monday, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk told a crowd of industry insiders and journalists that his biggest concern is to get people to Mars before he dies. "If we don't improve our pace of progress, I'm definitely going to be dead before we go to Mars," Musk said, as quoted by Bloomberg . "If it's taken us 18 years just to get ready to do the first
"In God we trust. All others bring data." So reads a T-shirt sold by the American Statistical Association. This pithy quip encapsulates a fundamental principle of science: Scientists rely on evidence rather than authority. Indeed, "doubt has been considered essential to science since long before the scientific method was established…
Commonly used methods for estimating parameters of a spatial dynamic panel data model include the two-stage least squares, quasi-maximum likelihood, and generalized moments. In this paper, we present an approach that uses the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a spatial weight matrix to directly construct consistent least-squares estimators of parameters of…
Determining the requirements for efficient oxygen (O2) activation is key to understanding how enzymes maintain efficacy and mitigate unproductive, often detrimental reactivity. For the α-ketoglutarate (αKG)–dependent nonheme iron enzymes, both a concerted mechanism (both cofactor and substrate binding prior to reaction with O2) and a sequential mechanism (cofactor binding and…
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15049-7 The authors here analyse the petrology of the meteorite NWA 8321 (parent body Vesta). They find sulfidation processes of olivine suggesting metasomatism in the Vestan interior and a partial melting origin for the host noritic diogenite.
Researchers have generated Rydberg atoms – unusually large excited atoms – near nanometer-thin optical fibers. Their findings mark progress toward a new platform for quantum information processing, which has the potential to revolutionize material and drug discoveries and provide more secure quantum communication.
A molecular tweak has improved organic solar cell performance, bringing us closer to cheaper, efficient, and more easily manufactured photovoltaics. The new design approach targets the molecular backbone of the cell's power-generating layer.
Parents of children with genetic conditions that cause learning disabilities are at risk of mental health problems, suggests new research published today in the British Journal of Psychiatry. The teams behind the study have called for greater support for parents whose child receives a genetic diagnosis for their learning disability.
The 20S core particle (CP) proteasome is a molecular assembly catalyzing the degradation of misfolded proteins or proteins no longer required for function. It is composed of four stacked heptameric rings that form a barrel-like structure, sequestering proteolytic sites inside its lumen. Proteasome function is regulated by gates derived from…
Bone marrow plasma cells produce antibodies. These comprise two long and two short protein chains. The pathological proliferation of plasma cells can lead to an overproduction of the short chains. These associate to fibrils and deposit in organs. The result is fatal organ failure. A research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Heidelberg University has now identified the mutatio
Injecting pellets of hydrogen ice rather than puffing hydrogen gas improves fusion performance. Studies by PPPL and ORNL physicists compared the two methods on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, looking ahead to the fueling to be used on ITER.
We present an approach to response around arbitrary out-of-equilibrium states in the form of a fluctuation–response inequality (FRI). We study the response of an observable to a perturbation of the underlying stochastic dynamics. We find that the magnitude of the response is bounded from above by the fluctuations of the…
The mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (Mpi) locus in Semibalanus balanoides has been studied as a candidate gene for balancing selection for more than two decades. Previous work has shown that Mpi allozyme genotypes (fast and slow) have different frequencies across Atlantic intertidal zones due to selection on postsettlement survival (i.e., allele zonation)….
Where did the Moon come from and how was it formed? It's a question that scientists have been scratching their heads over for decades. According to the widely-accepted " giant-impact hypothesis ," the Moon was formed billions of years ago when a Mars-sized planet called Theia collided with the Earth, breaking off a large chunk in the process. Now, researchers from the University of New Mexico say
Groundwater is the largest source of freshwater, one of the world's most precious natural resources and vital for crops and drinking water. It is found under our very feet in the cracks and pores in soil, sediments and rocks. Now an international research team led by the University of Göttingen has developed the first global computer model of groundwater flow into the world's oceans. Their analysi
Researchers at Western Sydney University and The Australian National University have discovered new chemical communication pathways that determine how a plant changes when it emerges from darkness in the soil to light.
Nature, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00577-5 How Nature reported efforts in 1970 to assess the economic benefits of scientific discoveries, and an update from 1870 on the search for the cause of malaria.
Numerous studies have focused on designing functional surfaces that delay frost formation or reduce ice adhesion. However, solutions to the scientific challenges of developing antiicing surfaces remain elusive because of degradation such as mechanical wearing. Inspired by the discontinuous frost pattern on natural leaves, here we report findings on the…
Over 460m people worldwide have diabetes, a figure that is projected to reach 700m by 2045. This report looks at the factors behind this rise, the latest high-tech solutions, and how health services are coping — or failing to
Den mest omfattande studien av släktträdet för fågelfamiljen astrilder, eller praktfinkar, visar att den gemensamme förfadern levde för 11 miljoner år sedan. Forskare vid Göteborgs och Uppsala universitet har analyserat drygt 80 procent av världens cirka 145 arter av astrilder ( Estrildidae ) med hjälp av DNA. Gruppen omfattar några av de mest populära burfåglarna. Den nya studien drar slutsatsen
Terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) motifs are sequences at the 5′ ends of mRNAs that link their translation to the mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) nutrient-sensing signaling pathway. They are commonly regarded as discrete elements that reside on ∼100 mRNAs that mostly encode translation factors. However, the full spectrum of TOP sequences and…
Brendan O'Brien points out that science and religion are not incompatible It is rather ironic that, in an editorial honouring the physicist Freeman Dyson, you should refer to another scientist, Gregor Mendel, as having "left science for God", as if science and religion were incompatible ( Thinkers make progress by getting things wrong as well as getting them right , Journal, 9 March). Your obitua
According to Brendan Morris, a graduate student at the University of Illinois, treehoppers are the wackiest, most astonishing bugs most people have never heard of. They are morphological wonders, sporting bizarre protuberances that look like horns, gnarled branches, antlers or dead plant leaves. To draw attention to this group, Morris named a newly discovered treehopper species after Lady Gaga, a
A new, versatile gene signal amplifier can do a better job of detecting the expression of target genes than current methods, researchers report. Ultimately, the researchers hope the two-module system will simplify the diagnosis of diseases like Alzheimer's, diabetes, and some cancers characterized by distinctive patterns of protein expression. They say it could also enable cell-based therapies by
In earlier papers L.W. introduced two sequences of higher-rank zeta functions associated to a smooth projective curve over a finite field, both of them generalizing the Artin zeta function of the curve. One of these zeta functions is defined geometrically in terms of semistable vector bundles of rank n over…
Flexible organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are promising power sources for wearable electronics. However, it is challenging to simultaneously achieve high efficiency as well as good stability under various stresses. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of highly efficient (efficiency, 13.2%) and stable OPVs based on nonfullerene blends by a single-step postannealing treatment….
