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Birdlike Flight Formations Could Cut Airline Emissions
A bioinspired arrangement could save energy by allowing one plane to provide extra lift to another—if both aircraft can remain stable — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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EUs konkurrencesag mod Amazon kan koste tech-giganten 28 milliarder dollars
Amazon kan ende med at skulle betale mere end 28 milliarder amerikanske dollars i bøde i forbindelse med en kommende konkurrencesag fra EU.
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VE trodser coronakrisen med ny rekord: Naturgas og kul overhales inden for fem år
Mens den globale efterspørgsel på energi har oplevet det største fald siden Anden Verdenskrig, så sætter vedvarende energiformer til den globale elproduktion ny rekord. Den samlede mængde vind- og solkapacitet ser ud til at overhale naturgas i 2023 og kul i 2024.
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EU to buy up to 300m doses of BioNTech-Pfizer's Covid vaccine
Jabs will be made in Germany and Belgium, and member states can choose whether to place orders
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Jätteprojekt ska förklara forntida migration
Forskarna kommer att arbeta i ett sexårigt tvärvetenskapligt projekt, som får 100 miljoner kronor av Europeiska forskningsrådet och ska ledas av Kristian Kristiansen, professor i arkeologi vid Göteborgs universitet och en av världens främsta bronsåldersforskare. Perioden som ska studeras sträcker sig från jordbrukets ankomst till Europa kring 6.000 före vår tideräkning till bronsålderns slut cirka
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Trump Needs Three Consecutive Hail Mary Passes
Despite the clear math showing that Joe Biden has won the election, President Donald Trump has refused to concede. He has directed his legal team to keep on fighting to try to overturn the results of the election, including in a new 105-page federal-court filing in Pennsylvania. These legal maneuvers are unlikely to pay off in the form of a second term for Trump; he would need the equivalent of t
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What Bob Dole Hath Wrought
President Donald Trump's unwillingness to concede the election is bad news for many reasons. One is that it all but guarantees that some portion of his followers will refuse to recognize the Biden administration's legitimacy—just as some people did not recognize the Trump administration's legitimacy, or the Obama administration's legitimacy before it. President-elect Joe Biden is promising a retu
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Team sport lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women
Team sport effectively counteracts diminished vascular function in women with high blood pressure, even several years after the onset of menopause. Estrogen loss associated with transition into menopause increases women's risk of developing cardiovascular disease and reduces their ability to benefit from training. However, a new study from the Center for Team Sports and Health at the Department of
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Papkartoner versus plastflasker – hvad er egentlig mest cirkulært?
PLUS. Firmaet Postevand hævder, at deres papkartoner har 'minimalt klimaaftryk', men ifølge DTU-analyse er plastflasker bedre herhjemme, fordi det danske pantsystem fungerer så godt. Parterne er dog uenige om, hvorvidt forudsætningerne for undersøgelsen holder vand.
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Here's why we need Covid models, even if they are controversial | Adam Kucharski
Though scientists are routinely criticised for their projections, calls to wait for precise estimates underplay the urgency of this crisis Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage What is the current level of Covid-19 transmission in the UK? This might sound like a straightforward question, but take a moment to think about what it's actually asking. Are we interested in how m
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Covid: Totnes concerns reflect UK-wide rise in conspiracy theories
Suspicion in Devon town of face masks and 5G means take-up of vaccine may face resistance Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Like many people living in or around Totnes in Devon, David, who is in his 70s, has his own theories about coronavirus and its origins. Sitting in the armchair of his house, he says the pandemic is a secret plot to impose a totalitarian world gove
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The Strange and Twisted Tale of Hydroxychloroquine
The much-hyped drug sparked a battle between power and knowledge. Let's not repeat it.
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The Best Reason to Get a PS5 Is Its New Controller
Its DualSense controller ushers in some fresh control concepts, though you'll need a new TV to really take advantage of the PS5's horsepower.
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Europe Can't Blame Donald Trump Anymore
Donald Trump didn't win, and neither did Trumpism. For the world beyond the United States, these facts are of fundamental importance. Whatever happens in the coming weeks and months, most American allies—certainly in Europe—are thankful that he will soon be leaving the White House. And yet the result nevertheless sparked very little of the joy one might have expected from those who had come to lo
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Journal that published paper about a black hole at the center of Earth sinks into the void at a leading government database
The Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, which retracted five papers recently, including one claiming that there was a black hole at the center of Earth, will no longer be indexed in a heavily used U.S. government database of journals. According to the journal's index page at PubMed Central (PMC), part of the U.S. … Continue reading
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India's Covid-19 Cases Drop. A Second Wave May Loom.
While some hope the worst might be over, lapsed vigilance, cold weather and the festival season could spark a resurgence.
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Trump's Climate Policies Accelerated Global Warming
President-elect Biden can restore many of the 100-plus environmental regulations that President Trump rolled back, but much of the damage to the climate cannot be reversed.
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Will the Coronavirus Evolve to Be Less Deadly?
Over the decades, scientists have developed a number of theories to explain how viruses evolve to become more or less deadly, often by exploring the interplay between transmissibility and virulence. While looking to the past offers some clues, it's too soon to know the ultimate fate of SARS-CoV-2.
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'Unfair surveillance'? Online exam software sparks global student revolt
submitted by /u/trot-trot [link] [comments]
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As a Cognitive Science major, should I minor in Philosophy or Psychology?
Hi all, I'm in my final year at uni. I'm set to graduate with a BA in Cognitive Science. I've taken enough extra classes here and there that makes me able to either declare a minor in psychology, or in philosophy. I'm having trouble making up my mind. If I just went through with no minor, it'd be an easier 2 quarters til graduation – but it might not look as 'good.' If I do the philosophy minor,
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Alumni looking for research/jobs in Cognitive Science
I recently graduated UC Davis with a BS in Cognitive Science with an Emphasis in Neuroscience. My interests are attentional mechanisms and dorsal/ventral pathways in the brain and their contribution to the brain's function. Understanding these mechanisms would make way for a greater understanding of language acquisition, memory consolidation, and perception. If anyone could point me in a directio
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/r/cogsci hit 100k subscribers yesterday
submitted by /u/TrendingBot [link] [comments]
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A Study of Similarities between Cognitive Tasks (Graduate students or those with a graduate degree in a cognitive science related field)
We are researchers from the University of Wisconsin – Madison who are interested in understanding the tasks used for cognitive science research. We're currently conducting a study on how these tasks fit into categories of cognition and the relationships between categories. We have collected cognitive science tasks that are commonly being used in research in a variety of categories, and we now wan
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Particle-size dependent structural transformation of skyrmion lattice
Nature Communications, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19480-8 Skyrmions are topological spin textures and are of great interest due to their impressive stability. Here, by sweeping an applied magnetic field, the authors observe a change in the skyrmion lattice structure, shedding light on the relation between skyrmion size and stability.
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Modelling transmission and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia
Nature Communications, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19393-6 There is ongoing debate about the effective combination of strategies for COIVD-19 control. Here, the authors use an agent-based model to quantify and compare several intervention strategies, and identify minimal levels of social distancing compliance required to control the epidemic in Australia.
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Complex reaction processes in combustion unraveled by neural network-based molecular dynamics simulation
Nature Communications, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19497-z Gaining insights into combustion processes is challenging due to the complex reactions involved. The present work proposes a neural network potential model trained to ab initio data that enables to simulate the combustion of methane by predicting reactants, products and reaction intermediates.
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The auxin-inducible degron 2 technology provides sharp degradation control in yeast, mammalian cells, and mice
Nature Communications, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19532-z Auxin-inducible degron systems can be leaky and require high doses of auxin. Here the authors establish AID2 which uses an OsTIR1 mutant and the ligand 5-Ph-IAA to overcome these problems and establish AID-mediated target depletion in mice.
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The Polycomb group protein Ring1 regulates dorsoventral patterning of the mouse telencephalon
Nature Communications, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19556-5 NCOMMS-19-38235B Dorsal-ventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon is fundamental to the formation of distinct functional regions. Here, the authors find that PcG proteins suppress BMP and Wnt signaling in a region-specific manner, allowing for proper Shh expression and development of the ventral tele
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Viral rhodopsins 1 are an unique family of light-gated cation channels
Nature Communications, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19457-7 Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) that infect algae encode two distinct families of microbial rhodopsins. Here, the authors characterise two proteins form the viral rhodopsin group 1 OLPVR1 and VirChR1, present the 1.4 Å crystal structure of OLPVR1 and show that viral rhodopsins 1 are light-gated c
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Spin-orbit torque switching of an antiferromagnetic metallic heterostructure
Nature Communications, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19511-4 Antiferromagnets (AFMs) are prospective for future spintronic devices, owing to their speed and insensitivity to perturbations. Using a combination of electronic and magnetic dichroism measurements, the authors demonstrate reversible current-induced switching of the Néel vector in AFM PtMn.
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A steric gate controls P/E hybrid-state formation of tRNA on the ribosome
Nature Communications, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19450-0 The ribosome undergoes multiple large-scale structural rearrangements during protein elongation. Here the authors present an all-atom model of the ribosome to study the energetics of P/E hybrid-state formation, an early conformational rearrangement occurring during translocation.
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Employment insecurity linked to anxiety and depression among young adults during COVID-19
Young adults may be less susceptible to the serious adverse health effects of COVID-19, but they have not been absolved from economic and employment downturns — and there has been little research on how employment insecurity has affected them. New research now shows a strong association between employment insecurity and common symptoms of anxiety and depression among young adults in the U.S.
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Could reduced lead exposure explain the downward trend in hip fractures?
Hip fractures are one of the leading causes of hospitalization among older adults and are a strong predictor of mortality. There has been a steady and substantial decline in the incidence of hip fractures in the last four decades in much of the developed world including the USA, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Taiwan.
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Genetic eraser: Newly developed technology precisely and rapidly degrades targeted proteins
Researchers can now more accurately and precisely target specific proteins in yeast, mammalian cells and mice to study how knocking down specific protein traits can influence physical manifestation in a cell or organism. The Japan-based team published their results on November 11th in Nature Communications.
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Scientists can now scoop contents of individual cells from their local environment
The new tool combines cell microscopy with the single-cell DNA and protein sequencing technology to enable connecting important information about the cell's physical features and its local environment to its molecular makeup.
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Calls to city 311 lines can predict opioid overdose hotspots
Service requests to city non-emergency telephone lines can help identify 'hotspots' for opioid use and overdoses, a study in Columbus found.Researchers found that calls to the 311 line – used in many cities across the United States to report non-emergency issues – tracked closely to places and times in Columbus in which opioid overdose events were on the rise.
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Mass Covid testing of UK students to be carried out in early December
Government programmes to allow university students to travel home for festive season
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Elbilernes bagsider: Klimarådet åbner for at granske batteriproduktion
PLUS. Flere af de råstoffer, som indgår i produktionen af blandt andet lithium-ion-batterier, er udvundet under problematiske forhold. Det skal også frem, lyder det fra Klimarådet.
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Author Correction: Micronuclei in germ cells of hybrid frogs from Pelophylax esculentus complex contain gradually eliminated chromosomes
Scientific Reports, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76320-x
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Author Correction: High-throughput microCT scanning of small specimens: preparation, packing, parameters and post-processing
Scientific Reports, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77000-6
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Clinical relevance and validity of TLICS system for thoracolumbar spine injury
Scientific Reports, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76473-9
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Stereopsis and retinal microstructures following macular hole surgery
Scientific Reports, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76648-4
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Multi-beam X-ray ptychography for high-throughput coherent diffraction imaging
Scientific Reports, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76412-8
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HRRD: a manually-curated database about the regulatory relationship between HPV and host RNA
Scientific Reports, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76719-6
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What Biden Owes Black Voters
O n February 29, hundreds of Joe Biden supporters stood densely packed in the volleyball center at the University of South Carolina, and the room went silent as Brian Williams's voice blared through the loudspeakers. Polls had just closed in South Carolina, and MSNBC was ready to make a projection: Biden had won the state's Democratic primary. When Biden appeared onstage to speak, he knew what th
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Scientists can now scoop contents of individual cells from their local environment
Scientists can now select individual cells from a population that grows on the surface of a laboratory dish and study their molecular contents. Developed by University of Toronto researchers, the new tool will enable a deeper study of stem cells and other rare cell types for therapy development.
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Singapore and Hong Kong to launch travel bubble
Trading hubs look to reopen economies after successfully limiting new Covid-19 cases
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Scientists can now scoop contents of individual cells from their local environment
Scientists can now select individual cells from a population that grows on the surface of a laboratory dish and study their molecular contents. Developed by University of Toronto researchers, the new tool will enable a deeper study of stem cells and other rare cell types for therapy development.
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Motiverende holdspil sænker blodtrykket hos kvinder efter overgangsalderen
Holdspil med høj intensitet kan effektivt modvirke dårlig karfunktion hos kvinder med forhøjet…
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Selv-desinficerende dørhåndtag dræber 99 procent af virus og bakterier
Med et printkort, lithium-batterier, desinficerende væske og en magnetisk ring har en schweizisk tech-virksomhed udviklet et selv-desinficerende dørhåndtag.
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Black-hole clashes, US climate hope and COVID antibodies
Nature, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03131-5 The latest science news, in brief.
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Where did COVID come from? WHO investigation begins but faces challenges
Nature, Published online: 11 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03165-9 Identifying the source will be tricky, and investigators will need to grapple with the sensitive political situation.
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European equities rise as tech sell-off pauses
Regional Stoxx 600 on track for third daily gain as 'stay-at-home' shares recover some ground
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SpaceX ready to take four astronauts to ISS Saturday
Three NASA crew and one Japanese astronaut are set for launch aboard a SpaceX rocket Saturday, bound for the International Space Station in the program's first six-month routine mission since the United States resumed crewed space flight in May after nine years of reliance on Russia.
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Newly discovered primate in Myanmar 'already facing extinction'
Scientists have identified a new species of primate living in the forests of central Myanmar, a lithe tree-dweller with a mask-like face framed by a shock of unruly grey hair.
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Newly discovered primate in Myanmar 'already facing extinction'
Scientists have identified a new species of primate living in the forests of central Myanmar, a lithe tree-dweller with a mask-like face framed by a shock of unruly grey hair.
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Destruction of murder hornets nest doesn't end threat
When scientists in Washington state destroyed the first nest of so-called murder hornets found in the U.S., they discovered about 500 live specimens in various stages of development, officials said Tuesday.
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Destruction of murder hornets nest doesn't end threat
When scientists in Washington state destroyed the first nest of so-called murder hornets found in the U.S., they discovered about 500 live specimens in various stages of development, officials said Tuesday.
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Report sounds an alarm on ongoing decline of US coral reefs
A first of its kind assessment of coral reefs in U.S. waters is again sounding the alarm over the continued decline of these sensitive underwater ecosystems, which scientists deem essential to the health of the world's oceans amid the environmental effects posed by human activity and climate change.
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Report sounds an alarm on ongoing decline of US coral reefs
A first of its kind assessment of coral reefs in U.S. waters is again sounding the alarm over the continued decline of these sensitive underwater ecosystems, which scientists deem essential to the health of the world's oceans amid the environmental effects posed by human activity and climate change.
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Building your professional brand in a prestigious job
Researchers from HEC Montreal and York University published a new paper in the Journal of Marketing that examines how people who attain "prestigious" posts in high-profile organizations can manage their professional brands to promote career mobility.
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The lung microbiome may affect lung cancer pathogenesis and prognosis
Enrichment of the lungs with oral commensal microbes was associated with advanced stage disease, worse prognosis, and tumor progression in patients with lung cancer, according to results from a study published in Cancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
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Treasure trove of Nasa photos including first selfie in space up for auction
Sale by Christie's in London of 2,400 vintage images ranges from the dawn of space age to the last men on the moon Neil Armstrong's giant leap for mankind is on sale to the highest bidder after a private collector released a treasure trove of Nasa images from spaceflight's golden era for auction, including the only photograph taken of the first human walking on the moon. Related: Apollo 11: the f
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Given current technology is it possible to build a Von Neumann probe / self replicating machines?
I keep seeing so many advances in 3d printing, and things like acoustic levitation, optical levitation, and self assembly of nanomaterials. I'm just wondering if it would be possible to make a machine from all of this that can make all other machines by itself given the correct materials. So that not only could we send these probes out to other worlds to prepare them first for observation, and th
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Engineer who designs gels to mimic human tissues wins Canada's top science prize
submitted by /u/divestfromfossilfuel [link] [comments]
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$15 Trillion: The True Cost Of The Global Energy Transition
$15 trillion: this is the amount of money to be invested in new power capacity globally over the next three decades. Most of this – 80 percent – will be poured into renewables. Wind power, like solar power, requires a lot of metals and other minerals to produce essential components for the installations. Therefore, as the demand for wind turbines and blades jumps, so will the demand for the metal
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98% of Canadians Will Be Provided with High-Speed Internet by 2026
submitted by /u/auscrisos [link] [comments]
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By 2024, there'll be more solar and wind installed than coal and gas
submitted by /u/ls14ssx [link] [comments]
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McDonalds to roll out new 'McPlant' faux meat patty next year
submitted by /u/We-can-fix-it [link] [comments]
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Targeted therapies developed to reduce lung fibrosis
A new treatment option for lung fibrosis is being developed by Purdue University scientists. People with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have a life expectancy of less than five years. The Purdue team has developed two targeted therapies for people with IPF.
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UTSA research team makes breakthrough discovery on brain cortex functionality
A team of researchers from UTSA's Neurosciences Institute is challenging the historical belief that the organization of the cortical circuit of GABAergic neurons is exclusively local.
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Vitamin C's effectiveness against COVID may hinge on vitamin's natural transporter levels
High doses of vitamin C under study for treating COVID-19 may benefit some populations, but investigators exploring its potential in aging say key factors in effectiveness include levels of the natural transporter needed to get the vitamin inside cells.
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Sleep loss hijacks brain's activity during learning
Sleep is crucial for consolidating our memories, and sleep deprivation has long been known to interfere with learning and memory. Now a new study shows that getting only half a night's sleep – as many medical workers and military personnel often do – hijacks the brain's ability to unlearn fear-related memories. That might put people at greater risk of conditions such as anxiety or posttraumatic st
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Animation reveals secrets of critical tumour protein
The latest animation technology has revealed the molecular detail of how our bodies are protected from cancer by a key 'tumour suppressor' protein called p53.
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Building your professional brand in a prestigious job
Individuals trying to manage their professional brands while holding prestigious posts should strive to strike a balance between benefiting from the affiliation while at the same time maintaining their professional independence.
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Tips for making nanographene
Nanographene is a material that is anticipated to radically improve solar cells, fuel cells, LEDs and more. Typically the synthesis of this material has been imprecise and difficult to control. For the first time, researchers have discovered a simple way to gain precise control over the fabrication of nanographene. In doing so, they have shed light on the previously unclear chemical processes invo
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Climate change: Protecting the rainforest through your shopping basket
Green groups welcome the UK's plan to outlaw the import of food and other goods from protected areas.
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New primate species discovered in Myanmar
100 year-old London museum sample gave decisive hints.
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SMS til 112: Teleselskaber frygter alarm-beskeder går tabt
PLUS. Det skal være muligt at kommunikere med alarmcentralen via SMS. Sådan lyder det i et forslag fra regeringen, men alarmcentralerne peger på manglende tekniske løsninger.
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A Sick Swan Is Saved After a 23-Mile Odyssey by Foot, Car and Subway
A woman with the right training noticed a bird's odd behavior and made it her mission to undertake a very urban rescue.
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Bird of the Year 2020 Vote in New Zealand Hit by Hack
More than 1,500 fake votes were slipped into New Zealand's Bird of the Year 2020 contest in favor of the kiwi pukupuku.
