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The keys to the squirrel's evolutionary success in the face of climate change have been identified
Squirrels form a diverse family of rodents. Nearly 300 species have been described, and they occur in every land environment on the planet, from tropical forests to hot and cold deserts. But why are there so many species? A study led by researchers from the Complutense University of Madrid and the Institute of Geosciences (UCM-CSIC) has examined the characteristics of squirrel species that contrib
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The importance of well planned stores and physical meeting places
Black Friday and Christmas are approaching—it's the time of year when many people gather in stores and other physical meeting places. To be able to handle this, it's important to understand why people are attracted to these places and to plan and prepare for this, says researcher Pernille K Andersson at CTF, Service Research Center at Karlstad University. A pandemic doesn't change people's needs o
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Scientists determine the structure of glass-shaping protein in sponges
Sponges are some of the oldest animals on Earth. They live in a wide range of waters, from lakes to deep oceans. Remarkably, the skeleton of some sponges is built out of a network of highly symmetrical glass structures. These glass scaffolds have intrigued researchers for a long time. How do sponges manipulate disordered glass into the skeletal elements which are so regular? Researchers from B CUB
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Novel haplotype-led approach to increase the precision of wheat breeding
Wheat researchers at the John Innes Centre are pioneering a new technique that promises to improve gene discovery for the globally important crop.
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Researchers uncover the unique way stem cells protect their chromosome ends
Telomeres are specialized structures at the end of chromosomes which protect our DNA and ensure healthy division of cells. According to a new study from researchers at the Francis Crick Institute published in Nature, the mechanisms of telomere protection are surprisingly unique in stem cells.
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Study in Thailand identifies benefits of community-based freshwater fish reserves
Freshwater fish reserves are extraordinarily successful at protecting multiple species of fish, a new study of a network of community-based reserves in Thailand has found.
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Scientists Create Living Factories That Churn Out Hydrogen Fuel
Wet Chemistry By jam-packing photosynthetic algae into sugary droplets of water, scientists are building mini biological factories that churn out hydrogen that could be used as a source of carbon-neutral energy. Under finely-tuned conditions inside the water droplet, the algae will stop producing oxygen and instead give off energy-packed hydrogen, according to research published Wednesday in the
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Scientists call for decade of concerted effort to enhance understanding of the deep seas
The deep seas—vast expanses of water and seabed hidden more than 200 meters below the ocean surface to depths up to 11,000 meters—are recognized globally as an important frontier of science and discovery.
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Phytoplankton disturbed by nanoparticles
Products derived from nanotechnology are efficient and highly sought-after, yet their effects on the environment are still poorly understood. A research team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), working in collaboration with the University of California at Santa Barbara, have investigated the effects of nanosilver, currently used in almost 450 products for its antibacterial properties, on the al
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The invasive species that Europe needs to erradicate most urgently are identified
Species such as the golden apple snail are putting the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin in quite a predicament. Meanwhile, in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, water hyacinths are threatening to destroy the natural ecosystem of the Guadiana River. Invasive species change not only the habitat of many other species but they also directly impact the region's economy. Some of thes
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New modified wheat could help tackle global food shortage
Researchers at the University of York have created a new modified wheat variety that increases grain production by up to 12%.
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New insights into how the CRISPR immune system evolved
With new insights into how the genetic tool CRISPR—which allows direct editing of our genes—evolved and adapted, we are now one step closer to understanding the basis of the constant struggle for survival that takes place in nature. The results can be used in future biotechnologies.
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Scientists call for decade of concerted effort to enhance understanding of the deep seas
The deep seas—vast expanses of water and seabed hidden more than 200 meters below the ocean surface to depths up to 11,000 meters—are recognized globally as an important frontier of science and discovery.
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Air-sea coupling improves the simulation of the western North Pacific summer monsoon
Regional air-sea coupling plays a crucial role in modulating the climatology and variability of the Asian summer monsoon. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is a community regional climate model, has been widely used for regional climate studies over Asia.
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A new strategy for the greener use of calcium carbide
Calcium acetylide was discovered more than 150 years ago. It is a yellowish-white, beige, or gray solid, a compound of calcium and carbon. Calcium acetylide is currently used to produce gaseous acetylene. In industry, it is widely used in the production of acetic acid and ethyl alcohol; it can be used in the production of plastics, rubber, and rocket engines as well.
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Effect of climate change on infectious diseases unknown to half of the population
Although it is a widely known scientific fact that infectious diseases emerge and re-emerge due to climate change, a study which included the involvement of the UAB published in PLOS ONE reveals that 48.9% of the population surveyed are not aware of this relation.
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Phytoplankton disturbed by nanoparticles
Products derived from nanotechnology are efficient and highly sought-after, yet their effects on the environment are still poorly understood. A research team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), working in collaboration with the University of California at Santa Barbara, have investigated the effects of nanosilver, currently used in almost 450 products for its antibacterial properties, on the al
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High achievement cultures may kill students' interest in math—especially for girls
A new study in Frontiers in Psychology suggests that high national math achievement combined with societal pressures may contribute to how well girls and boys like math. Past research has shown that achievement-driven cultures frequently correlate with less enthusiasm for learning subjects like math. This study of over 500,000 eighth graders from 50 countries is the first to show that girls appear
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The invasive species that Europe needs to erradicate most urgently are identified
Species such as the golden apple snail are putting the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin in quite a predicament. Meanwhile, in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, water hyacinths are threatening to destroy the natural ecosystem of the Guadiana River. Invasive species change not only the habitat of many other species but they also directly impact the region's economy. Some of thes
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New modified wheat could help tackle global food shortage
Researchers at the University of York have created a new modified wheat variety that increases grain production by up to 12%.
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New insights into how the CRISPR immune system evolved
With new insights into how the genetic tool CRISPR—which allows direct editing of our genes—evolved and adapted, we are now one step closer to understanding the basis of the constant struggle for survival that takes place in nature. The results can be used in future biotechnologies.
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Forming beliefs in a world of filter bubbles
Why do so many Republicans still believe that the recent US presidential election was fraudulent? Is it possible to reach coronavirus deniers with factual arguments? A study by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and the University of Amsterdam provides insights into what it is that stops people from changing their minds.
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Minimal waste production is a fundamental law for animal locomotion
Is there a unifying principle underpinning animal locomotion in its rich diversity? A thermodynamic analysis performed by a Skoltech professor and his French collaborators at Université Paris Diderot, Université Paris Saclay, and the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, shows why and how waste minimization prevails on efficiency or power maximization when it comes to free locomotion irrespective
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A growth mindset of interest can spark innovative thinking
From climate change to the ongoing pandemic and beyond, the issues facing today's world are increasingly complex and dynamic. Yet solving problems like these—which interweave social, environmental, physical, and political factors—requires new approaches that extend beyond traditional ways of thinking. It requires people to draw upon and integrate seemingly disparate areas of knowledge, such as the
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Digital atlas makes Micronesia more easily researched than Hawaii, Fiji, and Guam
With the culmination of a five-year effort to gather a breadth of geospatial data and display it on an interactive digital atlas, the four main islands of the Federated States of Micronesia are now more easily researched than any other island in the Pacific, including Hawaii, Guam, and Fiji.
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Permit Denied for Alaskan Mine Project
The Army Corps of Engineers denied a permit for the proposed mine project, saying it was "contrary to the public interest."
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Physicists Say Universe Filled With Mystery Substance Called "Quintessence"
An international team of scientists is suggesting that the accelerating expansion of the Universe could be caused by a mystery substance called "quintessence" that permeates the cosmos. The tentative hypothesis could offer tantalizing new clues about the nature of dark energy, the mysterious force that physicists believe is responsible for the increasing speed at which the universe is expanding.
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Thanksgiving Break 2020
So I'll be taking time off until probably Monday, unless we get any big news. Thanksgiving season is here, and although we don't have as big a crowd as usual here (of course), I will soon head into the kitchen to make the same chocolate pecan pie I do every year. Every so often someone tweets a photo of their own experimental replication to me – I'm always glad to see it! A pumpkin pie will accom
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Transcultural literacies and meaning-making through fanfiction
Digital technology has made intercultural contacts a daily activity for many people in the world. As a result, the globalization of cultural flows and the various ways that people appropriate these cultural flows have become hot topics for investigation, and the prefix 'trans' can now be seen in terms like translocalities, transnational, translanguaging and transculturing, underlying the fluidity
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Bank-affiliated funds contribute to funding their parent banks in times of crisis
A study published recently in the journal Review of Financial Studies by the researchers Javier Gil-Bazo, Sergio Mayordomo and Peter Hoffmann, shows clear evidence that in Spain, bank-affiliated funds provided funding support to their parent company via purchases of bonds in the primary market during the last crisis (2008-2012).
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Sheep show the contamination by microplastics in the agricultural soils of Murcia
In recent times, the increase in plastic residues has been reasserted as being a major environmental problem. This material, which is present in packaging and day-to-day objects, plays a decisive role in intensive agriculture zones.
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Solar CNO neutrinos observed for the first time
Scientists who are members of the Borexino Collaboration have provided the first experimental proof of the occurrence of the so-called CNO cycle in the Sun: They have managed to directly detect the distinctive neutrinos generated during this fusion process. This is an important milestone on the route to better understanding the fusion processes that occur in the Sun. The Borexino Collaboration's f
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What makes a happy couple, a happy family?
Being emotionally flexible may be one of the most important factors when it comes to longevity and overall health of your romantic and familial relationships. That's the finding of a new University of Rochester meta-analysis, published in the Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science , which statistically combined the results of 174 separate studies that had looked at acceptance and commitment ther
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The Books Briefing: How to Tell the Story of a Family
The poet Marianne Moore had a deeply close—perhaps too close—relationship with her mother, Mary. This idiosyncratic bond intrigued Moore's contemporaries and her biographer Linda Leavell, who trains her eye on it in Holding On Upside Down: The Life and Work of Marianne Moore . As Leavell writes, the poet's mother could be cruel (she made marriage impossible for her daughter and even poisoned her
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X-ray diffraction reveals details inside mummies without having to open them up
A trio of researchers from Northwestern University, Metropolitan State University of Denver and Argonne National Laboratory has found that using X-ray diffraction on mummies makes it possible to see inside the wrappings without opening them. In their paper published in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, S. Stock, M. Stock and J. Almer describe scanning an Egyptian mummy in two ways and what t
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Is It Safe to Fly During the Coronavirus Pandemic?
Studies suggest that flying is a relatively lower-risk activity, and millions are traveling by plane over the holidays. But the picture is not complete. Here's what the science says about mitigating exposure.
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New modified wheat could help tackle global food shortage
Researchers at the University of York have created a new modified wheat variety that increases grain production by up to 12%.
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The career costs of COVID-19: how postdocs and PhD students are paying the price
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03108-4 Closed labs and rescinded job offers have snatched away opportunities. How can science bounce back? Julie Gould finds out.
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Researchers uncover the unique way stem cells protect their chromosome ends
Telomeres are specialized structures at the end of chromosomes which protect our DNA and ensure healthy division of cells. According to a new study from researchers at the Francis Crick Institute published in Nature, the mechanisms of telomere protection are surprisingly unique in stem cells.
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Novel haplotype-led approach to increase the precision of wheat breeding
Wheat researchers at the John Innes Centre are pioneering a new technique that promises to improve gene discovery for the globally important crop.
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BIDMC researchers reveal how genetic variations are linked to COVID-19 disease severity
New BIDMC-led research sheds light on the genetic risk factors that make individuals more or less susceptible to severe COVID-19.
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Study in Thailand identifies benefits of community-based freshwater fish reserves
Freshwater fish reserves are extraordinarily successful at protecting multiple species of fish, a new study of a network of community-based reserves in Thailand has found. Aaron Koning, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Nevada, Reno's Global Water Center, spent seven years studying a network of freshwater protected areas (fish reserves) that communities established in one branch
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Global collaboration is unlocking wheat's genetic potential
In a paper published Wednesday, Nov. 25, 2020, in Nature, Kansas State University researchers, in collaboration with the international 10+ Genome Project led by the University of Saskatchewan, have announced the complete genome sequencing of 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world — an invaluable resource to improve global wheat production.
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A microscope for everyone: Jena researchers develop open-source optical toolbox
Researchers from the Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena University and University Hospital have developed an optical toolbox to build microscopes for a few hundred euros that deliver high-resolution images comparable to commercial microscopes that cost up to a thousand times more. The 3D printed open-source modular system can be combined in the way the research question requires — fro
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Publisher Correction: A stabilized glycomimetic conjugate vaccine inducing protective antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20120-4
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Ice sheets on the move: How north and south poles connect
Over the past 40,000 years, ice sheets thousands of kilometers apart have influenced one another through sea level changes, according to new research. New modelling of ice sheet changes during the most recent glacial cycle demonstrates, for the first time, that during this period, changes in the Antarctic ice sheet were driven by the melting ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Landmark study generates first genomic atlas for global wheat improvement
In a landmark discovery for global wheat production, a team has sequenced the genomes for 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world, enabling scientists and breeders to much more quickly identify influential genes for improved yield, pest resistance and other important crop traits.
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Ghost fishing threatens endangered river dolphins, critically endangered turtles, otters
Waste fishing gear in the River Ganges poses a threat to wildlife including otters, turtles and dolphins, new research shows.
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Har du ikke fået fat i den nye Playstation eller Xbox: Her er tre pointer, der måske kan trøste dig lidt
Du kan spille alle de nye spil på din nuværende konsol – og de bedste kommer alligevel først om to-tre år, siger ekspert.
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Research creates hydrogen-producing living droplets, paving way for alternative future energy source
Scientists have built tiny droplet-based microbial factories that produce hydrogen, instead of oxygen, when exposed to daylight in air.
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Cutting edge technology to bioprint mini-kidneys
Researchers have used cutting edge technology to bioprint miniature human kidneys in the lab, paving the way for new treatments for kidney failure and possibly lab-grown transplants.
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Debat om elektrochok
Debatten om for og imod elektrochok mellem pensioneret praktiserende læge Herluf Dalhof og psykiatriprofessor Poul Videbech fortsætter.
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Växtföljder – ett sätt att få maten att räcka
Forskning visar att varierade växtföljder ökar skördarna, speciellt under varma och torra år. Odlingssättet framstår därför som en lovande strategi för att säkra tillgången på mat i ett förändrat klimat med högre temperaturer och långa torrperioder. Globalt kommer efterfrågan på mat att öka med 50 till 70 procent under de följande 40 åren enligt FN:s livsmedels- och jordbruksorganisation (FAO). I
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Forming beliefs in a world of filter bubbles
Why do so many Republicans still believe that the recent US presidential election was fraudulent? Is it possible to reach coronavirus deniers with factual arguments? A study by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and the University of Amsterdam provides insights into what it is that stops people from changing their minds. Their findings have been published in the journal
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New study explains important cause of fatal influenza
It is largely unknown why influenza infections lead to an increased risk of bacterial pneumonia. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have now described important findings leading to so-called superinfections, which claim many lives around the world every year. The study is published in the journal PNAS , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , and can also contribute to resear
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Understanding the power of our Sun
For the first time, the international team was able to directly observe neutrinos from this cycle (CNO neutrinos) with the Borexino detector in the Laboratori Nazionali in the Gran Sasso Massif (Italy). This milestone represents the fulfilment of a long-cherished scientific dream for the Dresden neutrino researcher Prof Kai Zuber and his team at the Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
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What Monoclonal Antibodies Are — and Why We Need Them As Well As a Vaccine
Monoclonal antibodies are man-made proteins that mimic natural antibodies in the immune system.
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Health misinformation pollutes the web, with consequences for all
Conspiracy theories about vaccines could affect how smoothly the world recovers from the coronavirus crisis
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After dosing mix-up, latest COVID-19 vaccine success comes with big question mark
Researchers wonder why lower dose prompted better efficacy in study of vaccine candidate from the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca
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What's It Like to Simulate the Next Cascades Volcanic Eruption?
We don't know when the next eruption in the Cascades might happen, but we can prepare for one by pretending it's happening.
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Basketball on the brain: Neuroscientists use sports to study surprise
Princeton neuroscientists tracked the brains and pupils of self-described basketball fans as they watched March Madness games, to study how people process surprise — an unexpected change of circumstances that shifts an anticipated outcome. They found that that shifts in the pattern of activity in high-level brain areas only happened at moments that contradicted the watchers' current beliefs about
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Here's How the First Coronavirus Vaccines Will Be Distributed
Operation Warp Speed, the federal public-private partnership that's led the push to develop a COVID-19 vaccine on an accelerated timeline, just announced how it plans to distribute the first batch of vaccines. So far, none of the experimental vaccines in the developmental pipeline have been approved for use by the FDA. But once they are, NPR reports , the first batches will be distributed based o
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Research creates hydrogen-producing living droplets, paving way for alternative future energy source
Scientists have built tiny droplet-based microbial factories that produce hydrogen, instead of oxygen, when exposed to daylight in air.
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When consumers trust AI recommendations, or resist them
The key factor in deciding how to incorporate AI recommenders is whether consumers are focused on the functional and practical aspects of a product (its utilitarian value) or on the experiential and sensory aspects of a product (its hedonic value).
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Cutting edge technology to bioprint mini-kidneys
Researchers have used cutting edge technology to bioprint miniature human kidneys in the lab, paving the way for new treatments for kidney failure and possibly lab-grown transplants.
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Simple new testing method aims to improve time-release drugs
Engineers filled a glass tube bent like a tuning fork, kept vibrating by a circuit at its resonance frequency, with simulated stomach and intestine contents and passed an over-the-counter time-release drug granule through the tube. They observed a brief change in the frequency. When plotted, they could compare the peaks of resonance frequency against the time to learn the buoyant mass of the drug
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Team uses copper to image Alzheimer's aggregates in the brain
A proof-of-concept study conducted in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease offers new evidence that copper isotopes can be used to detect the amyloid-beta protein deposits that form in the brains of people living with — or at risk of developing — Alzheimer's.
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Elephants can lose two bathtubs full of water in a single day when it gets hot
Study could spell trouble for the already vulnerable pachyderms
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Autumn Colors and Autumn Chill
As the season progresses toward chillier days and nights, I thought it would be nice to take one last look at the colorful beauty of this autumn, seen in cities and countryside vistas across the Northern Hemisphere. Get cozy in a warm sweater and enjoy this batch of recent fall photos. For even more autumnal goodness, check out " Fall Is in the Air: Images of the Season " from earlier this year.
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Data glitch 'may have led to more than 1,500 Covid deaths in England'
Public Health England disputes Warwick University economists' findings as 'misleading' Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage An Excel spreadsheet error that wiped nearly 16,000 English Covid cases from national statistics may have led to more than 1,500 preventable deaths, according to a paper from Warwick University. Cases that were removed from the record due to the spre
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Is it safe to visit family in nursing homes this holiday?
Families should exercise caution when planning a visit to a loved one in a nursing home during the third wave of the coronavirus pandemic, Valerie Cotter argues. The first publicized US outbreak of coronavirus took place in a nursing home in King County, Washington, in late February. A reported 81 nursing home residents were infected, as were 34 staff members and 14 visitors. As a result of the f
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Movies get a thumbs down for showing unhealthy food
Food and drinks depicted in the 250 top-grossing American movies of recent decades largely fail US government nutrition recommendations and UK youth advertising standards, a new study shows. "If our favorite actors and superheroes aren't eating salads, why should we?" Researchers looked at the top grossing movies between 1994 and 2018—including Black Panther , Avatar, and Titanic —to quantify the
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Are we the same person throughout our lives? In essence, yes
Although our body changes and our beliefs and values may vary throughout our lives, our essence remains stable. Research at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) has recorded brain activity in a group of individuals showing that our ability to recognise ourselves as distinctive –the "continuity of the self"– remains undiminished by change and that it takes us only 250 milliseconds to recogn
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The keys to the squirrel's evolutionary success in the face of climate change have been identified
Squirrels form a diverse family of rodents. Nearly 300 species have been described, and they occur in every land environment on the planet, from tropical forests to hot and cold deserts. But why are there so many species? A study led by researchers from the Complutense University of Madrid and the Institute of Geosciences (UCM-CSIC) has examined the characteristics of squirrel species that contrib
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A new strategy for the greener use of calcium carbide
Computational chemists from St Petersburg University and the Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences have developed a new strategy for using calcium acetylide in the synthesis of organic compounds. The researchers proposed a new approach by analysing the interaction of calcium acetylide with water and dimethyl sulfoxide on the atomic scale.