Multimetallic nanoclusters (MMNCs) offer unique and tailorable surface chemistries that hold great potential for numerous catalytic applications. The efficient exploration of this vast chemical space necessitates an accelerated discovery pipeline that supersedes traditional "trial-and-error" experimentation while guaranteeing uniform microstructures despite compositional complexity. Herein, we rep
HIV-1 capsid core disassembly (uncoating) must occur before integration of viral genomic DNA into the host chromosomes, yet remarkably, the timing and cellular location of uncoating is unknown. Previous studies have proposed that intact viral cores are too large to fit through nuclear pores and uncoating occurs in the cytoplasm…
Meltwater pulses (MWPs) known as abrupt sea-level rise will inevitably affect cities especially those on coastal plains of low elevation. A recent study published in Quaternary Science Reviews presented evidence of abrupt sea level change between 11,300-11,000 years ago in the Arctic Ocean, solving the puzzle of second largest meltwater pulse (labelled as "MWP-1B" next to the largest and already w
Studies on myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) have led to the RNA-mediated disease model for hereditary disorders caused by noncoding microsatellite expansions. This model proposes that DM1 disease manifestations are caused by a reversion to fetal RNA processing patterns in adult tissues due to the expression of toxic CUG RNA…
Faced with a gritty landscape of metal fences, concrete walls and asphalt pavement, city lizards in Puerto Rico rapidly and repeatedly evolved better tolerance for heat than their forest counterparts, according to new research. Studies that delve into how animals adapt in urban environments are still relatively rare. But anoles are becoming a model system for urban evolutionary research.
Legalization of recreational marijuana may lead to increased hotel revenues, according to a Penn State researcher, who found that after legalizing marijuana, the City of Denver, Colorado, saw roughly $130 million in new hotel revenues.
A 2013 study associated more frequent sex with higher income rates. The initial hypothesis suggested that medical, psychological and physical positive effects of sexual activity could influence wage factors in working adults. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs all tie in with a healthy sex life, according to several studies listed below. Scoring high on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is directly linked to
From being raised by an emotionally cold mother to experiencing violence, war and bereavement, difficult life events have a profound effect on our physical and mental wellbeing in later life — according to new research from the University of East Anglia.A new study published today shows how a range of life inequalities and hardships are linked to physical and mental health inequalities in later l
Many of the symptoms of menopause — hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia, memory lapses, depression and anxiety — start in the brain. How exactly does menopause impact cognitive health? Sharing groundbreaking findings from her research, neuroscientist Lisa Mosconi reveals how decreasing hormonal levels affect brain aging — and shares simple lifestyle changes you can make to support lifelong brai
When my students grow too dependent on their calculators, I ask them to find a number that, when multiplied by itself, gives them 2. Students quickly see that since 1² = 1 and 2² = 4, the answer has to be between 1 and 2. They square 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and so on and discover that 1.4² = 1.96 and 1.5² = 2.25. "It's between 1.4 and 1.5," they say. "Good to know," I reply. "But come back when you can te
How the Earth got its moon is a long debated question. The giant impact theory – which states that the moon formed from the a collision between the early Earth and a rocky body called Theia—has become the front runner among the explanations. But the details around how this happened are blurry and there are many observations that scientists are still struggling to explain.
Genom att blanda två polymerer med olika egenskaper har en grupp forskare vid Linköpings universitet, fått fram ett organiskt material med superb ledningsförmåga, utan att det är dopat. För att öka ledningsförmågan och därmed få högre effektivitet i organiska solceller, lysdioder eller olika bioelektroniska applikationer har forskarna hittills "dopat" materialen med olika ämnen. Det här görs vanl
E lizabeth Warren's outgoing words to her staffers evoked the image of a boxing ring: "We left plenty of blood and teeth on the floor," she told them. Her voice didn't crack from sorrow, but just from making itself heard through whatever was left of her vocal cords. She went down a fighter, exhausted but not beaten. Exiting the primary race as the last plausible female nominee, she knew she didn'
The new composites are related to the multiferroic-class materials which have mutually controlled magnetic and electric properties. The effects observed in the compositions are considered to be a perspective platform for creating new devices from energy converters to highly sensitive sensors.
Another fluid experiment joins long running research on foam stability on the International Space Station. The Foam-Coarsening experiment, developed by Airbus for ESA, is scheduled to be activated this month in the Fluid Science Laboratory in the European Columbus module.
German researchers have developed a novel, experimental approach against Alzheimer's. For this they collaborated with a US company. The approach is based on the stimulation of immune cells of the brain (microglia) by means of an antibody. The findings are reported in EMBO Molecular Medicine.
University of Melbourne researchers have identified and implemented the key interventions and tools that countries can — and should — use to improve the quality and availability of critical birth and death data and ultimately, improve health outcomes. Published in BMC Medicine, it is the first Civil Registration and Vital Statistics collection to report on experience in implementing technical in
Animal lacking a mitochondrial genome Light microscope image of spores of H. salminicola from Chinook salmon. Aerobic respiration is a hallmark of eukaryotes but has been lost in several single-celled eukaryotic lineages adapted to low-oxygen environments. Whether certain animals also rely exclusively on anaerobic metabolism and have mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs)…
Throughout the many disasters that have befallen the Trump administration, one theme has remained a constant: malevolence tempered by incompetence . That description emerged from a text-message conversation between the two of us in January 2017, the day after the release of the president's first travel ban. Chaos was erupting at ports of entry around the country. U.S. permanent residents were bei
New international research by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and colleagues has found a marked change in the Indian Ocean's surface temperatures that puts southeast Australia on course for increasingly hot and dry conditions.
Inherited malignant ventricular arrhythmia is a fairly common disorder among Finnish Leonbergers under three years of age, with the most severe cases potentially resulting in sudden death. Researchers are striving to identify the gene mutation underlying the disorder.
The fear of earthquakes is one of the main reasons for reservations about geothermal energy. In order to get hot water from the depths, crevices in the rock underground often have to be created. This is done by injecting large quantities of water under high pressure. The problem is that such hydraulic stimulation is accompanied by vibrations in the underground, known as "induced seismicity". A new
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14968-9 Non-canonical HLA-bound peptides from presumed non-coding regions are potential targets for cancer immunotherapy, but their discovery remains challenging. Here, the authors integrate exome sequencing, transcriptomics, ribosome profiling, and immunopeptidomics to identify tumor-specific non-canonical HLA-bound p
Computer scientists at KU Leuven have once again exposed a security flaw in Intel processors. Jo Van Bulck, Frank Piessens, and their colleagues in Austria, the United States, and Australia gave the manufacturer one year's time to fix the problem.