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The Atlantic Daily: Now Is a Very Weird Time for a Vaccine Rollout
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox . GETTY / THE ATLANTIC Americans were still processing Joe Biden's victory when more big news arrived: a breakthrough in the search for a COVID-19 vaccine, courtesy of the drugmaker Pfizer . We cau
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Low fitness linked to higher depression and anxiety risk
People with low aerobic and muscular fitness are nearly twice as likely to experience depression, finds a new study led by UCL researchers, published in BMC Medicine.
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The Worst Day of the Pandemic Since May
Editor's Note: The Atlantic is making vital coverage of the coronavirus available to all readers. Find the collection here . The United States is experiencing an unprecedented surge of hospitalizations across the country. Today, states reported that 61,964 people were hospitalized with COVID-19, more than at any other time in the pandemic. For context, there are now 40 percent more people hospita
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3 Visitors Banned From Yellowstone After Cooking Chickens in Hot Spring
It is illegal to touch or throw objects into hot springs or other hydrothermal features at the park, officials said.
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Weighing space dust with radar
It is thought that over 1,000 kilograms of so-called interplanetary dust falls to Earth every day. This dust is essentially an untold number of small faint meteors, discarded remnants of asteroids and comets that pass by the Earth. Two ways to study faint meteors are radar and optical observations, each with advantages and limitations. Astronomers have combined specific observations with both meth
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With Its Own Chips, Apple Aims to Define the Future of PCs
Intel processors are on their way out, replaced by home-grown designs, which will give the Mac maker more control of its destiny.
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First murder hornet nest found to have 200 queens capable of spawning new nests
Washington state scientists found about 500 live specimens in various stages of development inside the basketball-sized nest When scientists in Washington state destroyed the first nest of so-called murder hornets found in the US, they discovered about 500 live specimens in various stages of development, officials said Tuesday. Among them were nearly 200 queens that had the potential to start the
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Zebra Coloration Messes With Fly Eyes
Horseflies misjudge landings on zebra patterns, compared with solid gray or black surfaces, which provides evidence for why evolution came up with the black-and-white pattern.
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Electrical stimulation reduces swallowing problems in patients with neurological conditions
Using electrical stimulation in the throats of patients recovering from conditions such as strokes or head injuries will help to relieve swallowing problems, leading to a quicker recovery time, according to a new study.
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Changes needed to improve UK COVID-19 testing and build strong diagnostic services
More investment and important changes are needed to boost UK testing services, to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic and build a diagnostics service that will head off future UK health challenges, says a meeting report* published by the Academy of Medical Sciences today [Wednesday 11 November 2020].
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New fossil seal species rewrites history
An international team of biologists, led by Monash University, has discovered a new species of extinct monk seal from the Southern Hemisphere — describing it as the biggest breakthrough in seal evolution in 70 years.
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Newly discovered primate 'already facing extinction'
Historical museum specimens have helped to solve a long standing scientific monkey puzzle.
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How Some Skinks Lost Their Legs and Then Evolved New Ones
The lizards have complicated a rule of thumb that in evolution, once you lose a body part, you don't regain it.
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Coronavirus live news: countries scramble to secure vaccine doses as US sees record hospitalisations
UK reports highest deaths since May ; Brazil cases pass 5.7m ; US sees record hospitalisations Governments scramble to secure vaccine doses Pfizer and BioNTech vaccine poses huge global logistics challenge Six key questions about Pfizer/BioNtech vaccine Jair Bolsonaro claims 'victory' after Chinese vaccine trial suspended Denmark's mass mink cull illegal, PM admits 1.03am GMT In more news from As
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New fossil seal species rewrites history
The discovery, published today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, radically changes scientists' understanding of how seal species evolved around the world.
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Puzzled otters learn from each other
Asian short-clawed otters learn from each other when solving puzzles to get food, a new study shows.
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Puzzled otters learn from each other
Asian short-clawed otters learn from each other when solving puzzles to get food, a new study shows.
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Weighing space dust with radar
It is thought that over 1,000 kilograms of so-called interplanetary dust falls to Earth every day. This dust is essentially an untold number of small faint meteors, discarded remnants of asteroids and comets that pass by the Earth. Two ways to study faint meteors are radar and optical observations, each with advantages and limitations. Astronomers have combined specific observations with both meth
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Zebra Coloration Messes With Fly Eyes
Horseflies misjudge landings on zebra patterns, compared with solid gray or black surfaces, which provides evidence for why evolution came up with the black-and-white pattern. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Chronic stress causes genetic changes in chickens
How can stress in animals be measured? Scientists have now found that what are known as epigenetic biomarkers could be used to detect long-term exposure to stress in commercially raised chickens. This may, in time, lead to improved conditions in animal rearing.
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Personalized cancer vaccine clinical trial to expand following promising early results
A recent trial to study safety and effectiveness of a personalized cancer vaccine combined with immunotherapy drug Pembrolizumab will expand after promising preliminary data was presented. Researchers reported data on the first 10 patients with head and neck cancer.
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Can a nose-full of chicken antibodies ward off coronavirus infections?
A novel project aims to temporarily protect humans from COVID-19 with a nasal spray
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Hundreds of copies of Newton's Principia found in new census
A systematic search for copies of the first edition of Newton's Principia (1687) unearthed copies in at least 27 countries, yielding new insights about how people engaged with the famous book.
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Researchers 3D print biomedical parts with supersonic speed
Forget glue, screws, heat or other traditional bonding methods. Engineers have now developed a 3D printing technique that creates cellular metallic materials by smashing together powder particles at supersonic speed.
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Gene signature predicts whether localized prostate cancer is likely to spread
Researchers have identified a gene signature in localized prostate cancer that predicts the cancer's odds of spreading and its response to a common treatment for advanced disease.
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Research identifies 'volume control' in the brain that supports learning and memory
A 'molecular volume knob' regulating electrical signals in the brain helps with learning and memory, according to a new study. The finding could help researchers in their search for ways to manage neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy.
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Strenuous work during pregnancy increases likelihood of overly high birth weight
For the first time, researchers have attributed an understudied adverse fetal outcome to the strenuousness of an expectant mother's job.
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When kids watch a lot of TV, parents may end up more stressed
The more TV kids watch, the more ads they see and the more likely they are to ask for things on shopping trips. That may contribute to parents' overall stress levels, researchers found.
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Two genes regulate social dominance
Using the Nobel Prize gene-editing technique, a researcher has found that two genes regulate social dominance in cichlid fish and – possibly – humans.
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Demolishing abandoned houses does not reduce nearby crime, study finds
A study compared crime rates near abandoned houses that were demolished and similar properties that were not, finding no reduction in violent or property crime near those torn down. Findings suggest simply demolishing dangerous houses is not enough to reduce crime.
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New technique may revolutionize accuracy and detection of biomechanical alterations of cells
Scientists have developed an optical elastography technique that could revolutionize the accuracy and ease to which health professionals can detect biomechanical alterations of cells and tissues.
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Glioblastoma nanomedicine crosses into brain in mice, eradicates recurring brain cancer
A new synthetic protein nanoparticle capable of slipping past the nearly impermeable blood-brain barrier in mice could deliver cancer-killing drugs directly to malignant brain tumors, new research shows.
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The universe is getting hot, hot, hot, a new study suggests
The universe is getting hotter, a new study has found. The study probed the thermal history of the universe over the last 10 billion years. It found that the mean temperature of gas across the universe has increased more than 10 times over that time period and reached about 2 million degrees Kelvin today — approximately 4 million degrees Fahrenheit.
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The Latest Covid Vaccine Results, Deciphered
Reporting on the big announcement from Pfizer and BioNTech has been a little off the mark. Here's what we really know right now.
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Whatever Happened to the Hole in the Ozone Layer?
The discovery of the ozone hole shocked the world and propelled nations into action. Decades later, where does the problem stand?
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Who Were the Ancient Sumerians?
Sumer was humanity's first great civilization. Even in today's society you can still find traces of Sumerian inventions in agriculture, language, mathematics, religion and astronomy.
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Why Silk Is One of the Best Materials For Face Masks
Used by doctors for centuries, silk's unusual properties make it ideal for masks, as well as a new generation of biomaterials.
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Limiting Indoor Capacity Can Reduce Coronavirus Infections, Study Shows
Research using cellphone data in 10 U.S. cities last spring could help influence officials' decisions on new restrictions as cases resurge around the country.
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Survey of COVID-19 research provides fresh overview
Researchers have explored all COVID-19 research published during the initial phase of the pandemic. The results, which were achieved by using a machine learning-based approach, will make it easier to direct future research to where it is most needed.
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Frugal science: A low-cost way to decontaminate PPE equipment
Researchers have devised a system for decontaminating N95 masks using off-the-shelf materials that can be purchased at a hardware store, combined with ultraviolet type C (UV-C) lights found in academic research and industrial facilities.
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Researchers 3-D print biomedical parts with supersonic speed
Forget glue, screws, heat or other traditional bonding methods. A Cornell University-led collaboration has developed a 3-D printing technique that creates cellular metallic materials by smashing together powder particles at supersonic speed.
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Scientists: We Should Vaccinate Social Butterflies Before the Vulnerable
When a safe and effective vaccine for COVID-19 finally becomes available to the public, it's almost guaranteed that supplies will initially be limited. Therefore, officials will need to make tough calls about who to inoculate against the coronavirus first, with at-risk groups and frontline workers often being named as frontrunners. But, Wired reports , some experts argue that a different group sh
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5 things Joe Biden can do to fight climate change—without Congress' help
Climate change is fueling record-breaking fires, hurricanes and floods. Global emissions of greenhouse gases are returning to pre-pandemic levels. And America—which has emitted more planet-warming gases than any other nation—has just become the only country to quit the Paris climate agreement.
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New technique may revolutionize accuracy and detection of biomechanical alterations of cells
Scientists have developed an optical elastography technique that could revolutionize the accuracy and ease to which health professionals can detect biomechanical alterations of cells and tissues.
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Explaining the religious vote for Trump
New research by LSU sociologists indicate it wasn't Christian nationalism that drove churchgoers' Trump vote in 2016. Rather, surprisingly, Christian nationalism was important among non-churchgoers. Christian nationalism is thought to have been an important factor in the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States in 2016—and likely drove many of his supporters to the polls in 2020.
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The Space Station Is About to Be so Crowded That One Astronaut Will Have to Sleep in the SpaceX Capsule
Fully Occupied SpaceX and NASA are about to launch four astronauts — three from NASA and one from Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) — to the International Space Station in a SpaceX Crew Dragon capsule . Three astronauts — NASA's Kate Rubins and cosmonauts Sergey Ryzhikov and Sergey Kud-Sverchkov — are already on board the space station, bringing the total to seven. But there are only si
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New technique may revolutionize accuracy and detection of biomechanical alterations of cells
Scientists have developed an optical elastography technique that could revolutionize the accuracy and ease to which health professionals can detect biomechanical alterations of cells and tissues.
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Researchers 3D print biomedical parts with supersonic speed
Forget glue, screws, heat or other traditional bonding methods. A Cornell University-led collaboration has developed a 3D printing technique that creates cellular metallic materials by smashing together powder particles at supersonic speed.
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Postpartum care fails to provide women with key recommended services
Most women are receiving fewer than half the services recommended during their comprehensive postpartum medical checkup, according to a study by University of Massachusetts Amherst researchers.
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Q&A: Pollution Linked to 15 Percent Increase in COVID-19 Deaths
Jos Lelieveld of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry explains how fine particulate might contribute to deaths from COVID-19.
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The polio eradication campaign is faltering. Can a new vaccine help it get back on track?
A modern, stabler version of the oral vaccine may reduce the risk of vaccine-derived outbreaks
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Transmitting data from space to earth with laser filaments
Could light be used to transmit information between satellites and Earth? Atmospheric water vapor scatters and absorbs light energy, but overcome that obstacle, and light will carry far more information and move it faster than the radio waves we currently rely on. A new research project, supported by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, proposes to use the properties of light itself to pun
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Jacky dragon moms' time in the sun affects their kids
A new study conducted at the University of New South Wales and published in the November/December 2020 issue of Physiological and Biochemical Zoology sheds light on a possible connection between an animal's environmental conditions and the traits of its offspring. The study, Maternal Temperature, Corticosterone, and Body Condition as Mediators of Maternal Effects in Jacky Dragons (Amphibolurus mur
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Final weeks of historic hurricane season bring new storms
Just when you thought it should be safe to go back to the water, the record-setting tropics are going crazy. Again.
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Jacky dragon moms' time in the sun affects their kids
A new study conducted at the University of New South Wales and published in the November/December 2020 issue of Physiological and Biochemical Zoology sheds light on a possible connection between an animal's environmental conditions and the traits of its offspring. The study, Maternal Temperature, Corticosterone, and Body Condition as Mediators of Maternal Effects in Jacky Dragons (Amphibolurus mur
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Why It's a Big Deal If the First Covid Vaccine Is 'Genetic'
If approved by the FDA, Pfizer and BioNTech's mRNA vaccine would be the first of its kind, setting a record for speed—but raising questions about distribution.
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Parents: More TV for kids can amp up your stress
There's bad news for parents who frequently plop their kids in front of the TV to give themselves a break: It might actually end up leaving moms and dads more stressed, according to new research. Why? Because the more television that kids watch, the more they're exposed to advertising messages. The more advertising they see, the more likely they are to insist on purchasing items when they go with
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A viable vaccine for tough tumors
While immunotherapies work well for some cancers, others are immune-resistant and condemn patients to the severe side effects of long-term chemo treatment. A new cancer vaccine successfully treated immune-resistant breast cancer in mice, 100% of which survived a second injection of cancer cells, indicating long-term immunity with no side effects.
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Studies outline key ethical questions surrounding brain-computer interface tech
Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies are no longer hypothetical, yet there are fundamental aspects of the technology that remain unaddressed by both ethicists and policy-makers.
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Kids' physical fitness is more important than BMI
For adults, the goal of exercise is often to shed some pounds, but new research suggests the objective should be different for kids.
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Crop diversification can improve environmental outcomes without sacrificing yields
Diversifying agricultural systems beyond a narrow selection of crops leads to a range of ecosystem improvements while also maintaining or improving yields, according to a new study that analyzed thousands of previously conducted experiments. Diversification practices such as crop rotations and planting prairie strips can lead to 'win-win' results that protect the environment without sacrificing yi
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New app allows users to explore how global warming changes their cities' climate
A new mobile app allows people to explore how global warming will affect the future climate of their towns and cities.
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How Alex Trebek Made a Mundane Game Show Brilliant
It's strange to think that a show like Jeopardy became so popular; after all, watching Jeopardy is just watching people answer questions. Although small winning streaks might form, and close calls in the "Final Jeopardy" segment might add some flair, most of the regular season can seem, I dare say, boring. But since the show received a makeover in 1984, it has always transcended its humble premis
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Hundreds of copies of Newton's Principia found in new census
A systematic search for copies of the first edition of Newton's Principia (1687) unearthed copies in at least 27 countries, yielding new insights about how people engaged with the famous book.
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Representation of female authors in family medicine academic journals is trending upward
After decades of underrepresentation in medicine, women are now entering many specialties in the United States, including family medicine, at higher rates than men. Despite the rising proportion of female physicians in family medicine, they continue to be underrepresented in the highest levels of professional attainment, particularly in academic settings. This study from the Robert Graham Center e
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New analysis finds lung cancer screening reduces rates of lung cancer-specific death
Low-dose CT screening methods may prevent one death per 250 at-risk adults screened, according to a meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled clinical trials of lung cancer screening. Researchers at the University of Georgia analyzed the health outcomes of 90,275 patients, comparing those who were screened versus those who received usual medical care or chest x-rays.
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Study of LGBTQ+ experience in the geosciences finds difficulties, dangers in fieldwork
For a geoscientist, the benefits of performing fieldwork are countless. Researching in nature gives geoscientists firsthand contact with the earth's raw materials and a chance to test ideas and develop theories—as well as to make new discoveries. For this reason, geoscientists often trek to faraway locations, negotiating difficult physical terrain and distinctive cultural landscapes to access geol
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Demolishing abandoned houses does not reduce nearby crime, study finds
Cities across the country have sought ways to improve neighborhood safety and in recent years have pointed to demolishing abandoned housing as a way to achieve the goal. While millions of dollars have been spent on the efforts, a recent University of Kansas study found a program demolishing more than 500 abandoned residential properties in Kansas City, Missouri, did not significantly reduce nearby
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Scientists uncover secrets to designing brain-like devices
Even with decades of unprecedented development in computational power, the human brain still holds many advantages over modern computing technologies. Our brains are extremely efficient for many cognitive tasks and do not separate memory and computing, unlike standard computer chips.
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Hundreds of copies of Newton's Principia found in new census
In a story of lost and stolen books and scrupulous detective work across continents, a Caltech historian and his former student have unearthed previously uncounted copies of Isaac Newton's groundbreaking science book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known more colloquially as the Principia. The new census more than doubles the number of known copies of the famous first edition, publis
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Group size and makeup affect how social birds move together
Scientists have shown that the size and makeup of groups of social birds can predict how efficiently they use and move through their habitat, according to new findings published today in eLife.
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Dietary overlap of birds, bats and dragonflies disadvantageous in insect decline
According to a new Finnish study, different groups of insectivores compete for the same type of food. Researchers of the University of Turku, Finland, and the Finnish Museum of Natural History made a discovery by comparing birds, bats and dragonflies that forage in the same area in Southwest Finland. These very distantly related predators consumed the same insect groups, such as flies, mosquitoes,
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Study identifies new 'hidden' gene in COVID-19 virus
Researchers have discovered a new "hidden" gene in SARS-CoV-2—the virus that causes COVID-19—that may have contributed to its unique biology and pandemic potential. In a virus that only has about 15 genes in total, knowing more about this and other overlapping genes—or "genes within genes"—could have a significant impact on how we combat the virus. The new gene is described today in the journal eL
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Group size and makeup affect how social birds move together
Scientists have shown that the size and makeup of groups of social birds can predict how efficiently they use and move through their habitat, according to new findings published today in eLife.
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Dietary overlap of birds, bats and dragonflies disadvantageous in insect decline
According to a new Finnish study, different groups of insectivores compete for the same type of food. Researchers of the University of Turku, Finland, and the Finnish Museum of Natural History made a discovery by comparing birds, bats and dragonflies that forage in the same area in Southwest Finland. These very distantly related predators consumed the same insect groups, such as flies, mosquitoes,
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The universe is getting hot, hot, hot, a new study suggests
The universe is getting hotter, a new study has found.
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Study identifies new 'hidden' gene in COVID-19 virus
Researchers have discovered a new "hidden" gene in SARS-CoV-2—the virus that causes COVID-19—that may have contributed to its unique biology and pandemic potential. In a virus that only has about 15 genes in total, knowing more about this and other overlapping genes—or "genes within genes"—could have a significant impact on how we combat the virus. The new gene is described today in the journal eL
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Radioactive elements may be crucial to the habitability of rocky planets
The amount of long-lived radioactive elements incorporated into a rocky planet as it forms may be a crucial factor in determining its future habitability. That's because internal heating from the radioactive decay of the heavy elements thorium and uranium drives plate tectonics and may be necessary for the planet to generate a magnetic field. Earth's magnetic field protects the planet from solar w
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Scientists use bacteria as micro-3-D printers
A team at Aalto University has used bacteria to produce intricately designed three-dimensional objects made of nanocellulose. With their technique, the researchers are able to guide the growth of bacterial colonies through the use of strongly water repellent—or superhydrophobic—surfaces. The objects show tremendous potential for medical use, including supporting tissue regeneration or as scaffolds
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Black hole or no black hole: On the outcome of neutron star collisions
A new study lead by GSI scientists and international colleagues investigates black-hole formation in neutron star mergers. Computer simulations show that the properties of dense nuclear matter play a crucial role, which directly links the astrophysical merger event to heavy-ion collision experiments at GSI and FAIR. These properties will be studied more precisely at the future FAIR facility. The r
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Independent review indicates NASA prepared for Mars sample return campaign
NASA released an independent review report Tuesday indicating the agency is well positioned for its Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign to bring pristine samples from Mars to Earth for scientific study. The agency established the MSR Independent Review Board (IRB) to evaluate its early concepts for a groundbreaking, international partnership with ESA (European Space Agency) to return the first sampl
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Covid-19 Threatens People With Intellectual and Developmental Challenges
People with intellectual disabilities and developmental disorders are three times more likely to die of Covid-19, compared with patients without the conditions, a new analysis found.
