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How does your brain make split second decisions?
Researchers at the University of Colorado discovered the cerebellum's role in split-second decision making. While it was previously thought that the cerebellum was in charge of these decisions, it's been uncovered that it is more like a "complex web of connections" through the brain that goes into how you make choices. If the decision is made within 100 milliseconds (of being presented with the c
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Ultrasound screening may be limited in ability to predict perinatal complications
Delivering a newborn with macrosomia (weighing more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces at birth) may be associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes, including perinatal death and injuries related to traumatic delivery, such as stuck shoulders (shoulder dystocia).
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Television advertising limits can reduce childhood obesity, study concludes
Limiting the hours of television advertising for foods and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) could make a meaningful contribution to reducing childhood obesity, according to a new study.
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Multiple neurodevelopmental conditions may lead to worse educational outcomes
Scottish children with multiple neurodevelopmental conditions experience greater school absenteeism and exclusion, poorer exam attainment and increased unemployment, according to a study.
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The mountains of Pluto are snowcapped, but not for the same reasons as on Earth
In 2015, the New Horizons space probe discovered spectacular snowcapped mountains on Pluto, which are strikingly similar to mountains on Earth. Such a landscape had never before been observed elsewhere in the Solar System. Scientists determined that the methane snow could only appear at the peaks of Pluto's mountains high enough to reach this enriched zone that the air contains enough methane for
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How psychological ownership can enhance stewardship for public goods
How can consumers be encouraged to take better care of public goods and resources?
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People can do more than use less plastic to help save the Great Barrier Reef
There are many threats to Australia's Great Barrier Reef – cyclones, shipping, crown-of-thorns starfish – but QUT researchers say climate change is its worst enemy. Yet a survey they conducted found most people don't make a connection between climate change and reef health. They say there is more individuals could do on this front, both in the home and to influence government policies
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Engineers create helical topological exciton-polaritons
Researchers have created an even more exotic form of the exciton-polariton, one which has a defined quantum spin that is locked to its direction of motion. Depending on the direction of their spin, these helical topological exciton-polaritons move in opposite directions along the surface of an equally specialized type of topological insulator.
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Enzyme conformation influences the performance of lipase‐powered nanomotors
A study by scientists at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), the Universidad Complutense (UCM), Universidad de Girona (UdG), and the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), working together with other international centers, has overcome one of the key hurdles to the use of nanorobots powered by lipases, enzymes that play essential roles in digestion by breakin
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Enzyme conformation influences the performance of lipase‐powered nanomotors
A study by scientists at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), the Universidad Complutense (UCM), Universidad de Girona (UdG), and the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), working together with other international centers, has overcome one of the key hurdles to the use of nanorobots powered by lipases, enzymes that play essential roles in digestion by breakin
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Apple iPhone 12, iPhone 12 Mini, iPhone 12 Pro: Price, Specs, Release Date
Apple showed off its newest flagship handset Tuesday. There are four models, all of which support 5G.
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'Very disappointed.' Trump's science adviser has left U.S. researchers wanting more
Kelvin Droegemeier has struggled to meet modest hopes of peers who oppose his boss' policies
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New global temperature data will inform study of climate impacts on health, agriculture
A seemingly small one-to-two degree change in the global climate can dramatically alter weather-related hazards. Given that such a small change can result in such big impacts, it is important to have the most accurate information possible when studying the impact of climate change. This can be especially challenging in data sparse areas like Africa, where some of the most dangerous hazards are exp
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Johnson gambles by splitting from his scientists
PM's rejection of experts' call for tough lockdown risks accusation he has acted too slowly on coronavirus
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Controlling the speed of enzyme motors brings biomedical applications of nanorobots closer
A new study, published in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition, describes a tool for modulating nanomotors powered by enzymes, broadening their potential biomedical and environmental applications.
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Mathematical tools predict if wave-energy devices stay afloat in the ocean
Ocean waves represent an abundant source of renewable energy. But to best use this natural resource, wave-energy converters need to be capable of physically handling ocean waves of different strengths without capsizing.