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Phytoplankton disturbed by nanoparticles
Products derived from nanotechnology are efficient and highly sought-after, yet their effects on the environment are still poorly understood. A research team from the University of Geneva have investigated the effects of nanosilver, currently used in almost 450 products for its antibacterial properties, on the algae known as Poterioochromonas malhamensis. The results show that nanosilver disturb t
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The invasive species that Europe needs to erradicate most urgently are identified
An international research team analyzed the risk impact and the effectiveness of possible erradication strategies for invasive species already in the region as well as those that have yet to arrive
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Chia, goji & co. — BfR consumer monitor special superfoods
Chia seeds, goji berries or quinoa — 48% of the population see so-called 'superfoods' as part of a health-conscious diet. This is shown by a recent representative survey by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).
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Effect of climate change on infectious diseases unknown to half of the population
Although it is a widely known scientific fact that infectious diseases emerge and re-emerge due to climate change, a study which included the involvement of the UAB published in PlosOne reveals that 48.9% of the population surveyed are not aware of this relation.
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Gene donors at high risk for cancer received feedback
Researchers at the Estonian Genome Center at the University of Tartu studied how people at high risk for breast, ovarian or prostate cancer responses to the feedback of genetic findings. Gene donors who chose to receive results appreciated being contacted and considered the information provided to be valuable. Authors find that knowing more about people's genetic traits will significantly expand t
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Russian scientists improve 3D printing technology for aerospace composites using oil waste
Scientists from NUST MISIS have improved the technology of 3D printing from aluminum, having achieved an increase in the hardness of products by 1,5 times. The nanocarbon additive to aluminum powder, which they have developed, obtained from the products of processing associated petroleum gas, will improve the quality of 3D printed aerospace composites. The research results are published in the int
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Mapping out the mystery of blood stem cells
Princess Margaret scientists have revealed how stem cells are able to generate new blood cells throughout our life by looking at vast, uncharted regions of our genetic material that hold important clues to subtle biological changes in these cells.
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From fins to limbs and water to land
The study shows how and when the first groups of land explorers became better walkers than swimmers. The analysis spans the fin-to-limb transition and reconstructs the evolution of terrestrial movement in early tetrapods.
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Evidence of the interconnectedness of global climate
The analysis, published in Nature, shows for the first time that changes in the Antarctic ice sheet were caused by the melting of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. The influence was driven by sea-level changes caused by the melting ice in the north during the past 40,000 years.
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Space travel can adversely impact energy production in a cell
Studies of both mice and humans who have traveled into space reveal that critical parts of a cell's energy production machinery, the mitochondria, can be made dysfunctional due to changes in gravity, radiation exposure and other factors. These findings are part of an extensive research effort across many scientific disciplines to look at the health effects of travel into space.
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Fruit flies reveal new insights into space travel's effect on the heart
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have shown that fruit flies that spent several weeks on the International Space Station (ISS)–about half of their lives–experienced profound structural and biochemical changes to their hearts.
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Scientists call for decade of concerted effort to enhance understanding of the deep seas
An international team of scientists, spanning 45 institutions in 17 countries, has called for a dedicated decade-long programme of research to greatly advance discovery in the deep ocean.
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Barley pan-genome: IPK scientists reach milestone on the way to 'transparent' barley
An international research team led by the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) has reached a milestone on the way to the 'transparent' barley plant. With the complete sequencing of 20 different genotypes, the scientists completed the first step in decoding the genetic information of the entire species 'barley' — the barley pan-genome. Breeders will greatly benefit fro
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Wheat diversity due to cross-hybridization with wild grasses
Bread wheat can grow in highly diverse regional environments. An important reason for its great genetic variety is the cross-hybridization with many chromosome fragments from wild grasses. This is shown by the genome sequences of 10 wheat varieties from four continents, which an international consortium including researchers from the University of Zurich has now decoded.
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New wheat and barley genomes will help feed the world
An international research collaboration, including scientists from the University of Adelaide's Waite Research Institute, has unlocked new genetic variation in wheat and barley – a major boost for the global effort in breeding higher-yielding wheat and barley varieties.
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Ice sheets on the move: how north and south poles connect
Over the past 40,000 years, ice sheets thousands of kilometres apart have influenced one another through sea level changes, according to research published today in Nature. New modelling of ice sheet changes during the most recent glacial cycle by a McGill-led team demonstrates, for the first time, that during this period, changes in the Antarctic ice sheet were driven by the melting ice sheets in
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Water-to-land transition in early tetrapods
The water-to-land transition is one of the most important major transitions in vertebrate evolution. However, there is still uncertainty about when the water-land transition took place and how terrestrial early tetrapods really were. A new paper in Nature addresses these questions and shows although these early tetrapods were still tied to water and had aquatic features, they also had adaptations
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Space worms experiment reveals gravity affects genes
Living at low gravity affects cells at the genetic level, according to a study of worms in space.
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Research provides new insights on health effects of long-duration space flight
Among the new findings, the research team found that chronic oxidative stress during spaceflight contributed to the telomere elongation they observed. They also found that astronauts had shorter telomeres after spaceflight than they did before.
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Landmark study generates first genomic atlas for global wheat improvement
In a landmark discovery for global wheat production, a University of Saskatchewan-led international team has sequenced the genomes for 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world, enabling scientists and breeders to much more quickly identify influential genes for improved yield, pest resistance and other important crop traits.
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Bird with tall, sickle-shaped beak reveals hidden diversity during the age of dinosaurs
A new bird fossil helps scientists better understand convergent evolution of complex anatomy and provides new insights into the evolution of face and beak shape in a forerunner of modern birds.
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Stem cell-based screen identifies potential new treatments
In a recent study published in Stem Cell Reports , Seba Almedawar, PhD, and colleagues with the Center for Regenerative Therapies TU Dresden, Germany, used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the skin of healthy donors and of patients with retinitis pigmentosa to find drugs with the potential to enhance RPE phagocytosis.
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Defects in mitochondria may explain many health problems observed during space travel
Using data collected from a number of different resources, a multidisciplinary team is reporting discovery of a common thread that drives this damage: mitochondrial dysfunction. The researchers used a systems approach to look at widespread alterations affecting biological function. The findings are reported November 25 in the journal Cell.
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Stanford scientists invent ultrafast way to manufacture perovskite solar modules
High-speed manufacturing could advance the commercialization of perovskite modules, a green alternative to conventional solar panels made of silicon.
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First large-scale proteogenomic analysis offers insights into pediatric brain tumors
A comprehensive "proteogenomic" analysis of the proteins, genes, and RNA transcription involved in pediatric brain tumors has yielded a more complete understanding of these tumors, which are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children. The results could help physicians more accurately identify different types of tumors and methods for treating them.
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Neuroscientists measure fans' reactions to the big game
In a study published November 25 in the journal Neuron , researchers show how the feelings of surprise experienced while watching sports creates shifts in brain patterns. These shifts are important for neuroscientists to understand because they contribute to the formation of memories that are particularly strong.
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Retraction Note: Living annulative π-extension polymerization for graphene nanoribbon synthesis
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2950-0
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Metallaphotoredox aryl and alkyl radiomethylation for PET ligand discovery
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-3015-0
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Neutrinos give insights into the workings of the Sun's core
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03347-5 Scientists have finally confirmed the existence of a CNO cycle fusion reaction in the Sun, and why women's contraception research needs a reboot.
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Neutrino detection gets to the core of the Sun
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03238-9 The first detection of neutrinos produced by the Sun's secondary solar-fusion cycle paves the way for a detailed understanding of the structure of the Sun and of the formation of massive stars.
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The changing face of birds from the age of the dinosaurs
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03260-x The fossil record traces the origin of the modern bird skull as birds evolved from their dinosaurian ancestors. Now the discovery of a bizarre fossil reveals a surprising diversion during this process of facial transformation.
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Experimental evidence of neutrinos produced in the CNO fusion cycle in the Sun
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2934-0 Direct experimental evidence of the carbon–nitrogen–oxygen fusion cycle in the Sun is provided by the detection of neutrinos emitted during this process.
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TRF2-mediated telomere protection is dispensable in pluripotent stem cells
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2959-4 Depletion of TRF2—an essential mediator of telomere protection in most mammalian cells—in mouse embryonic stem cells activates a compensatory transcriptional program that renders TRF2 dispensable for their survival and proliferation.
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The barley pan-genome reveals the hidden legacy of mutation breeding
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2947-8 Chromosome-scale sequence assemblies of 20 diverse varieties of barley are used to construct a first-generation pan-genome, revealing previously hidden genetic variation that can be used by studies aimed at crop improvement
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Lanthanide-doped inorganic nanoparticles turn molecular triplet excitons bright
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2932-2 Optically dark (non-emitting) triplet excitons on organic molecules may be rendered bright by coupling the molecules to lanthanide-doped nanoparticles, providing a way to control such excitons in optoelectronic systems.
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TRF2-independent chromosome end protection during pluripotency
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2960-y Experiments in mouse pluripotent embryonic and epiblast stem cells show that TRF2 is dispensable for telomere protection specifically specifically in the pluripotent cells that form during early embryonic development, when cells form T-loops independently of this protein.
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Fibrosis: from mechanisms to medicines
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2938-9 This review discusses how single-cell profiling and other technological advances are increasing our understanding of the mechanisms of fibrosis, thereby accelerating the discovery, development and testing of new treatments.
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Antarctic ice dynamics amplified by Northern Hemisphere sea-level forcing
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2916-2 Changes in Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet size during ice-age cycles enhance the advance and retreat of the grounding line of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, owing to interhemispheric sea-level forcing.
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A network of grassroots reserves protects tropical river fish diversity
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2944-y A network of small, community-run river reserves in Thailand increases local fish biomass, diversity and richness.
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The gut microbiota is associated with immune cell dynamics in humans
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2971-8 Influence of the gut microbiome on the human immune system is revealed by systems analysis of vast clinical data from decades of electronic health records paired with massive longitudinal microbiome sequencing.
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Functional adaptive landscapes predict terrestrial capacity at the origin of limbs
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2974-5 Analysis of humeri from fossils that span the fin-to-limb transition reveal that the change in the humerus shape is driven by both ecology and phylogeny, and is associated with functional trade-offs related to locomotor performance.
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A map of cis-regulatory elements and 3D genome structures in zebrafish
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2962-9 A comprehensive map of transcriptomes, cis-regulatory elements, heterochromatin structure, the methylome and 3D genome organization in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) enables identification of species-specific and evolutionarily conserved regulatory features, and provides a foundation for modelling studies on human disease and
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Discoveries in structure and physiology of mechanically activated ion channels
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2933-1 This Review summarizes developments in the field of mechanically activated ion channels, which have been driven by the increasing breadth of structural studies.
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Multiple wheat genomes reveal global variation in modern breeding
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2961-x Comparison of multiple genome assemblies from wheat reveals extensive diversity that results from the complex breeding history of wheat and provides a basis for further potential improvements to this important food crop.
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Commensal-driven immune zonation of the liver promotes host defence
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2977-2 The authors show that zonation extends to hepatic immune cells and that this spatial patterning is mediated by microbiome sensing by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and provide evidence that immune zonation is required to protect the host from the dissemination of blood-borne pathogens.
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Spin-enhanced nanodiamond biosensing for ultrasensitive diagnostics
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2917-1 Lateral-flow in vitro diagnostic assays based on fluorescent nanodiamonds, in which microwave-based spin manipulation is used to increase sensitivity, are demonstrated using the biotin–avidin model and by the single-copy detection of HIV-1 RNA.
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Late Cretaceous bird from Madagascar reveals unique development of beaks
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2945-x A crow-sized stem bird, Falcatakely forsterae, possesses a long and deep rostrum—a beak morphology that was previously unknown among Mesozoic birds and is similar to that of some crown-group birds, such as toucans.
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Neural circuit mechanisms of sexual receptivity in Drosophila females
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2972-7 In Drosophila melanogaster, female mating decisions are governed by female-specific descending neurons that integrate input from auditory neurons that respond to features of the song of a conspecific male and central neurons that encode the mating status of the female.
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Splicing factor YBX1 mediates persistence of JAK2-mutated neoplasms
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2968-3 Inhibition of YBX1, a downstream target of the Janus kinase JAK2, sensitizes myeloproliferative neoplasm cells to JAK and could provide a means to eradicate such cells in human haematopoietic cancers.
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Observing the emergence of a quantum phase transition shell by shell
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2936-y An atomic simulator formed of a few ultracold fermionic atoms trapped in a two-dimensional harmonic potential exhibits precursors of a quantum phase transition, revealing the onset of collective quantum many-body phenomena in a few-body system.
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Novel chemical process a first step to making nuclear fuel with fire
Developing safe and sustainable fuels for nuclear energy is an integral part of an energy security mission.
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Researchers go underwater to study how sponge species vanished
Researchers embarked on an underwater journey to solve a mystery: Why did sponges of the Agelas oroides species, which used to be common in the shallow waters along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, disappear? The researchers believe that the main reason for the disappearance of the sponges was the rise in seawater temperatures during the summer months, which in the past 60 years have risen by ab
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Sestrin makes fruit flies live longer
Researchers identify positive effector behind reduced food intake.
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Secrets of the 'lost crops' revealed where bison roam
Blame it on the bison. If not for the wooly, boulder-sized beasts that once roamed North America in vast herds, ancient people might have looked past the little barley that grew under those thundering hooves. But the people soon came to rely on little barley and other small-seeded native plants as staple food.
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Channeling the immune system for head and neck cancer
Researchers have discovered new clues into why some people with head and neck cancer respond to immunotherapy, while others don't.
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Publisher Correction: Fe-functionalized paramagnetic sporopollenin from pollen grains: one-pot synthesis using ionic liquids
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77728-1
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Is It Safe to Fly During the Coronavirus Pandemic?
Studies suggest that flying is a relatively lower-risk activity, and millions are traveling by plane over the holidays. But the picture is not complete. Here's what the science says about mitigating exposure.
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Flexibility is key for happy families and couples
People who are psychologically flexible have better family and romantic relationships, according to new research. Cohesive families seem to share a few critical traits, psychologists agree. Being emotionally flexible may be one of the most important factors when it comes to longevity and overall health of your romantic and familial relationships. The meta-analysis in the Journal of Contextual Beh
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Spaceflight does some weird things to astronauts' bodies
Astronaut Scott Kelly famously lived and worked on the International Space Station for 340 days—the longest time an American has spent in space. His mission gave scientists some vital insight into what happens to the human body during long-duration stays in orbit. That's because Kelly has an identical twin, Mark (also an astronaut, and now soon to be a US senator). The Kelly twins offered scienti
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New insights into how the CRISPR immune system evolved
With new insights into how the genetic tool CRISPR – which allows direct editing of our genes – evolved and adapted, we are now one step closer to understanding the basis of the constant struggle for survival that takes place in nature. The results can be used in future biotechnologies.
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High achievement cultures may kill students' interest in math — especially for girls
In countries where academic performance in math is high, students paradoxically tend to have lower levels of interest in the subject. A recent study suggests that this effect is even stronger among girls, potentially explaining why they tend to do slightly less well at math than their male peers in high-achieving countries.
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RUDN University mathematicians applied 19th century ideas to modern computerized algebra systems
A team of mathematicians from RUDN University added new symbolic integration functionality to the Sage computerized algebra system. The team implemented ideas and methods suggested by the German mathematician Karl Weierstrass in the 1870s.
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New modified wheat could help tackle global food shortage
Researchers at the University of York have created a new modified wheat variety that increases grain production by up to 12%.
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Scientists determine the structure of glass-shaping protein in sponges
Researchers from TU Dresden and the Swiss Light Source at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland are the first to determine the three dimensional (3D) structure of a protein responsible for glass formation in sponges. They explain how the earliest and, in fact, the only known natural protein-mineral crystal is formed. The results were published in the journal PNAS .
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Radboud university medical center research: Most lungs recover well after COVID-19
Lung tissue of patients who suffered severely from COVID-19 shows good recovery in most cases. This was revealed by a study carried out by the Radboud university medical center that has now been published in Clinical Infectious Diseases. A striking conclusion is that the group who was referred by a GP did not recover as well as patients who were admitted to the hospital's Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
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Genetic study shows that the risk of pre-eclampsia is related to blood pressure and BMI
An international study, coordinated by experts from the University of Nottingham, has revealed that the genetic risk of pre-eclampsia – a potentially dangerous condition in pregnancy – is related to blood pressure and body mass index.
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Minimal waste production is a fundamental law for animal locomotion
Is there a unifying principle underpinning animal locomotion in its rich diversity? The thermodynamic analysis shows why and how waste minimization prevails on efficiency or power maximization when it comes to free locomotion irrespective of the available mode and gaits.
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Covid Combat Fatigue: Doctors and Nurses Are Running on Empty
Doctors and nurses on the front lines are running on empty, under increasing duress as the pandemic surges and hospitals are overrun with patients.
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Bird with tall, sickle-shaped beak reveals hidden diversity during the age of dinosaurs
A Cretaceous-age, crow-sized bird from Madagascar would have sliced its way through the air wielding a large, blade-like beak and offers important new insights on the evolution of face and beak shape in the Mesozoic forerunners of modern birds. An international team of researchers led by Ohio University professor Dr. Patrick O'Connor and Stony Brook University professor Dr. Alan H. Turner announce
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Research provides new insights on health effects of long-duration space flight
The historic NASA Twins Study investigated identical twin astronauts Scott and Mark Kelly and provided new information on the health effects of spending time in space.
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Defects in mitochondria may explain many health problems observed during space travel
For space exploration to be successful, it's vital to understand—and find ways to address—underlying causes of the health issues that have been observed in astronauts who have spent extended periods of time off world. These problems include loss of bone and muscle mass, immune dysfunction, and heart and liver problems. Using data collected from a number of different resources, a multidisciplinary
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Fruit flies reveal new insights into space travel's effect on the heart
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have shown that fruit flies that spent several weeks on the International Space Station (ISS)—about half of their lives—experienced profound structural and biochemical changes to their hearts. The study, published today in Cell Reports, suggests that astronauts who spend a lengthy amount of time in space—which would be required for f
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Water-to-land transition in early tetrapods
The water-to-land transition is one of the most important and inspiring major transitions in vertebrate evolution. And the question of how and when tetrapods transitioned from water to land has long been a source of wonder and scientific debate.
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New wheat and barley genomes will help feed the world
An international research collaboration, including scientists from the University of Adelaide's Waite Research Institute, has unlocked new genetic variation in wheat and barley—a major boost for the global effort in breeding higher-yielding wheat and barley varieties.
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Ice sheets on the move: Evidence of the interconnectedness of global climate
To see how deeply interconnected the planet truly is look no further than the massive ice sheets on the Northern Hemisphere and South Pole.
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Landmark study generates first genomic atlas for global wheat improvement
In a landmark discovery for global wheat production, a University of Saskatchewan-led international team has sequenced the genomes for 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world, enabling scientists and breeders to much more quickly identify influential genes for improved yield, pest resistance and other important crop traits.
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Space worms experiment reveals gravity affects genes
Living at low gravity affects cells at the genetic level, according to a study of worms in space.
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NASA Is Officially Assembling the SLS in Florida
Stacking the SLS NASA has officially started stacking booster segments of its first heavy-lift Space Launch System (SLS) at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, with a planned first flight set for some time next year. The agency has ambitious plans for the massive rocket. It wants to use it to launch the first Artemis astronauts to the Moon as soon as 2024 — though, according to the agency itself
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Defects in mitochondria may explain many health problems observed during space travel
For space exploration to be successful, it's vital to understand—and find ways to address—underlying causes of the health issues that have been observed in astronauts who have spent extended periods of time off world. These problems include loss of bone and muscle mass, immune dysfunction, and heart and liver problems. Using data collected from a number of different resources, a multidisciplinary
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New wheat and barley genomes will help feed the world
An international research collaboration, including scientists from the University of Adelaide's Waite Research Institute, has unlocked new genetic variation in wheat and barley—a major boost for the global effort in breeding higher-yielding wheat and barley varieties.
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Landmark study generates first genomic atlas for global wheat improvement
In a landmark discovery for global wheat production, a University of Saskatchewan-led international team has sequenced the genomes for 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world, enabling scientists and breeders to much more quickly identify influential genes for improved yield, pest resistance and other important crop traits.