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Gene signature predicts whether localized prostate cancer is likely to spread
Columbia researchers have identified a gene signature in localized prostate cancer that predicts the cancer's odds of spreading and its response to a common treatment for advanced disease.
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Under-insured transgender americans turn to riskier sources for gender-affirming hormones
Transgender people who lack access to insurance coverage for gender-affirming hormone therapy are more likely to use hormones from sources other than a licensed prescriber, compared to those with insurance coverage.
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Researchers model source of eruption on Jupiter's moon Europa
A new model shows how brine on Jupiter's moon Europa can migrate within the icy shell to form pockets of salty water that erupt to the surface when freezing. The findings, which are important for the upcoming Europa Clipper mission, may explain cryovolcanic eruptions across icy bodies in the solar system.
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Radioactive elements may be crucial to the habitability of rocky planets
The amount of long-lived radioactive elements incorporated into a rocky planet as it forms may be a crucial factor in determining its future habitability. That's because internal heating from the radioactive decay of the heavy elements thorium and uranium drives plate tectonics and may be necessary for the planet to generate a magnetic field. Earth's magnetic field protects the planet from solar w
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Animal groups consider multiple factors before fighting
Groups of animals consider multiple factors before deciding whether to fight rivals, researchers say.
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Loneliness highest in the 20s and lowest in the 60s
Seeking to develop effective interventions, researchers examined the psychological and environmental factors that lead to patterns of loneliness in different age groups.
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New primary care tool to prescribe referrals for community health and social services
CommunityRx-H3 is a practice-level, customizable community resource referral system that uses evidence-based algorithms to auto-generate a list of community resources to address such needs. This study evaluated the implementation of CommunityRx-H3 through the perspective of primary care practice facilitators.
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Potentially preventable hospitalizations among older adults: 2010-2014
When complications due to diabetes, asthma, urinary tract infections, high blood pressure and other common conditions lead patients to visit the ER, researchers and health care quality administrators may label these visits as "potentially preventable hospitalizations." That is, with good outpatient care, these visits could have been potentially avoided. Potentially preventable hospitalizations are
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Jacky dragon moms' time in the sun affects their kids
A new study conducted at the University of New South Wales and published in the November/December 2020 issue of Physiological and Biochemical Zoology sheds light on a possible connection between an animal's environmental conditions and the traits of its offspring.
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Six ways primary care "medical homes" are lowering health care spending
New analysis of 394 U.S. primary care practices identifies the aspects of care delivery that are associated with lower health care spending and lower utilization of emergency care and hospital admissions.
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The EAR-PC study findings encourages screening for hearing loss in older adults
Hearing loss is the second most common disability in the United States and comes with it a higher risk for being diagnosed with significant health conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, dementia and depression, as well as higher health care cost and use. The Early Auditory Referral-Primary Care (EAR-PC) study was designed to address the lack of data about hearing loss screening.
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Research identifies 'volume control' in the brain that supports learning and memory
A molecular regulator made of analog signals is found to regulate electrical signals in the brain.
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Featured Session: An Orchestrated Response to a Systemic Network Ransomware Attack at Norsk Hydro
On March 19, 2019, Norsk Hydro, one of the world's largest producers of aluminum, faced a systemic, worldwide network ransomware attack. Its response strategy was built upon two principles: pay no ransom, and admit the breach. In this session, you'll hear directly from Halvor Molland, senior vice president at Norsk Hydro ASA , about how their response resulted in unprecedented transparency and a
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Understanding Holistic Risk Management
How do organizations best ensure a resilient cyber ecosystem–from assessing risk to implementing and managing controls to ensuring compliance internally and with external partners? Is it possible for defensive technologies to catch up and move ahead of attackers? Join us at CyberSecure , our inaugural virtual event on the business of cyber risk, to hear how smart companies are striking preemptive
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Featured Session: How and Why Nations Hack One Another
From espionage to elections, from blackouts to data breaches, from million-dollar ransoms to staged supply-chain disruption; cyber warfare is transforming statecraft and national security policy. In this session, you'll hear from Ben Buchanan , a uthor of The Hacker and the State: Cyber Attacks and the New Normal of Geopolitics , on the very real geopolitical pursuit of nation-state cyber advanta
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What's your cyber-resilience plan?
Every internet-connected laptop, server, and device offers an opportunity for a hacker to infiltrate and compromise your organization. Having a robust cyber-resilience plan for your organization is as fundamental as having a marketing, financial, and business strategy plan. If you are grappling with the far-reaching business implications of this reality, you need to attend CyberSecure , MIT Techn
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New airflow videos show why masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of COVID-19
Using high-speed video and schlieren imaging, a research engineer has created videos that show how air flows through masks with and without exhalation valves.
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Computer model can predict how COVID-19 spreads in cities
A study of how 98 million Americans move around each day suggests that most infections occur at 'superspreader' sites, and details how mobility patterns help drive higher infection rates among minority and low-income populations.
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'Goldilocks' neonatal immune response may protect against autism
New research shows that the lowest risk for autism spectrum disorder is associated with mid-levels of an immune marker measured at birth — whereas too much or not enough were linked to increased risk.
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Scientists have discovered an ancient lake bed deep beneath the Greenland ice
Scientists have detected what they say are the sediments of a huge ancient lake bed sealed more than a mile under the ice of northwest Greenland.
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Study identifies new 'hidden' gene in COVID-19 virus
Researchers have discovered a new 'hidden' gene in SARS-CoV-2 — the virus that causes COVID-19 — that may have contributed to its unique biology and pandemic potential. In a virus that only has about 15 genes in total, knowing more about this and other overlapping genes — or 'genes within genes' — could have a significant impact on how we combat the virus.
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Joe Biden Was Behind NASA's Historic SpaceX Launch This Week
SpaceX's workhorse Falcon 9, emblazoned proudly with the NASA logo on its side, went vertical at historic Launch Complex 39A in Cape Canaveral, Florida today. On Saturday November 14, the rocket will carry a Crew Dragon spacecraft loaded with a crew of four astronauts to the International Space Station. If all goes well, it's bound to be a historic moment. It's the first operational crew mission
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Treating opioid addiction in primary care helps patients and cash-strapped medical practices
Buprenorphine-based treatment for opioid addiction is in short supply in many areas of the United States. And while many physicians want to offer it, clinics are unsure how to offer buprenorphine therapy in a financially sustainable way.
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Diabetes epidemic detected among Xavante indigenous community in Central Brazil
Researchers examine retinas and find high prevalence of type 2 diabetes as well as ocular problems caused by the disease.
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November/December 2020 Annals of Family Medicine tip sheet
Annals of Family Medicine is a peer-reviewed, indexed research journal that provides a cross-disciplinary forum for new, evidence-based information affecting the primary care disciplines.
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Patients give higher ratings to docs of their own race
Patients who share the same racial or ethnic background as their physician were more likely to give the maximum patient rating score, according to a new analysis of 117,589 patient surveys from 2014 to 2017. "What it comes down to is that patients who see physicians of their own race or ethnicity are more likely to rate their physicians higher than patients who see physicians of a different race
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FTSE 100 recovers to highest level since June after vaccine unveiled
Promising clinical data from Pfizer and BioNTech help the index to a £28bn one-day gain Optimism that a mass rollout of Covid-19 vaccines will lead to an economic recovery lifted stocks in London again on Tuesday, to their highest closing level in over four months. London's FTSE 100 index of blue-chip shares rallied by nearly 1.8% to finish at 6,296 points, the highest close since 23 June. This a
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Pfizer and BioNTech could make $13bn from coronavirus vaccine
Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca pledged to make their vaccines available on a not-for-profit basis Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The US drugmaker Pfizer and the German biotech firm BioNTech stand to bring in nearly $13bn (£9.8bn) in global sales from their coronavirus vaccine next year, which will be evenly split between the two companies, according to analysts a
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Researchers confirm human-to-human transmission of rare virus in Bolivia
Chapare virus, which causes hemorrhagic fevers, was transmitted to health workers in La Paz and resulted in three deaths Researchers with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have discovered human-to-human transmission of a rare virus in Bolivia belonging to a family of viruses that can cause haemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola. The news is a reminder that scientists are working to id
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Huge Meta-Study: This Food Appears to Actually Make You Live Longer
According to the preliminary results of a massive review study, regularly eating chili peppers could have major medical benefits including a lowered risk of heart disease, cancer, and a longer lifespan in general. The results haven't yet been evaluated and published in an academic journal, but will be presented during an American Heart Association (AHA) conference that begins Friday, and the work
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The Lame-Duck Vaccine
Editor's Note: The Atlantic is making vital coverage of the coronavirus available to all readers. Find the collection here . In the end, there was no October surprise . Donald Trump spent months declaring that a COVID-19 vaccine was imminent, a gambit that failed to pressure the FDA into an approval before Election Day but did succeed, nevertheless, in eroding the American public's confidence in
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Glioblastoma nanomedicine crosses into brain in mice, eradicates recurring brain cancer
A new synthetic protein nanoparticle capable of slipping past the nearly impermeable blood-brain barrier in mice could deliver cancer-killing drugs directly to malignant brain tumors, new research from the University of Michigan shows.
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New technique may revolutionize accuracy and detection of biomechanical alterations of cells
Scientists have developed an optical elastography technique that could revolutionise the accuracy and ease to which health professionals can detect biomechanical alterations of cells and tissues.
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Everything Apple Announced, From New Macs to New Chips
The company showed off three new Mac computers Tuesday, all powered by its newly designed M1 chip.
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Drop in pandemic carbon dioxide emissions previews world of electric vehicles
When the San Francisco Bay Area mandated shelter-in-place March 16, it created a natural experiment for UC Berkeley's Ron Cohen, who had established an inexpensive pollution sensor network in local neighborhoods. The sensors showed carbon dioxide emissions plummeting 25 percent in the subsequent six weeks, mostly because of a 48 percent drop in traffic. Networks like this — soon to be emplaced in
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Large volcanic eruption caused the largest mass extinction
Researchers say they have found more concrete evidence of the volcanic cause of the largest mass extinction of life. Their research looked at two discrete eruption events: one that was previously unknown to researchers, and the other that resulted in large swaths of terrestrial and marine life going extinct.
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Dietary overlap of birds, bats and dragonflies disadvantageous in insect decline
According to a new study, different groups of insectivores compete for the same type of food. Researchers made the discovery by comparing birds, bats and dragonflies that forage in the same area in Southwest Finland. These very distantly related predators consumed the same insect groups. The results shed new light on the decline in insect populations.
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Group size and makeup affect how social birds move together
Scientists have shown that the size and makeup of groups of social birds can predict how efficiently they use and move through their habitat, according to new findings.
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Why Do We Feel Nostalgia?
The pandemic has made many of us nostalgic for the past. Mental health experts say it can be a force for good or bad in the human psyche.
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The Children Never Had Covid. So Why Did They Have Coronavirus Antibodies?
A provocative study suggests that certain colds may leave antibodies against the new coronavirus, perhaps explaining why children are more protected than adults.
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Male or Female Dinosaur? It's Not Easy to Tell Them Apart
Paleontologists seek the secrets of dinosaur sexes. They're making progress figuring out how male and female dinosaurs differed.
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Antipsychotics for kids are down, but risks remain
The use of antipsychotics in young children is declining, according to new research. The study also finds, however, that doctors continue to prescribe these medications off-label for non-FDA approved conditions and without the recommended psychiatric consultation. Researchers looked at 301,311 antipsychotic prescriptions filled for privately insured children ages 2 to 7 in the United States from
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Induced liver regeneration enhances CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene repair
Use of thyroid hormone to boost hepatocyte proliferation enhanced the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene correction in the mouse liver. This dietary induction of hepatocyte regeneration may be a viable clinical strategy to enhance gene repair in the liver.
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Explaining the religious vote for Trump
New research by Louisiana State University sociologists indicate it wasn't Christian nationalism that drove churchgoers' Trump vote in 2016. Rather, surprisingly, Christian nationalism was important among non-churchgoers.
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Research news tip sheet: story ideas from Johns Hopkins Medicine
Research news covering topics not related to COVID-19.
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Rapid test can ID unknown causes of infections throughout the body
UC San Francisco scientists have developed a single clinical laboratory test capable of zeroing in on the microbial miscreant afflicting patients hospitalized with serious infections in as little as six hours — irrespective of what body fluid is sampled, the type or species of infectious agent, or whether physicians start out with any clue as to what the culprit may be.
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Psychological status rather than cognitive status is associated with incorrect perception of risk of falling in patients with moderate stage dementia
Dementia is associated with an impaired self-perception with potentially harmful consequences for health status and clinical risk classification in this patient group with an extraordinary high risk of falling.
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Frugal science–a low-cost way to decontaminate PPE equipment
In the age of COVID-19, being able to MacGyver a solution to reliably decontaminate masks and other PPE equipment could make a real impact. University of Delaware researchers, led by biomedical engineer Jason Gleghorn, have devised a system for decontaminating N95 masks using off-the-shelf materials that can be purchased at a hardware store for about $50, combined with ultraviolet type C (UV-C) li
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Two genes regulate social dominance
Using the Nobel Prize gene-editing technique, a University of Houston researcher has found that two genes regulate social dominance in cichlid fish and – possibly – humans.
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US Army Readies Robot Tanks Fitted With Chainguns, Missile Launchers
Robot Wars In the near futures, the U.S. Army plans to deploy packs of semi-autonomous robot tanks armed to the brim with chainguns, missiles, and other fearsome weaponry. Two classes of these Robotic Combat Vehicles (RCVs) are already under development, Breaking Defense reports , with a third on the way. As they make their way to future battlefields, Major Corey Wallace explained at a conference
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Black hole or no black hole: On the outcome of neutron star collisions
A new study investigates black-hole formation in neutron star mergers. Computer simulations show that the properties of dense nuclear matter play a crucial role, which directly links the astrophysical merger event to heavy-ion collision experiments at GSI and FAIR. These properties will be studied more precisely at the future FAIR facility.
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Lack of positivity bias can predict relapse in bipolar disorder
Relapse in people with bipolar disorder can be predicted accurately by their tendency towards having pessimistic beliefs, according to a new study.
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Exoskeletons can reduce strain also in health care
Wearable exoskeletons are increasingly being used in physically demanding jobs to support good ergonomics and augment muscular strength. In ground-breaking studies, exoskeleton vests were worn by nurses to discover how the new technology would suit the special requirements of patient care.
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NASA Project Could Peer Inside Europa to Find Alien Life
Rave World The underground oceans of Jupiter's moon Europa are among the places in the solar system that scientists believe are most likely to harbor extraterrestrial life . But those oceans are locked away under thick layers of ice, making it hard for researchers to find out what's going on. Thankfully, a team of NASA scientists has a new trick for discovering what, if anything, might be lurking
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Perseverance rover is 100 days out
Mark your calendars: The agency's latest rover has only about 8,640,000 seconds to go before it touches down on the Red Planet, becoming history's next Mars car.
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Demolishing abandoned houses does not reduce nearby crime, study finds
A study conducted by the University of Kansas compared crime rates near abandoned houses that were demolished and similar properties that were not, finding no reduction in violent or property crime near those torn down. Findings suggest simply demolishing dangerous houses is not enough to reduce crime.
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Mount Sinai develops machine learning models to predict critical illness and mortality in COVID-19 patients
Could Help Improve Patient Care, Health Outcomes, and Allocation of Hospital Resources
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As cancer has evolved, it is time for cancer research to do the same
Marking Lung Cancer Awareness month, a new study investigates the extent to which human-based, non-animal approaches are supplanting animal models in cancer research – comparing number of publications, funding, and publications associated with clinical trials between xenograft models and human organoids. The analysis reveals limited support for human biology-based methods and the authors recommend
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UChicago scientists uncover secrets to designing brain-like devices
Pritzker Molecular Engineering researchers predicted design rules for devices that mimic what occurs in our brain's neurons and synapses.
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Simultaneous kidney transplant plus weight loss surgery safe for obese patients
A new study shows that robotic-assisted kidney transplant and weight loss surgery can be performed safely.
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When kids watch a lot of TV, parents may end up more stressed
The more TV kids watch, the more ads they see and the more likely they are to ask for things on shopping trips. That may contribute to parents' overall stress levels, researchers found.
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A viable vaccine for tough tumors
While immunotherapies work well for some cancers, others are immune-resistant and condemn patients to the severe side effects of long-term chemo treatment. A new cancer vaccine successfully treated immune-resistant breast cancer in mice, 100% of which survived a second injection of cancer cells, indicating long-term immunity with no side effects.
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Study of LGBTQ+ experience in the geosciences finds difficulties, dangers in fieldwork
An investigation from University of Kansas researchers examines the challenges of fieldwork for LGBTQ+ geoscientists.
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Survey of COVID-19 research provides fresh overview
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have explored all COVID-19 research published during the initial phase of the pandemic. The results, which were achieved by using a machine learning-based approach and published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, will make it easier to direct future research to where it is most needed.
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Radioactive elements may be crucial to the habitability of rocky planets
The amount of long-lived radioactive elements incorporated into a rocky planet as it forms may be a crucial factor in determining its future habitability. That's because internal heating from the radioactive decay of the heavy elements thorium and uranium drives plate tectonics and may be necessary for the planet to generate a magnetic field. Earth's magnetic field protects the planet from solar w
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Inside BioNTech-Pfizer's groundbreaking Covid vaccine
Research into the mRNA science underpinning the jab was accelerated by the pandemic
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How to Stop Restaurants from Driving COVID Infections
Mobile phone data suggests restaurants, gyms and cafes can be COVID hotspots—and reveals strategies for limiting spread — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Radioactive elements may be crucial to the habitability of rocky planets
The amount of long-lived radioactive elements incorporated into a rocky planet as it forms may be a crucial factor in determining its future habitability, according to a new study by an interdisciplinary team of scientists at UC Santa Cruz.
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Pfizer and BioNTech's vaccine poses global logistics challenge
Europe and US create vast facilities for Covid-19 vaccine but poorer nations lack infrastructure, say experts Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Two vast football-pitch-sized facilities equipped with hundreds of large freezers in Kalamazoo, Michigan, and Puurs, Belgium, will be the centres of the huge effort to ship the coronavirus vaccine, developed by US drug giant Pf
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Norway gives quarantine exemption to 2020 Nobel winners
The Norwegian government has granted an exemption from its two-week quarantine requirement for arriving visitors so representatives from the winner of the 2020 Nobel Peace Prize – the World Food Program – can attend the Dec. 10 award ceremony in Oslo.
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Researchers model source of eruption on Jupiter's moon Europa
On Jupiter's icy moon Europa, powerful eruptions may spew into space, raising questions among hopeful astrobiologists on Earth: What would blast out from miles-high plumes? Could they contain signs of extraterrestrial life? And where in Europa would they originate? A new explanation now points to a source closer to the frozen surface than might be expected.
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Animal poop DNA could transform conservation
A new rapid, low-cost technique is the first to analyze DNA left behind in animals' feces to map out complex networks of species interactions in a terrestrial system, researchers report. It could help redefine conservation as we know it, identify otherwise hard-to-find species, and guide a global effort to "rewild" vast areas. "I am hopeful that techniques like this can help us secure and monitor
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How lowly moss spread all over the world
New research reveals how mosses became one of our planet's most widely distributed plants. Global wind systems transport them along Earth's latitudes, to rooftops, sidewalks, and lawns worldwide, and as far away as Antarctica, the study shows. The finding offers a better understanding of how other small organisms are spread, including airborne bacteria and organisms that produce airborne spores.