Scientists have known for more than a century about potential human impacts on climate (1). In the last 30 y, estimates of these impacts have been confirmed and refined through increasingly precise climate assessments (2). Other global-scale human impacts, including land use change, overharvesting, air and water pollution, and increased…
Type III IFN lambdas (IFN-λ) have recently been described as important mediators of immune responses at barrier surfaces. However, their role in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a condition characterized by aberrant type I IFN signaling, has not been determined. Here, we identify a nonredundant role for…
Intestinal bile acids are known to modulate the germination and growth of Clostridioides difficile. Here we describe a role for intestinal bile acids in directly binding and neutralizing TcdB toxin, the primary determinant of C. difficile disease. We show that individual primary and secondary bile acids reversibly bind and inhibit…
Pairing chemotherapy nanodrugs with a nutritional supplement can lessen devastating side-effects while reducing the amount of the expensive drugs needed to treat cancer according to a study from Carnegie Mellon University and Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes. In addition, pretreatment with the supplement promotes the production of tumor-killing macrophages, making it a promising comple
Accumulating evidence suggests participation of RNA-binding proteins with intrinsically disordered domains (IDPs) in the DNA damage response (DDR). These IDPs form liquid compartments at DNA damage sites in a poly(ADP ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner. However, it is greatly unknown how the IDPs are involved in DDR. We have shown previously that…
What do you get when you place a thin film of perovkite material used in solar cells on top of a magnetic substrate? More efficient hard drive technology. EPFL physicist László Forró and his team pave the way for the future of data storage.
Stanford University researchers created an inverse design codebase called SPINS that can help researchers explore different design methodologies to find fabricable optical and nanophotonic structures. In the journal Applied Physics Reviews, Logan Su and colleagues review inverse design's potential for optical and nanophotonic structures, as well as present and explain how to use their own inverse
A new study in Finland has revealed that inherited malignant ventricular arrhythmia is fairly common among Finnish Leonbergers under three years of age. At its worst, such arrhythmia can result in the dog's sudden death.
Auxin is a class of plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the life cycle of plants, particularly in the growth response of plants to ever-changing environments. Since the auxin responses are concentration-dependent and higher auxin concentrations might often be inhibitory, the optimal endogenous auxin level must be closely…
Social media echo chambers have made us overconfident in our knowledge and abilities. Social psychologists have shown that publicly committing to an opinion makes you less willing to change your mind. To avoid a descent into epistemic arrogance and tribalism, we need to use social media with deep humility. "Every liberal loves the figure of Socrates," Jonathan Rauch writes in his 1991 book Kindly
MPs vote down Iain Duncan Smith's amendment by 306 votes to 282, cutting Boris Johnson's working majority of 87 Government majority cut as almost 40 Tories rebel over Huawei 5.45pm GMT Related: Coronavirus live updates: number of deaths outside China passes 1,000 as Italy records highest one-day toll 5.20pm GMT The official division list for the Huawei vote is now up. Some 38 Tory MPs actively re
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T immunotherapy has yielded impressive results in several B cell malignancies, establishing itself as a powerful means to redirect the natural properties of T lymphocytes. In this strategy, the T cell genome is modified by the integration of lentiviral vectors encoding CAR that direct tumor cell killing….
The effects of predator intimidation on habitat use and behavior of prey species are rarely quantified for large marine vertebrates over ecologically relevant scales. Using state space movement models followed by a series of step selection functions, we analyzed movement data of concurrently tracked prey, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus; n…
PLUS. Selvom elbiler kan være et godt redskab til grøn omstilling i kommunerne, køber de færre og færre af dem. En mulig forklaring er et stop for støtteordninger og en nedprioritering af grøn transport.
Land surface processes and summer cloud-precipitation characteristics in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) can impact downstream weather and climate changes. They are also the key to understand Asian monsoon system and atmospheric circulation changes in the Northern Hemisphere.
Ten percent of the global population currently suffers from an anxiety disorder. A Canadian-based team discovered a link between anxiety and high-sugar, processed foods. Subjects whose diets were high in fruits and vegetables were less likely to suffer from such a disorder. If there were ever a week in which anxiety disorders were peaking, this would be it. As if we needed the extra stress. Rough
Leaving an infant to 'cry it out' from birth up to 18 months does not adversely affect their behaviour development or attachment, researchers from the University of Warwick have found, they also discovered that those left to cry cried less and for a shorter duration at 18 months of age.
A comprehensive understanding of the development and evolution of human B cell responses induced by pathogen exposure will facilitate the design of next-generation vaccines. Here, we utilized a high-throughput single B cell cloning technology to longitudinally track the human B cell response to the yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D) vaccine….
The low-dose chest CT scans used in lung cancer screening do not appear to damage human DNA, according to a new study. The results could help allay fears that such screenings will lead to an increase in radiation-induced cancer.
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that replicates in a lysosome-like vacuole through activation of a Dot/Icm-type IVB secretion system and subsequent translocation of effectors that remodel the host cell. Here a genome-wide small interfering RNA screen and reporter assay were used to identify host proteins required for Dot/Icm effector…
A new method that uses machine learning to evaluate patient data in intensive care units can predict circulatory failure hours before it occurs, researchers report. Patients in a hospital's intensive care unit stay under close observation: clinicians continuously monitor their vital signs such as their pulse, blood pressure, and blood oxygen saturation. This furnishes doctors and nurses with a we
For more than a decade, two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene, have been touted as the key to making better microchips, batteries, antennas and many other devices. But a significant challenge of using these atom-thin building materials for the technology of the future is ensuring that they can be produced in bulk quantities without losing their quality. For one of the most promising new
Some species of fish, notably parrotfish and wrasses living on coral reefs, change their biological sex as they age, beginning life as females and later becoming functionally male. New work shows that this sequential hermaphroditism evolves when bigger males gain an advantage in reproductive success — for example by defending a permanent mating territory.
Grasshopper populations, like those of many other insects, are declining. My colleagues and I identified a new possible culprit: The plants grasshoppers rely on for food are becoming less nutritious due to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the air.
The natural coastal defenses provided by mangrove forests reduce annual flooding significantly in critical hotspots around the world. Without mangroves, flood damages would increase by more than $65 billion annually, and 15 million more people would be flooded, according to a new study.