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Paging Dr. Hamblin: Is It Safe to See My Therapist in Person?
Editor's Note: On Wednesdays, James Hamblin takes questions from readers about health-related curiosities, concerns, and obsessions. Have one? Email him at paging.dr.hamblin@theatlantic.com . Dear Dr. Hamblin, I need to see my therapist, but she isn't doing teletherapy due to her hearing. She says she's opening windows on both sides of her office, leaving one hour between appointments, requiring
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Lavdosis CT-sagen har vist sig ubegrundet, men hvad med 'sagen' om Mahican Gielen?
Er sagen om fyringen af ledende overlæge Mahican Gielen blevet 'glemt', uden at dem, der helt uberettiget fyrede hende, skal stå til regnskab for deres handling?
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Understanding the utility of plasmas for medical applications
Plasma medicine is an emerging field, as plasmas show promise for use in a wide range of therapies from wound healing to cancer treatment, and plasma jets are the main plasma sources typically used in plasma-surface applications. To better understand how plasma jets modify the surfaces of biological tissue, researchers conducted computer simulations of the interaction between an atmospheric pressu
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Creating higher energy density lithium-ion batteries for renewable energy applications
Lithium-ion batteries that function as high-performance power sources for renewable applications, such as electric vehicles and consumer electronics, require electrodes that deliver high energy density without compromising cell lifetimes. Researchers investigate the origins of degradation in high energy density LIB cathode materials and develop strategies for mitigating those degradation mechanism
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How the brain 're-wires' after disease
Researchers are studying how the brain re-wires itself in neurological disease. The team is building treatments for today's more common global conditions like Motor Neuron Disease (MND/ALS) and Spinal Muscular Atrophy and their findings could impact rehabilitation for patients, the discovery of effective drugs and quantifying the potential efficacy of new therapies.
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Shining a light on nanoscale dynamics
Watching metamaterials at work in real time using ultrafast electron diffraction: a research team succeeds in using ultrashort electron pulses to measure light-matter interactions in nanophotonic materials and metamaterials.
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MIT breakthrough in deep learning could help reduce errors
MIT researchers claim that deep learning neural networks need better uncertainty analysis to reduce errors. "Deep evidential regression" reduces uncertainty after only one pass on a network, greatly reducing time and memory. This could help mitigate problems in medical diagnoses, autonomous driving, and much more. We've all seen the movies: a mad genius creates breakthrough artificial intelligenc
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Warwick scientists design model to predict cellular drug targets against COVID-19
A computational model of a human lung cell has been used to understand how SARS-CoV-2 draws on human host cell metabolism to reproduce by researchers at the University of Warwick. This study helps understand how the virus uses the host to survive, and enable drug predictions for treating the virus to be made.
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Everyday activities enhance personal well-being
Physical activity makes happy and is important to maintain psychic health. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Central Institute of Mental Health (CIMH) in Mannheim studied the brain regions which play a central role in this process. Their findings reveal that even everyday activities, such as climbing stairs, significantly enhance well-being, in particular of persons su
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UB study identifies new functions in the Machado-Joseph genetic disease
Ataxia is a minority disease with genetic origins, known for its neuromuscular alterations due to the selective loss of neurons in the cerebellum. University of Barcelona researchers have identified new functions in the ataxin 3 gene (ATXN3) -which causes Machado-Joseph disease, the most common type of ataxia- in the development of retina photoreceptors. These results are relevant also to understa
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Attosecond interferometry in time-energy domain
The space-momentum domain interferometer is a key technique in modern precision measurements, and has been widely used for applications that require superb spatial resolution in engineering metrology and astronomy. Extending such interferometric techniques to the time-energy domain is a significant complement to spatial domain measurements and is anticipated to provide time resolving capability fo
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Progress in electronic structure and topology in nickelates superconductors
The discovery of high Tc superconductivity in cuprates attracts people to explore superconductivity in nickelates, whose crystal structures are similar to cuprates. Recently, Danfeng Li et al. at Stanford University published an article in Nature, reporting the observed superconductivity in hole-doped nickelates Nd0.8Sr0.2NiO2. Different from cuprates, the parent compound NdNiO2 does not preserve
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1 km. kabelrør bugseret gennem Københavns havn – i et stykke
Kabelrøret skal forbinde en af Banedanmarks nye fordelingsstationer med H.C Ørstedværket, der skal levere strømmen til fremtidens eldrevne tog.
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PS5 Temperature Measurements Reveal Potential Trouble Spot
There's some evidence that the PlayStation 5 may get very hot in one specific place while gaming, and while this seems to be causing no problems at the moment, gamers who live in hot climates and/or lack air conditioning should pay attention. According to the PS5 device teardown at Gamers Nexus , most of the device temperatures are excellent in all cases, though temperatures drop moderately if yo
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Preschool parents worry their kids are missing out on critical social skills during the pandemic
As COVID-19 cases once again spike across the country, parents in school districts like New York City and Detroit face another weeks long stretch of remote learning. This often includes preschool parents, whose children range in age from three to six and are often too young to manage virtual learning on their own.
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New physical picture leads to a precise finite-size scaling of (3+1)-dimensional O(n) critical system
Since the establishment of the renormalization group theory, it has been known that systems of critical phenomena typically possess an upper critical dimension dc (dc=4 for the O(n) model), such that in spatial dimensions at or higher than the dc, the thermodynamic behavior is governed by critical exponents taking mean-field values. In contrast to the simplicity of the thermodynamic behavior, the
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This type of sexual harassment on campus often goes overlooked
When the #MeToo movement gained momentum in 2017, it exposed widespread sexual harassment in the workplace, and academia was no exception. Yet the COVID-19 pandemic has dimmed the spotlight on this issue in higher education as attention has shifted to challenges related to remote learning and other pressing concerns.
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Efficient and durable perovskite solar cell materials
Perovskite solar cells are attracting attention as the next-generation solar battery material thanks to their low processing cost and excellent photovoltaic quality. However, it is difficult to commercialize them because their key material—perovskite—is vulnerable to light and moisture.
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Cells in limbo rouse allies before they perish
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03338-6 Dying cells can revive for long enough to trigger their own replacement.
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Riskiest Spot for Rising Seas Is 50 Miles from the Ocean
A new FEMA index considers socioeconomic factors in evaluating community disaster vulnerability — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Ideal type-II Weyl points are observed in classical circuits
The elementary particles that build the universe have two types: bosons and fermions, where the fermions are classified as Dirac, Weyl, and Majorana fermions. In recent years, Weyl fermions are found in condensed matter systems, and Weyl semimetals as a kind of quasiparticle, and they manifest themselves as Weyl points from dispersion relations. In contrast to high-energy physics which requires th
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New plant-based gel to fast-track 'mini-organs' growth, improve cancer treatment
Monash University researchers have created the world's first bioactive plant-based nanocellulose hydrogel to support organoid growth and help significantly reduce the costs of studies into cancer and COVID-19.
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Transcultural literacies and meaning-making through fanfiction
This is the subject of analysis of a digital ethnography study by Liudmila Shafirova, Daniel Cassany and Carme Bach, all members of the GR@EL research group at the Department of Translation and Language Sciences, published in Journal of Language and Intercultural Communication on 24 September.
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New breakthrough in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
People with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) could soon benefit from a new drug treatment, otilimab, that not only suppresses inflammation but also significantly reduces patient reported pain scores.
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Bank-affiliated funds contribute to funding their parent banks in times of crisis
So reveals academic research involving the collaboration of Javier Gil-Bazo, a professor at the UPF Department of Economics and Business, with Peter Hoffmann and Sergio Mayordomo, published in the renowned journal Review of Financial Studies.The study shows that banks in Spain strategically resort to this practice especially in times of crisis, when access to traditional funding is limited and cos
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Iron infusion proves effective to treat anaemia in Rural Africa
Iron-deficiency anaemia is a major concern in low-income settings, especially for women. In a new study by the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) and partners published yesterday in The Lancet Global Health , researchers found that iron infusion was feasible, safe and, in contrast to the standard iron-deficiency anaemia treatment of oral iron tablets, highly effective in Tanzan
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Age not just a number: Causes of joint stiffness differ between older and younger adults
As people age, joints become less flexible, causing balance problems that lower quality of life. Dr. Kosuke Hirata, Mr. Ryosuke Yamadera, and Prof. Ryota Akagi from the Shibaura Institute of Technology revealed that among younger adults, muscle but not nerve stiffness is associated with the ankle's range of motion (ROM), whereas only nerve stiffness is linked to ankle ROM among older adults. In ot
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CsPbBrI2 perovskites with low energy loss for high-performance indoor and outdoor photovoltaics
Large energy loss in the device has limited a further increase in efficiency and commercialization. Recently, a research team led by Prof. Zhao-Kui Wang from Soochow University was using (NH4)2C2O4* H2O to treat CsPbBrI2 perovskite film during spin-coating. The CsPbBrI2 underwent secondary crystallization to form high quality films with micrometer-scale and low trap density.
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Using a soft crystal to visualize how absorbed carbon dioxide behaves in liquid
A team of scientists has succeeded in visualizing how carbon dioxide (CO2) behaves in an ionic liquid that selectively absorbs CO2. The finding is expected to help develop more efficient methods to capture CO2 in the atmosphere, one of the major factors causing global warming.
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RUDN University research team of mathematicians suggested a new decision making algorithm
A research team from RUDN University developed an algorithm to help large groups of people make optimal decisions in a short time. They confirmed the efficiency of their model using the example of the market at which the outbreak of COVID-19 began. The model helped the administration and sellers agree on closing the market and reach a consensus about the sums of compensations in just three steps.
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Sheep show the contamination by microplastics in the agricultural soils of Murcia
A team from the Diverfarming project has found microplastics in 92% of the faeces of sheep fed in intensive agricultural zones of Murcia that they analysed
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Breaking the skill limit, pianists attain more delicate touch
Japanese scientists discovered a training method to further improve the delicate touch of pianists by optimizing the method rather than increase the amount of training. They developed a system that freely controls the weight of piano keys using a haptic device, which enables to control the strength and direction of the force. The results of experiments showed that enhancing the somatosensory funct
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Signaling switch in pancreatic β-cells determines anti-diabetic drug effectiveness
An international research group headed by Professor SEINO Susumu (Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine) has clarified the action mechanism of widely utilized incretin-based drugs in the treatment of diabetes. These findings are important for illuminating the mechanism behind diabetes and will hopefully provide a basis for new treatments.
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For teens with migraine, sleeping in (a bit) may help
Research indicates that starting school later in the morning yields health and academic benefits for high schoolers, whose natural body clock tends toward late-to-bed, late-to-rise habits. While parents raise concerns about drowsy driving, irritation and impaired school performance, a new study led by researchers at UC San Francisco suggests another reason to push back the start time.
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Små barn bestraffar gärna andra för att lära dem en läxa
Även små barn skiljer på rätt och fel. Ny forskning visar att de inte heller värjer för att dela ut bestraffningar. Det tyder på att barn har förmåga att resonera moraliskt.
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Eksperter delte i spørgsmålet om corona-vaccine til børn og unge
PLUS. Mens eksperterne er enige om, at ældre og udsatte står forrest i køen til vaccinen, er de uenige om, hvorvidt børn og unge overhovedet bør vaccineres.
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One-fifth of ecosystems in danger of collapse – here's what that might look like
One in five countries are at risk of their ecosystems collapsing, threatening more than half of global GDP (US$42 trillion, or £32 trillion), according to recent research. This scary sounding statistic raises all sorts of questions. What does "ecosystem collapse" actually mean? What causes an ecosystem to collapse and how do we know when it's happened? Perhaps most important of all, what comes nex
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One-fifth of ecosystems in danger of collapse – here's what that might look like
One in five countries are at risk of their ecosystems collapsing, threatening more than half of global GDP (US$42 trillion, or £32 trillion), according to recent research. This scary sounding statistic raises all sorts of questions. What does "ecosystem collapse" actually mean? What causes an ecosystem to collapse and how do we know when it's happened? Perhaps most important of all, what comes nex
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Decoding gigantic insect genome could help tackle devastating locust crises
A 'game changing' study deciphering the genetic material of the desert locust could help combat the crop-ravaging behavior of the notorious insect pest which currently exacerbates a hunger crisis across many developing countries.
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Heading the ball in soccer: Blindfolded players
Researchers find that blind soccer players rotate their heads downward when trapping an incoming pass. This work may lead to an improved understanding of the sensory changes that can manifest in visually impaired individuals.
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Physicist creates N95-type respirators using cotton candy machine
Mahesh Bandi, a physicist with the Nonlinear and Non-equilibrium Physics Unit, OIST Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa, has found a way to produce N95-type respirator filters that is less expensive and quicker than conventional approaches. In his paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society A, he describes the technique he developed and how well his filters performed.
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One of Australia's most famous beaches is disappearing, and storms aren't to blame
Storms or tropical cyclones usually get the blame when Australia's beaches suffer severe erosion. But on the New South Wales north coast at Byron Bay, another force is at play.
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Springer Nature announces plan for open access publishing of research papers
Publisher Springer Nature has announced an open access option for researchers who do not want their papers locked behind a paywall. Starting in January, Springer Nature will allow researchers to pay for open access publication.
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This Company Wants to Put a Human-Size Hologram Booth in Your Living Room
Over the last several months we've gotten very used to communicating via video chat. Zoom, FaceTime, Google Hangouts, and the like have not only replaced most in-person business meetings, they've acted as a stand-in for gatherings between friends and reunions between relatives. Just a few short years ago, many of us would have found it strange to think we'd be spending so much time talking to peo
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A Kid, A Minor Bike Accident And A $19,000 Medical Bill
It was a surprise even for a family of lawyers. A process called "subrogation" began with a Nevada family's health insurer denying their claim for an ER visit after their 9-year-old fell off his bike. (Image credit: Maggie Starbard for KHN)
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Did Viruses Create the Nucleus? The Answer May Be Near.
Different as the cells from animals, plants, fungi and protozoa can be, they all share one prominent feature: a nucleus. They have other organelles, too, like the energy-producing mitochondria, but the presence of a nucleus — a well-defined porous pouch full of genetic material — is what inspired the biologist Édouard Chatton in 1925 to coin the term eukaryotes, which referred to living things wi
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Grabbing viruses out of thin air
Materials that convert mechanical into electrical or magnetic energy could open the door to a future of wearable and structure-integrated virus sensors.
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New discovery by SMART allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome in plants
Researchers from Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) have developed a tool that allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) in plants using Raman spectroscopy in significantly less time compared to conventional methods. The discovery can help farmers better monitor plant health and lead to improved crop yield.
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New mechanism of pain control revealed
Researchers have identified a unique population of astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of mice that produces pain hypersensitivity when activated by neurons carrying signals down from the brain. The findings indicate that the role of descending neurons in controlling spinal pain transmission is not limited to suppression and point to this group of astrocytes as a new target for enhanc
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Immune strategy based on limited information in the network
For cases of global pandemics such as e.g., the current COVID-19, it is impossible to know the full interactions of all individuals and immunize the most centrals. The authors develop a framework for understanding and carrying out efficient immunization (or efficient attack) with limited knowledge. Their findings highlight that an effective way to limit spreading is obtaining information on a few
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Ethical fashion is confusing—even shoppers with good intentions get overwhelmed
As Australian consumers step out of their loungewear post-lockdown, many might be looking to buy new clothes for themselves or as gifts.
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'Fairmandering' draws fair districts using data science
It's almost impossible for humans to draw unbiased maps, even when they're trying.
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Scientists join call for major shift in understanding to protect the ocean
Marine scientists from the University of Plymouth have contributed to a new international report calling for an urgent change in the way we think and talk about the ocean in a post-COVID world.
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Humans are polluting the environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and I'm finding them everywhere
Many of us are aware of the enormous threat of antibiotic- (or "antimicrobial") resistant bacteria on human health. But few realize just how pervasive these superbugs are—antimicrobial-resistant bacteria have jumped from humans and are running rampant across wildlife and the environment.
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We asked over 2,000 Australian parents how they fared in lockdown. Here's what they said
Parents have faced unprecedented stress during the pandemic as they care for children while juggling paid work from home.
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Towards 6G wireless communication networks: vision, enabling technologies, and new paradigm shifts
Recently, a long-form review titled "" was published in SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences Vol. 64, No.1. This article, co-authored by 50 researchers from 24 scientific research institutes, colleges, and companies both at home and abroad, provides a comprehensive survey of the latest progress and developmental trends about 6G networks.
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Psychological factors contributing to language learning
Motivation for language learning is a system of cognitive, emotional, and personality-related characteristics.
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A growth mindset of interest can spark innovative thinking
Researchers from Yale-NUS College find that viewing interests as developable, not fixed, can help people make connections among diverse fields that others might miss, with implications for innovation. Their research suggests that understanding this can benefit organisations in generating innovative solutions and ideas, job seekers taking on new or wide-ranging responsibilities, and can create a cu
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Attosecond interferometry in time-energy domain
Analogous to the conventional spatial double-slit experiment, the time domain Young's experiment can be realized by using temporal slits for diffraction instead, and fringes in the energy domain are expected. As a time-energy domain interferometric device, the temporal Young's interferometer is anticipated to possess advantageous time resolving capability and holds the promise of tracking ultrafas
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Progress in electronic structure and topology in nickelates superconductors
Recently, superconductivity was discovered in the hole-doped nickelates, wh ich provide us a new platform to study the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity. Researchers in IOP, CAS, investigated the electronic structure and band topology in this series of compounds carefully, and constructed a simplest two-band model. Besides, a pair of Dirac points are proposed below the Fermi level. A
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New physical picture leads to a precise finite-size scaling of (3+1)-dimensional O(n) critical system
Logarithmic finite-size scaling of O(n) critical systems at upper critical dimensionality has been a long-standing issue. Recently, scientists based in China and US provided a new physical picture. On this basis, they established an explicit scaling form for the free energy density, which simultaneously consists of a scaling term for the Gaussian fixed point and another term with multiplicative lo
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Efficient and durable perovskite solar cell materials
POSTECH professor Kilwon Cho's research team fabricates highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells through molecular designing of organic spacers.
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Ideal type-II Weyl points are observed in classical circuits
As one kind of elementary particles, Weyl fermions manifest themselves as Weyl points from dispersion relations. Although the type-II Weyl points with strongly tilted band structures have been observed in different systems, their ideal form where the Weyl points are symmetry-related and well-separated, and reside at the same energy and far from nontopological bands are never observed. Now scientis
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A new species of rare phylum Loricifera discovered in the deep-sea surrounding Japan
The Loricifera is a microscopic, sediment-dwelling marine invertebrate, with a head covered in over 200 spines and an abdomen with a protective shell – known as a lorica. Since it was first discovered in 1983, just under 40 species have been written about. Now, that number is one more thanks to a group of scientists who reported on a new genus and species of Loricifera.
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Humans are polluting the environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and I'm finding them everywhere
Many of us are aware of the enormous threat of antibiotic- (or "antimicrobial") resistant bacteria on human health. But few realize just how pervasive these superbugs are—antimicrobial-resistant bacteria have jumped from humans and are running rampant across wildlife and the environment.
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Microbes help unlock phosphorus for plant growth
A research team has shown that microbes taken from trees growing beside pristine mountain-fed streams in Western Washington could make phosphorus trapped in soils more accessible to agricultural crops.
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T. rex had huge growth spurts, but other dinos grew slow and steady
By cutting into dinosaur bones and analyzing the growth lines, a team of researchers discovered that T. rex and its closest relatives got big thanks to a huge growth spurt in adolescence, while its more distant cousins kept on growing a little bit every year throughout their lives.
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Ny spektakulær SpaceX-flyvning: Rumskib tester styrefinner i luften
Efter en række nervepirrende motortest er ottende udgave af Starship nu klar til at flyve til 15 kilometer, afprøve styrefinner og et særligt skift af brændstoftilførslen i luften.
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Inside the black box of iron oxide formation
From the splendorous red hues in the Grand Canyon to the mundane rust attacking a neglected bicycle, iron hydroxides are all around us. As a matter of fact, they are just as common as quartz, which is the most widely distributed mineral on the planet.