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Strenuous work during pregnancy increases likelihood of high birth weight
For the first time, researchers have attributed an understudied adverse fetal outcome to the strenuousness of an expectant mother's job. The study, 'Maternal and fetal health effects of working during pregnancy' is authored by Muzhe Yang, professor of economics at Lehigh University and Dhaval Dave, professor of economics at Bentley University, and has been published in the Review of Economics of t
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Researchers model source of eruption on Jupiter's moon Europa
A new model shows how brine on Jupiter's moon Europa can migrate within the icy shell to form pockets of salty water that erupt to the surface when freezing. The findings, which are important for the upcoming Europa Clipper mission, may explain cryovolcanic eruptions across icy bodies in the solar system.
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Study: crop diversification can improve environmental outcomes without sacrificing yields
Diversifying agricultural systems beyond a narrow selection of crops leads to a range of ecosystem improvements while also maintaining or improving yields, according to a new study that analyzed thousands of previously conducted experiments. Diversification practices such as crop rotations and planting prairie strips can lead to 'win-win' results that protect the environment without sacrificing yi
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Mindfulness interventions can change health behaviors — integrated model helps to explain how they work
A growing body of evidence supports the effectiveness of mindfulness approaches to promote positive changes in health behaviors. New neurobiologically based models of "mindful self-regulation" help to explain the how mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) work to help people make healthy behavior changes, according to a review in the November/December issue of Harvard Review of Psychiatry.
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Weight loss shouldn't be the goal of PE
For adults, the goal of exercise is often to shed some pounds, but new research from the University of Georgia suggests the objective should be different for kids.
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Microbes could be used to extract metals and minerals from space rocks
A species of bacteria can successfully pull out rare Earth elements from rocks, even in microgravity environments, a study on the International Space Station has found. The new findings, published in Nature Communications today , suggest a new way we could one day use microbes to mine for valuable metals and minerals off Earth. Why bacteria: Single-celled organisms have evolved over time on Earth
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The Guardian view on the Covid vaccine breakthrough: making it work | Editorial
At last, there is hope of an end to this pandemic. Scientists appear to have performed an amazing feat, the rest of us must do our best too Medicine is only partly a matter of science; it is, very much, the business of people. The inspiring news that a Covid vaccine appears within reach , with interim results showing the Pfizer/BioNTech candidate has 90% efficacy in protecting people from illness
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New research maps potential global spread of devastating papaya mealybug pest
CABI scientists have mapped the potential global spread of the devastating papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus), highlighting new areas in Africa, Asia and the Americas into which this pest could potentially invade.
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New research maps potential global spread of devastating papaya mealybug pest
CABI scientists have mapped the potential global spread of the devastating papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus), highlighting new areas in Africa, Asia and the Americas into which this pest could potentially invade.
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Physicists produce world's first neutron-rich, radioactive tantalum ions
An international team of scientists have unveiled the world's first production of a purified beam of neutron-rich, radioactive tantalum ions. This development could now allow for lab-based experiments on exploding stars helping scientists to answer long-held questions such as "where does gold come from?"
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High temperatures threaten the survival of insects
Insects have difficulties handling the higher temperatures brought on by climate change, and might risk overheating. The ability to reproduce is also strongly affected by rising temperatures, even in northern areas of the world, according to a new study.
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Sweet taste reduces appetite?
To date, very little is known about how sweetness perception contributes to satiety. This study provides new insights into the relationship between the sweet taste of sugar, energy intake and the regulatory process of hunger and satiety.
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Smart devices to schedule electricity use may prevent power outages
Power plants generate electricity and send it into power lines that distribute energy to nodes where it can be used. But if the electricity load is more than the system's capacity, transmission can fail, leading to a cascade of failures throughout the electric grid. Researchers show demand side control may be an effective solution to stabilizing the reliability of power grids that use a mix of ene
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Mining rocks in orbit could aid deep space exploration
The first mining experiments conducted in space could pave the way for new technologies to help humans explore and establish settlements on distant worlds, a study suggests.
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Prescriptions of antipsychotic medications in young children is declining
The use of antipsychotics in young children is declining but doctors continue to prescribe these medications off-label for conditions not approved by the Food and Drug Administration and without the recommended psychiatric consultation, a new study found.
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Young survivors of acute myeloid leukemia have long-term complications from treatment
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a high risk of developing several long-term health complications after treatment, a study has found. The most common complications were cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory diseases. The complications – known as late effects – were more present among non-white AYA patients and those living in more deprived
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Sticky electrons: When repulsion turns into attraction
Scientists explain what happens at a strange 'border line' in materials science: Under certain conditions, materials change from well-known behavior to different, partly unexplained phenomena. This can be explained by the emergence of attractive forces, counteracting the repulsion between electrons.
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Urban gulls adapt foraging schedule to human activity patterns
If you've ever seen a seagull snatch a pasty or felt their beady eyes on your sandwich in the park, you'd be right to suspect they know exactly when to strike to increase their chances of getting a human snack. A new study is the most in-depth look to date at the foraging behaviors of urban gulls and how they've adapted to patterns of human activity in a city.
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Burnout can exacerbate work stress, further promoting a vicious circle
Work stress and burnout are mutually reinforcing; surprisingly, the effect of work stress on burnout is much smaller than the effect of burnout on work stress.
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Improving high-energy lithium-ion batteries with carbon filler
Lithium-ion batteries are the major rechargeable power source for many portable devices as well as electric vehicles, but their use is limited, because they do not provide high power output while simultaneously allowing reversible energy storage. New research aims to offer a solution by showing how the inclusion of conductive fillers improves battery performance.
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Researchers discover the secret of how moss spreads
University of Copenhagen researchers have discovered how mosses became one of our planet's most widely distributed plants—global wind systems transport them along Earth's latitudes, to rooftops, sidewalks and lawns worldwide, and as far away as Antarctica. This new knowledge can provide us with a better understanding of how other small organisms are spread, including airborne bacteria and organism
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Biodegradable plastics from palm oil waste
A biodegradable film made from waste from the palm oil industry could be used for food packaging
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SEOSAT-Ingenio sealed from view
As preparations for the launch of SEOSAT-Ingenio continue on schedule, the team at Europe's spaceport in Kourou have bid farewell to the satellite as it was sealed inside the rocket fairing. The spacecraft is currently scheduled to launch on the evening of Monday 16 November/morning of Tuesday 17 November.
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Researchers discover the secret of how moss spreads
University of Copenhagen researchers have discovered how mosses became one of our planet's most widely distributed plants—global wind systems transport them along Earth's latitudes, to rooftops, sidewalks and lawns worldwide, and as far away as Antarctica. This new knowledge can provide us with a better understanding of how other small organisms are spread, including airborne bacteria and organism
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Methods developed by biorobotics engineers help make hydropower plants more fish-friendly
In the Europe-wide FIThydro project, TalTech researchers worked with industry partners to study existing hydroelectric power plants. Together with researchers across Europe, they developed new assessment methods and technologies with the goal of making hydropower more fish-friendly and environmentally sustainable.
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The universe is getting hot, hot, hot, a new study suggests
The universe is getting hotter, a new study has found. The study, published Oct. 13 in the Astrophysical Journal, probed the thermal history of the universe over the last 10 billion years. It found that the mean temperature of gas across the universe has increased more than 10 times over that time period and reached about 2 million degrees Kelvin today — approximately 4 million degrees Fahrenheit
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Diseases of despair diagnoses increase in Pennsylvania
Medical diagnoses involving alcohol-related disorders, substance-related disorders and suicidal thoughts and behaviors — commonly referred to as diseases of despair — increased in Pennsylvania health insurance claims between the years 2007 and 2018, according to researchers from Penn State Clinical and Translational Science Institute and Highmark Health Enterprise Analytics.
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Group size and makeup affect how social birds move together
Scientists have shown that the size and makeup of groups of social birds can predict how efficiently they use and move through their habitat, according to new findings published today in eLife.
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Galaxies have gotten hotter as they've gotten older
Who says you can't get hotter with age?Researchers from Johns Hopkins University and other institutions have found that, on average, the temperature of galaxy clusters today is 4 million degrees Fahrenheit. That is 10 times hotter than 10 billion years ago, and four times hotter than the Sun's outermost atmosphere called the corona. The findings are published in the Astrophysical Journal.
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Study: loneliness highest in the 20s and lowest in the 60s
Seeking to develop effective interventions, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine examined the psychological and environmental factors that lead to patterns of loneliness in different age groups.
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Speed, evidence, safety characteristics of vaccine approvals by FDA
Amid an urgent need to develop a safe and effective vaccine to prevent COVID-19, researchers evaluated all new vaccines approved by the US Food and Drug Administration over the last decade, characterizing premarket development and regulatory review times, the clinical evidence on which approval was based, and the size and follow-up duration of the prelicensure safety database.
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Mining rocks in orbit could aid deep space exploration
The first mining experiments conducted in space could pave the way for new technologies to help humans explore and establish settlements on distant worlds, a study suggests.
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Skills development in Physical AI could give birth to lifelike intelligent robots
New research suggests combining educational topics and research disciplines to help researchers breathe life into lifelike intelligent robots.
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Uğur Şahin and Özlem Türeci: German 'dream team' behind vaccine
The 'Prussian Turk' couple's company BioNTech developed the breakthrough Covid vaccine with Pfizer Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage They are the "dream team" scientist couple who came up with a big idea that could protect humanity from a virus that has killed more than a million people and put an end to a pandemic that has upended economies across the globe. But as th
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Daily briefing: Europa might glow in the dark
Nature, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03181-9 Experiments on Earth reveal that Jupiter's moon probably glows green, what Pfizer's landmark COVID vaccine results mean for the pandemic and the month's best science images.
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Restaurants are covid hot spots. Cutting the number of diners could help a lot.
During this pandemic, every activity in an indoor public place involves some level of risk, but some venues are far riskier than others—especially if they're small and crowded. We already knew that restaurants can easily become covid hot spots, but a new paper published in Nature today quantifies just how dangerous they really are: four times riskier than the next riskiest location, which was the
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Record-Breaking Tropical Storm Eta Drenches Florida
Torrential rains deluged the southern part of the state, with the storm set to hit the Gulf Coast this weekend — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Pandemic-hit companies dash for cash after market rally
American Airlines, Carnival and Lufthansa among groups to raise capital
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Credit-card-sized 'microlab' detects COVID-19 in minutes
Researchers have created a "microlab" device that can identify the presence of the novel coronavirus in just 30 minutes. Throughout the pandemic, infectious disease experts and frontline medical workers have asked for a faster, cheaper, and more reliable COVID-19 test. The new device leverages "lab on a chip" technology and the cutting-edge genetic editing technique known as CRISPR. "The microlab
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Researchers discover enzyme suppressing immune response to viral infections
Viruses such as HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C evade or disrupt the immune system to create persistent infections. These viruses remain a serious health threat, but researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine have discovered how an enzyme that regulates several cellular processes might be a key target to preventing viruses from disarming the human immune response.
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Vocational rehabilitation helps lift people with disabilities out of poverty
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits do not always keep individuals with disabilities out of poverty. To support these individuals' efforts to lift themselves out of poverty, the Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) Project was piloted in Kentucky and Minnesota. It showed that individuals who engaged in a vocational rehabilitation services intervention were able to earn increased inc
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Taking a scalpel to opioid painkiller risks: New studies show progress and opportunity
Several new studies add to the understanding of risks from surgical opioids, and show what happens when surgical teams work together to reduce the emphasis on, and supply of, opioid painkillers while still seeking to ease surgery patients' pain.
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Racial/ethnic minorities comprise small portion of patients referred with AL amyloidosis
Despite being theoretically at an increased risk for AL amyloidosis, underrepresented minorities make up only a small percentage of patients seen at specialized treatment centers for this disease.
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Studies outline key ethical questions surrounding brain-computer interface tech
Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies are no longer hypothetical, yet there are fundamental aspects of the technology that remain unaddressed by both ethicists and policy-makers. Two new papers address these issues by outlining the outstanding ethical issues, offering guidance for addressing those issues, and offering particular insight into the field of BCI tech for cognitive enhancement.
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CrystEngComm celebrates the CSD in a special issue
The journal CrystEngComm has published a special issue to mark the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) reaching 1 million structures, with 33 papers that highlight the breadth of applications made possible with this data.
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Do neurosurgeons face sexual harassment in their profession?
Describes sexual harassment in the profession of neurosurgery based on questionnaire results.
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Scientists use bacteria as micro-3D printers
A team at Aalto University has used bacteria to produce intricately designed three-dimensional objects made of nanocellulose. With their technique, the researchers are able to guide the growth of bacterial colonies through the use of strongly water repellent — or superhydrophobic — surfaces.
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Study identifies new "hidden" gene in COVID-19 virus
Researchers have discovered a new "hidden" gene in SARS-CoV-2–the virus that causes COVID-19–that may have contributed to its unique biology and pandemic potential. In a virus that only has about 15 genes in total, knowing more about this and other overlapping genes–or "genes within genes"–could have a significant impact on how we combat the virus.
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Lack of positivity bias can predict relapse in bipolar disorder
Relapse in people with bipolar disorder can be predicted accurately by their tendency towards having pessimistic beliefs, according to a study published today in eLife.
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Drop in pandemic CO2 emissions previews world of electric vehicles
When the SF Bay Area mandated shelter-in-place March 16, it created a natural experiment for UC Berkeley's Ron Cohen, who had established an inexpensive pollution sensor network in local neighborhoods. The sensors showed carbon dioxide emissions plummeting 25% in the subsequent six weeks, mostly because of a 48% drop in traffic. Networks like this — soon to be emplaced in Glasgow — can track gre
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Researchers discover the secret of how moss spreads
Researchers have discovered how mosses became one of our planet's most widely distributed plants — global wind systems transport them along Earth's latitudes, to rooftops, sidewalks and lawns worldwide, and as far away as Antarctica. This new knowledge can provide us with a better understanding of how other small organisms are spread, including airborne bacteria and organisms that produce airborn
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Skills development in Physical AI could give birth to lifelike intelligent robots
New research suggests combining educational topics and research disciplines to help researchers breathe life into lifelike intelligent robots.
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Follow along with Apple's last 2020 product announcement event
With all the new iPhones officially out in the world, you might expect Apple to take a breather when it comes to announcing products until 2021. The company has one more event on the books, however, and you can watch the livestream above. You can also keep scrolling for a live recap as well as some crucial context to help make sense of Tim Cook and company's big news. We're fully expecting today'
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Coronavirus: anti-vaxxers seek to discredit Pfizer's vaccine
Conspiracies about pandemic on social media must be countered effectively, say experts Will enough people in the UK take the Covid-19 jab? Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Anti-vaxxers have seized on the promising results of a new coronavirus vaccine, attempting to discredit the Pfizer/BioNTech development on social media within hours of it being announced. After the
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Will enough people in the UK take the Covid-19 jab?
The UK usually has a high take-up for vaccines, experts say, but there are fears over misinformation and scepticism Coronavirus: anti-vaxxers seek to discredit Pfizer's vaccine Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The spread of scepticism and misinformation about coronavirus and the development of a vaccine for it has raised questions about whether it will pose a threat t
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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Ancient DNA and range of bovids and rhinoceroses Reconstructed scene of hunting gaurs in northeast Tibetan Plateau approximately 5,200 years ago. Prehistoric bovid remains are common in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). However, the lineage and range of NETP bovid species are unknown. Ningbo Chen, Lele Ren, Linyao Du, Jiawen…
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Crystalline water in gypsum is unavailable for cyanobacteria in laboratory experiments and in natural desert endolithic habitats [Physical Sciences]
Huang et al. (1) describe a supposed mechanism of water extraction from gypsum by cyanobacteria sampled from endoliths inhabiting Ca sulfates in the Atacama Desert, and cultivated in the laboratory. The authors claim that the phase transformation from gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) to anhydrite (CaSO4) (G→A) occurred under "dry conditions" in the…
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Reply to Wierzchos et al.: Microorganism-induced gypsum to anhydrite phase transformation [Physical Sciences]
In response to Wierzchos et al. (1) regarding the mechanism of water extraction from gypsum rock by desert colonizing microorganisms (2), we provide details that refute their incorrect assessments. We carefully selected areas without microorganism colonies that only contained gypsum, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), for our culture experiments….
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RCP8.5 is a problematic scenario for near-term emissions [Physical Sciences]
Schwalm et al. (1) argue that both historical and near-term (through 2050) cumulative emissions are more in line with Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) than other RCPs (2), and take issue with our suggestion (3) that the treatment of the scenario as "business as usual" is misleading. We previously pointed…
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Reply to Hausfather and Peters: RCP8.5 is neither problematic nor misleading [Physical Sciences]
Historical and anticipated future total CO2 emissions to 2050 show more agreement with Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) than other Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5)-era RCPs (1). Hausfather and Peters (2) attempt to argue against this by emphasizing 1) RCP4.5 or RCP6.0 better match fossil fuel emissions (FF) relative…
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Zena Werb (1945-2020): Mourning the loss of a tissue microenvironment icon [Retrospectives]
The science community has lost a unique voice, a fierce advocate for women in science, and a beloved mentor. Zena Werb, PhD, who was a Professor and Vice Chair in the Department of Anatomy for over 40 years, Associate Director for basic science at the University of California, San Francisco…
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p31comet and TRIP13 recycle Rev7 to regulate DNA repair [Cell Biology]
Proteins of the HORMA domain family, named for its three founding members Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2, play key roles in a broad range of eukaryotic signaling pathways, from chromosome segregation and meiotic recombination, to DNA repair, to the initiation of autophagy (1). The HORMA domain nucleates assembly of multiprotein signaling…
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The microbiome requires a genetically susceptible host to induce central nervous system autoimmunity [Immunology and Inflammation]
While the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is recognized to have both genetic and environmental components, little is known about these complex interactions. The microbiome has recently been recognized as an environmental factor that contributes to MS. In Montgomery et al. (1), the authors harnessed the natural genetic diversity…
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The pandemic exposes human nature: 10 evolutionary insights [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Humans and viruses have been coevolving for millennia. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19) has been particularly successful in evading our evolved defenses. The outcome has been tragic—across the globe, millions have been sickened and hundreds of thousands have died. Moreover, the quarantine has…
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It is unclear how important CRISPR-Cas systems are for protecting natural populations of bacteria against infections by mobile genetic elements [Microbiology]
Articles on CRISPR commonly open with some variant of the phrase "these short palindromic repeats and their associated endonucleases (Cas) are an adaptive immune system that exists to protect bacteria and archaea from viruses and infections with other mobile genetic elements." There is an abundance of genomic data consistent with…
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Insights into the composition of ancient Egyptian red and black inks on papyri achieved by synchrotron-based microanalyses [Anthropology]
A hitherto unknown composition is highlighted in the red and black inks preserved on ancient Egyptian papyri from the Roman period (circa 100 to 200 CE). Synchrotron-based macro–X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping brings to light the presence of iron (Fe) and lead (Pb) compounds in the majority of the red inks…
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A genomic and historical synthesis of plague in 18th century Eurasia [Anthropology]
Plague continued to afflict Europe for more than five centuries after the Black Death. Yet, by the 17th century, the dynamics of plague had changed, leading to its slow decline in Western Europe over the subsequent 200 y, a period for which only one genome was previously available. Using a…
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Elucidating aromatic acid tolerance at low pH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using adaptive laboratory evolution [Applied Biological Sciences]
Toxicity from the external presence or internal production of compounds can reduce the growth and viability of microbial cell factories and compromise productivity. Aromatic compounds are generally toxic for microorganisms, which makes their production in microbial hosts challenging. Here we use adaptive laboratory evolution to generate Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants tolerant…
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Electoral College bias and the 2020 presidential election [Applied Mathematics]
Donald Trump's 2016 win despite failing to carry the popular vote has raised concern that 2020 would also see a mismatch between the winner of the popular vote and the winner of the Electoral College. This paper shows how to forecast the electoral vote in 2020 taking into account the…
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High-amplitude cofluctuations in cortical activity drive functional connectivity [Applied Mathematics]
Resting-state functional connectivity is used throughout neuroscience to study brain organization and to generate biomarkers of development, disease, and cognition. The processes that give rise to correlated activity are, however, poorly understood. Here we decompose resting-state functional connectivity using a temporal unwrapping procedure to assess the contributions of moment-to-moment activity
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A symmetry-derived mechanism for atomic resolution imaging [Applied Physical Sciences]
We introduce an image-contrast mechanism for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that derives from the local symmetry within the specimen. For a given position of the electron probe on the specimen, the image intensity is determined by the degree of similarity between the exit electron-intensity distribution and a chosen symmetry…
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Mcl-1 and Bok transmembrane domains: Unexpected players in the modulation of apoptosis [Biochemistry]
The Bcl-2 protein family comprises both pro- and antiapoptotic members that control the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane, a crucial step in the modulation of apoptosis. Recent research has demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of some Bcl-2 protein family members can modulate apoptosis; however, the transmembrane interactome…
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Reversible autoinhibitory regulation of Escherichia coli metallopeptidase BepA for selective {beta}-barrel protein degradation [Biochemistry]
Escherichia coli periplasmic zinc-metallopeptidase BepA normally functions by promoting maturation of LptD, a β-barrel outer-membrane protein involved in biogenesis of lipopolysaccharides, but degrades it when its membrane assembly is hampered. These processes should be properly regulated to ensure normal biogenesis of LptD. The underlying mechanism of regulation, however, remains to…
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Amyloid formation of fish {beta}-parvalbumin involves primary nucleation triggered by disulfide-bridged protein dimers [Biochemistry]
Amyloid formation involves the conversion of soluble protein species to an aggregated state. Amyloid fibrils of β-parvalbumin, a protein abundant in fish, act as an allergen but also inhibit the in vitro assembly of the Parkinson protein α-synuclein. However, the intrinsic aggregation mechanism of β-parvalbumin has not yet been elucidated….