As a prototype of genomics-guided precision medicine, individualized thiopurine dosing based on pharmacogenetics is a highly effective way to mitigate hematopoietic toxicity of this class of drugs. Recently, NUDT15 deficiency was identified as a genetic cause of thiopurine toxicity, and NUDT15-informed preemptive dose reduction was quickly adopted in clinical settings….
"In the animal kingdom, the rule is, eat or be eaten" (ref. 1, p. 20). We will expand academic Thomas Szasz's statement to include the fungi, because in the multifaceted interactions of fungi and nematodes, this is often a steadfast rule. Indeed, soil systems that appear inert or lifeless to…
Neurotoxic implications of the interactions between Cu(I/II) and amyloid-β (Aβ) indicate a connection between amyloid cascade hypothesis and metal ion hypothesis with respect to the neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we report a mechanistic strategy for modifying the first coordination sphere of Cu(II) bound to Aβ utilizing a…
A more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic diseases, including pancreatitis and cancer, is essential to improve clinical management. MEN1 has established roles in epigenetic regulation and tumor suppression in the endocrine pancreas; however, intriguing recent data suggest MEN1 may also function in the exocrine pancreas. Using physiologically…
A Kobe University led research team has illuminated the mechanism by which cyanobacteria (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) produces D-lactate, showing that malic enzyme facilitates this production. Subsequently, they succeeded in producing the world's highest rate (26.6g/L) of D-lactate directly from CO2 and light by modifying the D-lactate synthesis pathway using genetic engineering .
In collaboration with the National Museum of Natural Sciences (CSIC) in Madrid, the UPV/EHU's Stream Ecology research group has conducted two parallel studies to look at how the larvae of one freshwater amphibian and one invertebrate evolved during 15 days' exposure to microplastics at different concentrations. The highest concentrations used had lethal effects and the intermediate ones reduced th
The mitochondria of various tissues from mice, naked mole rats (NMRs), and bats possess two mechanistically similar systems to prevent the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS): hexokinases I and II and creatine kinase bound to mitochondrial membranes. Both systems operate in a manner such that one of the…
Simulators often provide the best description of real-world phenomena. However, the probability density that they implicitly define is often intractable, leading to challenging inverse problems for inference. Recently, a number of techniques have been introduced in which a surrogate for the intractable density is learned, including normalizing flows and density…
Polarity decisions are central to many processes, including mitosis and chemotropism. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, budding and mating projection (MP) formation use an overlapping system of cortical landmarks that converges on the small G protein Cdc42. However, pheromone-gradient sensing must override the Rsr1-dependent internal polarity cues used for budding. Using this…
Published today, during World Glaucoma Week 2020, a new study demonstrates how commercially available head mounted displays (HMD) can be used to simulate the day-to-day challenges faced by people with sight loss from glaucoma. The study, from the Crabb Lab, at City, University of London, suggests potential applications of the technology could include helping policymakers better assess the impact o
Sr2RuO4 has long been the focus of intense research interest because of conjectures that it is a correlated topological superconductor. It is the momentum space (k-space) structure of the superconducting energy gap Δi(k) on each band i that encodes its unknown superconducting order parameter. However, because the energy scales are…
Researchers at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN) have shown that specialized aggregates of molecules enwrapping nerve cells in the brain, the perineuronal nets, are crucial for regulating the connections between nerve cells that control motor memories. The discovery, published in the PNAS, provide novel insight into how memories are formed and stored in the brain.
Visualizing an action in the moments just before it takes place may influence learning, a new study suggests. We've all heard the saying: "Practice makes perfect." But the new research into the neurological process of learning how to move suggests that it might be more accurate to say "mindful practice makes perfect." This may not sound revolutionary to anyone who's ever shot a free throw like Le
After decades of focusing almost exclusively on Western populations, psychology and other social sciences have at last begun to diversify their samples. Massive efforts have been made to compare cultures around the globe on basic psychological processes, and researchers have amassed much evidence for differences between "the West and the…
Primary storage of energy in mammalian tissue is glycogen, a branched polysaccharide form of glucose. Glycogen serves a central role in glucose homeostasis and is crucial for proper system functioning. Altered glycogen metabolism is manifested in a variety of disorders such as diabetes, liver diseases, glycogen storage diseases, and cancer….
A team of Cornell researchers led by Ben Cosgrove, assistant professor in the Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, used a new cellular profiling technology to probe and catalog the activity of almost every kind of cell involved in muscle repair. They compiled their findings into a 'cell atlas' of muscle regeneration that is one of the largest datasets of its kind.
Mechanically ventilated ICU patients — more than a million adults annually in the US — are at increased risk for delirium, which is associated with prolonged ICU stays, higher healthcare costs and increased mortality. A study from Indiana University School of Medicine and Regenstrief Institute researchers reports that music appears to decrease delirium in ICU patients on mechanical ventilators.
Metalliskt guld anses ju vara mycket motståndskraftigt mot kemisk påverkan, och har länge använts för olika medicinska ändamål i tron att det inte skulle lägga sig i människokroppens biokemiska processer. Men nyligen rapporterade Alice Balfourier och medarbetare i den amerikanska vetenskapsakademins tidskrift, att de s.k. lysosomerna i mänskliga celler kan lösa upp små guldpartiklar, troligen med
Traditionally, precipitates in a material are thought to serve as obstacles to dislocation glide and cause hardening of the material. This conventional wisdom, however, fails to explain recent discoveries of ultrahigh-strength and large-ductility materials with a high density of nanoscale precipitates, as obstacles to dislocation glide often lead to high…
Necroptosis is a regulated necrotic cell death pathway involved in development and disease. Its signaling cascade results in the formation of disulfide bond-dependent amyloid-like polymers of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which mediate proinflammatory cell membrane disruption. We screened compound libraries provided by the National Cancer Institute and identified…
Insect nervous systems offer unique advantages for studying interactions between sensory systems and behavior, given their complexity with high tractability. By examining the neural coding of salient environmental stimuli and resulting behavioral output in the context of environmental stressors, we gain an understanding of the effects of these stressors on…
A distinct population of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells promotes repair of acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscle. The accumulation of these cells depends critically on interleukin (IL)-33 produced by local mesenchymal stromal cells (mSCs). An intriguing physical association among muscle nerves, IL-33+ mSCs, and Tregs has been reported, and…
A new map of a neurotransmitter may lead to better drugs for ADHD, depression, epilepsy, and more, researchers report. The discovery also adds to the researchers' knowledge of neurotransmitters in the brain. The map is of a new conformation of LeuT, a bacterial protein that belongs to the same family of proteins as the brain's neurotransmitter transporters. These transporters are special proteins
An international research team led by members of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) has obtained new measurements of how big neutron stars are. To do so, they combined a general first-principles description of the unknown behavior of neutron star matter with multi-messenger observations of the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Their results, whic
Researchers created a new sharkskin-inspired smart material that allows shifts in acoustic transmission on demand using magnets. As a result the new material can achieve multiple properties in one structure by switching between states, for example transmitting and also damping external noise transmission in a submarine through a single device. This smart material can recreate properties intrinsic
Keck Medicine of USC urologists are launching a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in patients with an overactive bladder due to neurological conditions, such as a spinal cord injury or stroke, and idiopathic (unknown) causes.