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Google's Parent Company Is Building a Farming Robot
Computational Agriculture X, the moonshot project incubator run by Google's parent company Alphabet, is working on prototype robots designed to help grow everthing from strawberries to soy beans. In a blog post , X project lead Elliot Grant discusses a new project he's working on called "Mineral" — a suite of hardware and software tools that analyze the "complexity of the plant world." In other w
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Black officers face discipline more often than white police
A new analysis shows that Black police officers were more frequently disciplined for misconduct than white officers, despite an essentially equal number of allegations being leveled. The researchers looked at of racial differences in the disciplining of police officers in three of the largest US cities. The study included allegations of severe misconduct. "We found a consistent pattern of racial
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Magnitude comparison distinguishes small earthquakes from chemical explosions in US west
By comparing two magnitude measurements for seismic events recorded locally, researchers can tell whether the event was a small earthquake or a single-fire buried chemical explosion.
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Anticancer compounds for B cell cancer therapy targeting cellular stress response
Scientists are developing anticancer compounds targeting a pathway of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response implicated in the development of multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and lymphoma.
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The distance local energy goes to bring power to the people
A study published today in the journal Frontiers in Sustainability by the University of California, Davis, sheds light on the lengths alternative energy providers go to bring electrical power to customers.
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Magnitude comparison distinguishes small earthquakes from chemical explosions in US west
By comparing two magnitude measurements for seismic events recorded locally, researchers can tell whether the event was a small earthquake or a single-fire buried chemical explosion.
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Want to wait less at the bus stop? Beware real-time updates
Smartphone apps that tell commuters when a bus will arrive at a stop don't result in less time waiting than reliance on an official bus route schedule, a new study suggests. In fact, people who followed the suggestions of transit apps to time their arrival for when the bus pulls up to the stop were likely to miss the bus about three-fourths of the time, results showed.
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Mental accounting is impacting sustainable behavior
Human beings tend to create separate mental budget compartments where specific acts of consumption and payments are linked. This mechanism can be counter-productive when it comes to energy consumption and can have a negative impact on attempts to reduce carbon emissions. Psychologists have linked theories and research on mental accounting to energy and sustainability behavior, proposing concrete s
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Hair loss might be prevented by regulating stem cell metabolism
Medical researchers have identified a mechanism that is likely to prevent hair loss.
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On the trail of novel infectious agents in wildlife
A research team investigated the causes of severe respiratory disease in peccaries and taxonomically characterized a novel Streptococcus species (Streptococcus catagoni sp. nov.) based on its phenotypic properties and genetic features.
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Perovskite materials: Neutrons show twinning in halide perovskites
Solar cells based on hybrid halide perovskites achieve high efficiencies. These mixed organic-inorganic semiconductors are usually produced as thin films of microcrystals. An investigation with the Laue camera at the neutron source BER II could now clarify that twinning occurs during crystallisation even at room temperature. This insight is helpful for optimising production processes of halide per
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Study links eating disorders with body dysmorphia
People with eating disorders are 12 times more likely to be preoccupied with perceived flaws in their physical appearance than those without, according to new research.
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Scientists shed new light on mechanisms of malaria parasite motility
New insight on the molecular mechanisms that allow malaria parasites to move and spread disease within their hosts has just been published. The first X-ray structures of the molecular complex that allows malaria parasites to spread disease highlight a novel target for antimalarial treatments.
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How psychological ownership can enhance stewardship for public goods
How can consumers be encouraged to take better care of public goods and resources? That's the question posed in a new research paper co-authored by Collen P. Kirk, D.P.S., associate professor of marketing at New York Institute of Technology, in the Journal of Marketing.
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New method uses noise to make spectrometers more accurate
Optical spectrometers are instruments with a wide variety of uses. By measuring the intensity of light across different wavelengths, they can be used to image tissues or measure the chemical composition of everything from a distant galaxy to a leaf. Now researchers at the UC Davis Department of Biomedical Engineering have come up a with a new, rapid method for characterizing and calibrating spectr
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Technique to recover lost single-cell RNA-sequencing information helps evaluate cell health
Sequencing RNA from individual cells can reveal a great deal of information about what those cells are doing in the body. MIT researchers have now greatly boosted the amount of information gleaned from each of those cells, by modifying the commonly used Seq-Well technique.
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Technique to recover lost single-cell RNA-sequencing information helps evaluate cell health
Sequencing RNA from individual cells can reveal a great deal of information about what those cells are doing in the body. MIT researchers have now greatly boosted the amount of information gleaned from each of those cells, by modifying the commonly used Seq-Well technique.