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Multistep substrate binding and engagement by the AAA+ ClpXP protease [Biochemistry]
Escherichia coli ClpXP is one of the most thoroughly studied AAA+ proteases, but relatively little is known about the reactions that allow it to bind and then engage specific protein substrates before the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-fueled mechanical unfolding and translocation steps that lead to processive degradation. Here, we employ a…
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Origin of exponential growth in nonlinear reaction networks [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Exponentially growing systems are prevalent in nature, spanning all scales from biochemical reaction networks in single cells to food webs of ecosystems. How exponential growth emerges in nonlinear systems is mathematically unclear. Here, we describe a general theoretical framework that reveals underlying principles of long-term growth: scalability of flux functions…
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Laser spectroscopic technique for direct identification of a single virus I: FASTER CARS [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
From the famous 1918 H1N1 influenza to the present COVID-19 pandemic, the need for improved viral detection techniques is all too apparent. The aim of the present paper is to show that identification of individual virus particles in clinical sample materials quickly and reliably is near at hand. First of…
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A far-red cyanobacteriochrome lineage specific for verdins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are photoswitchable linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based light sensors in the phytochrome superfamily with a broad spectral range from the near UV through the far red (330 to 760 nm). The recent discovery of far-red absorbing CBCRs (frCBCRs) has garnered considerable interest from the optogenetic and imaging communities because of…
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The human CRY1 tail controls circadian timing by regulating its association with CLOCK:BMAL1 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Circadian rhythms are generated by interlocked transcription–translation feedback loops that establish cell-autonomous biological timing of ∼24 h. Mutations in core clock genes that alter their stability or affinity for one another lead to changes in circadian period. The human CRY1Δ11 mutant lengthens circadian period to cause delayed sleep phase disorder…
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Visualization of the HIV-1 Env glycan shield across scales [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The dense array of N-linked glycans on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), known as the "glycan shield," is a key determinant of immunogenicity, yet intrinsic heterogeneity confounds typical structure–function analysis. Here, we present an integrated approach of single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM), computational modeling, and site-specific mass spectrometry (MS) to probe…
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SurA is a cryptically grooved chaperone that expands unfolded outer membrane proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The periplasmic chaperone network ensures the biogenesis of bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and has recently been identified as a promising target for antibiotics. SurA is the most important member of this network, both due to its genetic interaction with the β-barrel assembly machinery complex as well as its ability…
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The role of Ca2+ and protein scaffolding in the formation of nature's water oxidizing complex [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Photosynthetic O2 evolution is catalyzed by the Mn4CaO5 cluster of the water oxidation complex of the photosystem II (PSII) complex. The photooxidative self-assembly of the Mn4CaO5 cluster, termed photoactivation, utilizes the same highly oxidizing species that drive the water oxidation in order to drive the incorporation of Mn2+ into the…
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Engineered ACE2 receptor traps potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
An essential mechanism for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection begins with the viral spike protein binding to the human receptor protein angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here, we describe a stepwise engineering approach to generate a set of affinity optimized,…
7d
Wake-sleep cycles are severely disrupted by diseases affecting cytoplasmic homeostasis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The circadian clock is based on a transcriptional feedback loop with an essential time delay before feedback inhibition. Previous work has shown that PERIOD (PER) proteins generate circadian time cues through rhythmic nuclear accumulation of the inhibitor complex and subsequent interaction with the activator complex in the feedback loop. Although…
7d
Improving the taxonomy of fossil pollen using convolutional neural networks and superresolution microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Taxonomic resolution is a major challenge in palynology, largely limiting the ecological and evolutionary interpretations possible with deep-time fossil pollen data. We present an approach for fossil pollen analysis that uses optical superresolution microscopy and machine learning to create a quantitative and higher throughput workflow for producing palynological identifications and…
7d
PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent Rac exchanger 1 (P-Rex1) promotes mammary tumor initiation and metastasis [Cell Biology]
The Rac-GEF, P-Rex1, activates Rac1 signaling downstream of G protein-coupled receptors and PI3K. Increased P-Rex1 expression promotes melanoma progression; however, its role in breast cancer is complex, with differing reports of the effect of its expression on disease outcome. To address this we analyzed human databases, undertook gene array expression…
7d
Targeted CRISPR screening identifies PRMT5 as synthetic lethality combinatorial target with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells [Cell Biology]
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most challenging cancers to treat. Due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease and lack of curative treatment modalities, the 5-y survival rate of PDAC patients is one of the lowest of any cancer type. The recurrent genetic alterations in PDAC are…
7d
Identification of a degradation signal at the carboxy terminus of SREBP2: A new role for this domain in cholesterol homeostasis [Cell Biology]
Lipid homeostasis in animal cells is maintained by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), membrane-bound transcription factors whose proteolytic activation requires the cholesterol-sensing membrane protein Scap. In endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of SREBPs binds to the CTD of Scap. When cholesterol levels are low, Scap escorts SREBPs…
7d
RNA-binding protein DDX3 mediates posttranscriptional regulation of androgen receptor: A mechanism of castration resistance [Cell Biology]
Prostate cancer (CaP) driven by androgen receptor (AR) is treated with androgen deprivation; however, therapy failure results in lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). AR-low/negative (ARL/−) CRPC subtypes have recently been characterized and cannot be targeted by hormonal therapies, resulting in poor prognosis. RNA-binding protein (RBP)/helicase DDX3 (DEAD-box helicase 3 X-linked)…
7d
Myelination of peripheral nerves is controlled by PI4KB through regulation of Schwann cell Golgi function [Cell Biology]
Better understanding myelination of peripheral nerves would benefit patients affected by peripheral neuropathies, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. Little is known about the role the Golgi compartment plays in Schwann cell (SC) functions. Here, we studied the role of Golgi in myelination of peripheral nerves in mice through SC-specific genetic inactivation of…
7d
USP7 regulates ALS-associated proteotoxicity and quality control through the NEDD4L-SMAD pathway [Cell Biology]
An imbalance in cellular homeostasis occurring as a result of protein misfolding and aggregation contributes to the pathogeneses of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we report the identification of a ubiquitin-specific protease, USP7, as a regulatory switch in a protein quality-control system that defends against proteotoxicity. A…
7d
A high-performance potassium metal battery using safe ionic liquid electrolyte [Chemistry]
Potassium secondary batteries are contenders of next-generation energy storage devices owing to the much higher abundance of potassium than lithium. However, safety issues and poor cycle life of K metal battery have been key bottlenecks. Here we report an ionic liquid electrolyte comprising 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride/AlCl3/KCl/potassium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide for safe and…
7d
Anionic nanoparticle-induced perturbation to phospholipid membranes affects ion channel function [Chemistry]
Understanding the mechanisms of nanoparticle interaction with cell membranes is essential for designing materials for applications such as bioimaging and drug delivery, as well as for assessing engineered nanomaterial safety. Much attention has focused on nanoparticles that bind strongly to biological membranes or induce membrane damage, leading to adverse impacts…
7d
A spiking neural program for sensorimotor control during foraging in flying insects [Computer Sciences]
Foraging is a vital behavioral task for living organisms. Behavioral strategies and abstract mathematical models thereof have been described in detail for various species. To explore the link between underlying neural circuits and computational principles, we present how a biologically detailed neural circuit model of the insect mushroom body implements…
7d
Anthropogenic Asian aerosols provide Fe to the North Pacific Ocean [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Fossil-fuel emissions may impact phytoplankton primary productivity and carbon cycling by supplying bioavailable Fe to remote areas of the ocean via atmospheric aerosols. However, this pathway has not been confirmed by field observations of anthropogenic Fe in seawater. Here we present high-resolution trace-metal concentrations across the North Pacific Ocean (158°W…
7d
Evidence for massive emission of methane from a deep-water gas field during the Pliocene [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Geologic hydrocarbon seepage is considered to be the dominant natural source of atmospheric methane in terrestrial and shallow‐water areas; in deep‐water areas, in contrast, hydrocarbon seepage is expected to have no atmospheric impact because the gas is typically consumed throughout the water column. Here, we present evidence for a sudden…
7d
Causes and consequences of asymmetric lateral plume flow during South Atlantic rifting [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Volcanic rifted margins are typically associated with a thick magmatic layer of seaward dipping reflectors and anomalous regional uplift. This is conventionally interpreted as due to melting of an arriving mantle plume head at the onset of rifting. However, seaward dipping reflectors and uplift are sometimes asymmetrically distributed with respect…
7d
The critical role of cloud-infrared radiation feedback in tropical cyclone development [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The tall clouds that comprise tropical storms, hurricanes, and typhoons—or more generally, tropical cyclones (TCs)—are highly effective at trapping the infrared radiation welling up from the surface. This cloud–infrared radiation feedback, referred to as the "cloud greenhouse effect," locally warms the lower–middle troposphere relative to a TC's surroundings through all…
7d
The niobium and tantalum concentration in the mantle constrains the composition of Earth's primordial magma ocean [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The bulk silicate Earth (BSE), and all its sampleable reservoirs, have a subchondritic niobium-to-tantalum ratio (Nb/Ta). Because both elements are refractory, and Nb/Ta is fairly constant across chondrite groups, this can only be explained by a preferential sequestration of Nb relative to Ta in a hidden (unsampled) reservoir. Experiments have…
7d
Experimental evidence for silica-enriched Earth's lower mantle with ferrous iron dominant bridgmanite [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Determination of the chemical composition of the Earth's mantle is of prime importance to understand the evolution, dynamics, and origin of the Earth. However, there is a lack of experimental data on sound velocity of iron-bearing Bridgmanite (Brd) under relevant high-pressure conditions of the whole mantle, which prevents constraints on…
7d
Ancient genomes reveal tropical bovid species in the Tibetan Plateau contributed to the prevalence of hunting game until the late Neolithic [Ecology]
Local wild bovids have been determined to be important prey on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP), where hunting game was a major subsistence strategy until the late Neolithic, when farming lifestyles dominated in the neighboring Loess Plateau. However, the species affiliation and population ecology of these prehistoric wild bovids in…
7d
Climate drives the geography of marine consumption by changing predator communities [Ecology]
The global distribution of primary production and consumption by humans (fisheries) is well-documented, but we have no map linking the central ecological process of consumption within food webs to temperature and other ecological drivers. Using standardized assays that span 105° of latitude on four continents, we show that rates of…
7d
Modular genetic control of social status in a cichlid fish [Ecology]
Social hierarchies are ubiquitous in social species and profoundly influence physiology and behavior. Androgens like testosterone have been strongly linked to social status, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating social status are not known. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is a powerful model species for elucidating the role of androgens…
7d
Initial economic damage from the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States is more widespread across ages and geographies than initial mortality impacts [Economic Sciences]
The economic and mortality impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been widely discussed, but there is limited evidence on their relationship across demographic and geographic groups. We use publicly available monthly data from January 2011 through April 2020 on all-cause death counts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention…
7d
Soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic systems with integrated immunoassays, fluorometric sensors, and impedance measurement capabilities [Engineering]
Soft microfluidic systems that capture, store, and perform biomarker analysis of microliter volumes of sweat, in situ, as it emerges from the surface of the skin, represent an emerging class of wearable technology with powerful capabilities that complement those of traditional biophysical sensing devices. Recent work establishes applications in the…
7d
Reconfigurable multifunctional ferrofluid droplet robots [Engineering]
Magnetically actuated miniature soft robots are capable of programmable deformations for multimodal locomotion and manipulation functions, potentially enabling direct access to currently unreachable or difficult-to-access regions inside the human body for minimally invasive medical operations. However, magnetic miniature soft robots are so far mostly based on elastomers, where their limited…
7d
Insect pectinate antennae maximize odor capture efficiency at intermediate flight speeds [Engineering]
Flying insects are known to orient themselves over large distances using minute amounts of odors. Some bear pectinate antennae of remarkable architecture thought to improve olfactory performance. The semiporous, multiscale nature of these antennae influences how odor molecules reach their surface. We focus here on the repeating structural building blocks…
7d
Outsized nutrient contributions from small tributaries to a Great Lake [Environmental Sciences]
Excessive nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading is one of the greatest threats to aquatic ecosystems in the Anthropocene, causing eutrophication of rivers, lakes, and marine coastlines worldwide. For lakes across the United States, eutrophication is driven largely by nonpoint nutrient sources from tributaries that drain surrounding watersheds. Decades of…
7d
Floristic evidence for alternative biome states in tropical Africa [Environmental Sciences]
The idea that tropical forest and savanna are alternative states is crucial to how we manage these biomes and predict their future under global change. Large-scale empirical evidence for alternative stable states is limited, however, and comes mostly from the multimodal distribution of structural aspects of vegetation. These approaches have…
7d
Improving rural health care reduces illegal logging and conserves carbon in a tropical forest [Environmental Sciences]
Tropical forest loss currently exceeds forest gain, leading to a net greenhouse gas emission that exacerbates global climate change. This has sparked scientific debate on how to achieve natural climate solutions. Central to this debate is whether sustainably managing forests and protected areas will deliver global climate mitigation benefits, while…
7d
Genome-wide mapping of spontaneous genetic alterations in diploid yeast cells [Genetics]
Genomic alterations including single-base mutations, deletions and duplications, translocations, mitotic recombination events, and chromosome aneuploidy generate genetic diversity. We examined the rates of all of these genetic changes in a diploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by whole-genome sequencing of many independent isolates (n = 93) subcloned about 100 times in…
7d
Comprehensive characterization of amino acid positions in protein structures reveals molecular effect of missense variants [Genetics]
Interpretation of the colossal number of genetic variants identified from sequencing applications is one of the major bottlenecks in clinical genetics, with the inference of the effect of amino acid-substituting missense variations on protein structure and function being especially challenging. Here we characterize the three-dimensional (3D) amino acid positions affected…
7d
A mosaic analysis system with Cre or Tomato expression in the mouse [Genetics]
Somatic mutations are major genetic contributors to cancers and many other age-related diseases. Many disease-causing somatic mutations can initiate clonal growth prior to the appearance of any disease symptoms, yet experimental models that can be used to examine clonal abnormalities are limited. We describe a mosaic analysis system with Cre…
7d
Characterization of systemic genomic instability in budding yeast [Genetics]
Conventional models of genome evolution are centered around the principle that mutations form independently of each other and build up slowly over time. We characterized the occurrence of bursts of genome-wide loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, providing support for an additional nonindependent and faster mode of mutation accumulation. We initially…
7d
Nearly free surface silanols are the critical molecular moieties that initiate the toxicity of silica particles [Immunology and Inflammation]
Inhalation of silica particles can induce inflammatory lung reactions that lead to silicosis and/or lung cancer when the particles are biopersistent. This toxic activity of silica dusts is extremely variable depending on their source and preparation methods. The exact molecular moiety that explains and predicts this variable toxicity of silica…
7d
HLA tapasin independence: broader peptide repertoire and HIV control [Immunology and Inflammation]
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I allotypes vary in their ability to present peptides in the absence of tapasin, an essential component of the peptide loading complex. We quantified tapasin dependence of all allotypes that are common in European and African Americans (n = 97), which revealed a broad continuum…
7d
KLHL22 maintains PD-1 homeostasis and prevents excessive T cell suppression [Immunology and Inflammation]
Aberrant programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression on the surface of T cells is known to inhibit T cell effector activity and to play a pivotal role in tumor immune escape; thus, maintaining an appropriate level of PD-1 expression is of great significance. We identified KLHL22, an adaptor of…
7d
Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase II{alpha} licenses phagosomes for TLR4 signaling and MHC-II presentation in dendritic cells [Immunology and Inflammation]
Toll-like receptor (TLR) recruitment to phagosomes in dendritic cells (DCs) and downstream TLR signaling are essential to initiate antimicrobial immune responses. However, the mechanisms underlying TLR localization to phagosomes are poorly characterized. We show herein that phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase IIα (PI4KIIα) plays a key role in initiating phagosomal TLR4 responses in murine…
7d
Stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase exerts antiinflammatory actions in the liver through a VASP/NF-{kappa}B/NLRP3 inflammasome circuit [Immunology and Inflammation]
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate into cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate, a key second messenger in cell signaling and tissue homeostasis. It was recently demonstrated that sGC stimulation is associated with a marked antiinflammatory effect in the liver of mice with experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here, we investigated…
7d
Opinion: A risk-benefit framework for human research during the COVID-19 pandemic [Medical Sciences]
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a profound impact on the academic research enterprise. Over the span of just a few weeks in March 2020, most large U.S. research institutions closed the majority of their laboratories, studios, and offices, suspended travel and fieldwork, and paused the majority of human…
7d
Abnormal morphology biases hematocrit distribution in tumor vasculature and contributes to heterogeneity in tissue oxygenation [Medical Sciences]
Oxygen heterogeneity in solid tumors is recognized as a limiting factor for therapeutic efficacy. This heterogeneity arises from the abnormal vascular structure of the tumor, but the precise mechanisms linking abnormal structure and compromised oxygen transport are only partially understood. In this paper, we investigate the role that red blood…
7d
GPR56/ADGRG1 is a platelet collagen-responsive GPCR and hemostatic sensor of shear force [Medical Sciences]
Circulating platelets roll along exposed collagen at vessel injury sites and respond with filipodia protrusion, shape change, and surface area expansion to facilitate platelet adhesion and plug formation. Various glycoproteins were considered to be both collagen responders and mediators of platelet adhesion, yet the signaling kinetics emanating from these receptors…
7d
FOXM1 drives HPV+ HNSCC sensitivity to WEE1 inhibition [Medical Sciences]
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) associated with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a growing clinical problem. The WEE1 kinase inhibitor AZD1775 (WEE1i) overrides cell cycle checkpoints and is being studied in HNSCC regimens. We show that the HPV16 E6/E7 oncoproteins sensitize HNSCC cells to single-agent WEE1i…
7d
An allosteric peptide inhibitor of HIF-1{alpha} regulates hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization [Medical Sciences]
Retinal neovascularization (NV), a leading cause of vision loss, results from localized hypoxia that stabilizes the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α, enabling the expression of angiogenic factors and genes required to maintain homeostasis under conditions of oxygen stress. HIF transcriptional activity depends on the interaction between its intrinsically disordered…
7d
The adaptor protein APPL2 controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via F-actin remodeling in pancreatic {beta}-cells [Medical Sciences]
Filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeletal remodeling is critical for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells, and its dysregulation causes type 2 diabetes. The adaptor protein APPL1 promotes first-phase GSIS by up-regulating soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein expression. However, whether APPL2 (a close homology of APPL1 wi
7d
Harnessing 64Cu/67Cu for a theranostic approach to pretargeted radioimmunotherapy [Medical Sciences]
Over the past decade, theranostic imaging has emerged as a powerful clinical tool in oncology for identifying patients likely to respond to targeted therapies and for monitoring the response of patients to treatment. Herein, we report a theranostic approach to pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) based on a pair of radioisotopes of…
7d
Transcriptional and proteomic insights into the host response in fatal COVID-19 cases [Microbiology]
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, has resulted thus far in greater than 933,000 deaths worldwide; yet disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Clinical and immunological features of patients with COVID-19 have highlighted a potential role for changes in immune activity in regulating disease severity. However, little is…
7d
SARS-CoV-2 Orf6 hijacks Nup98 to block STAT nuclear import and antagonize interferon signaling [Microbiology]
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that is a serious global health problem. Evasion of IFN-mediated antiviral signaling is a common defense strategy that pathogenic viruses use to replicate and propagate in their host. In this study,…
7d
Insights into bacterial cell division from a structure of EnvC bound to the FtsX periplasmic domain [Microbiology]
FtsEX is a bacterial ABC transporter that regulates the activity of periplasmic peptidoglycan amidases via its interaction with the murein hydrolase activator, EnvC. In Escherichia coli, FtsEX is required to separate daughter cells after cell division and for viability in low-osmolarity media. Both the ATPase activity of FtsEX and its…
7d
The polar Ras-like GTPase MglA activates type IV pilus via SgmX to enable twitching motility in Myxococcus xanthus [Microbiology]
Type IV pili (Tfp) are highly conserved macromolecular structures that fulfill diverse cellular functions, such as adhesion to host cells, the import of extracellular DNA, kin recognition, and cell motility (twitching). Outstandingly, twitching motility enables a poorly understood process by which highly coordinated groups of hundreds of cells move in…
7d
The shrimp nephrocomplex serves as a major portal of pathogen entry and is involved in the molting process [Microbiology]
Viruses, such as white spot syndrome virus, and bacteria, such as Vibrio species, wreak havoc in shrimp aquaculture [C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla et al., J. Fish. Dis. 31, 1–18 (2008)]. As the main portal of entry for shrimp-related pathogens remain unclear, infectious diseases are difficult to prevent and control. Because the…
7d
A CRISPR-Cas9 screen identifies mitochondrial translation as an essential process in latent KSHV infection of human endothelial cells [Microbiology]
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The main proliferating component of KS tumors is a cell of endothelial origin termed the spindle cell. Spindle cells are predominantly latently infected with only a small percentage of cells undergoing viral replication….