At a seminar today at CERN, the LHCb collaboration presented a new analysis of data from a specific transformation, or "decay," that a particle called B0 meson can undergo. The analysis is based on twice as many B0 decays as previous LHCb analyses, which had disclosed some tension with the Standard Model of particle physics. The tension is still present in the new analysis, but more data are neede
An investigation of infant feeding patterns found infants and toddlers consuming baby cereal, such as rice cereal, had higher intakes of key nutrients of concern, such as calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and vitamin E. The study illustrates the importance of rice baby cereal in the diets of infants and toddlers in achieving proper nutrition.
A new psychological study suggests that children and teens are worried about political issues, though it's unclear that children's and teens' worry is a cause for concern, or that it is interfering with their mental health functioning.
A new study published in The Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior (JNEB) builds on years of previous research studies and demonstrates the value of family meals. This study showed that more frequent family meals were associated with better dietary outcomes and family functioning outcomes. While Americans celebrate the month of March as National Nutrition Month, these findings underscore the
Today, new research published in Annals of Surgery from the University of Colorado Department of Surgery at the Anschutz Medical Campus offers a roadmap to new guidelines for physicians in prioritizing treatments for pancreatic cancer and improving outcomes through surgery.
A joint research team led by Professor Ja Yil Lee (School of Life Sciences, UNIST) and Professor Ji-Joon Song (Department of Biological Sciences, KAIST) has unveiled the structure and mechanism of proteins that are highly overexpressed in cancers and associated with poor patient prognoses. The findings could speed up the discovery and development of new cancer drugs.
A new test that uses soil biology to measure how much nitrogen corn needs yields more accurate results than previous tests, researchers say. The soil fertility tests farmers have used for decades don't account for the vast majority of the nitrogen in soils. Nitrogen plays an essential role in plant growth, and farmers need to know how much nitrogen is present in their soil to optimize their appli
The soil fertility tests farmers have used for decades to measure nitrogen levels don't account for the vast majority of the nitrogen in soils, so Iowa State University scientists helped develop a new test that yields more accurate results by using soil biology.
100,000 Gallons New York governor Andrew Cuomo has an idea to tackle a hand sanitizer shortage, The New York Times reports : use prison labor to make more of the stuff. Cuomo has enlisted the help of Corcraft, New York's prison-based product company to produce about 100,000 gallons per week — a response, he said, spiking product prices . "You don't even have the floral bouquet," Cuomo said at a b
Manufacturers typically guarantee that solar panels will make it past their 25th birthday, however, recent reports indicate that the protective backsheets of many are cracking decades early. The source of their rapid degradation has been unclear but new research from NIST may offer answers that could support the development of longer-lived panels.
Climate change is increasing the frequency and magnitude of temperature anomalies that cause coral bleaching, leading to widespread mortality of stony corals that can fundamentally alter reef structure and function. However, bleaching often is spatially variable for a given heat stress event, and drivers of this heterogeneity are not well…
Yu et al. (1) propose a viscoelastic fluid as a prophylactic fire-retardant treatment in landscapes at high risk of wildfires. We argue that, while the idea is worth exploring further, their data do not support its suitability for real landscape-scale applications. First, they report their fluid is environmentally benign because…
A new study published in Circulation, a journal of the American Heart Association, shows that noncitizens in the United States are less likely to receive treatment for cardiovascular disease risk factors when compared with born or naturalized US citizens.
One of the most costly diseases facing the pork industry is caused by a virus that new research shows can be rendered harmless in a fraction of a second by a cold plasma reactor developed at the University of Michigan.
When NASA climate scientists speak in public, they're often asked about possible connections between climate change and extreme weather events such as hurricanes, heavy downpours, floods, blizzards, heat waves and droughts. After all, it seems extreme weather is in the news almost every day of late, and people are taking notice. How might particular extreme weather and natural climate phenomena,
The blood test method makes use of machine learning and can be used to predict whether patients will put on weight, unless they change their habits. The project was conducted in Brazil with funding from FAPESP.
A change in chemical composition enabled scientists to boost the longevity and efficiency of a perovskite solar cell developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
Evidence for global insect declines mounts, increasing our need to understand underlying mechanisms. We test the nutrient dilution (ND) hypothesis—the decreasing concentration of essential dietary minerals with increasing plant productivity—that particularly targets insect herbivores. Nutrient dilution can result from increased plant biomass due to climate or CO2 enrichment. Additionally, when…
Hur lärare planerar lektioner kan ha stor betydelse för hur eleverna lär sig. I en ny avhandling har olika sätt att planera lektioner för att lära ut det matematiska begreppet derivata testats. – Lärares olika sätt att behandla innehållet leder till olika sorts lärande hos eleverna. Det kan låta självklart. Men oftast har läraren ingen exakt koll på vad eleverna lär sig under en lektion. Det är f
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15074-6 Resolving the kinetics of energy dissipation during photosynthesis is challenging due to complex photophysics and the coexistence of multiple antenna proteins. Here Son et al. overcome this by applying ultrabroadband 2D spectroscopy to LHCII reconstituted in lipid nanodiscs, revealing mechanisms of dissipation
An international team of astronomers in the project SPECULOOS, dedicated to the search for habitable planets, with scientists participating from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) has discovered an eclipse (termed an occultation) in a peculiar brown dwarf formed by two stars orbiting around each other. The results are just published in the journal Nature Astronomy.
About 1 in 40 postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 65 have cancer-associated mutations in their BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, according to a Stanford-led study of more than 4,500 participants in the long-running Women's Health Initiative.
While pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are a large class of molecular weapons employed by organisms across the animal kingdom (1), notably, pathogenic bacteria, many mechanistic steps of pore formation in target membranes are unknown. In PNAS, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, Vӧgele et al. (2) observed how central lipids corresponding to…
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and photochemical release of glutamate (or uncaging) is a chemical technique widely used by biologists to interrogate its physiology. A basic prerequisite of these optical probes is bio-inertness before photolysis. However, all caged glutamates are known to have strong antagonism toward…
Hunter-gatherer exchange networks dampen subsistence and reproductive risks by building relationships of mutual support outside local groups that are underwritten by symbolic gift exchange. Hxaro, the system of delayed reciprocity between Ju/'hoãn individuals in southern Africa's Kalahari Desert, is the best-known such example and the basis for most analogies and…
Many scholars now think we're entering into a dehumanizing "artificial intimacy" with gadgets, algorithms, and interfaces. But our bonds with technology may actually have roots in an ancient and natural tendency called animism, which exists to hone our empathetic skills for real human bonding.
Pain researchers around the world have agreed to classify pain in the mouth, jaw and face according to the same system. According to a participant from Aarhus University in Denmark, this means more precise diagnoses and improved treatment of people suffering from pain.
Meltwater pulses (MWPs) known as abrupt sea-level rise will inevitably affect cities especially those on coastal plains of low elevation. A recent study presented evidence of abrupt sea level change between 11,300-11,000 years ago in the Arctic Ocean, solving the puzzle of second largest meltwater pulse (labelled as "MWP-1B" next to the largest and already well understood MWP-1A).
Efforts to create synthetic replacements for palm oil are still likely to take several years, so immediate attention should be focused on making the existing production process more sustainable, researchers at the University of Bath's Centre for Integrated Bioprocessing Research (CIBR) and Centre for Sustainable Circular Technologies (CSCT) have found.
We sought to define the landscape of alternative pre-mRNA splicing in prostate cancers and the relationship of exon choice to known cancer driver alterations. To do so, we compiled a metadataset composed of 876 RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) samples from five publicly available sources representing a range of prostate phenotypes from normal…
Insects living in the temperate zone enter a physiological state of arrested or slowed development to overcome an adverse season, such as winter. Developmental arrest, called diapause, occurs at a species-specific developmental stage, and embryonic and pupal diapauses have been extensively studied in mostly holometabolous insects. Some other insects overwinter…
IKBFU Physicists have successfully tested the new magnetic micro wire-based concept of "smart" composites production. The new composites are related to the multiferroic-class materials which have mutually controlled magnetic and electric properties. The effects observed in the compositions are considered to be a perspective platform for creating new devices from energy converters to highly sensiti
It is now well established that glasses feature quasilocalized nonphononic excitations—coined "soft spots"—, which follow a universal ω4 density of states in the limit of low frequencies ω. All glass-specific properties, such as the dependence on the preparation protocol or composition, are encapsulated in the nonuniversal prefactor of the universal…
A worldwide collaborative study involving scientists at the University of Sussex has proposed a new treatment strategy for patients with a rare but aggressive subtype of cancer known as triple negative breast cancer.
Anti-CRISPRs (Acrs) are small proteins that inhibit the RNA-guided DNA targeting activity of CRISPR-Cas enzymes. Encoded by bacteriophage and phage-derived bacterial genes, Acrs prevent CRISPR-mediated inhibition of phage infection and can also block CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing in eukaryotic cells. To identify Acrs capable of inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SauCas9), an…
A combined analytical, theoretical, and experimental study has shown that the vaping of vitamin E acetate has the potential to produce exceptionally toxic ketene gas, which may be a contributing factor to the upsurge in pulmonary injuries associated with using e-cigarette/vaping products. Additionally, the pyrolysis of vitamin E acetate also…
Knowing the amount of opioids taken following cesarean section surgery and before discharge can inform individualized prescriptions and cut down on unnecessary, leftover pills that could be used for non-medical purposes, according to a new study from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
There are two common misconceptions that muddy people's understanding of election forecasting, says Eric Siegel: Blaming the prognosticator and predicting candidates versus predicting voters. In 2016, Nate Silver's forecast put about 70% odds on Clinton winning. Despite people's shock at the election results, that forecast was not wrong. As predictions for the 2020 presidential election ramp up,
Light limitation represents a significant threat to plant survival. Shade-intolerant species have, therefore, evolved mechanisms to detect and avoid shading by neighbors. Plants detect the proximity and density of neighboring vegetation by monitoring alterations in light quality (1). Phytochrome photoreceptors detect changes in the ratio of red (R) to far-red…
Climate change and population growth have increased demand for water in arid regions. For over half a century, cloud seeding has been evaluated as a technology to increase water supply; statistical approaches have compared seeded to nonseeded events through precipitation gauge analyses. Here, a physically based approach to quantify snowfall…
Black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, leading to a strong but uncertain warming effect on climate. A key challenge in modeling and quantifying BC's radiative effect on climate is predicting enhancements in light absorption that result from internal mixing between BC and other aerosol components. Modeling and laboratory studies show…
Using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard NASA's Fermi spacecraft, astronomers have investigated a nearby radio galaxy known as NGC 3894. Results of the study, presented in a paper published March 3, confirm the galaxy's young age and provide more insights into its properties.
Perhaps in a decade or so, researchers may look back on current times and view it as an inflection point for the development of novel therapeutic modalities for the treatment of various human diseases. One particularly innovative approach involves targeting disease-modifying proteins for degradation by the proteasome, the large multisubunit…
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are a diverse class of membrane-active proteins employed primarily by bacteria for unregulated perforation of lipid membranes (1). Based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (2), electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) structures (3), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments (4), we recently identified two distinct pathways for lipid efflux from…
We thank Geiger and Stomper (1) for the opportunity to clarify and further test the robustness of the results in Coronese et al. (2). Their comments reveal misinterpretations of our study and propose an alternative (but untested) hypothesis. Here we redress these misinterpretations and test their hypothesis. Geiger and Stomper…
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) has long been implicated in maintaining behavioral homeostasis essential for the survival of an individual. However, recent evidence suggests its more widespread roles in behavioral coordination, extending to the social domain. The neuronal and circuit mechanisms behind the LH processing of social information are unknown. Here,…
Turtle ant soldiers look like real-life creatures straight out of a Japanese anime film. These tree-dwelling insects scuttle to and fro sporting shiny, adorably oversized heads, which they use to block the entrances of their nests—essentially acting as living doors.
The natural coastal defenses provided by mangrove forests reduce annual flooding significantly in critical hotspots around the world. Without mangroves, flood damages would increase by more than $65 billion annually, and 15 million more people would be flooded, according to a new study published March 10, 2020 in Scientific Reports.
USC researchers created a new sharkskin-inspired smart material that allows shifts in acoustic transmission on demand using magnets. As a result the new material can achieve multiple properties in one structure by switching between states, for example transmitting and also damping external noise transmission in a submarine through a single device. This smart material can recreate properties intrin
An international research team has uncoupled the mystery of how Tuvan throat singers produce distinctive sounds in which you can hear two different pitches at once—a low rumble and a high whistle-like tone.