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The African Crested Rat Covers Itself With Poison That Can Take Out an Elephant
The African crested rat gnaws on poisonous tree branches, then grooms its noxious spittle into its fur.
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Opinion: Students with disabilities should have the option of in-person learning during COVID-19 school closures
As communities cope with the second wave of COVID-19 across Canada, calls for front-line support pile up as provinces are in various stages of lockdown.
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Online attacks on female journalists are increasingly spilling into the 'real world'
The insidious problem of online violence against women journalists is increasingly spilling offline with potentially deadly consequences, a new global survey suggests.
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Detecting bacteria with fluorescent nanosensors
Researchers from Bochum, Göttingen, Duisburg and Cologne have developed a new method for detecting bacteria and infections. They use fluorescent nanosensors to track down pathogens faster and more easily than with established methods. A team headed by Professor Sebastian Kruß, formerly at University of Göttingen, now at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB), describes the results in the journal Nature Com
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Even Earth's largest-ever sharks needed nurseries for their babies
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03304-2 Ancient teeth hint that a handful of sites served as sheltered sanctuaries for immature megalodon sharks.
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Can Joe Biden make good on his revolutionary climate agenda?
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03250-z Although he faces a split Congress, the US president-elect has levers he can pull in the government to advance clean energy and curb global warming.
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Ny typ av immunterapi ett lagarbete mot cancer
Immunterapi mot cancer har gjort stora framsteg och för många patienter finns framgångsrika behandlingar som inte fanns för tio år sedan. Men befintlig immunterapi fungerar inte för alla typer av cancer. Karolinska Institutet har utvecklat en ny typ av immunterapi som kan ge effektivare cancerbehandling genom ett lagarbete mellan celler. Cancerceller har en förmåga att omprogrammera kroppens immu
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Survival protein may prevent collateral damage during cancer therapy
Australian researchers have identified a protein that could protect the kidneys from 'bystander' damage caused by cancer therapies. The 'cell survival protein', called BCL-XL, was required in laboratory models to keep kidney cells alive and functioning during exposure to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Kidney damage is a common side effect of these widely used cancer therapies, and the discovery has
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New plant-based gel to fast-track 'mini-organs' growth, improve cancer treatment
Monash University researchers have created the world's first bioactive plant-based nanocellulose hydrogel to support organoid growth for biomedical applications. This includes cancer development and treatment.
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Author Correction: Quantum clocks and the temporal localisability of events in the presence of gravitating quantum systems
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20105-3
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Bringing soil respiration data into the open
Collecting datasets from laborious field campaigns seems like it should be more difficult than finding and comparing data from different campaigns. Unfortunately, that often is not the case. According to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Earth scientist Jinshi Jian, "Assembling datasets for comparison is difficult and time-consuming work. Units, conventions, nomenclatures—a lot of thing
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So you think economic downturns cost lives? Our findings show they don't
Throughout the coronavirus recession we've been told there's a balancing act when it comes to lives.
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The Ten Best Books About Food of 2020
From cookbooks to grocery-store exposés, these new books will tempt palates and fuel curiosity
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Rising global temperatures tied to rising antibiotic resistance
A new data analysis suggests that two rising public health threats—climate change and antibiotic resistance—are related. The study, spanning 2000 to 2016, doesn't establish cause and effect. But its findings, in the journal Eurosurveillance, suggest that rising global temperatures could be helping to fuel increases in antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
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Rising global temperatures tied to rising antibiotic resistance
A new data analysis suggests that two rising public health threats—climate change and antibiotic resistance—are related. The study, spanning 2000 to 2016, doesn't establish cause and effect. But its findings, in the journal Eurosurveillance, suggest that rising global temperatures could be helping to fuel increases in antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
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Patterning method could pave the way for new fiber-based devices, smart textiles
Multimaterial fibers that integrate metal, glass and semiconductors could be useful for applications such as biomedicine, smart textiles and robotics. But because the fibers are composed of the same materials along their lengths, it is difficult to position functional elements, such as electrodes or sensors, at specific locations. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have developed a
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A new species of rare phylum Loricifera discovered in the deep-sea surrounding Japan
The Loricifera is a microscopic, sediment-dwelling marine invertebrate with a head covered in over 200 spines and an abdomen with a protective shell known as a lorica. Since it was first discovered in 1983, just under 40 species have been written about. Now, that number is one more thanks to a group of scientists who reported on a new genus and species of Loricifera.
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Using a soft crystal to visualize how absorbed carbon dioxide behaves in liquid
A team of scientists has succeeded in visualizing how carbon dioxide (CO2) behaves in an ionic liquid that selectively absorbs CO2. The finding is expected to help develop more efficient methods to capture CO2 in the atmosphere, one of the major factors causing global warming.
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Grabbing viruses out of thin air: The ongoing quest to fabricate functional biosensors
The future could hold portable and wearable sensors for detecting viruses and bacteria in the surrounding environment. But we're not there yet. Scientists at Tohoku University have been studying materials that can change mechanical into electrical or magnetic energy, and vice versa, for decades. Together with colleagues, they published a review in the journal Advanced Materials about the most rece
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Statistician assesses agricultural data to increase productivity
Assistant professor Hossein Moradi of SDSU's Department of Mathematics and Statistics is helping precision agriculture faculty efficiently and accurately assess variables affecting yield. This collaboration is helping researchers pinpoint ways to help farmers increase productivity.
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NOAA strategy addresses stony coral tissue loss disease
NOAA today unveiled a new strategy for the response to stony coral tissue loss disease, a disease that is spreading throughout the Atlantic and Caribbean region and may pose a threat to the Indo-Pacific region.
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Record-breaking Atlantic hurricane season draws to an end
The extremely active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season is drawing to a close with a record-breaking 30 named storms and 12 landfalling storms in the continental United States. While the official hurricane season concludes on November 30, tropical storms may continue to develop past that day.
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Author Correction: High-throughput screening reveals higher synergistic effect of MEK inhibitor combinations in colon cancer spheroids
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77501-4
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A new species of rare phylum Loricifera discovered in the deep-sea surrounding Japan
The Loricifera is a microscopic, sediment-dwelling marine invertebrate with a head covered in over 200 spines and an abdomen with a protective shell known as a lorica. Since it was first discovered in 1983, just under 40 species have been written about. Now, that number is one more thanks to a group of scientists who reported on a new genus and species of Loricifera.
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Statistician assesses agricultural data to increase productivity
Assistant professor Hossein Moradi of SDSU's Department of Mathematics and Statistics is helping precision agriculture faculty efficiently and accurately assess variables affecting yield. This collaboration is helping researchers pinpoint ways to help farmers increase productivity.
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NOAA strategy addresses stony coral tissue loss disease
NOAA today unveiled a new strategy for the response to stony coral tissue loss disease, a disease that is spreading throughout the Atlantic and Caribbean region and may pose a threat to the Indo-Pacific region.
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A guide to the Nature Index
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03323-z A description of the terminology and methodology used in this supplement, and a guide to the functionality available free online at natureindex.com.
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German science is thriving, but diversity remains an issue
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03317-x The research giant lags in its support of female leadership.
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Outlook: Multiple myeloma
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03223-2 Advances in treatment and a better understanding of the cancer mean people with the disease are living longer.
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German science on the world stage: visualized
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03320-2 Infographics reveal the nation's strengths.
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Will the reclassification of multiple myeloma change how people are treated?
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03224-1 The disease is now recognized as several distinct cancers. Some researchers think that this will lead to more tailored treatments.
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Immunotherapies target multiple myeloma
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03229-w Treatments that help the immune system fight multiple myeloma are emerging fast, but the number of people who relapse remains.
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Asifa Akhtar is a sign of new things to come at the Max Planck Society
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03321-1 The molecular biologist hopes to inspire the next generation of scientists.
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Germany's start-up scene is booming
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03319-9 With record levels of funding, German start-ups are building the nation's strength in innovation.
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Burning questions about smouldering myeloma
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03225-0 Researchers are amassing evidence about the best ways to treat the precursor condition before it develops into active disease.
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Clusters of Excellence: the new 'brains trusts' of German science
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03322-0 Researchers praise the time and funding they are given for deep exploration.
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How researchers are addressing the racial imbalance in multiple myeloma
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03228-x Black people are more likely to develop multiple myeloma and to die from it than white people. Why these differences exist and what can be done to lessen them is the subject of ongoing research.
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Research round-up: Multiple myeloma
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03230-3 Immunotherapy that targets a hair-follicle protein, genetic changes that underlie disease development and other highlights from clinical trials and laboratory studies.
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How Germany retains one of the world's strongest research reputations
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03318-w Thanks to steady funding, Germany's national research organizations are thriving. But there are concerns that some universities are being left behind.
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Scientists are harnessing viruses to treat tumours
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03226-z Could viruses such as the one used in the measles vaccine be used to treat multiple myeloma?
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The Last of Us Is Getting a TV Show, Which Seems Redundant
HBO is turning the wildly popular game into a series.
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Biden Must Repair—and Reinvigorate—Tech Diplomacy
The administration's nomination of Antony Blinken is a good start. But mending the damage of the past four years will require a complete reorientation.
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Human Emotions and Facial Expressions Video | ThoughtCtrl
submitted by /u/thoughtctrl_official [link] [comments]
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Could Memory Manipulation Treat Alcohol Addiction?
submitted by /u/tahutahut [link] [comments]
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Cat Parasite Gives Clues on New Drug Targets for Schizophrenia
submitted by /u/tahutahut [link] [comments]
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Hearing Test Can Predict Autism in Newborns
submitted by /u/tahutahut [link] [comments]
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What is life without emotions?? How it will be??
submitted by /u/misstterr_a [link] [comments]
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Exercises to reduce Negativity Bias
submitted by /u/hau5keeping [link] [comments]
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Peter Thiel Backs A Psychedelics Startup
submitted by /u/The-Techie [link] [comments]
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CRISPR Treatment for Cancer
CRISPR-Cas9 combined with a new delivery system shows promise in treating some of the most deadly cancers. The post first appeared on Science-Based Medicine .
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View Amazing Photos and Video of a Turkey Dust Bathing
A New York photographer captured stunning footage of this captivating behavior in her backyard
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Näringsläckage i lungorna orsak bakom dödlig influensa
Det har länge varit oklart varför influensainfektioner leder till ökad risk för lunginflammation orsakad av bakterier. Nu kan forskare vid Karolinska Institutet ha förklarat ett viktigt samband bakom så kallade superinfektioner som årligen skördar många liv runt om i världen. Något som också kan få betydelse för forskningen om covid-19. Influensan som kallas spanska sjukan drog över världen 1918–
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Ripples Reveal Ancient Global Megafloods on Mars
Mars from Hubble: Astronomers took advantage of a rare close approach by Mars in 2001. When the Red Planet was just 43 million miles away, Hubble snapped this picture with the WFPC2. It has a surface resolution of just 10 miles. This is the best image we've gotten of Mars that didn't involve sending a robot there. Mars is a mostly dry, dusty planet these days, but the more we study it, the more w
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Kids will sacrifice to teach wrongdoers a lesson
Many children are willing to make personal sacrifices to punish wrongdoers—and even more so if they believe punishment will teach the transgressor a lesson, according to a new study. Philosophers and psychologists have long argued whether the main reason people punish others for bad behavior is to enact retribution or to impart a moral lesson. In adults, most studies show the answer is that peopl
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How Einstein Reconciled Religion to Science – Facts So Romantic
What Einstein said was nearly as scathing as any contemporary critique of religion you might hear from Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, or Christopher Hitchens. Photograph by spatuletail / Shutterstock Not long ago, I heard an echo of Albert Einstein's religious views in the words of Elon Musk. Asked, at the close of a conversation with Axios, whether he believed in God, the CEO of both SpaceX and Te
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The Logic of Pandemic Restrictions Is Falling Apart
Two weeks ago, I staged a reluctant intervention via Instagram direct message. The subject was a longtime friend, Josh, who had been sharing photos of himself and his fiancé occasionally dining indoors at restaurants since New York City, where we both live, had reopened them in late September. At first, I hadn't said anything. Preliminary research suggests that when people congregate indoors, an
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Patterning method could pave the way for new fiber-based devices, smart textiles
Multimaterial fibers that integrate metal, glass and semiconductors could be useful for applications such as biomedicine, smart textiles and robotics. But because the fibers are composed of the same materials along their lengths, it is difficult to position functional elements, such as electrodes or sensors, at specific locations. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have developed a
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Ny forskning: Din hostning avslöjar om du har covid-19
Hosta i en app och få svar om du har covid-19. Det skulle kunna bli möjligt med en ny AI-metod som forskare utvecklat.
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The AstraZeneca Covid Vaccine Data Isn't Up to Snuff
There's been even more good news this week, this time from the Oxford-AstraZeneca trials. But a closer look reveals some very shaky science.
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Asymptotic sunset
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03206-3 A ray of hope.
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How to livestream an event for all your friends and family
If everything's set up properly, you can sit back and relax as guests join, but don't forget to make your video feed the main event. (Chris Montgomery/Unsplash/) Live streaming? Easy. Grab your phone, open Instagram, and go live. Doing it well? Harder—but doable. Take my brother's wedding, for example. He just married his fiancée (from Alabama) in Ireland (in case my byline isn't enough of a hint
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What We're Thankful for at Scientific American
From our virtual Thanksgiving table to yours — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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India needs more transparency in its COVID-19 vaccine trials, critics say
Researchers warn secrecy could harm public trust
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See metal and plastic micromachines zip around
Researchers have developed a new way to make micrometer-long machines by interlocking metal and plastic in a complex way. For years, researchers have been pursuing the goal of robots so tiny that they can maneuver through our blood vessels and deliver medications to certain points in the body. Now, scientists have succeeded for the first time in building such "micromachines" out of metal and plas
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What We're Thankful for at Scientific American
From our virtual Thanksgiving table to yours — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Ny formand for PLO-Hovedstaden: Afviste henvisninger er fortsat et problem
50-årige Peder Reistad blev lørdag konstitueret som formand for hovedstadens praktiserende læger. Hans valgoplæg indeholder blandt andet en kritik af de mange afviste henvisninger fra sygehusene, som almen praksis får kastet tilbage i hovedet.
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Pulsating aurora: Killer electrons in strumming sky lights
Computer simulations explain how electrons with wide-ranging energies rain into Earth's upper and middle atmosphere during a phenomenon known as the pulsating aurora. The findings, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, suggest that the higher-energy electrons resulting from this process could cause destruction of the part of the ozone in the mesosphere, about 60 kilometers above E
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New discovery allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome in plants
Researchers from the Disruptive & Sustainable Technologies for Agricultural Precision (DiSTAP) Interdisciplinary Research Group (IRG) of Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), MIT's research enterprise in Singapore and Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory (TLL) have discovered a way to use Raman spectroscopy for early detection of shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) in plants. The disc
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Fossils show 66 million years of insects eating kauri trees
Exquisitely preserved feeding marks on fossil conifer leaves show that the same insect feeding and fungi persisted for millions of years on the same type of plant, from ancient Patagonian rainforests to the modern rainforests of the tropical West Pacific.
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Kilonovae: Ambushing the standard candle in its own nest
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous and explosive transient phenomena in the universe after the Big Bang. A powerful tool for characterizing and classifying GRBs to allow them to be used as tracers of the expansion history of the universe and to understand their mysterious and debated physical mechanisms has been recently presented by an international team of researchers led by Dr. Maria
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Research team finds effect of odor on helpfulness in rats
Despite their reputation, rats are surprisingly sociable and actually regularly help each other out with tasks. Researchers at the Universities of Göttingen, Bern and St Andrews have now shown that a rat only has to smell the scent of another rat that is engaged in helpful behavior to increase his or her own helpfulness. This is the first study to show that just the smell of a cooperating individu
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Conscientiousness key to team success during space missions
NASA is working toward sending humans to Mars by 2030. If all goes according to plan, the flight crew's return trip to the red planet will take about two-and-half years. That's a long time to spend uninterrupted with co-workers. But imagine if the astronauts don't get along with each other.
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New discovery allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome in plants
Researchers from the Disruptive & Sustainable Technologies for Agricultural Precision (DiSTAP) Interdisciplinary Research Group (IRG) of Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), MIT's research enterprise in Singapore and Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory (TLL) have discovered a way to use Raman spectroscopy for early detection of shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) in plants. The disc
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Fossils show 66 million years of insects eating kauri trees
Exquisitely preserved feeding marks on fossil conifer leaves show that the same insect feeding and fungi persisted for millions of years on the same type of plant, from ancient Patagonian rainforests to the modern rainforests of the tropical West Pacific.
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Research team finds effect of odor on helpfulness in rats
Despite their reputation, rats are surprisingly sociable and actually regularly help each other out with tasks. Researchers at the Universities of Göttingen, Bern and St Andrews have now shown that a rat only has to smell the scent of another rat that is engaged in helpful behavior to increase his or her own helpfulness. This is the first study to show that just the smell of a cooperating individu
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Pandemic of Hunger
COVID-19 is straining African food security, but also presents an opportunity for change — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Homes evacuated as cyclone threatens India
Several thousand people in south-eastern India fled their homes on Wednesday, out of the path of a cyclone due to slam coastal areas after midnight, bringing with it heavy rain.
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Rebuilding After A Wildfire? Most States Don't Require Fire-Resistant Materials
Homeowners are rebuilding after wildfires, but many won't be required by governments to use fire-resistant materials. Without such improvements, communities face harm again with the next fire. (Image credit: David McNew/Getty Images)
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UNESCO must reform to stay relevant — and reconnect people through science
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03311-3 At 75, the UN agency with a focus on science cooperation is fighting for its future role.
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What Jaime Harrison Wants Democrats to Do Now
Two weeks ago, when I wrote that Jaime Harrison was poised to be the next chair of the Democratic National Committee , there were two main responses: excitement from his supporters and eye-rolling "Looks like he's failing upward" tweets from his detractors. Harrison became a nationally known Democrat over the course of his year-long run against Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina. He raised
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Republicans Rediscover the Dangers of Selling Bunk to Their Constituents
T hree weeks after the conclusion of the 2020 presidential election, many Republican members of Congress find themselves boxed in. Some have privately congratulated Joe Biden and Kamala Harris for their historic win. But publicly, most Republicans have remained silent , while others have actively encouraged President Donald Trump's baseless accusations of mass voter fraud. The situation these Rep
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Mere end ét æg om dagen øger måske risikoen for type 2-diabetes
I Kina kobler forskere risikoen for at udvikle type 2-diabetes sammen med indtag af æg. Større indtag af æg øger risikoen markant, siger forskerene bag studiet.
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How to make the next election even more secure
In the last few days, a cascade of election results from battleground states such as Pennsylvania and Michigan have been certified —delivering key defeats to President Trump in his continued but failed attempts to block the result. Certifications will continue in the coming days before the Electoral College, and later Congress, make the results official. This process is what is supposed to happen
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The 13 Best Holiday Movies to Stream This Season
This year, everyone is stuck inside even more than before. Here's what you need to watch to pass the time—and get in the spirit.
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Meet the Microbes Living on Da Vinci's Iconic Sketches
Think you've got an interesting microbiome? Your body ain't got nothing on what's accumulated on Leonardo's drawings over 500 years.
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Echolocation Drains Bats Traveling through Noise
Bats expend more energy navigating in loud conditions — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Scientists Are Becoming More Politically Engaged
Here's what that means beyond the 2020 elections — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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De La Rue in talks over Covid immunity certificates
British moneymaker announces sevenfold increase in first-half adjusted operating profits
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Ringarna avslöjar stjärnkrock
En nebulosa som strålar bara i ultraviolett har förbryllat astronomer sedan den upptäcktes i stjärnbilden Herkules för sexton år sedan. Den påminner om hur resterna efter en supernova brukar se ut – men med fel färger på ljuset och med en annorlunda stjärna i centrum. Stjärnan är ovanligt stor och uppsvälld för sin temperatur.