7d
Evolution of regulatory signatures in primate cortical neurons at cell-type resolution [Neuroscience]
The human cerebral cortex contains many cell types that likely underwent independent functional changes during evolution. However, cell-type–specific regulatory landscapes in the cortex remain largely unexplored. Here we report epigenomic and transcriptomic analyses of the two main cortical neuronal subtypes, glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons, in human, chimpanzee, and…
7d
Evidence for an effector-independent action system from people born without hands [Neuroscience]
Many parts of the visuomotor system guide daily hand actions, like reaching for and grasping objects. Do these regions depend exclusively on the hand as a specific body part whose movement they guide, or are they organized for the reaching task per se, for any body part used as an…
7d
Simple transformations capture auditory input to cortex [Neuroscience]
Sounds are processed by the ear and central auditory pathway. These processing steps are biologically complex, and many aspects of the transformation from sound waveforms to cortical response remain unclear. To understand this transformation, we combined models of the auditory periphery with various encoding models to predict auditory cortical responses…
7d
Differential functional connectivity underlying asymmetric reward-related activity in human and nonhuman primates [Neuroscience]
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a key brain region involved in complex cognitive functions such as reward processing and decision making. Neuroimaging studies have reported unilateral OFC response to reward-related variables; however, those studies rarely discussed this observation. Nevertheless, some lesion studies suggest that the left and right OFC contribute…
7d
Time cells in the human hippocampus and entorhinal cortex support episodic memory [Neuroscience]
The organization of temporal information is critical for the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories. In the rodent hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, evidence accumulated over the last decade suggests that populations of "time cells" in the hippocampus encode temporal information. We identify time cells in humans using intracranial microelectrode recordings…
7d
Echolocating bats detect but misperceive a multidimensional incongruent acoustic stimulus [Neuroscience]
Coherent perception relies on integrating multiple dimensions of a sensory modality, for example, color and shape in vision. We reveal how different acoustic dimensions, specifically echo intensity and sonar aperture (or width), are important for correct perception by echolocating bats. We flew bats down a corridor blocked by objects with…
7d
Two-step crystallization and solid-solid transitions in binary colloidal mixtures [Physics]
Crystallization is fundamental to materials science and is central to a variety of applications, ranging from the fabrication of silicon wafers for microelectronics to the determination of protein structures. The basic picture is that a crystal nucleates from a homogeneous fluid by a spontaneous fluctuation that kicks the system over…
7d
The odorant receptor OR2W3 on airway smooth muscle evokes bronchodilation via a cooperative chemosensory tradeoff between TMEM16A and CFTR [Physiology]
The recent discovery of sensory (tastant and odorant) G protein-coupled receptors on the smooth muscle of human bronchi suggests unappreciated therapeutic targets in the management of obstructive lung diseases. Here we have characterized the effects of a wide range of volatile odorants on the contractile state of airway smooth muscle…
7d
Longitudinally adaptive assessment and instruction increase numerical skills of preschool children [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Social inequality in mathematical skill is apparent at kindergarten entry and persists during elementary school. To level the playing field, we trained teachers to assess children's numerical and spatial skills every 10 wk. Each assessment provided teachers with information about a child's growth trajectory on each skill, information designed to…
7d
Fine-scale spatial clustering of measles nonvaccination that increases outbreak potential is obscured by aggregated reporting data [Social Sciences]
The United States experienced historically high numbers of measles cases in 2019, despite achieving national measles vaccination rates above the World Health Organization recommendation of 95% coverage with two doses. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, resulting in suspension of many clinical preventive services, pediatric vaccination rates in the United States…
7d
Core Concept: The pandemic is prompting widespread use—and misuse—of real-world data [Statistics]
COVID-19 has swept across the world, overwhelming healthcare systems and raising countless questions about how best to diagnose patients, treat infections, save lives, and contain the pandemic. In short order, researchers have launched randomized trials to uncover pharmacologic interventions that hold the promise of preventing or lessening the severity of…
7d
Land-use intensity alters networks between biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and services [Sustainability Science]
Land-use intensification can increase provisioning ecosystem services, such as food and timber production, but it also drives changes in ecosystem functioning and biodiversity loss, which may ultimately compromise human wellbeing. To understand how changes in land-use intensity affect the relationships between biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and services, we built networks from…
7d
A global network of marine protected areas for food [Sustainability Science]
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are conservation tools that are increasingly implemented, with growing national commitments for MPA expansion. Perhaps the greatest challenge to expanded use of MPAs is the perceived trade-off between protection and food production. Since MPAs can benefit both conservation and fisheries in areas experiencing overfishing and since…
7d
Correction for Wu et al., Isolation of exosomes from whole blood by integrating acoustics and microfluidicss [Correction]
ENGINEERING, CELL BIOLOGY Correction for "Isolation of exosomes from whole blood by integrating acoustics and microfluidics," by Mengxi Wu, Yingshi Ouyang, Zeyu Wang, Rui Zhang, Po-Hsun Huang, Chuyi Chen, Hui Li, Peng Li, David Quinn, Ming Dao, Subra Suresh, Yoel Sadovsky, and Tony Jun Huang, which was first published September…
7d
Correction for Rao et al., Inositol pyrophosphates promote tumor growth and metastasis by antagonizing liver kinase B1 [Correction]
CELL BIOLOGY Correction for "Inositol pyrophosphates promote tumor growth and metastasis by antagonizing liver kinase B1," by Feng Rao, Jing Xu, Chenglai Fu, Jiyoung Y. Cha, Moataz M. Gadalla, Risheng Xu, James C. Barrow, and Solomon H. Snyder, which was first published January 23, 2015; 10.1073/pnas.1424642112 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci….
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Correction for Bao et al., BACE1 SUMOylation increases its stability and escalates the protease activity in Alzheimer's disease [Correction]
NEUROSCIENCE Correction for "BACE1 SUMOylation increases its stability and escalates the protease activity in Alzheimer's disease," by Jian Bao, Min Qin, Yacoubou Abdoul Razak Mahaman, Bin Zhang, Fang Huang, Kuan Zeng, Yiyuan Xia, Dan Ke, Qun Wang, Rong Liu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Keqiang Ye, and Xiaochuan Wang, which was first published…
7d
Correction for Bos et al., Phytophthora infestans effector AVR3a is essential for virulence and manipulates plant immunity by stabilizing host E3 ligase CMPG1 [Correction]
PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for "Phytophthora infestans effector AVR3a is essential for virulence and manipulates plant immunity by stabilizing host E3 ligase CMPG1," by Jorunn I. B. Bos, Miles R. Armstrong, Eleanor M. Gilroy, Petra C. Boevink, Ingo Hein, Rosalind M. Taylor, Tian Zhendong, Stefan Engelhardt, Ramesh R. Vetukuri, Brian Harrower,…
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Så har chatten på 1177 förändrat arbetsmiljön
Trevligt att chatta, men stressigt att göra det med flera patienter parallellt. Arbetsmiljön har förändrats för sjuksköterskor på 1177 Vårdguiden, som har patientkontakt via chatt istället för telefon. Både på gott och ont, visar en studie från Uppsala universitet. Under 2019 genomförde Region Uppsala ett pilotprojekt där man gav patienter möjligheter att chatta med sjuksköterskor på 1177 Vårdgui
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Our 35 Innovators under 35 competition is now open for nominations
Our 35 Innovators Under 35 competition for 2021 is now open for nominations. You can nominate great candidates from now until 10 p.m. EST on February 3, 2021 . We've been publishing a list of young innovators for more than two decades now . Today, many of the people we've selected over the years—such as Andrew Ng, Helen Greiner, Feng Zhang, Neha Narkhede, Ian Goodfellow, Stephanie Lampkin, Julie
7d
Regulating kinetics and thermodynamics of electrochemical nitrogen reduction with metal single-atom catalysts in a pressurized electrolyser [Chemistry]
Using renewable electricity to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen paves a sustainable route to making value-added chemicals but yet requires further advances in electrocatalyst development and device integration. By engineering both electrocatalyst and electrolyzer to simultaneously regulate chemical kinetics and thermodynamic driving forces of the electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (ENRR)
7d
The interplay of movement and spatiotemporal variation in transmission degrades pandemic control [Population Biology]
Successful public health regimes for COVID-19 push below unity long-term regional Rt —the average number of secondary cases caused by an infectious individual. We use a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model for two coupled populations to make the conceptual point that asynchronous, variable local control, together with movement between populations, elevates long-term…
7d
Seasonal and diel patterns of abundance and activity of viruses in the Red Sea [Ecology]
Virus–microbe interactions have been studied in great molecular details for many years in cultured model systems, yielding a plethora of knowledge on how viruses use and manipulate host machinery. Since the advent of molecular techniques and high-throughput sequencing, methods such as cooccurrence, nucleotide composition, and other statistical frameworks have been…
7d
Type I interferon remodels lysosome function and modifies intestinal epithelial defense [Microbiology]
Organelle remodeling is critical for cellular homeostasis, but host factors that control organelle function during microbial infection remain largely uncharacterized. Here, a genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 screen in intestinal epithelial cells with the prototypical intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella led us to discover that type I IFN (IFN-I) remodels lysosomes. Even in the…
7d
Reshaping circadian metabolism in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and prefrontal cortex by nutritional challenge [Neuroscience]
Food is a powerful entrainment cue for circadian clocks in peripheral tissues, and changes in the composition of nutrients have been demonstrated to metabolically reprogram peripheral clocks. However, how food challenges may influence circadian metabolism of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) or in other brain areas is…
7d
Lipoteichoic acid polymer length is determined by competition between free starter units [Biochemistry]
Carbohydrate polymers exhibit incredible chemical and structural diversity, yet are produced by polymerases without a template to guide length and composition. As the length of carbohydrate polymers is critical for their biological functions, understanding the mechanisms that determine polymer length is an important area of investigation. Most Gram-positive bacteria produce…
7d
Dietary overlap of birds, bats and dragonflies disadvantageous in insect decline
According to a new Finnish study, different groups of insectivores compete for the same type of food. Researchers of the University of Turku, Finland, and the Finnish Museum of Natural History made a discovery by comparing birds, bats and dragonflies that forage in the same area in Southwest Finland. These very distantly related predators consumed the same insect groups. The results shed new light
7d
SwRI scientist studies tiny craters on Bennu boulders to understand asteroid's age
Last week NASA snagged a sample from the surface of asteroid Bennu, an Empire State Building-sized body that Southwest Research Institute scientists have helped map with nearly unprecedented precision. Using orbital data from the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft, researchers measured centimeter- to meter-sized craters on the boulders scattered around its rugged surface to shed light on the age of the asteroi
7d
Study reveals how premature menopause increases risk of cardiovascular disease
New research has found that premature menopause was associated with a 36 percent higher likelihood of having certain blood cell mutations which, in turn, were linked with a 36 percent higher risk of developing coronary artery disease.
7d
Surrey helps to produce the world's first neutron-rich, radioactive tantalum ions
An international team of scientists have unveiled the world's first production of a purified beam of neutron-rich, radioactive tantalum ions.
7d
Solar perovskite production on a roll
High-performance perovskite solar cells are made using a manufacturing-friendly liquid-based process suitable for roll to roll production.
7d
Predicting colorectal cancer risk among average risk persons
Regenstrief Institute and Indiana University School of Medicine research scientists have developed and tested one of the first U.S.-based models to predict personal risk for advanced precancerous polyps and colon cancer in average risk individuals.
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RNA structures of coronavirus reveal potential drug targets
The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA genome structure was studied in detail by researchers from the University of Groningen, the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, and Leiden University. The RNA structures are potential targets for the development of drugs against the virus. The results were published on 10 November as 'Breakthrough paper' in the journal Nucleic Acid Resear
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Scientists have discovered an ancient lake bed deep beneath the Greenland ice
Scientists have detected what they say are the sediments of a huge ancient lake bed sealed more than a mile under the ice of northwest Greenland–the first-ever discovery of such a sub-glacial feature anywhere in the world.
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Optogenetic stimulation improves alterations in Huntington's disease experimental models
A study led by researchers of the Institute of Neurosciences of the University of Barcelona (UBNeuro) has characterized one of the neuronal circuits involved in the development of the Huntington's disease. The study, published in the journal eLife, shows in an animal model with the pathology, that optogenetic stimulation of the circuit causes improvements in the typical symptomatology of the disea
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Student finds mystery pterosaur in Cambridgeshire fossils
Roy Smith made his "exciting" discovery while trawling through wrongly-identified shark fossils.
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Cautious optimism over Covid-19 vaccine trials | Letters
Readers respond to news that an interim analysis has shown Pfizer/BioNTech's vaccine candidate was 90% effective in protecting people from transmission of the virus in global trials The media have been awash with stories about the apparent success of the Pfizer Covid vaccine following the publication of preliminary trial outcomes ( Hopes rise for end of pandemic as Pfizer says vaccine is 90% effe
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Plasma treatments quickly kill coronavirus on surfaces
Plasma could yield a significant breakthrough in the fight against the spread of COVID-19. In a new study, modeling conducted showed strains of the coronavirus on surfaces like metal, leather, and plastic were killed in as little as 30 seconds of treatment with argon-fed, cold atmospheric plasma.
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Swedish, Finnish and Russian wolves closely related
The Scandinavian wolf originally came from Finland and Russia, and unlike many other European wolf populations its genetic constitution is virtually free from dog admixture. In addition, individuals have migrated into and out of Scandinavia. These findings have emerged from new research in which genetic material from more than 200 wolves was analyzed.
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Tracking down the causes of heart attack
Heart attacks strike suddenly and have a range of different triggers. Researchers were able to uncover a further underlying cause. Studying arterial deposits (plaque) in patients with acute coronary syndrome, the researchers found that, in some patients, these were characterized by activated immune cells which, as a result of altered flow conditions within the vessel, had accumulated on the interi
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Veganism: Vitamin B12 is well supplemented, iodine is a matter of concern
Those following a vegan diet have an increased risk of iodine deficiency.
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Female mongooses start battles for chance to mate
Female banded mongooses lead their groups into fights then try to mate with enemy males in the chaos of battle, new research shows.
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Implantable sensor could measure bodily functions — and then safely biodegrade
Sensors that monitor a patient's condition during and after medical procedures can be expensive, uncomfortable and even dangerous. Now, an international team of researchers has designed a highly sensitive flexible gas sensor that can be implanted in the body — and, after it's no longer needed, safely biodegrade into materials that are absorbed by the body.
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Blue whirl flame structure revealed with supercomputers
Main structure and flow structure of 'blue whirl' flame revealed through supercomputer simulations. Flame simulations entailed four million CPU hours. Further research on blue whirls might help scientists develop ways to burn fuels more cleanly.
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Uncovering novel genomes from Earth's microbiomes
The known diversity of bacteria and archaea has been expanded by 44% through a publicly available collection of more than 52,000 microbial genomes from environmental samples, resulting from a collaboration involving more than 200 scientists around the world.
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New study uses satellites and field studies to improve coral reef restoration
A recent study found evidence that particulate organic carbon levels are one of the most important factors in determining coral outplant survival.
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Fish give insight on sound sensitivity in autism
Scientists used zebrafish that carry the same genetic mutations as humans with Fragile X syndrome and autism, and discovered the neural networks and pathways that produce the hypersensitivities to sound in both species.
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Europa's Mysterious Glow
NASA / JPL / University of Arizona / The Atlantic Updated at 6:53 p.m. on November 10, 2020. One of Jupiter's moons might be glowing in the dark. At first glance, this is perhaps unsurprising. Our own moon glows in the dark, reflecting the light of the sun. Jupiter is far away from here, but our star still illuminates the planet and its many moons , including the moon Europa. But Europa is differ
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When do kids notice race? Way earlier than most adults think
Adults tend to assume children are too young to be aware of race, a study finds. In fact, participants were about 4.5 years off-base about when kids notice race. Adults who avoid conversations with their kids about race do so for a whole host of reasons—from feeling unqualified, or uncomfortable, or like they don't know enough. "Parents are generally afraid that they don't have all the answers, a
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Scientists develop AI-powered 'electronic nose' to sniff out meat freshness
Scientists have invented an artificial olfactory system that mimics the mammalian nose to assess the freshness of meat accurately. The 'electronic nose' comprises a 'barcode' that changes color over time in reaction to the gases produced by meat as it decays, and a barcode 'reader' in the form of a smartphone app powered by artificial intelligence.
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'Goldilocks' neonatal immune response may protect against autism
The causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) – including genetic and environmental factors – are not entirely understood. New research however, shows that the lowest risk for ASD is associated with mid-levels of an immune marker measured at birth – whereas too much or not enough were linked to increased risk. The study hinges on the idea that the developing brain may be particularly vulnerable to
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Trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) to rewire your brain naturally
Researchers have found a new role for recently discovered neurotransmitter system that uses the trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) for neurotransmission. It has been observed that lack of TAAR5 in mice leads to a higher number of dopamine neurons and an increase in adult neurogenesis, i.e. the process by which new neurons are formed in the brain.