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Tory curfew rebellion shows scale of discontent on Covid rules
Restrictions portrayed as harmful to economy or personal freedom as 42 Conservatives vote against
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NIH-funded study links adolescent brain differences to increased waist circumference
Differences in the microstructure of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a region in the brain that plays an important role in processing food and other reward stimuli, predict increases in indicators of obesity in children, according to a study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and nine other institutes, all part of the National Institutes of Health. The paper, published today in th
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The Guardian view on calls for a second lockdown: yes, prime minister | Editorial
It is impossible to have confidence in the government's decision to overrule scientific advice In the weeks after Boris Johnson made his lockdown television address on 23 March, and as the UK's infection and death rates rose shockingly higher, it was widely recognised that ministers had acted too slowly, and that the pandemic's severity might have been lessened had they grasped the nettle sooner.
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Perovskite materials: Neutrons show twinning in halide perovskites
Solar cells based on hybrid halide perovskites achieve high efficiencies. These mixed organic-inorganic semiconductors are usually produced as thin films of microcrystals. An investigation with the Laue camera at the neutron source BER II could now clarify that twinning occurs during crystallisation even at room temperature. This insight is helpful for optimising production processes of halide per
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Pandemic forces youth climate activists to save the planet on Zoom
It was just a year ago when Kevin Patel stood before a cheering climate change rally in New York and proclaimed that his generation would be the one to change the fate of the planet.
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Everything Apple Announced, October 2020: iPhone 12, HomePod Mini, Beats Flex
Four new iPhones made their debut today, along with a new $99 HomePod and some iPhone accessories.
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Illinois research links soil nitrogen levels to corn yield and nitrogen losses
What exactly is the relationship between soil nitrogen, corn yield, and nitrogen loss? Most farmers would be forgiven for assuming a straightforward linear relationship: more nitrogen, more grain yield, and maybe, more loss. That's the assumption many nitrogen management models are based on, but it turns out there's very little published science to back up that assumption.
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Covid-19 Vaccines Offer Drug Makers Chance at Salvation, Financial and Beyond
Big profits beckon for pharmaceutical companies, which are already using their work on vaccines to fight efforts in Washington to curb drug prices.
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She Hunts Viral Rumors About Real Viruses
For Heidi Larson, the founder of the Vaccine Confidence Project, dispelling vaccine hesitancy means building trust — and avoiding the term "anti-vaxxer."
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Twitter is Showing That People Are Anxious and Depressed
Researchers are looking at online behavior to gauge public mental health. The results aren't pretty.
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How a 2nd-Grade Class Sent a Science Experiment to Space
"Any school district now that affords football can afford spaceflight."
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What's Green, Soggy and Fights Climate Change?
You might be surprised: Protecting peat bogs could help the world avert the worst effects of global warming, a new study has found.
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Wolverines Don't Require Protection, U.S. Officials Rule
The decision capped a quarter-century legal battle that exposed deep divisions over the role of government and how humans interact with nature.
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Judges Hear Arguments in President Trump's Biggest Climate Rollback
Appeals court judges sounded skeptical about the Trump administration's efforts to narrow the scope of the Clean Air Act to limit regulatory action against coal.
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Port engineers need guidance incorporating sea level rise into construction designs
A survey of maritime infrastructure engineers by University of Rhode Island researchers found that the rising sea level is often not factored into designs of ports, breakwaters, fishing piers and other coastal infrastructure.
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Cancer-killing T cells 'swarm' to tumors, attracting others to the fight
When immune system T cells find and recognise a target, they release chemicals to attract more T cells which then swarm to help subdue the threat, shows a new study.
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Statins may reduce cancer risk through mechanisms separate to cholesterol
Cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins may reduce cancer risk in humans through a pathway unrelated to cholesterol, says a new study.
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Mechanism that restores cell function after genome damage
Researchers have found out how cells can recover their development and longevity after damage by UV. The discovery may enable new therapies against premature aging.