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Echolocation Drains Bats Traveling through Noise
Bats expend more energy navigating in loud conditions — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Kommersiella aktörer tjänar på skola i kris
Skolan har blivit en attraktiv marknad för kommersiella företag som vill sälja både digitala verktyg och kompetensutveckling. På köpet för de så kallade eduprenörerna med sig en kultur där läraren betraktas som coach och där eleverna förväntas jobba mer självständigt, visar forskning vid Malmö universitet. Den svenska skolan beskrivs ofta i termer av kris. Mätningar visar på brister i elevernas k
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Some Practical Thanksgiving Tips From a Professional Chef
Let's put this year's Thanksgiving meal into perspective. Thanksgiving today is certainly no worse than what we were taught about the first one. Racial strife? Check! Aside from that hallowed feast, war between Native Americans and white colonists was the norm then. In fact, some historians say that the first Thanksgiving was in 1637 , when Massachusetts Colony Governor John Winthrop declared a d
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Vestas om væltet, svensk vindmølle: Vi er i gang med undersøgelser på stedet
PLUS. Vestas egen ekspert ankom til pladsen tirsdag og nu forestår indsamling af alle mulige slags data. Blandt andet ved hjælp af en drone.
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»I almen praksis kan jeg dagligt vende små ting, uden at jeg behøver at ringe og vække nogen«
Katrine Søgaard Thomsen er over halvvejs i sit KBU-­forløb på en gastromedicinsk afdeling og i almen ­praksis. I almen praksis er der bedre tid til supervision og tættere kollegaskab, oplever hun.
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Yngre læger trives bedre i almen praksis end på sygehusene
KBU-læger giver højere karakter til arbejdsmiljøet i almen praksis end på sygehuse. Yngre Lægers formand for Almen Praksisudvalget tror, det skyldes den tætte super­vision i almen praksis, og at det på sigt kan føre til bedre ­rekruttering til specialet.
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Our Thanksgiving Menu Has Lost a Few Crops
Studying the domestication of any crop that people once ate helps scientists reveal how modern crops have evolved
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How to Reconnect Rural and Urban America
As it was in 2016, so it is again in 2020: A central axis of national-election results is the rural-urban gulf . Larger cities—really, conurbations of any sort—mainly went for Joe Biden. Donald Trump's major strength was in the smallest cities and in rural areas. Obviously there has been more to Donald Trump's power than purely regional dynamics. (In particular, there are racial dynamics, as laid
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Julhandeln behöver digitala mötesplatser under pandemin
I samband med Black Friday och jul samlas många människor i butiker och andra fysiska mötesplatser. För att kunna hantera detta under pandemin är det viktigt att förstå vad som lockar människor dit, och förbereda sin verksamhet utifrån detta, menar forskare vid Karlstads universitet. Sedan i våras har människor uppmanats till social distans på grund av pandemin. Många har varit helt isolerade frå
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SLS: Nasa 'megarocket' assembly begins in Florida
Nasa has stacked the first pieces of the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket at Florida's Kennedy Space Center.
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How Iceland hammered COVID with science
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03284-3 The tiny island nation brought huge scientific heft to its attempts to contain and study the coronavirus. Here's what it learnt.
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Subtraction by addition: A journal expresses concern again — but this time, with feeling
A journal published by the Royal Society in the United Kingdom has issued an updated expression of concern for a 2018 paper by a mathematician whose work has been the subject of intense scrutiny on this website and elsewhere. But the notice is less of a statement of problems than a rationalization. The paper, "Quantum … Continue reading
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How stores are adapting to 2020 holiday shopping
Both retailers and consumers have struggled due to the pandemic. How will that change the 2020 holiday shopping season? Ayalla Ruvio , a professor of marketing in the Eli Broad College of Business at Michigan State University, and Kelsey Haines, an MBA student at the Broad College studying under Ruvio, answers questions about how COVID will reshape holiday shopping trends : The post appeared fir
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Ritzau er stadig lammet efter it-angreb: Hackere kræver løsepenge
Tirsdag blev Nyhedsbureauet Ritzau ramt af et hackerangreb. Hackerne har efterfølgende krævet penge for at frigive data, men det har nyhedsbureauet afvist at gøre.
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USA lukker berømt rumteleskop efter to ulykker
Arecibo-observatoriet i den puertoricanske jungle lukker ned, da ingeniører dropper alle planer om at redde det efter anden ulykke på blot to måneder.
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Efter alvorlig rådgiverfejl: Halsnæs Kommune tjekker alle bygninger fra Esco-projekt
PLUS. En alvorlig rådgiverfejl under et Esco-projekt efterlod Hundested Hallen med et kollapstruet tag. Derfor tjekker Halsnæs Kommune nu alle de bygninger, som rådgiveren projekterede solenergianlæg til
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Teknoantropolog fik lov at bevise sit værd: »Vi kan ikke regne os frem til alting«
PLUS. Kun hver femte går direkte i arbejde og hver fjerde er ledig efter et år. Men de giver stor værdi, fordi mange ingeniører udtænker tekniske løsninger uden at tænke brugerperspektivet helt igennem.
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SARS-CoV-2 mutations do not appear to increase transmissibility
None of the mutations currently documented in the SARS-CoV-2 virus appear to increase its transmissibility in humans, according to a study led by UCL researchers, published in Nature Communications.
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Research creates hydrogen-producing living droplets, paving way for alternative future energy source
Scientists have built tiny droplet-based microbial factories that produce hydrogen, instead of oxygen, when exposed to daylight in air.
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Spinal/epidural anesthesia associated with increased survival in leg artery bypass surgery
A new study published in The BMJ shows that people who had surgery to improve blood flow in their legs under spinal or epidural anesthesia were less likely to die than those who were given general anesthesia.
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Researchers have discovered new links between miscarriage and maternal genes
Researchers at the Estonian Genome Center at the University of Tartu described hitherto undiscovered associations between miscarriage and maternal genes, reveals a recent article published in the Nature Communication.
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Cooking with wood may cause lung damage
Advanced imaging with CT shows that people who cook with biomass fuels like wood are at risk of suffering considerable damage to their lungs from breathing in dangerous concentrations of pollutants and bacterial toxins, according to a study being presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).
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Investigation of intraocular pressure of the anterior chamber and vitreous cavity of porcine eyes via a novel method
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77633-7
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VolcaNoseR is a web app for creating, exploring, labeling and sharing volcano plots
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76603-3
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Copper nanoparticles on controlled pore glass (CPG) as highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts for "click reactions"
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77629-3
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Characterizing the spatial distributions of spotted lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in Pennsylvania vineyards
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77461-9
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Relationship between plasma growth differentiation factor-15 levels and diabetic retinopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77584-z
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Artificial intelligence and thermodynamics help solving arson cases
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77516-x
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Sleep quality among individuals with ketamine use and the mediating role of craving
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77631-9
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Tracking COVID-19 using taste and smell loss Google searches is not a reliable strategy
Scientific Reports, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77316-3
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Covid's Cassandra: The Swift, Complicated Rise of Eric Feigl-Ding
The scientist has gained popularity on Twitter as Covid's self-appointed and excitable play-by-play announcer. But given his penchant for the sensational, and a series of gaffes in which he misinterpreted data or neglected important context, some experts want to pull his plug — even as others defend him.
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Here Are The Facts About Heaters for Both Indoors and Outdoors
Here are facts about heaters (for outside and inside) and climate change.
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Reboot contraceptives research — it has been stuck for decades
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03287-0 There is a huge global market, and exciting tools are ready to help develop what women want.
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Progenitor identification and SARS-CoV-2 infection in human distal lung organoids
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-3014-1
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Retraction Note: Air-stable superparamagnetic metal nanoparticles entrapped in graphene oxide matrix
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19968-3
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Breaking boundaries in subduction science
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19930-3 Subduction is the primary driver of plate tectonics, yet we still do not fully understand how subduction zones initiate or the budgets of life-supporting elements recycled via subduction. At Nature Communications, we advocate for more transdisciplinary initiatives and collaborative projects, which are essent
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High-resolution sampling of beam-driven plasma wakefields
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19811-9 Controlled particle acceleration in plasmas requires precise measurements of the excited wakefield. Here the authors report and demonstrate a high-resolution method to measure the effective longitudinal electric field of a beam-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator.
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Intelligent non-colorimetric indicators for the perishable supply chain by non-wovens with photo-programmed thermal response
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19676-y High-performance and low-cost indicators are important in food and cosmetics industry but market uptake is low due to several challenges such as toxicity, cost and unclear reading. Here, the authors report on optically-programmed, non-colorimetric indicators based on nanotextured organic non-wovens, encoded
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Biased localization of actin binding proteins by actin filament conformation
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19768-9 The assembly of actin filaments into distinct cytoskeletal structures plays a critical role in cell physiology. Here, the authors use a combination of live cell imaging and in vitro single molecule binding measurements to show that tandem calponin homology domains (CH1–CH2) are sensitive to actin filament co
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Vibrational couplings and energy transfer pathways of water's bending mode
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19759-w Vibrational energy transfer in water involves intermolecular coupling of O-H stretching modes, but much less is known about the role of the bending modes. Here the authors, combining static and femtosecond infrared, Raman, and hyper-Raman spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, provide ins
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The genetic architecture of sporadic and multiple consecutive miscarriage
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19742-5 Miscarriage affects around 15% of clinically confirmed pregnancies. Here the authors carry out a large genome-wide association study for sporadic and multiple consecutive miscarriage and suggest links with placental biology.
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No evidence for increased transmissibility from recurrent mutations in SARS-CoV-2
Nature Communications, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19818-2 SARS-CoV-2 has emerged recently and may still adapt to the human host. Here the authors show that none of the so far identified recurrent mutations in SARS-CoV-2 are significantly associated with increased viral transmission.
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Research creates hydrogen-producing living droplets, paving way for alternative future energy source
Scientists have built tiny droplet-based microbial factories that produce hydrogen, instead of oxygen, when exposed to daylight in air.
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UK scientists warn of third wave of Covid after Christmas
Fears easing restrictions over festive period will lead to rise in cases and overwhelm NHS Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Government scientists have warned the relaxation of coronavirus restrictions over Christmas could lead to a third wave of the pandemic, with increased transmission and unnecessary deaths. Families across the UK will be able to gather in three-hou
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Många arter hamnar i osynk när klimatet förändras
Många arter får allt svårare att hänga med i klimatförändringarna och det uppstår allt fler feltajmingar mellan arterna. Ett exempel är fåglar som häckar när det inte finns nog med insekter till föda för ungarna, visar forskare från bland annat SLU. Ett tidigare otillgängligt arkiv över naturens kalender, insamlat i de länder som förut var Sovjetunionen, visar att det kan bli svårt för många arte
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Tiny swimming boat, AI summarizes research and COVID immunity
Nature, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03283-4 The latest science news, in brief.
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Prehistoric mega-shark raised its young in nurseries: study
The largest sharks ever to have roamed the oceans parked their young in shallow, warm-water nurseries where food was abundant and predators scarce until they could assume their title as kings and queens of the sea.
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Scores of pilot whales dead in New Zealand stranding
Almost 100 pilot whales have died in a mass stranding on New Zealand's remote Chatham Islands, conservation officials said Wednesday.
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Scores of pilot whales dead in New Zealand stranding
Almost 100 pilot whales have died in a mass stranding on New Zealand's remote Chatham Islands, conservation officials said Wednesday.
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Microbes help unlock phosphorus for plant growth
Phosphorus is a necessary nutrient for plants to grow. But when it's applied to plants as part of a chemical fertilizer, phosphorus can react strongly with minerals in the soil, forming complexes with iron, aluminum and calcium. This locks up the phosphorus, preventing plants from being able to access this crucial nutrient.
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Microbes help unlock phosphorus for plant growth
Phosphorus is a necessary nutrient for plants to grow. But when it's applied to plants as part of a chemical fertilizer, phosphorus can react strongly with minerals in the soil, forming complexes with iron, aluminum and calcium. This locks up the phosphorus, preventing plants from being able to access this crucial nutrient.
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In fire-prone West, plants need their pollinators—and vice versa
2020 is the worst fire year on record in the United States, with nearly 13 million acres burned, 14,000 structures destroyed and an estimated $3 billion spent on fire suppression—and counting. At the same time, certain land managers have invested huge amounts of time and resources toward restoring fire through "controlled burn" approaches.
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Marcus Banks obituary
My academic mentor and friend Marcus Banks, who has died aged 60 of epilepsy, was a social anthropologist. He played a leading role in promoting the sub-discipline of visual anthropology, which is concerned with studying cultures through photography, film and other media. Spending his entire career at Oxford University, from the late 1980s onwards Marcus showed how visual artefacts should be thou
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In fire-prone West, plants need their pollinators—and vice versa
2020 is the worst fire year on record in the United States, with nearly 13 million acres burned, 14,000 structures destroyed and an estimated $3 billion spent on fire suppression—and counting. At the same time, certain land managers have invested huge amounts of time and resources toward restoring fire through "controlled burn" approaches.
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Waste fishing gear threatens Ganges wildlife
Waste fishing gear in the River Ganges poses a threat to wildlife including otters, turtles and dolphins, new research shows.
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When consumers trust AI recommendations—or resist them
Researchers from Boston University and University of Virginia published a new paper in the Journal of Marketing that examines how consumers respond to AI recommenders when focused on the functional and practical aspects of a product (its utilitarian value) versus the experiential and sensory aspects of a product (its hedonic value).
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Waste fishing gear threatens Ganges wildlife
Waste fishing gear in the River Ganges poses a threat to wildlife including otters, turtles and dolphins, new research shows.
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Families bereaved by Covid say UK plan to allow Christmas mixing is 'sheer madness'
Support group warns that large gatherings are too risky and calls for low-key festive period Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage People bereaved by Covid-19 have warned that allowing families in the UK to get together over Christmas is "sheer madness" and urged the public to have a low-key festive period rather than risk the grief they have endured. Members of the Covid-
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Elon Musk becomes world's second richest person
The tech billionaire overtakes Bill Gates after Tesla shares soar on S&P acceptance
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Immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy against glioblastoma may decrease with dexamethasone
Among patients with glioblastoma receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor, those who received the corticosteroid dexamethasone at baseline for cerebral edema had significantly worse overall survival.
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Kan artificiell intelligens upptäcka och mäta cancer på bilder?
Behandling mot cancer brukar ofta utvärderas med någon typ av bildgivande undersökning. Om tumörvolymen har ökat eller minskat spelar stor roll för om behandlingen ska fortsätta. Men mätningar av tumörer är tidsödande och olika läkare kan göra olika bedömningar. Därför vill vi utveckla en metod för att automatiskt mäta tumörvolym med hjälp av artificiell intelligens.
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Chelmsford doctors trying to 'rewrite history' lose defamation case against publisher
Judge says John Gill and John Herron sought to use HarperCollins case to 'vindicate their conduct' despite overwhelming evidence to contrary at royal commission Two doctors from Sydney's Chelmsford private hospital, where some patients underwent "deep sleep therapy" to the point of death, have had their defamation case against a book publisher thrown out in the federal court. Dr John Gill and for
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Is it a bird? Is it a bee? No, it's a lizard pollinating South Africa's 'hidden flower'
How a chance encounter with a 'weird plant' in the Drakensberg mountains led to a startling discovery Towards the end of 2017, PhD candidate Ruth Cozien and her husband Dr Timo van der Niet were attending a citizen science workshop high up in South Africa's Drakensberg mountains when they stumbled across "this weird plant with green flowers hidden beneath its leaves, a really strong scent and eno
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When consumers trust AI recommendations–or resist them
The key factor in deciding how to incorporate AI recommenders is whether consumers are focused on the functional and practical aspects of a product (its utilitarian value) or on the experiential and sensory aspects of a product (its hedonic value).
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Waste fishing gear threatens Ganges wildlife
Waste fishing gear in the River Ganges poses a threat to wildlife including otters, turtles and dolphins, new research shows.
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In fire-prone West, plants need their pollinators — and vice versa
A new study grounded in the northern Rockies explores the role of wildfire in the finely tuned dance between plants and their pollinators. Previous studies have looked at how fire affects plants, or how fire affects animals. But what is largely understudied is the question of how fire affects both, and about how linkages within those ecological networks might respond to fire disturbance. The findi
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A vaccine revolution | podcast
Results from clinical trials have shown that the world has three apparently highly effective vaccines for Covid-19. With the race now on for regulatory approval, production and distribution, is the end of the pandemic within reach? After a gruelling year of successive waves of Covid-19 infections and national lockdowns there has been a burst of good news this month, with three separate vaccine ca
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Organisationer frygter cloud-kaos: Staten skal finde erstatning for Privacy Shield
En bred skare af danske organisationer frygter for konsekvenserne af den såkaldte Schrems II-dom, der kan få afgørende betydning for fremtidens brug af cloud-tjenester. Flere kræver, at staten skal anvise en brugbar løsning.
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Did volcano eruptions alter the trajectories of the Roman Republic and the Ptolemaic Kingdom? Moving beyond black-box determinism [Letters (Online Only)]
McConnell et al. (1) suggest that the eruption of Alaska's Okmok volcano in 43 BCE strongly affected historical events in the late Roman Republic and the Ptolemaic Kingdom. This interpretation is problematic, first because classical sources can plausibly be interpreted in completely different ways. The handling of natural disasters and…
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Reply to Strunz and Braeckel: Agricultural failures logically link historical events to extreme climate following the 43 BCE Okmok eruption [Letters (Online Only)]
We report (1) ice core evidence that unambiguously identifies massive sulfur fallout over much of the Arctic, attributed using tephra geochemistry to eruption of Alaska's Okmok volcano, with climate model simulations indicating 2 y of extreme temperatures and precipitation throughout the Northern Hemisphere starting in early 43 BCE. This climate…
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Neuroticism may reflect emotional variability when correcting for the confound with the mean [Letters (Online Only)]
Kalokerinos et al. (1) demonstrate that emotional variability, as assessed via the SD, is not significantly associated with neuroticism once the confound with mean negative emotion is controlled for, r = 0.05. To control for this confound, the authors use the relative SD (RSD), which mathematically corrects for the nonlinear…
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Reply to Wenzel and Kubiak: Neuroticism is best defined by mean levels of negative emotion, not emotional variability [Letters (Online Only)]
Wenzel and Kubiak (1) reanalyze our data (2) and conclude that 1) there is overlap between the relative SD (RSD) (3) and mean of negative emotion and 2) after controlling for this overlap, the RSD weakly but significantly predicts neuroticism. We question both points and note that these findings leave…
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Feature frequency profile-based phylogenies are inaccurate [Letters (Online Only)]
Choi and Kim (1) used the alignment-free feature frequency profile (FFP) method to reconstruct a broad sketch of the tree of life (ToL). The FFP tree reports many relationships that strongly contradict the current consensus view of the ToL, including sister group relationships for plants + animals, Bacteria + Archaea,…
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Nyt studie: Papirgenanvendelse er kun så grønt som energien bag
PLUS. Forskere fra Yale og University College London konkluderer, at hvis alt affaldspapir blev genanvendt, så ville de globale CO2-emissioner ikke falde, men stige. DTU-professor fortæller dog, at billedet kan se anderledes ud i fremtiden.
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Initial Batch Of COVID-19 Vaccines Will Go To States Based On Population, Not Risk
Operation Warp Speed is allocating the first batch of 6.4 million COVID vaccines to states, based on population. This circumvents a CDC advisory committee, which proposed allocation based on risk. (Image credit: Robyn Beck/AFP via Getty Images)
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How sunshine can make the railways greener
The railways in the UK, Australia and India getting power from the sun in different ways.
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Why Bhutan's Sakteng wildlife sanctuary is disputed by China
Tiny Bhutan is feeling the squeeze as its giant neighbours China and India vie for territory.
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Reply to Li et al.: Organism tree of life: Gene phylogeny vs. whole-proteome phylogeny [Letters (Online Only)]
In responding to the Letter by Li et al. (1) regarding our paper (2), we would like to remind the authors of the Letter that 1) the concept and structure of organism tree of life ("organism ToL") have been evolving since Darwin's time and are expected to continue to evolve…
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GenBank's reliability is uncertain for biodiversity researchers seeking species-level assignment for eDNA [Letters (Online Only)]
Leray et al. (1) reassuringly conclude that "GenBank is a reliable resource for 21st century biodiversity research" based on an important quantitative assessment of its taxonomic accuracy. However, their insightful analysis focuses only on taxonomic levels above species. GenBank (2) is the key reference database for the growing fields of…
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Reply to Locatelli et al.: Evaluating species-level accuracy of GenBank metazoan sequences will require experts' effort in each group [Letters (Online Only)]
Biodiversity studies increasingly rely on DNA sequences obtained from the environment (rather than individual organisms) for basic and applied research (1). Species-level assignment of sequences using genetic databases such as GenBank is often desirable (e.g., detecting invasive species, measuring range shifts, or interpreting interaction networks). Thus, Locatelli et al. (2)…
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Aspect ratio dependence of the ultimate-state transition in turbulent thermal convection [Letters (Online Only)]
Iyer et al. (1) report heat (Nu) and momentum (Re) transport results for turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) for a Prandtl number Pr=1 from direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a cylindrical sample of aspect ratio (diameter D/height H ) Γ=1/10. The data show the classic scaling Nu=0.0525Ra0.331 in the range 1010≤Ra≤1015….