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Understanding declining teenage pregnancies in England
Declining rates of teenage pregnancies in England are related to local areas experiencing less youth unemployment, growing Black or South Asian teenage populations, more educational attainment, unaffordable housing, and a lack of available social housing, a recent study has found.
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Large volcanic eruption caused the largest mass extinction
Researchers in Japan, the US and China say they have found more concrete evidence of the volcanic cause of the largest mass extinction of life. Their research looked at two discrete eruption events: one that was previously unknown to researchers, and the other that resulted in large swaths of terrestrial and marine life going extinct.
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Gambling addiction: an aid from patients' stories
How do people affected by pathological gambling tell their story? What information can we extract from their narratives? For the first time, a study conducted by SISSA and University of Roma Tre has analysed in detail the words and linguistic constructions used by people suffering from gambling. The researchers identified several characteristic elements of their emotional and cognitive state. The
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Respirator 2.0: new n95-alternative introduces sensors for a better fit
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have been working to design a better, reusable respirator that could serve as an alternative to an N95 respirator. In the latest iteration of their work, they have introduced sensors to inform the user if the respirator is on properly and whether the filters are becoming saturated.
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Oncotarget: IGF2 expression in breast cancer tumors and in breast cancer cells
The Oncotarget authors propose that methylation of DVDMR represents a novel epigenetic biomarker that determines the levels of IGF2 protein expression in breast cancer.
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Urban gulls adapt foraging schedule to human activity patterns
If you've ever seen a seagull snatch a pasty or felt their beady eyes on your sandwich in the park, you'd be right to suspect they know exactly when to strike to increase their chances of getting a human snack.
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Urban gulls adapt foraging schedule to human activity patterns
If you've ever seen a seagull snatch a pasty or felt their beady eyes on your sandwich in the park, you'd be right to suspect they know exactly when to strike to increase their chances of getting a human snack.
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How your masturbation habits are impacting your sex life
As many as 40% of women experience difficulty reaching orgasm during heterosexual partnered sex. A 2019 study explores the potential links between female masturbation habits and partnered sex satisfaction. The frequency in which women masturbated did not correlate to their orgasm experiences with their partner. However, researchers did note that the greater the overlap between masturbation activi
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What's your state doing about COVID? Check this database
Starting in March, the COVID-19 US State Policy Database has cataloged 100 policies enacted by various states and the District of Columbia to combat the medical and financial woes of the pandemic. The discussion of best practices for containing COVID-19 has become another front in America's culture wars. Do lockdowns suppress the virus? Should masks be mandatory? What about bolstered unemployment
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Making 3D nanosuperconductors with DNA
A platform for making 3D superconducting nano-architectures with a prescribed organization could find application in quantum computing and sensing.
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Microbe 'rewiring' technique promises a boom in biomanufacturing
Researchers have achieved unprecedented success in modifying a microbe to efficiently produce a compound of interest using a computational model and CRISPR-based gene editing. Their approach could dramatically speed up the research and development phase for new biomanufacturing processes, getting advanced bio-based products, such as sustainable fuels and plastic alternatives, on the shelves faster
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Creating 3D virtual personas of all-solid-state batteries, building a better tomorrow
Scientists are eyeing all-solid-state-lithium batteries as a safer alternative to conventional lithium-ion batteries; but their performance needs much improvement. Now, with the 3D digital twin technology that a team from Korea has developed, a 3D digital replica of the real thing can be developed, and their solid interface microstructures can be studied in detail, potentially accelerating their a
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Machine learning advances materials for separations, adsorption, and catalysis
An artificial intelligence technique — machine learning — is helping accelerate the development of highly tunable materials known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that have important applications in chemical separations, adsorption, catalysis, and sensing.
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Printable ink guides cell growth, offers nerve injury hope
New research has cracked a major challenge in the emerging field of nerve engineering. The ink can concentrate neuron growth where it is needed, meticulously guiding cells to regrow in lines between the broken ends of a nerve.
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Backup mechanism removes cellular debris from the brain
Microglia — the brain's immune cells — play a primary role in removing cellular debris from the brain. A research team has found that another kind of brain cell, called astrocyte, is also involved in removing debris as a backup to microglia.
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Scientists develop AI-powered 'electronic nose' to sniff out meat freshness
Scientists have invented an artificial olfactory system that mimics the mammalian nose to assess the freshness of meat accurately. The 'electronic nose' comprises a 'barcode' that changes color over time in reaction to the gases produced by meat as it decays, and a barcode 'reader' in the form of a smartphone app powered by artificial intelligence.
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Empathy and perspective taking: How social skills are built
Being able to feel empathy and to take in the other person's perspective are two abilities through which we understand what is going on in the other's mind. But it is still unclear what exactly they constitute. Researches have now developed a model which explains what empathy and perspective taking are made of: It is not one specific competence rather than many individual factors that vary accordi
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'Electronic skin' promises cheap and recyclable alternative to wearable devices
Researchers are developing a wearable electronic device that's 'really wearable' — a stretchy and fully-recyclable circuit board that's inspired by, and sticks onto, human skin.
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Do consumers enjoy events more when commenting on them?
Generating content increases people's enjoyment of positive experiences.
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Making 3D nanosuperconductors with DNA
A platform for making 3D superconducting nano-architectures with a prescribed organization could find application in quantum computing and sensing.
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Microbe 'rewiring' technique promises a boom in biomanufacturing
Researchers have achieved unprecedented success in modifying a microbe to efficiently produce a compound of interest using a computational model and CRISPR-based gene editing. Their approach could dramatically speed up the research and development phase for new biomanufacturing processes, getting advanced bio-based products, such as sustainable fuels and plastic alternatives, on the shelves faster
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Flaws emerge in modeling human genetic diseases in animals
My lab, based at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, uses zebrafish to model human birth defects affecting the face. When I tell people this, they are often skeptical that fish biology has any relevance to human health.
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New research maps potential global spread of devastating papaya mealybug pest
CABI scientists have mapped the potential global spread of the devastating papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus), highlighting new areas in Africa, Asia and the Americas into which this pest could potentially invade.The papaya mealybug, which is native to Mexico and Central America, can have severe impacts upon livelihoods and food security. In Ghana, for example, infestations led to a 65% yield
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Mari and Karelian respondents share ideas on how to improve local education
Based on the findings, researchers have come up with a list of recommendations that would support the development of education systems and educational opportunities in the Republic of Mari El and the Republic of Karelia in accordance with the wishes and needs of their Indigenous communities.
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Chronic stress causes genetic changes in chickens
How can stress in animals be measured? Scientists from Uppsala University and elsewhere have now found that what are known as epigenetic biomarkers could be used to detect long-term exposure to stress in commercially raised chickens. This may, in time, lead to improved conditions in animal rearing. The study has been published in the journal Frontiers in Genetics.
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Scientists have discovered an ancient lake bed deep beneath the Greenland ice
Scientists have detected what they say are the sediments of a huge ancient lake bed sealed more than a mile under the ice of northwest Greenland—the first-ever discovery of such a sub-glacial feature anywhere in the world. Apparently formed at a time when the area was ice-free but now completely frozen in, the lake bed may be hundreds of thousands or millions of years old, and contain unique fossi
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Fossil shark turns in to mystery pterosaur
Paleontologists have made a surprising discovery while searching through 100-year-old fossil collections from the UK—a new mystery species of pterosaur, unlike anything seen before.
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Sticky electrons: When repulsion turns into attraction
Materials can assume completely different properties depending on temperature, pressure, electrical voltage or other physical quantities. In theoretical solid-state physics, state-of-the-art computer models are used to understand these properties in detail. Sometimes this works well, but sometimes strange effects occur that still seem puzzling—such as phenomena linked to high-temperature supercond
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Scientists create a chemical space mapping method and crack the mystery of Mendeleev number
Scientists have long sought a system for predicting the properties of materials based on their chemical composition. In particular, they set sights on the concept of a chemical space that places materials in a reference frame such that neighboring chemical elements and compounds plotted along its axes have similar properties. This idea was first proposed in 1984 by the British physicist, David G.
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Rock mining with microbes may aid space explorers
UK scientists show how astronauts on the Moon or Mars could one day mine for metals using bacteria.
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Flaws emerge in modeling human genetic diseases in animals
My lab, based at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, uses zebrafish to model human birth defects affecting the face. When I tell people this, they are often skeptical that fish biology has any relevance to human health.
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Chronic stress causes genetic changes in chickens
How can stress in animals be measured? Scientists from Uppsala University and elsewhere have now found that what are known as epigenetic biomarkers could be used to detect long-term exposure to stress in commercially raised chickens. This may, in time, lead to improved conditions in animal rearing. The study has been published in the journal Frontiers in Genetics.
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New Technique Claims to Extract Breathable Oxygen From Moon Dust
Moon Air Metalysis, a UK-based engineering firm, has signed a contract with the European Space Agency to develop a way to extract breathable oxygen from Moon dust, CNN reports . The firm has previously published research that details a method to extract 96 percent of the oxygen from lunar regolith. After extraction, the resulting mixed metal alloy could theoretically be used to breathe, construct
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Trump to put climate change denier in charge of key U.S. report
Despite election loss, White House tries to influence quadrennial assessment
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Two genes regulate social dominance
Rank in social hierarchy is a condition not solely claimed by humans. In the animal kingdom, male peacocks exhibit brightly colored plumes to illustrate dominance, and underwater, male fish show pops of bright colors to do the same. Despite the links identified between social status, physiology and behavior, the molecular basis of social status has not been known, until now.
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Two genes regulate social dominance
Rank in social hierarchy is a condition not solely claimed by humans. In the animal kingdom, male peacocks exhibit brightly colored plumes to illustrate dominance, and underwater, male fish show pops of bright colors to do the same. Despite the links identified between social status, physiology and behavior, the molecular basis of social status has not been known, until now.
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The Universe Is Getting Steadily Hotter, According to New Research
Universal Warming Over the past 10 billion years, the universe has slowly gotten hotter and hotter. In fact, a team of scientists from the University of Tokyo and the Ohio State University found that the mean temperature of gases in the universe has increased tenfold during that time period. It turns out that the ongoing process of creating new galaxies also heats up everything around it. Rug Bur
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The Weekly Planet: 5 Ways to Think About Biden and Climate Change
Every Tuesday morning, our lead climate reporter brings you the big ideas, expert analysis, and vital guidance that will help you flourish on a changing planet. Sign up to get T he Weekly Planet , our guide to living through climate change, in your inbox . The election of Joe Biden as the 46th president of the United States is not only the biggest climate news in half a decade—it's some of the be
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Democrats Have a Republican-Women Problem
Updated at 1:13 p.m. ET on November 10, 2020 GILBERT, Ariz.—Just before the polls closed in Arizona on Election Night, a group of Donald Trump supporters staged a noisy rally along one of the Phoenix area's main thoroughfares. The group was small but mighty: It blasted music and waved signs and urged passing cars to honk if they love the president—there was a lot of honking. But a mile away, Jane
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Methods developed by biorobotics engineers help make hydropower plants more fish-friendly
In the Europe-wide FIThydro project, TalTech researchers worked with industry partners to study existing hydroelectric power plants. Together with researchers across Europe, they developed new assessment methods and technologies with the goal of making hydropower more fish-friendly and environmentally sustainable.
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Exoskeletons can reduce strain also in health care
Wearable exoskeletons are increasingly being used in physically demanding jobs to support good ergonomics and augment muscular strength. In ground-breaking studies led by researchers at Tampere University and LUT University in Finland, exoskeleton vests were worn by nurses to discover how the new technology would suit the special requirements of patient care.
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Scientists speed up artificial organoid growth and selection
The method currently used to produce stem cell-derived tissues has a very limited throughput. By semi-automating tissue differentiation, researchers from MIPT and Harvard have made the process nearly four times faster, without compromising on quality.The new algorithm is also useful for analyzing the factors that affect cell specialization.
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Fossil shark turns in to mystery pterosaur
Lead author of the project, University of Portsmouth PhD student Roy Smith, discovered the mystery creature amongst fossil collections housed in the Sedgwick Museum of Cambridge and the Booth Museum at Brighton that were assembled when phosphate mining was at its peak in the English Fens between 1851 and 1900. These fossils found while workmen were digging phosphate nodules were frequently sold to
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Perspectives of tumor treatment: Researchers investigate combination of carbon ion and immunotherapy
It is still a glance into the future: The combination of carbon ion and immune therapy could become an effective tool in the fight against cancer. Promising results for the potential benefit of this treatment combination have now been published in the journal "International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics" of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology. The authors are
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Slim-panel holographic video display
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19298-4 Holographic displays that are both compact and produce realistic holograms without eyestrain are still difficult to realize. Here the authors implement a steering-backlight unit and a holographic video processor to produce a realistic holographic display in a slim panel.
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Rejsekort får alvorlig kritik og påbud af Datatilsynet
Rejsekort skal slette alle oplysninger på en tidligere kunde og revurdere behandlingen af andre kunders personoplysninger efter en alvorlig kritik og påbud fra Datatilsynet.
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Urban gulls adapt foraging schedule to human activity patterns
If you've ever seen a seagull snatch a pasty or felt their beady eyes on your sandwich in the park, you'd be right to suspect they know exactly when to strike to increase their chances of getting a human snack. A new study by the University of Bristol is the most in-depth look to date at the foraging behaviours of urban gulls and how they've adapted to patterns of human activity in a city.
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Russian scientists created a chemical space mapping method and cracked the mystery of Mendeleev number
Scientists from Skoltech puzzled out the physical meaning of the mysterious Mendeleev Numbers and suggested calculating them based on the fundamental properties of atoms. They showed that both MNs and the chemical space built around them were more effective than empirical solutions proposed until then.
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Chronic stress causes genetic changes in chickens
How can stress in animals be measured? Scientists from Uppsala University and elsewhere have now found that what are known as epigenetic biomarkers could be used to detect long-term exposure to stress in commercially raised chickens. This may, in time, lead to improved conditions in animal rearing. The study has been published in the journal Frontiers in Genetics.
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Sticky electrons: When repulsion turns into attraction
Scientists in Vienna explain what happens at a strange 'border line' in materials science: Under certain conditions, materials change from well-known behaviour to different, partly unexplained phenomena. This can be explained by the emergence of attractive forces, counteracting the repulsion between electrons.
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Veganism: Vitamin B12 is well supplemented, iodine is a matter of concern
Those following a vegan diet have an increased risk of iodine deficiency. This is indicated by the results of a research project from the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). In the 'Risks and benefits of a vegan diet' (RBVD) study project, a BfR research team investigated the nutrient supply in 36 people following a vegan diet and 36 people with a mixed diet.
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Tracking down the causes of heart attack
Heart attacks strike suddenly and have a range of different triggers. Researchers from Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) were able to uncover a further underlying cause. Studying arterial deposits (plaque) in patients with acute coronary syndrome, the researchers found that, in some patients, these were characterized by activated immune c
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Shedding new light on the origin of metastases
Before an effective treatment can be devised, we have to be able to understand the specific effect of an anti-cancer substance on the cell type that produces metastases in the cellular heterogeneity of tumours. A team from the University of Geneva used spiked-scRNAseq that links the transcriptomic to single cell metastatic phenotypes of colon cancer tumour cells. The importance of the VSIG1 gene i
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Skills development in Physical AI could give birth to lifelike intelligent robots
New research suggests combining educational topics and research disciplines to help researchers breathe life into lifelike intelligent robots.
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Smart devices to schedule electricity use may prevent blackouts
Power plants generate electricity and send it into power lines that distribute energy to nodes where it can be used. But if the electricity load is more than the system's capacity, transmission can fail, leading to a cascade of failures throughout the electric grid. In the journal Chaos, researchers show demand side control may be an effective solution to stabilizing the reliability of power grids
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Organoids produce embryonic heart
Bioengineers at EPFL have used organoids – tiny lab-grown organs – to mimic the early development of the heart in the mouse embryo. The work is another step towards future bioartificial organs for research and transplants.
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Mining rocks in orbit could aid deep space exploration
The first mining experiments conducted in space could pave the way for new technologies to help humans explore and establish settlements on distant worlds, a study suggests.
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Stanford-led team creates a computer model that can predict how COVID-19 spreads in cities
The study merges demographic data, epidemiological estimates and anonymous cellphone location information, and appears to confirm that most COVID-19 transmissions occur at "superspreader" sites like full-service restaurants, fitness centers and cafes, where people remain in close quarters for extended periods. The model could help officials minimize the contagion as they reopen businesses by revea
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Plasma treatments quickly kill coronavirus on surfaces
Researchers from UCLA believe using plasma could promise a significant breakthrough in the fight against the spread of COVID-19. In Physics of Fluids, modeling conducted showed strains of the coronavirus on surfaces like metal, leather, and plastic were killed in as little as 30 seconds of treatment with argon-fed, cold atmospheric plasma. The researchers used an atmospheric pressure plasma jet th
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Concurrent sharing of an avatar body by two individuals in virtual reality
Two participants were embodied within a shared avatar in virtual reality. Movements of the shared avatar were the average of the participants' movements. They were asked to reach a target via the shared body. In the results, avatar's hand movements were straighter and less jerky than those of the participants. Thus, humans prioritize the movement of a shared body over their own movements. A shared
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Improving high-energy lithium-ion batteries with carbon filler
Lithium-ion batteries are the major rechargeable power source for many portable devices as well as electric vehicles, but their use is limited, because they do not provide high power output while simultaneously allowing reversible energy storage. Research reported in Applied Physics Reviews aims to offer a solution by showing how the inclusion of conductive fillers improves battery performance.
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Effectiveness of e-cigarettes plus counseling vs only counseling for quitting smoking
Researchers in this randomized clinical trial compared the effect on adults trying to quit smoking of using e-cigarettes plus individual counseling versus counseling alone.
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Effect of vitamin D, omega-3 supplements, strength training on health of older adults
This randomized clinical trial investigated whether vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acid supplements and a strength-training exercise program, alone or in combination, improved health outcomes such as blood pressure and cognitive function among adults age 70 and older.
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USPSTF statement on screening for high blood pressure in children, adolescents
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to make a recommendation about screening for high blood pressure in children and adolescents. High blood pressure (both primary and secondary) occurs in 3 to 4 percent of children and adolescents in the United States.
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New airflow videos show why masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of COVID
Using high-speed video and schlieren imaging, NIST researcher Matthew Staymates created videos that show how air flows through masks with and without exhalation valves. 'When you compare the videos side by side, the difference is striking,' Staymates said. 'These videos show how the valves allow air to leave the mask without filtering it, which defeats the purpose of the mask.'
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Editorial: New research strengthens the case for e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids
Using FDA-approved smoking cessation aids increases the likelihood of success, but many smokers who use these therapies still struggle to remain tobacco free, says Nancy Rigotti, an investigator at Massachusetts General Hospital. Rigotti sees a promising role for e-cigarettes as a new option to help smokers quit.
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Valves on N95 masks do not filter exhaled droplets
Matthew Staymates, fluid dynamicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, is studying different mask types to determine which are the most effective at reducing disease transmission. In Physics of Fluids, he describes exploring the basic flow dynamics of N95 masks with or without exhalation valves. To do this, he generates stunning video from his schlieren imaging, a method to vis
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Workshop collaboration aims to move tidal marsh research forward
Tidal marshes play a significant role in coastal ecosystems. They are a nursery ground for juvenile fishes and a line of defense in coastal erosion. However, there is still a great deal not known about tidal marshes. In November 2019, 65 scientists, managers, and restoration practitioners converged at the Dauphin Island Sea Lab to see where tidal marsh research has been and where it needs to go.