Satellitsändare och så kallade ljusloggar kan ge allt mer information om fåglars liv. Har ringmärkningen spelat ut sin roll? − Nej, ringmärkning ger en hel del annan information som vi inte får med den nya tekniken, säger Thord Fransson på Ringmärkningscentralen vid Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
The recent paper by Coronese et al. (1) reports a rise in economic damages due to extreme natural disasters reported in the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) (2). While Coronese et al.'s (1) paper is timely and relevant, we have serious concerns regarding the analysis and the interpretation of the results….
A new study showed that the humans on teams that included a robot expressing vulnerability communicated more with each other and later reported having a more positive group experience than people teamed with silent robots or with robots that made neutral statements, like reciting the game's score.
In this study, researchers analyzed levels of schooling attainment in years among adults born during or after the implementation of India's Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (intervention) compared to adults born before the implementation (control). District-level data from the rollout of India's UIP between 1985 and 1990 was matched to schooling data from the National Family Health Survey of
A critical problem in the fight against bacterial infection is the rising rates of resistance and the lack of new antibiotics. The discovery of new targets or new antibacterial mechanisms is a potential solution but is becoming more difficult. Here we report an antibacterial mechanism that safeguards intestine cells from…
A team of astronomers have discovered a strange star that oscillates in a rhythmic pattern — but only on one side, causing gravitational forces to distort it into a teardrop shape. "We've known theoretically that stars like this should exist since the 1980s," said professor Don Kurtz from the University of Central Lancashire and co-author of the paper published in Nature Astronomy on Monday, in a
Scientists have linked up two silicon-based artificial neurons with a biological one across multiple countries into a fully-functional network. Using standard internet protocols, they established a chain of communication whereby an artificial neuron controls a living, biological one, and passes on the info to another artificial one. Whoa. We've talked plenty about brain-computer interfaces and no
A research group led by Prof. TANG Yongbing and his team members (Dr. JIANG Chunlei, XIANG Lei, MIAO Shijie etc.) from the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, along with Prof. ZHENG Zijian from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, have proposed a flexible interface design to reduce alloying stress on silicon anodes in silicon-graphite DIBs.
A research group led by Prof. Qiao Botao from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has proposed a new method for large-scale production of thermally stable single-atom catalysts (SACs) with high metal loading. Their findings were published in Nature Communications on Mar. 9.
FinFETs are known to be an evolution of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) featuring a semiconducting channel vertically wrapped by conformal gate electrodes. It was first proposed in 1990s in order to avoid the short channel effect and other drawbacks resulted from the shrinking of transistor size. Because of the limitation of nanofabrication, the minimum fin width is ab
For centuries, experts and archeologists have tried to pinpoint the lost city of Atlantis, but all have failed. Now Rob Riggle is on the case, and Atlantis has nowhere left to hide. Stream Full Episodes of Rob Riggle: Global Investigator: https://go.discovery.com/tv-shows/rob-riggle-global-investigator/ Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Join us on Facebook: https://www.face
Caregivers in low-income settings will be able to respond to the challenges of bringing up children with disabilities, thanks to a new model created by the University of East Anglia (UEA) and the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI).
Many hands make light work. (Perry Grone/Unsplash/) The internet has transformed the way we live and communicate with each other, which means it's likely you have colleagues and clients spread across the world. With the right phone apps, you can make sure this geographical diversity doesn't hurt productivity, and ensure that everyone on your team is on the same page (sometimes literally). These c
The ubiquity of phospho-ligands suggests that phosphate binding emerged at the earliest stage of protein evolution. To evaluate this hypothesis and unravel its details, we identified all phosphate-binding protein lineages in the Evolutionary Classification of Protein Domains database. We found at least 250 independent evolutionary lineages that bind small molecule…
Recent work suggests human physiology is not well adapted to prolonged periods of inactivity, with time spent sitting increasing cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Health risks from sitting are generally linked with reduced levels of muscle contractions in chair-sitting postures and associated reductions in muscle metabolism. These inactivity-associated health risks…
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14850-8 In infants, superiority of semantic over episodic memory formation has been postulated. Here, authors show that both types of memory coexist in one-year-olds, with consolidation during sleep affecting whether an experienced event is recognized as a detailed episode or as general semantic knowledge.
The behavior of one of nature's humblest creatures is helping astronomers probe the largest structures in the universe. There is an uncanny resemblance between the networks single-cell slime molds create to seek food and the vast cobweb structure of filaments gravity builds to tie galaxies and clusters of galaxies together.
Cleaner air, everywhere. (Depositphotos/) Managing the air quality in your home or workplace is important, and you should be able to do so without an eyesore air purifier the size of a piece of furniture. There are compact and powerful air purifiers on the market that can get the job done without crowding your space. Many of them are even portable, so you can bring them with you as you move throu
The Earth, solar system, the entire Milky Way and the few thousand galaxies closest to us move in a vast "bubble" that is 250 million light years in diameter, where the average density of matter is half as high as for the rest of the universe. This is the hypothesis advanced by a theoretical physicist from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) to solve a conundrum that has been splitting the scientific
A review by biologists at UC Riverside and Washington State University, Vancouver finds that plant domestication has often had a negative effect on plant microbiomes, making domesticated plants more dependent on fertilizer and other soil amendments than their wild relatives. To make crops more productive and sustainable, the authors recommend reintroduction of genes from the wild relatives of comm
May Happen SpaceX president Gwynne Shotwell says the company plans to launch a crewed mission in its Crew Dragon spacecraft sometime in May — just two months away — according to Reuters space reporter Joey Roulette. SpaceX president Gwynne Shotwell: We're looking at a May timeframe to launch crew for the first time on Crew Dragon. — Joey Roulette (@joroulette) March 10, 2020 Announcement Season S
Inefficient physiological transitions are known to cause metabolic disorders. Therefore, investigating mechanisms that constitute molecular switches in a central metabolic organ like the liver becomes crucial. Specifically, upstream mechanisms that control temporal engagement of transcription factors, which are essential to mediate physiological fed–fast–refed transitions are less understood. SIRT
The extrahypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and its cognate receptors (GHRH-Rs) and splice variants are expressed in a variety of cancers. It has been shown that the pituitary type of GHRH-R (pGHRH-R) mediates the inhibition of tumor growth induced by GHRH-R antagonists. However, GHRH-R antagonists can also suppress some cancers…
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of STAT3, a transcription factor pivotal to various cellular processes including Th17 cell differentiation, has been implicated in MS. Here, we report that STAT3 is activated in infiltrating monocytic cells near active MS lesions and…
Everybody wants a clean house that is free of dirt, grime, and germs. Unfortunately, the vast majority of conventional household cleaning products contain excessively noxious chemicals and are packaged in single use plastic bottles. That means they are terrible for not just for our health, but for the environment, as well. However, there are a few companies out there working hard to change all th
Oxidative phosphorylation, the primary source of cellular energy in eukaryotes, requires gene products encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. As a result, functional integration between the genomes is essential for efficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation. Although within populations this integration is presumably maintained by coevolution, the importance of…
Secretagogin (SCGN) is a hexa–EF-hand protein that is highly expressed in the pancreas, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. SCGN is known to modulate regulated exocytosis in multiple cell lines and tissues; however, its exact functions and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that SCGN interacts with the plasma membrane SNARE…
A new study from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) shows that head impact sensors can record a large number of false positive impacts during real game play. The CHOP team's study emphasizes that an extra step to video-confirm the sensor data is essential for research and for use of this data in injury prevention strategies for player safety.