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Reply to He et al.: The dependence of heat transport law on aspect ratio is still unclear [Letters (Online Only)]
In their comment on Iyer et al. (1), He et al. (2) appear to address two putative issues: 1) that Iyer et al. neglect to point out that the small aspect ratio of their simulation could have an impact on the outcome; 2) He et al. (2) use their own…
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Using dynamic monitoring of choices to predict and understand risk preferences [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Navigating conflict is integral to decision-making, serving a central role both in the subjective experience of choice as well as contemporary theories of how we choose. However, the lack of a sensitive, accessible, and interpretable metric of conflict has led researchers to focus on choice itself rather than how individuals…
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Conservation cobenefits from air pollution regulation: Evidence from birds [Ecology]
Massive wildlife losses over the past 50 y have brought new urgency to identifying both the drivers of population decline and potential solutions. We provide large-scale evidence that air pollution, specifically ozone, is associated with declines in bird abundance in the United States. We show that an air pollution regulation…
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An empirical evaluation of Chinese college admissions reforms through a natural experiment [Economic Sciences]
College admissions policies affect the educational experiences and labor market outcomes for millions of students each year. In China alone, 10 million high school seniors participate in the National College Entrance Examination to compete for 7 million seats at various universities each year, making this system the largest centralized matching…
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Design of a multivalent bifunctional chelator for diagnostic 64Cu PET imaging in Alzheimer's disease [Neuroscience]
Herein, we report a 64Cu positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent that shows appreciable in vivo brain uptake and exhibits high specific affinity for beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates, leading to the successful PET imaging of amyloid plaques in the brains of 5xFAD mice versus those of wild-type mice. The employed approach…
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Ultrarare heterozygous pathogenic variants of genes causing dominant forms of early-onset deafness underlie severe presbycusis [Genetics]
Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss (ARHL), is a major public health issue. About half the phenotypic variance has been attributed to genetic factors. Here, we assessed the contribution to presbycusis of ultrarare pathogenic variants, considered indicative of Mendelian forms. We focused on severe presbycusis without environmental or comorbidity risk factors…
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QnAs with Juan Carrillo [QnAs]
Paleobiologist Juan Carrillo has moved around the globe during his short research career, but his work has stayed solidly anchored in South America. A native of Colombia, Carrillo completed his undergraduate degree at National University of Colombia in Bogota. He moved to Panama for a research internship at the Smithsonian…
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Mycena genomes resolve the evolution of fungal bioluminescence [Evolution]
Mushroom-forming fungi in the order Agaricales represent an independent origin of bioluminescence in the tree of life; yet the diversity, evolutionary history, and timing of the origin of fungal luciferases remain elusive. We sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five bonnet mushroom species (Mycena spp.), a diverse lineage comprising the…
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Ethics in field experimentation: A call to establish new standards to protect the public from unwanted manipulation and real harms [Perspectives]
In 1966, Henry Beecher published his foundational paper "Ethics and Clinical Research," bringing to light unethical experiments that were routinely being conducted by leading universities and government agencies. A common theme was the lack of voluntary consent. Research regulations surrounding laboratory experiments flourished after his work. More than half a…
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Robust folding of a de novo designed ideal protein even with most of the core mutated to valine [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Protein design provides a stringent test for our understanding of protein folding. We previously described principles for designing ideal protein structures stabilized by consistent local and nonlocal interactions, based on a set of rules relating local backbone structures to tertiary packing motifs. The principles have made possible the design of…
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Targeting a scavenger receptor on tumor-associated macrophages activates tumor cell killing by natural killer cells [Immunology and Inflammation]
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can have protumor properties, including suppressing immune responses, promoting vascularization and, consequently, augmenting tumor progression. To stop TAM-mediated immunosuppression, we use a novel treatment by injecting antibodies specific for scavenger receptor MARCO, which is expressed on a specific subpopulation of TAMs in the tumor. We now report…
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Decreased mechanotransduction prevents nuclear collapse in a Caenorhabditis elegans laminopathy [Genetics]
The function of the nucleus depends on the integrity of the nuclear lamina, an intermediate filament network associated with the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. The LINC complex spans the nuclear envelope and mediates nuclear mechanotransduction, the process by which mechanical signals and forces are transmitted across the…
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Ancient helium and tungsten isotopic signatures preserved in mantle domains least modified by crustal recycling [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Rare high-3He/4He signatures in ocean island basalts (OIB) erupted at volcanic hotspots derive from deep-seated domains preserved in Earth's interior. Only high-3He/4He OIB exhibit anomalous 182W—an isotopic signature inherited during the earliest history of Earth—supporting an ancient origin of high 3He/4He. However, it is not understood why some OIB host…
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A steroid receptor coactivator stimulator (MCB-613) attenuates adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction [Medical Sciences]
Progressive remodeling of the heart, resulting in cardiomyocyte (CM) loss and increased inflammation, fibrosis, and a progressive decrease in cardiac function, are hallmarks of myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure. We show that MCB-613, a potent small molecule stimulator of steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) attenuates pathological remodeling post-MI. MCB-613 decreases infarct…
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Natural gas shortages during the "coal-to-gas" transition in China have caused a large redistribution of air pollution in winter 2017 [Sustainability Science]
The Chinese "coal-to-gas" and "coal-to-electricity" strategies aim at reducing dispersed coal consumption and related air pollution by promoting the use of clean and low-carbon fuels in northern China. Here, we show that on top of meteorological influences, the effective emission mitigation measures achieved an average decrease of fine particulate matter…
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A peptide of a type I toxin-antitoxin system induces Helicobacter pylori morphological transformation from spiral shape to coccoids [Microbiology]
Toxin−antitoxin systems are found in many bacterial chromosomes and plasmids with roles ranging from plasmid stabilization to biofilm formation and persistence. In these systems, the expression/activity of the toxin is counteracted by an antitoxin, which, in type I systems, is an antisense RNA. While the regulatory mechanisms of these systems…
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Local conformal autoencoder for standardized data coordinates [Applied Mathematics]
We propose a local conformal autoencoder (LOCA) for standardized data coordinates. LOCA is a deep learning-based method for obtaining standardized data coordinates from scientific measurements. Data observations are modeled as samples from an unknown, nonlinear deformation of an underlying Riemannian manifold, which is parametrized by a few normalized, latent variables….
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A hybrid approach reveals the allosteric regulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) catalyzes the conversion of GTP to dihydroneopterin triphosphate (H2NTP), the initiating step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Besides other roles, BH4 functions as cofactor in neurotransmitter biosynthesis. The BH4 biosynthetic pathway and GCH1 have been identified as promising targets to treat pain disorders…
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Cellular pathways of calcium transport and concentration toward mineral formation in sea urchin larvae [Chemistry]
Sea urchin larvae have an endoskeleton consisting of two calcitic spicules. The primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) are the cells that are responsible for spicule formation. PMCs endocytose sea water from the larval internal body cavity into a network of vacuoles and vesicles, where calcium ions are concentrated until they precipitate…
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Layer and rhythm specificity for predictive routing [Neuroscience]
In predictive coding, experience generates predictions that attenuate the feeding forward of predicted stimuli while passing forward unpredicted "errors." Different models have suggested distinct cortical layers, and rhythms implement predictive coding. We recorded spikes and local field potentials from laminar electrodes in five cortical areas (visual area 4 [V4], lateral…
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Capillary leakage provides nutrients and antioxidants for rapid pneumococcal proliferation in influenza-infected lower airways [Microbiology]
Influenza A virus (IAV)-related mortality is often due to secondary bacterial infections, primarily by pneumococci. Here, we study how IAV-modulated changes in the lungs affect bacterial replication in the lower respiratory tract (LRT). Bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) from coinfected mice showed rapid bacterial proliferation 4 to 6 h after pneumococcal challenge….
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Natural hybrid silica/protein superstructure at atomic resolution [Chemistry]
Formation of highly symmetric skeletal elements in demosponges, called spicules, follows a unique biomineralization mechanism in which polycondensation of an inherently disordered amorphous silica is guided by a highly ordered proteinaceous scaffold, the axial filament. The enzymatically active proteins, silicateins, are assembled into a slender hybrid silica/protein crystalline superstructure tha
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Circadian regulation of muscle growth independent of locomotor activity [Cell Biology]
Muscle tissue shows diurnal variations in function, physiology, and metabolism. Whether such variations are dependent on the circadian clock per se or are secondary to circadian differences in physical activity and feeding pattern is unclear. By measuring muscle growth over 12-h periods in live prefeeding larval zebrafish, we show that…
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A receptor-like protein mediates plant immune responses to herbivore-associated molecular patterns [Plant Biology]
Herbivory is fundamental to the regulation of both global food webs and the extent of agricultural crop losses. Induced plant responses to herbivores promote resistance and often involve the perception of specific herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs); however, precisely defined receptors and elicitors associated with herbivore recognition remain elusive. Here, we…
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Mapping transmembrane binding partners for E-cadherin ectodomains [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We combine proximity labeling and single molecule binding assays to discover transmembrane protein interactions in cells. We first screen for candidate binding partners by tagging the extracellular and cytoplasmic regions of a "bait" protein with BioID biotin ligase and identify proximal proteins that are biotin tagged on both their extracellular…
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Distemper, extinction, and vaccination of the Amur tiger [Ecology]
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently emerged as an extinction threat for the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). CDV is vaccine-preventable, and control strategies could require vaccination of domestic dogs and/or wildlife populations. However, vaccination of endangered wildlife remains controversial, which has led to a focus on interventions in…
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Richer color vocabulary is associated with better color memory but not color perception [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
The potential interaction between color naming and psychophysical color recognition has been historically debated. To study this interaction, here we utilized two approaches based on individual differences in color naming and variation of color name density along the color wheel. We tested a pool of Persian speaking subjects with a…
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Race and ethnic variation in college students' allostatic regulation of racism-related stress [Physiology]
Racism-related stress is thought to contribute to widespread race/ethnic health inequities via negative emotion and allostatic stress process up-regulation. Although prior studies document race-related stress and health correlations, due to methodological and technical limitations, they have been unable to directly test the stress-reactivity hypothesis in situ. Guided by theories of…
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Chromatin topology and the timing of enhancer function at the HoxD locus [Developmental Biology]
The HoxD gene cluster is critical for proper limb formation in tetrapods. In the emerging limb buds, different subgroups of Hoxd genes respond first to a proximal regulatory signal, then to a distal signal that organizes digits. These two regulations are exclusive from one another and emanate from two distinct…
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The SERCA residue Glu340 mediates interdomain communication that guides Ca2+ transport [Biochemistry]
The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) is a P-type ATPase that transports Ca2+ from the cytosol into the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SR/ER) lumen, driven by ATP. This primary transport activity depends on tight coupling between movements of the transmembrane helices forming the two Ca2+-binding sites and the cytosolic headpiece mediating ATP hydrolysis….
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High-resolution mouse subventricular zone stem-cell niche transcriptome reveals features of lineage, anatomy, and aging [Neuroscience]
Adult neural stem cells (NSC) serve as a reservoir for brain plasticity and origin for certain gliomas. Lineage tracing and genomic approaches have portrayed complex underlying heterogeneity within the major anatomical location for NSC, the subventricular zone (SVZ). To gain a comprehensive profile of NSC heterogeneity, we utilized a well-validated…
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Enhanced trace element mobilization by Earth's ice sheets [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Trace elements sustain biological productivity, yet the significance of trace element mobilization and export in subglacial runoff from ice sheets is poorly constrained at present. Here, we present size-fractionated (0.02, 0.22, and 0.45 µm) concentrations of trace elements in subglacial waters from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the Antarctic…
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Hsp40 proteins phase separate to chaperone the assembly and maintenance of membraneless organelles [Biochemistry]
Membraneless organelles contain a wide spectrum of molecular chaperones, indicating their important roles in modulating the metastable conformation and biological function of membraneless organelles. Here we report that class I and II Hsp40 (DNAJ) proteins possess a high ability of phase separation rendered by the flexible G/F-rich region. Different Hsp40…
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A new sea-level record for the Neogene/Quaternary boundary reveals transition to a more stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Sea-level rise resulting from the instability of polar continental ice sheets represents a major socioeconomic hazard arising from anthropogenic warming, but the response of the largest component of Earth's cryosphere, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), to global warming is poorly understood. Here we present a detailed record of North…
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Seasonal drought events in tropical East Asia over the last 60,000 y [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The cause of seasonal hydrologic changes in tropical East Asia during interstadial/stadial oscillations of the last glaciation remains controversial. Here, we show seven seasonal drought events that occurred during the relatively warm interstadials by phytolith and pollen records. These events are significantly manifested as high percentages of bilobate phytoliths and…
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Synaptotagmin-7 deficiency induces mania-like behavioral abnormalities through attenuating GluN2B activity [Neuroscience]
Synaptotagmin-7 (Syt7) probably plays an important role in bipolar-like behavioral abnormalities in mice; however, the underlying mechanisms for this have remained elusive. Unlike antidepressants that cause mood overcorrection in bipolar depression, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-targeted drugs show moderate clinical efficacy, for unexplained reasons. Here we identified Syt7 single nucleoti
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The science of deep learning [Physical Sciences]
Scientists today have completely different ideas of what machines can learn to do than we had only 10 y ago. In image processing, speech and video processing, machine vision, natural language processing, and classic two-player games, in particular, the state-of-the-art has been rapidly pushed forward over the last decade, as…
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Triclosan leads to dysregulation of the metabolic regulator FGF21 exacerbating high fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [Environmental Sciences]
Triclosan (TCS), employed as an antiseptic and disinfectant, comes into direct contact with humans through a plethora of consumer products and its rising environmental release. We have demonstrated that TCS promotes liver tumorigenesis in mice, yet the biological and molecular mechanisms by which TCS exerts its toxicity, especially in early…
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The Ig heavy chain protein but not its message controls early B cell development [Immunology and Inflammation]
Development of progenitor B cells (ProB cells) into precursor B cells (PreB cells) is dictated by immunoglobulin heavy chain checkpoint (IgHCC), where the IgHC encoded by a productively rearranged Igh allele assembles into a PreB cell receptor complex (PreBCR) to generate signals to initiate this transition and suppressing antigen receptor…
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Environmental noise degrades hippocampus-related learning and memory [Neuroscience]
The neural mechanisms underlying the impacts of noise on nonauditory function, particularly learning and memory, remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rats exposed postnatally (between postnatal days 9 and 56) to structured noise delivered at a sound pressure level of ∼65 dB displayed significantly degraded hippocampus-related learning and memory…
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"You" speaks to me: Effects of generic-you in creating resonance between people and ideas [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Creating resonance between people and ideas is a central goal of communication. Historically, attempts to understand the factors that promote resonance have focused on altering the content of a message. Here we identify an additional route to evoking resonance that is embedded in the structure of language: the generic use…
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Gender stereotypes can explain the gender-equality paradox [Social Sciences]
The so-called "gender-equality paradox" is the fact that gender segregation across occupations is more pronounced in more egalitarian and more developed countries. Some scholars have explained this paradox by the existence of deeply rooted or intrinsic gender differences in preferences that materialize more easily in countries where economic constraints are…
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Structure-function subsystem models of female and male forebrain networks integrating cognition, affect, behavior, and bodily functions [Neuroscience]
The forebrain is the first of three primary vertebrate brain subdivisions. Macrolevel network analysis in a mammal (rat) revealed that the 466 gray matter regions composing the right and left sides of the forebrain are interconnected by 35,738 axonal connections forming a large set of overlapping, hierarchically arranged subsystems. This…
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Oncogenic activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling suppresses ferroptosis via SREBP-mediated lipogenesis [Cell Biology]
Ferroptosis, a form of regulated necrosis driven by iron-dependent peroxidation of phospholipids, is regulated by cellular metabolism, redox homeostasis, and various signaling pathways related to cancer. In this study, we found that activating mutation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)…
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In situ organic Fenton-like catalysis triggered by anodic polymeric intermediates for electrochemical water purification [Chemistry]
Organic Fenton-like catalysis has been recently developed for water purification, but redox-active compounds have to be ex situ added as oxidant activators, causing secondary pollution problem. Electrochemical oxidation is widely used for pollutant degradation, but suffers from severe electrode fouling caused by high-resistance polymeric intermediates. Herein, we develop an in…
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Differences in spatial versus temporal reaction norms for spring and autumn phenological events [Ecology]
For species to stay temporally tuned to their environment, they use cues such as the accumulation of degree-days. The relationships between the timing of a phenological event in a population and its environmental cue can be described by a population-level reaction norm. Variation in reaction norms along environmental gradients may…
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Development of cyclic peptides with potent in vivo osteogenic activity through RaPID-based affinity maturation [Applied Biological Sciences]
Osteoporosis is caused by a disequilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation. Therapeutics for osteoporosis can be divided into antiresorptives that suppress bone resorption and anabolics which increase bone formation. Currently, the only anabolic treatment options are parathyroid hormone mimetics or an anti-sclerostin monoclonal antibody. With the current global increases…
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{beta}-Cyclodextrin modified Pt(II) metallacycle-based supramolecular hyperbranched polymer assemblies for DOX delivery to liver cancer cells [Chemistry]
Despite the widespread clinical application of chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs, their adverse side effects and inefficient performances remain ongoing issues. A drug delivery system (DDS) designed for a specific cancer may therefore overcome the drawbacks of single chemotherapeutic drugs and provide precise and synergistical cancer treatment by introducing exclusive stimulus responsiveness…
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Condensing water vapor to droplets generates hydrogen peroxide [Chemistry]
It was previously shown [J. K. Lee et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 116, 19294–19298 (2019)] that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is spontaneously produced in micrometer-sized water droplets (microdroplets), which are generated by atomizing bulk water using nebulization without the application of an external electric field. Here we report that…
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ATP13A2-mediated endo-lysosomal polyamine export counters mitochondrial oxidative stress [Cell Biology]
Recessive loss-of-function mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9) are associated with a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently revealed that the late endo-lysosomal transporter ATP13A2 pumps polyamines like spermine into the cytosol, whereas ATP13A2 dysfunction causes lysosomal polyamine accumulation and rupture. Here, we investigate how ATP13A2 provides pro
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Therapeutic candidates for the Zika virus identified by a high-throughput screen for Zika protease inhibitors [Medical Sciences]
When Zika virus emerged as a public health emergency there were no drugs or vaccines approved for its prevention or treatment. We used a high-throughput screen for Zika virus protease inhibitors to identify several inhibitors of Zika virus infection. We expressed the NS2B-NS3 Zika virus protease and conducted a biochemical…
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The Arg/N-degron pathway targets transcription factors and regulates specific genes [Biochemistry]
The Arg/N-degron pathway targets proteins for degradation by recognizing their N-terminal or internal degrons. Our previous work produced double-knockout (2-KO) HEK293T human cell lines that lacked the functionally overlapping UBR1 and UBR2 E3 ubiquitin ligases of the Arg/N-degron pathway. Here, we studied these cells in conjunction with RNA-sequencing, mass spectrometry…
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A structurally conserved human and Tetrahymena telomerase catalytic core [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that counteracts the shortening of chromosome ends due to incomplete replication. Telomerase contains a catalytic core of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase RNA (TER). However, what defines TERT and separates it from other reverse transcriptases remains a subject of debate. A recent cryoelectron microscopy…
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Cytocidal macrophages in symbiosis with CD4 and CD8 T cells cause acute diabetes following checkpoint blockade of PD-1 in NOD mice [Immunology and Inflammation]
Autoimmune diabetes is one of the complications resulting from checkpoint blockade immunotherapy in cancer patients, yet the underlying mechanisms for such an adverse effect are not well understood. Leveraging the diabetes-susceptible nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, we phenocopy the diabetes progression induced by programmed death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 blockade and identify…
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A general model of hippocampal and dorsal striatal learning and decision making [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Humans and other animals use multiple strategies for making decisions. Reinforcement-learning theory distinguishes between stimulus–response (model-free; MF) learning and deliberative (model-based; MB) planning. The spatial-navigation literature presents a parallel dichotomy between navigation strategies. In "response learning," associated with the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), decisions are anchor
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Studies in bank voles reveal strain differences between chronic wasting disease prions from Norway and North America [Microbiology]
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a relentless epidemic disorder caused by infectious prions that threatens the survival of cervid populations and raises increasing public health concerns in North America. In Europe, CWD was detected for the first time in wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces) in 2016….