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Biden's COVID-19 response plan is missing one major component
The effectiveness of public health response to this pandemic has been seriously reduced by false information about COVID-19 prevention and treatment. (Pexels/) Public health experts greeted President-Elect Joe Biden's Monday announcement of a COVID-19 advisory board that will help shape his policy with a sigh of relief. After months of piecemeal public health advice and outright false information
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Mobility network models of COVID-19 explain inequities and inform reopening
Nature, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2923-3
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Big data and simple models used to track the spread of COVID-19 in cities
Nature, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02964-4 Understanding the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infections could help to limit viral spread. Analysing mobile-phone data to track human contacts at different city venues offers a way to model infection risks and explain infection disparities.
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How to stop restaurants from driving COVID infections
Nature, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03140-4 US mobile data suggests restaurants, gyms and cafes can be COVID hotspots — and reveals strategies for limiting spread.
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Vaccines/Pfizer: calling the shots
Drugmakers' partnership is set to reap rewards — but other developers are not far behind
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Signs of concussion turn up in spit
Doctors may soon be able to more accurately diagnose concussions by measuring the number of certain molecules in a person's saliva, according to new research. The results of a recent clinical study confirmed that a patient's spit may be used to aid concussion diagnosis in a non-invasive, non-biased fashion. Researchers analyzed the saliva of more than 500 study participants for tiny strands of ge
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Theranos, whistleblowing and speaking truth to power | Erika Cheung
In 2014, Erika Cheung made a discovery that would ultimately help bring down her employer, Theranos, as well as its founder, Elizabeth Holmes, who claimed to have invented technology that would transform medicine. The decision to become a whistleblower proved a hard lesson in figuring out how to do what's right in the face of both personal and professional obstacles. With candor and humility, Cheu
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White House races to complete regulations before Trump exits
Rule limiting agency use of certain scientific studies could be finalized
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Mink and the Coronavirus: What We Know
Mink are the only animal known to both catch the virus from people and transmit it to them.
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6 key questions about the Pfizer/BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine
There are grounds for optimism but also several unknowns around this coronavirus vaccine Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Hopes that the end of the coronavirus pandemic has become nearer have soared after the news that a coronavirus vaccine was found to be 90% effective in global trials. Although there is definite reason to be optimistic, experts have cautioned that t
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Remains of new flying reptile species spotted in UK museum drawer
Student finds mislabelled fragment of pterosaur, which flew over eastern England up to 66m years ago A fossil that been had languishing in a museum drawer in Brighton, wrongly labelled as a shark fin skeleton, has now been identified as a completely new species of prehistoric flying reptile that soared majestically over what are now the Cambridgeshire fens. Roy Smith, a University of Portsmouth P
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PR firm hired by UK vaccine tsar linked to Dominic Cummings' father-in-law
Kate Bingham spent more than £670k hiring PR consultants to oversee media strategy Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The UK's vaccine tsar is to pay almost £700,000 in taxpayers' money on a team of boutique PR consultants whose secretary is a long-time business associate of Dominic Cummings' father-in-law. Over the weekend, it was reported that Kate Bingham, the head o
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Organoids produce embryonic heart
There was a time when the idea of growing organs in the lab was the stuff of science fiction. Today, stem cell biology and tissue engineering are turning fiction into reality with the advent of organoids: tiny lab-grown tissues and organs that are anatomically correct and physiologically functional.
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Swedish, Finnish and Russian wolves closely related
The Scandinavian wolf originally came from Finland and Russia, and unlike many other European wolf populations its genetic constitution is virtually free from dog admixture. In addition, individuals have migrated into and out of Scandinavia. These findings have emerged from new research at Uppsala University in which genetic material from more than 200 wolves was analysed. The study is published i
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Burnout can exacerbate work stress, further promoting a vicious circle
Work stress and burnout are mutually reinforcing; surprisingly, the effect of work stress on burnout is much smaller than the effect of burnout on work stress.
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Black hole or no black hole: On the outcome of neutron star collisions
A new study lead by GSI scientists and international colleagues investigates black-hole formation in neutron star mergers. Computer simulations show that the properties of dense nuclear matter play a crucial role, which directly links the astrophysical merger event to heavy-ion collision experiments at GSI and FAIR. These properties will be studied more precisely at the future FAIR facility. The r
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Researchers discover the secret of how moss spreads
University of Copenhagen researchers have discovered how mosses became one of our planet's most widely distributed plants — global wind systems transport them along Earth's latitudes, to rooftops, sidewalks and lawns worldwide, and as far away as Antarctica. This new knowledge can provide us with a better understanding of how other small organisms are spread, including airborne bacteria and organ
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Watch speedy drones count Antarctic penguin colonies in record time
New flight patterns cut survey time from 2 days to just 3 hours
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Oxford Research: 18% of COVID Patients Develop Mental Illness Within Months
According to a new study by researchers at Oxford University, 18 percent of patients infected with the coronavirus develop a mental illness — including dementia, depression, anxiety and insomnia — within 90 days. They also found that patients with preexisting psychiatric health conditions were 65 percent more likely to also be diagnosed with COVID-19, according to a paper about the research publi
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Organoids produce embryonic heart
There was a time when the idea of growing organs in the lab was the stuff of science fiction. Today, stem cell biology and tissue engineering are turning fiction into reality with the advent of organoids: tiny lab-grown tissues and organs that are anatomically correct and physiologically functional.
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Animal groups consider multiple factors before fighting
Groups of animals consider multiple factors before deciding whether to fight rivals, researchers say.
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Plasma treatments quickly kill coronavirus on surfaces
Researchers from UCLA believe using plasma could promise a significant breakthrough in the fight against the spread of COVID-19.
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Mining rocks in orbit could aid deep space exploration
The first mining experiments conducted in space could pave the way for new technologies to help humans explore and establish settlements on distant worlds, a study suggests.
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Improving high-energy lithium-ion batteries with carbon filler
Lithium-ion batteries are the major rechargeable power source for many portable devices as well as electric vehicles, but their use is limited, because they do not provide high power output while simultaneously allowing reversible energy storage. Research reported in Applied Physics Reviews aims to offer a solution by showing how the inclusion of conductive fillers improves battery performance.
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New airflow videos show why masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of COVID
Many people wear masks in public to slow the spread of COVID-19, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of the disease, and now, new videos from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) show why.
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Trees and plants could become new additives in 'light' food products
More and more foods are now available in light versions with reduced fat.
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Animal groups consider multiple factors before fighting
Groups of animals consider multiple factors before deciding whether to fight rivals, researchers say.
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New study uses satellites and field studies to improve coral reef restoration
Our planet's coral reef ecosystems are in peril from multiple threats. Anthropogenic CO2 has sparked a rise in global average sea surface temperatures, pushing reef survival beyond its upper thermal limits. Coastal development from industry, aquaculture, and infrastructure generates sedimentation and increased turbidity in coastal waters, which raises particulate organic carbon (POC) levels. Addit
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New study uses satellites and field studies to improve coral reef restoration
Our planet's coral reef ecosystems are in peril from multiple threats. Anthropogenic CO2 has sparked a rise in global average sea surface temperatures, pushing reef survival beyond its upper thermal limits. Coastal development from industry, aquaculture, and infrastructure generates sedimentation and increased turbidity in coastal waters, which raises particulate organic carbon (POC) levels. Addit
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Blue whirl flame structure revealed with supercomputers
Lightning struck a bourbon warehouse, setting fire to a cache of 800,000 gallons of liquor in the Bardstown countryside of Kentucky in 2003. Some of it spilled into a nearby creek, spawning a massive fire tornado, or 'bourbonado,' as reported locally.
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Sweet taste reduces appetite?
To date, very little is known about how sweetness perception contributes to satiety. This study, conducted by an Austrian-German team led by chemists Veronika Somoza and Barbara Lieder, provides new insights into the relationship between the sweet taste of sugar, energy intake and the regulatory process of hunger and satiety. The study was published in the journal 'Nutrients'.
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RUDN University linguists: Vocabulary size affects ability to differentiate foreign language vowels
A team of linguists from RUDN University established that a person's ability to accurately differentiate between vowel sounds of a foreign language correlates with the size of their vocabulary in said language.
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High temperatures threaten the survival of insects
Insects have difficulties handling the higher temperatures brought on by climate change, and might risk overheating. The ability to reproduce is also strongly affected by rising temperatures, even in northern areas of the world, according to a new study from Lund University in Sweden.
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Computer Scientists Achieve 'Crown Jewel' of Cryptography
In 2018, Aayush Jain , a graduate student at the University of California, Los Angeles, traveled to Japan to give a talk about a powerful cryptographic tool he and his colleagues were developing. As he detailed the team's approach to indistinguishability obfuscation (iO for short), one audience member raised his hand in bewilderment. "But I thought iO doesn't exist?" he said. At the time, such sk
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Physicists propose using atomic clocks of GPS network to detect exotic ultralight fields
A team of physicists from the U.S., Poland and Germany proposes to use quantum sensor networks such as atomic clocks of the GPS network or sensors from the Gnome collaboration (a network of shielded atomic magnetometers made up of 13 stations placed strategically on four continents—each of which is equipped with a magnetometer that has sub-picotesla sensitivity) to detect exotic ultralight fields
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Jair Bolsonaro claims 'victory ' after suspension of Chinese vaccine trial
Critics say halt in testing of Covid vaccine CoronaVac is politically motivated Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The Brazilian president, Jair Bolsonaro, has sparked outrage by gloating over the suspension of clinical trials of the Chinese coronavirus vaccine after a volunteer's death. "Another victory for Jair Bolsonaro," read a comment posted by the official Faceboo
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In the Netherlands, two-way transmission of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on mink farms
In the Netherlands, whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on 16 mink farms has revealed virus transmission between human to mink, as well as from mink to human.
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Personalized cancer vaccine clinical trial to expand following promising early results
A University of Arizona Health Sciences clinical trial to study safety and effectiveness of a personalized cancer vaccine combined with immunotherapy drug Pembrolizumab will expand after promising preliminary data was presented at the Society for the Immunotherapy of Cancer's annual meeting. Researcher Julie E. Bauman, MD, MPH, reported data on the first 10 patients with head and neck cancer, seve
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Tomosynthesis with synthetic mammography improves breast cancer detection
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in combination with synthetic mammography, improves cancer detection over digital mammography alone, according to a new study. The study results add further support to the use of DBT in population-based breast cancer screening programs.
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Sun-Powered Chemistry Can Turn Carbon Dioxide into Common Materials
Visible light can drive industrial processes — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Microneedles Could Enable Painless Injections and Blood Draws
Fewer trips to medical labs make care more accessible — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Sun-Powered Chemistry Can Turn Carbon Dioxide into Common Materials
Visible light can drive industrial processes — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Microneedles Could Enable Painless Injections and Blood Draws
Fewer trips to medical labs make care more accessible — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2020
Experts highlight advances with the potential to revolutionize industry, health care and society — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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How Do We Remember Places? This Study Used Lasers and VR to Point the Way
The curious contraption at University College London bordered between scientific wizardry and a terrifying Black Mirror episode. It might have just proved a decades-long theory of how the brain's GPS system works. Let me paint you a picture: imagine a mouse jogging on a running wheel. His head is held firmly but comfortably steady. A transparent glass "window" replaced a bit of his skull. Hoverin
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Researchers find a backup mechanism that removes cellular debris from the brain
Microglia — the brain's immune cells — play a primary role in removing cellular debris from the brain. A Nagoya University-led research team in Japan has found that another kind of brain cell, called astrocyte, is also involved in removing debris as a backup to microglia.
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Study shows walnuts may have anti-inflammatory effects that reduce risk of heart disease
Findings from a randomized controlled trial recently published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, indicate that people in their 60s and 70s who regularly consume walnuts may have reduced inflammation, a factor associated with a lower risk of heart disease, compared to those who do not eat walnuts. The research was part of the Walnuts and Healthy Aging (WAHA) study – the largest
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Schools unfairly targeting vulnerable children with exclusion policies
Australian schools are unfairly suspending and excluding students – particularly boys, Indigenous students, and students with a disability – according to new research from the University of South Australia.
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3D printed stents that treat inflammation
POSTECH Professor Dong-Woo Cho's research team develops bioink-loaded esophageal stents for treating radiation esophagitis.
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Scientists develop AI-powered 'electronic nose' to sniff out meat freshness
Scientists led by NTU Singapore have invented an artificial olfactory system that mimics the mammalian nose to assess the freshness of meat accurately. The 'electronic nose' comprises a 'barcode' that changes colour over time in reaction to the gases produced by meat as it decays, and a barcode 'reader' in the form of a smartphone app powered by artificial intelligence.
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Printable ink guides cell growth, offers nerve injury hope
New research has cracked a major challenge in the emerging field of nerve engineering.The ink can concentrate neuron growth where it is needed, meticulously guiding cells to regrow in lines between the broken ends of a nerve.
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Fish give insight on sound sensitivity in autism
Scientists at The University of Queensland used zebrafish that carry the same genetic mutations as humans with Fragile X syndrome and autism, and discovered the neural networks and pathways that produce the hypersensitivities to sound in both species.
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The iPhone 12 Pro Max might be worth it—for the camera alone
This scene has great light, but the 12 Pro Max provided more pleasing contrast than previous iPhone version. With the 11 Pro Max, I would expect this to wash out a little, but the 12 handled it nicely. (Stan Horaczek /) Roughly three years ago, when Apple announced the iPhone 8 Plus, it was a big milestone for smartphone cameras. Apple turned on its HDR feature—which merges several photos into a
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Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2020
Experts highlight advances with the potential to revolutionize industry, health care and society — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Report: Children lose basic skills under virus restrictions
Some young children have forgotten how to eat with a knife and fork and others have regressed back into diapers as the coronavirus pandemic and related school closures take a toll on young peoples' learning, the U.K. education watchdog said Tuesday.
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Trump Attacked Black Athletes—And Paid for It in the End
LeBron James's Twitter account was unusually active as the results of the presidential election poured in last week. The Los Angeles Lakers star circulated memes mocking Donald Trump for losing the election, and praised B lack voters for their record participation . But also noteworthy was his thank – you to the voting-rights champion and former Georgia gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams; form
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Drop in pandemic carbon dioxide emissions previews world of electric vehicles
In the six weeks after the San Francisco Bay Area instituted the nation's first shelter-in-place mandate in response to the growing COVID-19 pandemic, regional carbon dioxide emissions dropped by 25%, almost all of it due to a nearly 50% drop in road traffic, according to new study from the University of California, Berkeley.
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Nanomedicine crosses into brain, eradicates recurring brain cancer in mice
A new synthetic protein nanoparticle capable of slipping past the nearly impermeable blood-brain barrier could deliver cancer-killing drugs directly to malignant brain tumors, new research from the University of Michigan shows.
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Character count per line of digital text found to affect reading speed
A trio of researchers at the University of Minnesota has found that the character count per line of digital text on small display devices can have a negative impact on reading speed. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Nilsu Atilgan, Ying-Zi Xiong, and Gordon Legge describe experiments they conducted with volunteers reading passages on different types of de
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Animal groups consider multiple factors before fighting
Groups of animals consider multiple factors before deciding whether to fight rivals, researchers say.
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New study uses satellites and field studies to improve coral reef restoration
A recent study published in Restoration Ecology by researchers from Arizona State University's Center for Global Discovery and Conservation Science (GDCS) found evidence that particulate organic carbon levels are one of the most important factors in determining coral outplant survival.
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Machine learning advances materials for separations, adsorption, and catalysis
An artificial intelligence technique — machine learning — is helping accelerate the development of highly tunable materials known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that have important applications in chemical separations, adsorption, catalysis, and sensing.
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Uncovering novel genomes from earth's microbiomes
As reported in Nature Biotechnology, the known diversity of bacteria and archaea has been expanded by 44% through a publicly available collection of more than 52,000 microbial genomes from environmental samples, resulting from a JGI-led collaboration involving more than 200 scientists (the IMG Data Consortium) around the world. Enabled by the repositories of data and computational tools establishe
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Blue whirl flame structure revealed with supercomputers
Main structure and flow structure of 'blue whirl' flame revealed through supercomputer simulations. Flame simulations entailed four million CPU hours distributed over the Deepthought2 system from the University of Maryland; the Thunder system from the Air Force Research Laboratory; and Stampede2 of TACC allocated through NSF-funded XSEDE. Further research on blue whirls might help scientists devel
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Creating 3D virtual personas of all-solid-state batteries, building a better tomorrow
Scientists are eyeing all-solid-state-lithium batteries as a safer alternative to conventional lithium-ion batteries; but their performance needs much improvement. Now, with the 3D digital twin technology that a team from Korea has developed, a 3D digital replica of the real thing can be developed, and their solid interface microstructures can be studied in detail, potentially accelerating their a
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5 mistakes people make when sharing COVID-19 data visualizations on Twitter
An analysis of coronavirus-related information sharing on Twitter found that average citizens commonly made one of five errors when trying to visually convey the scope of the pandemic, or its effects on society.
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The best Black Friday deals 2020: The best early deals and sales at Samsung, Best Buy, Walmart, and more
Here are the best Black Friday Deals of 2020. (Markus Spiske via Unsplash/) Nothing in 2020 is quite the same as it has been in years past—and that includes Black Friday. All of the disruptions to regular shopping patterns have led to a wider proliferation of long-lasting sales, the majority of which are online. That's safer than the typical crammed-aisle shopping that typifies Black Friday, and
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A circular economy could end waste – at the cost of our privacy
In a circular economy, we wouldn't have any waste or pollution. Instead, everything we make and all our byproducts would be reused or repurposed, helping to end the over-exploitation of our finite resources and damage to our environment and climate.
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Consumer surveys drive stock prices, research shows
New research co-authored by a Rice University professor of marketing finds that businesses interested in improving their stock prices should focus on improving customer satisfaction.
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Last five American presidents seen as illegitimate in dangerous trend
After a contentious election, some Americans are questioning the legitimacy of President-elect Joe Biden victory. Legitimacy concerns also plagued the presidencies of Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump. The trend of attacking a president's right to rule is growing. The election of 2020 concluded the way Donald Trump's ascent to power began – with claims over legitimacy.
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Even with a vaccine, fast Covid tests will be crucial
Frequent use of a cheap and simple tool would help more than the current high-tech approach
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The first detection of marine fish DNA in sediment sequences going back 300 years
Long-term variability in the abundance of a macro-organism could provide fundamental information for evaluating its evolution, its responses to climate changes and human impact, enabling management and preservation strategies. Biological monitoring in aquatic systems has provided evidence of long-term variability in the abundance of macro-organisms. However, almost all such records span less than
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Molecular vibrations of water predict global distributions of photosynthetic organisms in lakes and oceans
Why have cyanobacteria and algae evolved a wide variety of photosynthetic pigments, and how are these pigments distributed geographically? Scientists from the University of Amsterdam and Roscoff (France) give an intriguing answer to these questions in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.
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The first detection of marine fish DNA in sediment sequences going back 300 years
Long-term variability in the abundance of a macro-organism could provide fundamental information for evaluating its evolution, its responses to climate changes and human impact, enabling management and preservation strategies. Biological monitoring in aquatic systems has provided evidence of long-term variability in the abundance of macro-organisms. However, almost all such records span less than
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Molecular vibrations of water predict global distributions of photosynthetic organisms in lakes and oceans
Why have cyanobacteria and algae evolved a wide variety of photosynthetic pigments, and how are these pigments distributed geographically? Scientists from the University of Amsterdam and Roscoff (France) give an intriguing answer to these questions in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.
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Gastrointestinal-resident, shape-changing microdevices for extended drug delivery
The online cover story of Science Advances this week features a conceptual gastrointestinal (GI) microdevice, developed by a research team for extended drug release. Drug delivery platforms for extended drug release have proven to be challenging to develop in bioengineering due to gastrointestinal (GI) tract movements and their resulting elimination from the body. In a new report, Arijit Ghosh and
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Bioinspired metagel with broadband tunable impedance matching
Impedance matching is a concept that can maximize energy transmission from a source through a media, and is established across electrical, acoustic and optical engineering. It is frequently necessary to match a load impedance to the source or internal impedance of a driving source. The existing design to facilitate acoustic impedance matching is fundamentally limited by narrowband transmission (da
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