For plants, sunlight can be a double-edged sword. They need it to drive photosynthesis, the process that allows them to store solar energy as sugar molecules, but too much sun can dehydrate and damage their leaves.
Flocks of starlings that produce dazzling patterns across the sky are natural examples of active matter—groups of individual agents coming together to create collective dynamics. In a study featured on the cover of the March 6 issue of the journal Science, a team of researchers that includes Brown University physicists reveals new insights into what happens inside active matter systems.
The economic and ecological impact of nature on humans have long been established with prevalent environmental issues such as climate change and over-exploitation of natural resources being the first to cross one's mind. On the other hand, much less attention has been paid to the cultural and social values nature brings to humans. Even though natural wonders such as the Great Barrier Reef and the
A population-based analysis from England indicates that the incidence of colorectal cancer is increasing rapidly in young adults. The findings, which are published in BJS (British Journal of Surgery), suggest that colorectal cancer should no longer be considered a disease of older people.
Research at North Carolina State University shows that the CRISPR-Cas system can be used to effectively target and eliminate specific gut bacteria, in this case Clostridioides difficile, the pathogen that causes colitis — a chronic, degenerative disease of the colon. In a proof-of-concept study published in the journal mBio, researchers were able to show pathogen reductions in experiments conduct
Research has long shown that people who spend time in jail or have high levels of contact with law enforcement are less likely to be politically engaged. University of Kansas researcher Brandon Davis has published a study detailing what types of contact influence participation. He found that network contacts, such as having a family member incarcerated, had a greater negative influence on feelings
Scientists at The University of New Mexico have found that the Earth and Moon have distinct oxygen compositions and are not identical in oxygen as previously thought according to a new study released today in Nature Geoscience.
New research by Texas A&M University biologist Dr. Charles Criscione and collaborators in Canada shows that family ties and traits such as manipulation, sacrifice and selflessness are just as key to survival in parasitic organisms as they are in cognitive species like humans. In essence, when it comes to successful transmission, some parasites get by with a little help from their kin.
A diet including daily avocado consumption improves the ability to focus attention in adults whose measurements of height and weight are categorized as overweight or obese, a new randomized control trial found. Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign conducted the 12-week study.
Finns det liv utanför jorden? Vad behövs för att liv ska kunna uppstå och överleva? Astrobiologer letar efter svar bland annat på månarna kring solsystemets jätteplaneter. Saturnus måne Titan har hav på ytan och en tjock atmosfär, precis som jorden. Men på Titan består haven av flytande metan. Det är mycket kallt, omkring –180 grader Celsius, men ändå bjuder den speciella miljön på mycket komplex
It may shock you to learn that brewing alcohol in your dorm room is not a great idea. (Pexels/) In the latest concerning TikTok trend , teens have documented their DIY alcohol adventures while brewing booze with grocery store ingredients—usually fruit juice, sugar, and active dry yeast. Some videos have racked up hundreds of thousands of likes and inspired others to establish their own bedroom mi
Aging manifests with architectural alteration and functional decline of multiple organs throughout an organism. In mammals, aged skin is accompanied by a marked reduction in hair cycling and appearance of bald patches, leading researchers to propose that hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are either lost, differentiate, or change to an…
The AAA+ ATPase and bromodomain factor ATAD2/ANCCA is overexpressed in many types of cancer, but how it contributes to tumorigenesis is not understood. Here, we report that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog Yta7ATAD2 is a deposition factor for the centromeric histone H3 variant Cse4CENP-A at the centromere in yeast. Yta7ATAD2 regulates…
Properly caring for your leather boots can add years of life. (Steve Johnson/) This story originally feature on Field & Stream . If you're one of those people who's ever found the perfect pair of leather boots, you know how important it can be to enjoy every minute of your time in them. Your favorite shoes are like an old friend—even if you haven't seen them for a while, you can take up right whe
Chronic pain is a major clinical problem of which the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we describe the concept that PI16, a protein of unknown function mainly produced by fibroblasts, controls neuropathic pain. The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain increases PI16 protein levels in fibroblasts in dorsal…
The journey that Cookie Figowitz (played by John Magaro) took to get to the Oregon territory in 1820 was clearly a difficult one. As Kelly Reichardt's new film, First Cow ,opens, he's near the end of his trek, clambering over challenging terrain and dodging threats from his fur-trapping companions. By comparison, the voyage of the first cow to set foot in Oregon seems graceful: She enters the scr
The habenula, an ancient small brain area in the epithalamus, densely expresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is critical for nicotine intake and aversion. As such, identification of strategies to manipulate habenular activity may yield approaches to treat nicotine addiction. Here we show that GPR151, an orphan G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) highly…
Walk into any jazz room, anywhere on Earth, on any night, and you'll probably hear a keyboardist copping McCoy Tyner's licks and tricks. Even though the piano player, who died Friday at 81, played in John Coltrane's classic quartet—one of the most famous and influential combos in history—his towering legacy was not a foregone conclusion. At the height of Tyner's career, his playing was sometimes
Some bacteria and archaea possess an immune system, based on the CRISPR-Cas mechanism, that confers adaptive immunity against viruses. In such species, individual prokaryotes maintain cassettes of viral DNA elements called spacers as a memory of past infections. Typically, the cassettes contain several dozen expressed spacers. Given that bacteria can…
Tol-Pal is a multiprotein system present in the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Inactivation of this widely conserved machinery compromises the outer membrane (OM) layer of these organisms, resulting in hypersensitivity to many antibiotics. Mutants in the tol-pal locus fail to complete division and form cell chains. This phenotype along with…