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Mutation-oriented profiling of autoinhibitory kinase conformations predicts RAF inhibitor efficacies [Biochemistry]
Kinase-targeted therapies have the potential to improve the survival of patients with cancer. However, the cancer-specific spectrum of kinase alterations exhibits distinct functional properties and requires mutation-oriented drug treatments. Besides post-translational modifications and diverse intermolecular interactions of kinases, it is the distinct disease mutation which reshapes full-length ki
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Bumblebees perceive the spatial layout of their environment in relation to their body size and form to minimize inflight collisions [Neuroscience]
Animals that move through complex habitats must frequently contend with obstacles in their path. Humans and other highly cognitive vertebrates avoid collisions by perceiving the relationship between the layout of their surroundings and the properties of their own body profile and action capacity. It is unknown whether insects, which have…
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Designer broad-spectrum polyimidazolium antibiotics [Microbiology]
For a myriad of different reasons most antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have failed to reach clinical application. Different AMPs have different shortcomings including but not limited to toxicity issues, potency, limited spectrum of activity, or reduced activity in situ. We synthesized several cationic peptide mimics, main-chain cationic polyimidazoliums (PIMs), and discovered…
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Reversal of autoimmunity by mixed chimerism enables reactivation of {beta} cells and transdifferentiation of {alpha} cells in diabetic NOD mice [Developmental Biology]
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the autoimmune destruction of β cells, so cure of firmly established T1D requires both reversal of autoimmunity and restoration of β cells. It is known that β cell regeneration in nonautoimmune diabetic mice can come from differentiation of progenitors and/or transdifferentiation of α cells….
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Photochemistry of oxidized Hg(I) and Hg(II) species suggests missing mercury oxidation in the troposphere [Chemistry]
Mercury (Hg), a global contaminant, is emitted mainly in its elemental form Hg0 to the atmosphere where it is oxidized to reactive HgII compounds, which efficiently deposit to surface ecosystems. Therefore, the chemical cycling between the elemental and oxidized Hg forms in the atmosphere determines the scale and geographical pattern…
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Inhibition of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) can revert cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Cellular senescence is defined as a stable, persistent arrest of cell proliferation. Here, we examine whether senescent cells can lose senescence hallmarks and reenter a reversible state of cell-cycle arrest (quiescence). We constructed a molecular regulatory network of cellular senescence based on previous experimental evidence. To infer the regulatory logic…
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Structure of the Dietzia Mrp complex reveals molecular mechanism of this giant bacterial sodium proton pump [Chemistry]
Multiple resistance and pH adaptation (Mrp) complexes are sophisticated cation/proton exchangers found in a vast variety of alkaliphilic and/or halophilic microorganisms, and are critical for their survival in highly challenging environments. This family of antiporters is likely to represent the ancestor of cation pumps found in many redox-driven transporter complexes,…
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Datura quids at Pinwheel Cave, California, provide unambiguous confirmation of the ingestion of hallucinogens at a rock art site [Chemistry]
While debates have raged over the relationship between trance and rock art, unambiguous evidence of the consumption of hallucinogens has not been reported from any rock art site in the world. A painting possibly representing the flowers of Datura on the ceiling of a Californian rock art site called Pinwheel…
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Profile of Joel D. Blum [Profiles]
Joel D. Blum uses isotopes to solve an unusually wide range of research problems. Renowned for innovative approaches, Blum, a professor of earth and environmental sciences at the University of Michigan, was among the first scientists to apply methods developed largely for lunar and planetary studies to answer longstanding questions…
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Moth wings are acoustic metamaterials [Applied Mathematics]
Metamaterials assemble multiple subwavelength elements to create structures with extraordinary physical properties (1–4). Optical metamaterials are rare in nature and no natural acoustic metamaterials are known. Here, we reveal that the intricate scale layer on moth wings forms a metamaterial ultrasound absorber (peak absorption = 72% of sound intensity at…
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Green energy by recoverable triple-oxide mesostructured perovskite photovoltaics [Sustainability Science]
Perovskite solar cells have developed into a promising branch of renewable energy. A combination of feasible manufacturing and renewable modules can offer an attractive advancement to this field. Herein, a screen-printed three-layered all-nanoparticle network was developed as a rigid framework for a perovskite active layer. This matrix enables perovskite to…
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Discovery of Marburg virus neutralizing antibodies from virus-naive human antibody repertoires using large-scale structural predictions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Marburg virus (MARV) disease is lethal, with fatality rates up to 90%. Neutralizing antibodies (Abs) are promising drug candidates to prevent or treat the disease. Current efforts are focused in part on vaccine development to induce such MARV-neutralizing Abs. We analyzed the antibody repertoire from healthy unexposed and previously MARV-infected…
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Unbiased optical mapping of telomere-integrated endogenous human herpesvirus 6 [Microbiology]
Next-generation sequencing technologies allowed sequencing of thousands of genomes. However, there are genomic regions that remain difficult to characterize, including telomeres, centromeres, and other low-complexity regions, as well as transposable elements and endogenous viruses. Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are closely related viruses that infect most humans…
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The Weekly Planet: A Start-Up's Unusual Plan to Suck Carbon Out of the Sky
Every Tuesday morning, our lead climate reporter brings you the big ideas, expert analysis, and vital guidance that will help you flourish on a changing planet. Sign up to get T he Weekly Planet , our guide to living through climate change, in your inbox . Stripe is one of those technology companies that control the internet's plumbing. It makes payments-processing software that hustles money fro
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T. rex had huge growth spurts, but other dinos grew "slow and steady"
By cutting into dinosaur bones and analyzing the growth lines, a team of researchers discovered that T. rex and its closest relatives got big thanks to a huge growth spurt in adolescence, while its more distant cousins kept on growing a little bit every year throughout their lives.
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Atom smasher unearths surprises hidden with 2000-year-old mummy
Intense x-ray beams detect unusual artifact and a misleading portrait
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Megalodon was a megalo-mom
Tooth analysis provides strongest evidence yet that these monster sharks commonly used nurseries
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T. rex had huge growth spurts, but other dinos grew 'slow and steady'
Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the biggest meat-eating dinosaurs of all time—it measured up to 42 feet long from snout to tail and would have weighed in at around 16,000 pounds. And it wasn't alone—some of its less-well-known cousins could reach nearly the same size. Scientists have previously shown that T. rex got so big by going through a huge teenage growth spurt, but they didn't know if that was
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The Atlantic Daily: Our Guide to Cooking in Isolation
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox . By now it's a well-worn cliché to say that 2020 has been rough, and that the holiday season will be no different. Indeed, many Americans will likely (and should certainly) not be celebrating this
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Five better turkey alternatives to serve this Thanksgiving
Even if the right sized turkey is available, the process of basting, flavoring, and cooking an entire bird might not seem worth the effort this year. (Pixabay/) Despite the upheaval that 2020 has caused, there's no sign yet that the country facing a dire turkey shortage. At least in most locales, if you desperately need and want a turkey to celebrate the holiday, you're more likely than not to fi
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First Evidence of a Recently Active Volcano on Mars
A region on the Red Planet may still be volcanically active, melting ground ice and creating conditions favorable to life, astronomers say.
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Unique kitchen appliances that will save you time and money
Upgrade your kitchen. (Drinkworks/) Some of us aren't savvy in the kitchen, but none of us are immune to the reality that much of our waking lives revolve around acquiring food and drink. Where, when, and how will our next meal or beverage come to be? Flexibility is key when you're assembling a home environment that will work to keep your day on track, and optimizing your kitchen is one of the ve
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Harrabin: Now will the Treasury go green?
As Boris Johnson is driving UK emissions down, is his chancellor preparing to drive them back up?
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Vegans are more likely to suffer broken bones, study finds
The study found that vegans were 43% more likely to suffer fractures than meat eaters. Similar results were observed for vegetarians and fish eaters, though to a lesser extent. It's possible to be healthy on a vegan diet, though it takes some strategic planning to compensate for the nutrients that a plant-based diet can't easily provide. Non-meat diets may help you maintain healthy cholesterol, b
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Best Bluetooth speakers: Five things to consider
Enjoy music anywhere you go with one of these portable Bluetooth speakers. (AB via Unsplash/) BEST BLUETOOTH SPEAKER BATTERY LIFE: JBL Boombox BEST WATERPROOF BLUETOOTH SPEAKER: Tribit XSound Go Bluetooth Speaker BEST BLUETOOTH SPEAKER VOLUME CONTROL: Bose S1 Pro BEST LIGHTWEIGHT BLUETOOTH SPEAKER: Ultimate Ears – WONDERBOOM 2 BEST BLUETOOTH SPEAKER FOR CONNECTION: Sonos Move BEST BUDGET BLUETOOT
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For people with diabetes, medicaid expansion helps, but can't do it all: BU study
Medicaid expansion through the Affordable Care Act has insured millions of low-income people in the United States, improving outcomes for patients with many different diseases. But expansion alone has not been enough to improve outcomes for patients with diabetes, according to a new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study.
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Research shows bariatric surgery may reduce severity of COVID-19 in patients with obesity
A Cleveland Clinic study shows that among patients who have obesity and who tested positive for COVID-19, a past history of bariatric surgery was significantly associated with a lower risk of hospital and intensive care unit admission. The results were published in the journal of Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.
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After COVID, Your Favorite Foods May Smell Like Rotting Meat
COVID-19 can have strange effects on the nervous system — including wreaking havoc on patients' sense of smell. While scientists have known that for a while , they're now trying to get to the bottom of why smell — and with it the sense of taste — seems to be altered by the coronavirus, The Wall Street Journal reports . A June study found that roughly seven percent of 4,000 examined COVID-19 patie
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Drilling the Arctic refuge doesn't make sense—but Trump wants it to happen anyway
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge spans more than 19 million acres on Alaska's northern coast. One particular section of it, known as the 1002 area, also purportedly holds 10 billion barrels of oil. (.S. Department of the Interior/) Jeremy Deaton writes for Nexus Media , a nonprofit climate change news service. You can follow him @deaton_jeremy . This story was published in collaboration with N
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The best and safest ways to donate food and time this holiday season
Volunteering and donating money are two things your community food pantry needs more than ever. (Joel Muniz/Unsplash/) This Thanksgiving is definitely one of the weirdest in recent years. Not just because of a tumultuous election or shockingly warm weather, but because many people across the US will not be able to share turkey and stuffing with their loved ones. The COVID-19 pandemic has also inc
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COVID's collateral damage: Germicidal lamps may damage corneas
In a paper published in the journal of Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, physicians from the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine reported that several patients using germicidal lamps in an attempt to sanitize against the coronavirus, developed painful inflammation of the cornea, a condition called photokeratitis. These consumer-available ultraviolet (
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Microbes help unlock phosphorus for plant growth
A research team led by the University of Washington and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has shown that microbes taken from trees growing beside pristine mountain-fed streams in Western Washington could make phosphorus trapped in soils more accessible to agricultural crops.
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Pesticide deadly to bees now easily detected in honey
A common insecticide that is a major hazard for honeybees is now effectively detected in honey thanks to a simple new method.
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Commonly used antibiotic shows promise for combating Zika infections
Researchers used a variety of advanced drug screening techniques to test out more than 10,000 compounds in search of a cure. To their surprise, they found that the widely used antibiotic methacycline was effective at preventing brain infections and reducing neurological problems associated with the virus in mice.
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Clean Air Act saved 1.5 billion birds
US pollution regulations meant to protect humans from dirty air are also saving birds. So concludes a new continent-wide study. Study authors found that improved air quality under a federal program to reduce ozone pollution may have averted the loss of 1.5 billion birds during the past 40 years.
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Memories of past events retain remarkable fidelity even as we age
Even though people tend to remember fewer details about past events as time goes by, the details they do remember are retained with remarkable fidelity, according to a new study. This finding holds true regardless of the age of the person or the amount of time that elapsed since the event took place.
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CRISPRi screens reveal sources of metabolic robustness in E. coli
Metabolic robustness, the ability of a metabolic system to buffer changes in its environment, is not always a welcome feature for microbiologists: it interferes with metabolic engineering or prevents that antibiotics kill bacteria. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms that enable metabolic robustness. A massively parallel CRISPRi screen demonstrated that E. colimetabolism is very
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Nature is widely adapted to current climate — making it harder to adjust to a new one
To do the right thing at the right time, organisms need to glean cues from their environment. With ongoing climate change, the timing of these cues, like the accumulation of warm days, is rapidly shifting. Now a network of researchers working on an unprecedentedly large dataset of seasonal events has shown that the timing of species' activity fail to keep up with their cues, and that how quickly a
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Pesticide deadly to bees now easily detected in honey
A common insecticide that is a major hazard for honeybees is now effectively detected in honey thanks to a simple new method.
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CRISPRi screens reveal sources of metabolic robustness in E. coli
Metabolic robustness, the ability of a metabolic system to buffer changes in its environment, is not always a welcome feature for microbiologists: it interferes with metabolic engineering or prevents that antibiotics kill bacteria. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms that enable metabolic robustness. A massively parallel CRISPRi screen demonstrated that E. colimetabolism is very
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Enzymatic photocaging for the study of gene regulation through DNA methylation
The addition and removal of methyl groups on DNA plays an important role in gene regulation. In order to study these mechanisms more precisely, a team has developed a new method by which specific methylation sites can be blocked and then unblocked at a precise time through irradiation with light (photocaging).
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Social bacteria build shelters using the physics of fingerprints
When starvation threatens, forest-dwelling Myxococcus xanthus bacteria work collectively to form fruiting bodies, spongy mushroom-like growths that promote survival. Princeton researchers have identified how these bacteria harness the same physical laws that lead to the whorls of a fingerprint to build the structures layer by layer.
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COVID-19 Research Biased Toward Only a Handful of Genes
Thomas Stoeger of Northwestern University has previously studied scientists' limited focus on certain genes. In a new study, he shows how these same behaviors extend into the science of COVID-19.
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Pesticide deadly to bees now easily detected in honey
A common insecticide that is a major hazard for honeybees is now effectively detected in honey thanks to a simple new method.
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Hearts, airlocks, and asteroids: New research flies on 21st SpaceX cargo mission
The 21st SpaceX cargo resupply mission that launches from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida carries a variety of critical research and technology demonstrations to the International Space Station.
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Paper Recommends Women Avoid Female Mentors, Drawing Outrage
A study makes policy recommendations to optimize citations, but critics say it fails to acknowledge that citations are a biased and narrow measure of scientific success.
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Older women who walk daily have lower blood pressure risk
Women who walk 30 minutes a day may have a significantly lower risk of developing high blood pressure, new research shows. Further, women who don't walk 30 minutes—the federal physical activity guideline of moderate activity—but do walk at 2 MPH (a 30-minute mile) or faster, still have a reduced risk of hypertension, according to the study in the journal Hypertension . "…you don't necessarily hav
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To push or to pull? How many-limbed marine organisms swim
Couinter-intuitively, small marine animals don't use their limbs or propulsors to push themselves through the water while swimming. Instead, their appendages create negative pressure behind them that pulls the animal through the water, scientists report.
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Can we harness a plant's ability to synthesize medicinal compounds?
Anthraquinones are a class of naturally occurring compounds prized for their medicinal properties, as well as for other applications, including ecologically friendly dyes. Despite wide interest, the mechanism by which plants produce them has remained shrouded in mystery until now. New work reveals a gene responsible for anthraquinone synthesis in plants. Their findings could help scientists cultiv
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Enzymatic photocaging for the study of gene regulation through DNA methylation
The addition and removal of methyl groups on DNA plays an important role in gene regulation. In order to study these mechanisms more precisely, a team has developed a new method by which specific methylation sites can be blocked and then unblocked at a precise time through irradiation with light (photocaging).
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Antimicrobial soap additive worsens fatty liver disease in mice
Triclosan, an antimicrobial found in many soaps and other household items, worsens fatty liver disease in mice fed a high-fat diet.
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Experimental evolution reveals how bacteria gain drug resistance
A research team has succeeded in experimentally evolving the common bacteria under pressure from a large number of individual antibiotics, and identified the mechanisms and constraints underlying evolved drug resistance. Their findings help develop drug-treatment strategies that minimize the chance that bacteria will develop resistance.
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Potential treatment against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing gonorrhea and meningitis
A team has demonstrated the effectiveness of an inexpensive molecule to fight antibiotic-resistant strains of the bacteria responsible for gonorrhea and meningococcal meningitis. These two infections affect millions of people worldwide.
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A rich source of nutrients under the Earth's ice sheets
Trace elements such as iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for all kinds of organisms. Below ice sheets, which cover around ten percent of the Earth's land surface, larger quantities of these substances are mobilised than previously assumed. This is shown by new data from Greenland and Antarctica, which were collected and analysed by an international research team.
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Measuring risk-taking – by watching people move computer mouses
How you move a computer mouse while deciding whether to click on a risky bet or a safe choice may reveal how much of a risk-taker you really are. Researchers found that people whose mouse drifted toward the safe option on the computer screen – even when they ended up taking the risky bet – may be more risk-averse than their choice would indicate.
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See 2 new pages from Darwin's 'Origin of Species' draft online
An extraordinary collection of priceless manuscripts of naturalist Charles Darwin goes online today, including two rare pages from the original draft of On the Origin of Species . These documents will be added to Darwin Online , a website which contains not only the complete works of Darwin, but is possibly the most comprehensive scholarly portal on any historical individual in the world. John va
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Mysterious Monolith Has Been There For Years, According to Google Earth
Right There Well, that was fast. Over the weekend, a team of biologists discovered a bizarre metal monolith in the middle of the Utah wilderness, prompting real-world intrigue as well as humorous comparison's to Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film "2001: A Space Odyssey." It's still a mystery as to who put it there or why — but a group of eagle-eyed Reddit users have already discovered the location of th
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Simple new testing method aims to improve time-release drugs
UC Riverside engineers filled a glass tube bent like a tuning fork, kept vibrating by a circuit at its resonance frequency, with simulated stomach and intestine contents and passed an over-the-counter time-release drug granule through the tube. They observed a brief change in the frequency. When plotted, they could compare the peaks of resonance frequency against the time to learn the buoyant mass
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Can we harness a plant's ability to synthesize medicinal compounds?
Anthraquinones are a class of naturally occurring compounds prized for their medicinal properties, as well as for other applications, including ecologically friendly dyes. Despite wide interest, the mechanism by which plants produce them has remained shrouded in mystery until now.
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To push or to pull? How many-limbed marine organisms swim
When you think of swimming, you probably imagine pushing through the water—creating backwards thrust that pushes you forward. New research at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) suggests instead that many marine animals actually pull themselves through the water, a phenomenon dubbed "suction thrust."
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Can we harness a plant's ability to synthesize medicinal compounds?
Anthraquinones are a class of naturally occurring compounds prized for their medicinal properties, as well as for other applications, including ecologically friendly dyes. Despite wide interest, the mechanism by which plants produce them has remained shrouded in mystery until now.
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To push or to pull? How many-limbed marine organisms swim
When you think of swimming, you probably imagine pushing through the water—creating backwards thrust that pushes you forward. New research at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) suggests instead that many marine animals actually pull themselves through the water, a phenomenon dubbed "suction thrust."
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Vaccine cements Oxford's place as leader in battle against Covid
University recognised the virus threat early and launched a full-scale research onslaught
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Closing the racial disparity gap in survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest
In-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCA) represent catastrophic and often terminal events. Despite investments to improve the quality of resuscitation efforts, fewer than 25% of all patients that experience cardiac arrests in hospitals survive to discharge, and survival varies significantly across hospitals and by race. Until now, few have been able to specify reasons for the between-hospital difference
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'Crisis decision making at the speed of COVID-19' – Bay Area public health officials share their experience with shelter-in-place order
In mid-March, public health officials across the San Francisco area issued the first US regional shelter-in-place order in response to the emerging COVID-19 pandemic. A 'field report' on the crisis decision-making approach followed in that effective early response is featured in a special COVID-19 supplement to the Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. The journal is published in the L
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Machine learning: A breakthrough in the study of stellar nurseries
Artificial intelligence can make it possible to see astrophysical phenomena that were previously beyond reach. Astronomers present the most comprehensive observations yet carried out of one of the star-forming regions closest to the Earth.
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Skyborne whales: The rise (and fall) of the airship
Large airships were too sensitive to wind gusts and too sluggish to win against aeroplanes. But today, they have a chance to make a spectacular return. For decades, die-hard fans of airships have had to accept the fact that their beloved airborne vessels had no chance of making their way back to air travel routes. The ever more technologically advanced aeroplanes are more comfortable and practica
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Duckbill Dino Odyssey Ended in Africa
A duckbill dinosaur jawbone found in Morocco means that dinosaurs crossed a large body of water to reach Africa.
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Strongest-Ever Candidate For Alien Message Came From Sun-Like Star, Researcher Says
Wow! Finally, someone has identified what's likely the source of the "Wow! signal," a SETI oddity that has perplexed astronomers for since its discovery. The Wow! signal is an unusually powerful 72-second-long extraterrestrial signal picked up by the Big Ear radiotelescope in 1977. It's never been repeated, and scientists never identified its source. The signal, named after the comment that the a
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Researchers go underwater to study how sponge species vanished
Researchers from Tel Aviv University (TAU) embarked on an underwater journey to solve a mystery: Why did sponges of the Agelas oroides species, which used to be common in the shallow waters along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, disappear? Today, the species can be found in Israel mainly in deep habitats that exist at a depth of 100 meters (330 feet).
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Clean Air Act saved 1.5 billion birds, study shows
U.S. pollution regulations meant to protect humans from dirty air are also saving birds. So concludes a new continentwide study published today in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Study authors found that improved air quality under a federal program to reduce ozone pollution may have averted the loss of 1.5 billion birds during the past 40 years. That's nearly 20 percent of bir
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CRISPRi screens reveal sources of metabolic robustness in E.coli
Metabolic robustness, the ability of a metabolic system to buffer changes in its environment, is not always a welcome feature for microbiologists: it interferes with metabolic engineering or prevents that antibiotics kill bacteria. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms that enable metabolic robustness. A massively parallel CRISPRi screen demonstrated that E. coli metabolism is ver
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New platform for creating and characterizing material blends could significantly accelerate development
Blending is a powerful strategy for improving the performance of electronics, coatings, separation membranes, and other functional materials. For example, high-efficiency solar cells and light-emitting diodes have been produced by optimizing mixtures of organic and inorganic components.
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Fluorescent molecule betrays the breakdown of polymer materials
Nylon, rubber, silicone, Teflon, PVC—these are all examples of man-made polymers—long chains of repeated molecular units that we call monomers. While polymers also exist in nature (think wool, silk, or even hair), the invention of synthetic polymers, the most famous of which is plastic, revolutionized the industry. Light, stretchy, flexible, yet strong and resistant, synthetic polymers are one of
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Researchers go underwater to study how sponge species vanished
Researchers from Tel Aviv University (TAU) embarked on an underwater journey to solve a mystery: Why did sponges of the Agelas oroides species, which used to be common in the shallow waters along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, disappear? Today, the species can be found in Israel mainly in deep habitats that exist at a depth of 100 meters (330 feet).
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Young Brazilians are increasingly keen on conservation- and biodiversity-related topics
Young Brazilians are increasingly interested in biodiversity, conservation of the Amazon and science as they begin high school, but school students in the North region are more interested in learning about these subjects, and about local fauna and flora, than their peers in the Southeast.
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51% of Americans agree paying college athletes should be allowed
More Americans than not believe that college athletes should be allowed to be paid more than what it costs them to go to school, a new national study of nearly 4,000 people suggests.
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Clean Air Act saved 1.5 billion birds, study shows
U.S. pollution regulations meant to protect humans from dirty air are also saving birds. So concludes a new continentwide study published today in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Study authors found that improved air quality under a federal program to reduce ozone pollution may have averted the loss of 1.5 billion birds during the past 40 years. That's nearly 20 percent of bir
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Novel chemical process a first step to making nuclear fuel with fire
Developing safe and sustainable fuels for nuclear energy is an integral part of Los Alamos National Laboratory's energy security mission. Uranium dioxide, a radioactive actinide oxide, is the most widely used nuclear fuel in today's nuclear power plants. A new "combustion synthesis" process recently established for lanthanide metals—non-radioactive and positioned one row above actinides on the per
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CRISPRi screens reveal sources of metabolic robustness in E.coli
Metabolic robustness, the ability of a metabolic system to buffer changes in its environment, is not always a welcome feature for microbiologists: it interferes with metabolic engineering or prevents that antibiotics kill bacteria. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms that enable metabolic robustness. A massively parallel CRISPRi screen demonstrated that E. coli metabolism is ver
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Animal-free method predicts nanoparticle toxicity for safer industrial materials
Our lungs are exposed to a multitude of hazardous airborne particles on a daily basis. Nanoparticles, due to their small size, may reach the sensitive alveolar region of the human lung and trigger inflammation even after a single inhalation leading to severe diseases such as heart disease, brain damage and lung cancer for prolonged exposure. In manufacturing, toxic nanoparticles may be released in
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Pesticide deadly to bees now easily detected in honey
A common insecticide that is a major hazard for honeybees is now effectively detected in honey thanks to a simple new method.
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Can we harness a plant's ability to synthesize medicinal compounds?
Anthraquinones are a class of naturally occurring compounds prized for their medicinal properties, as well as for other applications, including ecologically friendly dyes. Despite wide interest, the mechanism by which plants produce them has remained shrouded in mystery until now. New work reveals a gene responsible for anthraquinone synthesis in plants. Their findings could help scientists cultiv
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To push or to pull? How many-limbed marine organisms swim
Couinter-intuitively, small marine animals don't use their limbs or propulsors to push themselves through the water while swimming. Instead, their appendages create negative pressure behind them that pulls the animal through the water, scientists from the Marine Biological Laboratory report.
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Duckbill Dino Odyssey Ended in Africa
A duckbill dinosaur jawbone found in Morocco means that dinosaurs crossed a large body of water to reach Africa. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Zebrafish give new insight to sound sensitivity in autism
Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by changes in a gene that scientists call the "fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1)" gene. People who have FXS or autism often struggle with sensitivity to sound. According to the research team, FXS is caused by the disruption of a gene. By disrupting that same gene in zebrafish larvae, they can examine the effects and begin to understand more abou
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Gifts for people who are learning how to cook
Even the basics make a huge difference. (Deposit /) If you've started learning how to cook, it can be hard to venture far from just boiling pasta every night and dousing it with sauce. And while that's totally delicious, getting creative with your dishes is never a bad thing. After all, with more time in lockdown this winter, perfecting a delicious winter roast or batch of holiday cookies isn't s
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Sestrin makes fruit flies live longer
Researchers identify positive effector behind reduced food intake.
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Tel Aviv University researchers go underwater to study how sponge species vanished
Researchers from Tel Aviv University embarked on an underwater journey to solve a mystery: Why did sponges of the Agelas oroides species, which used to be common in the shallow waters along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, disappear? The researchers believe that the main reason for the disappearance of the sponges was the rise in seawater temperatures during the summer months, which in the past
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Novel chemical process a first step to making nuclear fuel with fire
Developing safe and sustainable fuels for nuclear energy is an integral part of Los Alamos National Laboratory's energy security mission.
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Sådan ser din digitale pung ud i 2020
Hvornår kan du smide pungen i skuffen? Vi ser på, hvilke kort du kan have i den digitale pung i 2020 – og hvilke der er på vej.
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Langt fra de ambitiøse klimamål: Erhvervslivet slipper 3,5 milliarder billigere i grønne afgifter
Regeringen og støttepartier i slagsmål om grøn skattereform.
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World map of bees could help keep them buzzing
Scientists have created the first world map of bee species. Bees are crucial pollinators of natural habitats and crops. However, there is sparse data about the distribution of bee species around the world. This lack of information affects our ability to deal with bee population declines that threaten ecosystem balance and our food supply. To create the map, the researchers first looked at a list
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Christmas 'bubbles' will allow 3 UK households to mix over holiday
Four nations agree relaxation of coronavirus restrictions for 5-day period
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Tesla Accused of Covering Up Safety Issues in Class Action Lawsuit
Bad Look On Friday, Tesla vehicle owners hit the electric automaker with a class-action lawsuit claiming that it refused to address a safety issue with its cars and instead tried to cover up the problem. The lawsuit address issues with the suspensions of Model S and Model X cars, according to CNET — issues for which Tesla continues to place the blame on drivers themselves. It's not the first time
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Tackling metabolic complexity
CRISPRi screens reveal sources of metabolic robustness in E. coli.
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Memories of past events retain remarkable fidelity even as we age
Even though people tend to remember fewer details about past events as time goes by, the details they do remember are retained with remarkable fidelity, according to a new study. This finding holds true regardless of the age of the person or the amount of time that elapsed since the event took place.
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Study examines remission of obesity-related complications in teens after bariatric surgery
Researchers at Children's Hospital Colorado have shown that, with the exception of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, remission of obesity-related complications in teens following bariatric surgery was not dependent on major sustained weight loss. Rather, a majority of adolescents benefited from such remission whether or not they lost a significant amount of weight.
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Commonly used antibiotic shows promise for combating Zika infections
Recently, National Institutes of Health researchers used a variety of advanced drug screening techniques to test out more than 10,000 compounds in search of a cure. To their surprise, they found that the widely used antibiotic methacycline was effective at preventing brain infections and reducing neurological problems associated with the virus in mice.
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Tracking COVID-19 trends in hard-hit states
Currently, there are over 10 million confirmed cases and more than 240,000 casualties attributed to COVID-19 in the U.S. Researchers at Louisiana State University have applied computational models to investigate infection rates in relation to social distancing measures. Their paper, Effect of mitigation measures on the spreading of COVID-19 in hard-hit states in the US, was recently published in P
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Team uses copper to image Alzheimer's aggregates in the brain
A proof-of-concept study conducted in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease offers new evidence that copper isotopes can be used to detect the amyloid-beta protein deposits that form in the brains of people living with — or at risk of developing — Alzheimer's.
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Sound waves power new advances in drug delivery and smart materials
Sound waves have been part of science and medicine for decades, but the technologies have always relied on low frequencies. Now researchers have revealed how high frequency sound waves could revolutionize the field of ultrasound-driven chemistry.
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AI system discovers useful new material
When the words 'artificial intelligence' (AI) come to mind, your first thoughts may be of super-smart computers, or robots that perform tasks without needing any help from humans. Now, a multi-institutional team has accomplished something not too far off: They developed an AI algorithm called CAMEO that discovered a potentially useful new material without requiring additional training from scienti
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More skin-like, electronic skin that can feel
A research team has developed a multimodal ion-electronic skin that distinguishes temperature from mechanical stimuli. This skin can detect various movements and is applicable in fields including humanoid skin and temperature sensors.
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AI system discovers useful new material
When the words 'artificial intelligence' (AI) come to mind, your first thoughts may be of super-smart computers, or robots that perform tasks without needing any help from humans. Now, a multi-institutional team has accomplished something not too far off: They developed an AI algorithm called CAMEO that discovered a potentially useful new material without requiring additional training from scienti
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Which speaker are you listening to? Hearing aid of the future uses brainwaves to find out
In a noisy room with many speakers, hearing aids can suppress background noise, but they have difficulties isolating one voice – that of the person you're talking to at a party, for instance. Researchers have now addressed that issue with a technique that uses brainwaves to determine within one second whom you're listening to.
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Reversing the direction of drug transport mediated by the human multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein [Biochemistry]
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), also known as ABCB1, is a cell membrane transporter that mediates the efflux of chemically dissimilar amphipathic drugs and confers resistance to chemotherapy in most cancers. Homologous transmembrane helices (TMHs) 6 and 12 of human P-gp connect the transmembrane domains with its nucleotide-binding domains, and several residues in…
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Evolution of insulin at the edge of foldability and its medical implications [Biochemistry]
Proteins have evolved to be foldable, and yet determinants of foldability may be inapparent once the native state is reached. Insight has emerged from studies of diseases of protein misfolding, exemplified by monogenic diabetes mellitus due to mutations in proinsulin leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress and β-cell death. Cellular foldability…
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Water oxidation by photosystem II is the primary source of electrons for sustained H2 photoproduction in nutrient-replete green algae [Biochemistry]
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of photosynthetic H2 production. H2 evolution occurs under anaerobic conditions and is difficult to sustain due to 1) competition between [FeFe]-hydrogenase (H2ase), the key enzyme responsible for H2 metabolism in algae, and the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle for photosynthetic reductants and 2) inactivation…
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Structural and functional characterization of the pore-forming domain of pinholin S2168 [Biochemistry]
Pinholin S2168 triggers the lytic cycle of bacteriophage φ21 in infected Escherichia coli. Activated transmembrane dimers oligomerize into small holes and uncouple the proton gradient. Transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1) regulates this activity, while TMD2 is postulated to form the actual "pinholes." Focusing on the TMD2 fragment, we used synchrotron radiation-based…
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The 3 x 120{degrees} rotary mechanism of Paracoccus denitrificans F1-ATPase is different from that of the bacterial and mitochondrial F1-ATPases [Biochemistry]
The rotation of Paracoccus denitrificans F1-ATPase (PdF1) was studied using single-molecule microscopy. At all concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or a slowly hydrolyzable ATP analog (ATPγS), above or below Km, PdF1 showed three dwells per turn, each separated by 120°. Analysis of dwell time between steps showed that PdF1 executes…
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A majority of Rhodobacter sphaeroides promoters lack a crucial RNA polymerase recognition feature, enabling coordinated transcription activation [Biochemistry]
Using an in vitro transcription system with purified RNA polymerase (RNAP) to investigate rRNA synthesis in the photoheterotrophic α-proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, we identified a surprising feature of promoters recognized by the major holoenzyme. Transcription from R. sphaeroides rRNA promoters was unexpectedly weak, correlating with absence of −7T, the very highly…
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Lipoteichoic acid polymer length is determined by competition between free starter units [Biochemistry]
Carbohydrate polymers exhibit incredible chemical and structural diversity, yet are produced by polymerases without a template to guide length and composition. As the length of carbohydrate polymers is critical for their biological functions, understanding the mechanisms that determine polymer length is an important area of investigation. Most Gram-positive bacteria produce…
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Michler's hydrol blue elucidates structural differences in prion strains [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Yeast prions provide self-templating protein-based mechanisms of inheritance whose conformational changes lead to the acquisition of diverse new phenotypes. The best studied of these is the prion domain (NM) of Sup35, which forms an amyloid that can adopt several distinct conformations (strains) that confer distinct phenotypes when introduced into cells…
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Designed nanomolar small-molecule inhibitors of Ena/VASP EVH1 interaction impair invasion and extravasation of breast cancer cells [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Battling metastasis through inhibition of cell motility is considered a promising approach to support cancer therapies. In this context, Ena/VASP-depending signaling pathways, in particular interactions with their EVH1 domains, are promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention. However, protein–protein interactions involving proline-rich segments are notoriously difficult to address by small m
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Degenerative and regenerative pathways underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy revealed by single-nucleus RNA sequencing [Cell Biology]
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle disorder characterized by cycles of degeneration and regeneration of multinucleated myofibers and pathological activation of a variety of other muscle-associated cell types. The extent to which different nuclei within the shared cytoplasm of a myofiber may display transcriptional diversity and whether individual…
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Correlated cryogenic fluorescence microscopy and electron cryo-tomography shows that exogenous TRIM5{alpha} can form hexagonal lattices or autophagy aggregates in vivo [Cell Biology]
Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family have been shown to assemble into structures in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. One TRIM protein family member, TRIM5α, has been shown to form cytoplasmic bodies involved in restricting retroviruses such as HIV-1. Here we applied cryogenic correlated light and electron microscopy,…
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Ammonium transporter expression in sperm of the disease vector Aedes aegypti mosquito influences male fertility [Cell Biology]
The ammonium transporter (AMT)/methylammonium permease (MEP)/Rhesus glycoprotein (Rh) family of ammonia (NH3/NH4+) transporters has been identified in organisms from all domains of life. In animals, fundamental roles for AMT and Rh proteins in the specific transport of ammonia across biological membranes to mitigate ammonia toxicity and aid in osmoregulation, acid–base…
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Forest and woodland replacement patterns following drought-related mortality [Ecology]
Forest vulnerability to drought is expected to increase under anthropogenic climate change, and drought-induced mortality and community dynamics following drought have major ecological and societal impacts. Here, we show that tree mortality concomitant with drought has led to short-term (mean 5 y, range 1 to 23 y after mortality) vegetation-type…
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A climatic dipole drives short- and long-term patterns of postfire forest recovery in the western United States [Ecology]
Researchers are increasingly examining patterns and drivers of postfire forest recovery amid growing concern that climate change and intensifying fires will trigger ecosystem transformations. Diminished seed availability and postfire drought have emerged as key constraints on conifer recruitment. However, the spatial and temporal extent to which recurring modes of climatic…
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Seasonal and diel patterns of abundance and activity of viruses in the Red Sea [Ecology]
Virus–microbe interactions have been studied in great molecular details for many years in cultured model systems, yielding a plethora of knowledge on how viruses use and manipulate host machinery. Since the advent of molecular techniques and high-throughput sequencing, methods such as cooccurrence, nucleotide composition, and other statistical frameworks have been…
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Exploitative leaders incite intergroup warfare in a social mammal [Evolution]
Collective conflicts among humans are widespread, although often highly destructive. A classic explanation for the prevalence of such warfare in some human societies is leadership by self-serving individuals that reap the benefits of conflict while other members of society pay the costs. Here, we show that leadership of this kind…
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Selection on phenotypic plasticity favors thermal canalization [Evolution]
Climate change affects organisms worldwide with profound ecological and evolutionary consequences, often increasing population extinction risk. Climatic factors can increase the strength, variability, or direction of natural selection on phenotypic traits, potentially driving adaptive evolution. Phenotypic plasticity in relation to temperature can allow organisms to maintain fitness in response to
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The evolutionary origin and domestication history of goldfish (Carassius auratus) [Genetics]
Goldfish have been subjected to over 1,000 y of intensive domestication and selective breeding. In this report, we describe a high-quality goldfish genome (2n = 100), anchoring 95.75% of contigs into 50 pseudochromosomes. Comparative genomics enabled us to disentangle the two subgenomes that resulted from an ancient hybridization event. Resequencing…
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Oncogenic allelic interaction in Xiphophorus highlights hybrid incompatibility [Genetics]
Mixing genomes of different species by hybridization can disrupt species-specific genetic interactions that were adapted and fixed within each species population. Such disruption can predispose the hybrids to abnormalities and disease that decrease the overall fitness of the hybrids and is therefore named as hybrid incompatibility. Interspecies hybridization between southern…
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Structure of a protective epitope reveals the importance of acetylation of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide [Immunology and Inflammation]
Meningococcal meningitis remains a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Until recently, countries in the African meningitis belt were susceptible to devastating outbreaks, largely attributed to serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (MenA). Vaccination with glycoconjugates of MenA capsular polysaccharide led to an almost complete elimination of MenA clinical cases. To…
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Identification of a brainstem locus that inhibits tumor necrosis factor [Immunology and Inflammation]
In the brain, compact clusters of neuron cell bodies, termed nuclei, are essential for maintaining parameters of host physiology within a narrow range optimal for health. Neurons residing in the brainstem dorsal motor nucleus (DMN) project in the vagus nerve to communicate with the lungs, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and other…
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Type 1 interferon-dependent repression of NLRC4 and iPLA2 licenses down-regulation of Salmonella flagellin inside macrophages [Immunology and Inflammation]
Inflammasomes have been implicated in the detection and clearance of a variety of bacterial pathogens, but little is known about whether this innate sensing mechanism has any regulatory effect on the expression of stimulatory ligands by the pathogen. During infection with Salmonella and many other pathogens, flagellin is a major…
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