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Quantum physics: Physicists successfully carry out controlled transport of stored light
Physicists have successfully transported light stored in a quantum memory over a distance of 1.2 millimeters. They have demonstrated that the controlled transport process and its dynamics has only little impact on the properties of the stored light. The researchers used ultra-cold rubidium-87 atoms as a storage medium for the light as to achieve a high level of storage efficiency and a long lifeti
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New deep learning models: Fewer neurons, more intelligence
An international research team has developed a new artificial intelligence system based on the brains of tiny animals, such as threadworms. This novel AI-system can control a vehicle with just a few artificial neurons. It copes much better with noisy input, and, because of its simplicity, its mode of operation can be explained in detail
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Computer model uses virus 'appearance' to better predict winter flu strains
Combining genetic and experimental data into models about the influenza virus can help predict more accurately which strains will be most common during the next winter, says a study published recently in eLife.
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São Paulo abandons plan to raid research institutions' coffers
Brazil's wealthiest state spares universities after public pressure, but a new bill threatens a key funding agency
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Reinfected Patient's Second Case of COVID-19 Was Even More Severe
A new case report of a Nevada man catching COVID-19 a second time, after he had already recovered, highlights how little we understand about resistance and immunity to the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The 25-year-old man first caught the bug in March, when he had symptoms including nausea, diarrhea, headaches, a cough, and a sore throat. He recovered and eventually tested negative, but then
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Amazon Prime Day deals that deserve a spotlight
Nail-biting savings this Amazon Prime Day. (JESHOOTS.COM via Unsplash/) On Oct. 13 and 14, Amazon's 48-hour Prime Day event will offer thousands of deals across every category, including savings on electronics, home goods, personal care items, and exercise equipment. All you'll need to make the most of the sale is a Prime subscription ( $12.99 monthly or $119 for the year ) and a guide to the bes
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New deep learning models: Fewer neurons, more intelligence
An international research team has developed a new artificial intelligence system based on the brains of tiny animals, such as threadworms. This novel AI-system can control a vehicle with just a few artificial neurons. It copes much better with noisy input, and, because of its simplicity, its mode of operation can be explained in detail
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Ultrasound screening may be limited in ability to predict perinatal complications
Delivering a newborn with macrosomia (weighing more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces at birth) may be associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes, including perinatal death and injuries related to traumatic delivery, such as stuck shoulders (shoulder dystocia). A study in PLOS Medicine by Gordon Smith at the University of Cambridge and colleagues suggests that third trimester fetal ultrasound screenin
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Television advertising limits can reduce childhood obesity, study concludes
Limiting the hours of television advertising for foods and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) could make a meaningful contribution to reducing childhood obesity, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Oliver Mytton of the University of Cambridge, UK, and colleagues.
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Multiple neurodevelopmental conditions may lead to worse educational outcomes
Scottish children with multiple neurodevelopmental conditions experience greater school absenteeism and exclusion, poorer exam attainment and increased unemployment, according to a study published October 13 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Michael Fleming of the University of Glasgow, and colleagues.
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Prep yourself for vote shift after Election Day
President Donald Trump may have an apparent lead over former Vice President Joe Biden at the end of Election Day, and still solidly lose by week's end, a new report shows. Media outlets and political figures should alert the public to this possibility in advance so people have a clear understanding of these implications on election night and the days that follow as swing-state mail-in votes are c
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Fall heat wave bringing California more fire danger
California's siege of wildfires has significantly quieted but forecasters warned Tuesday that a fall heat wave will bring back high fire danger this week.
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Natural Disasters May Push Global Finances to the Brink
In the past 20 years, 20 climate-fueled disasters have caused damage to countries worth more than 10 percent of their GDP — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Bezos' Blue Origin conducts successful test flight for tourism rocket
Blue Origin, the US space company founded by billionaire Jeff Bezos, succeeded Tuesday in its latest test flight of its rocket aimed at one day taking tourists to space, even as the date of the first crewed launch remains unclear.
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Without the North American monsoon, reining in wildfires gets harder
New research shows that while winter rains can temper the beginning of the wildfire season, monsoon rains are what shut them down. This monsoon season was the second-driest on record, leaving Southern Arizona dry and vulnerable.
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New study shows which medical procedures pose COVID-19 risk to health-care providers
Autopsy, airway suctioning and cardiopulmonary resuscitation are among the list of medical procedures that pose a risk of spreading COVID-19 from a patient to their health-care provider by creating aerosols, according to new research.
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Hurricanes, heavy rains are critical for Hawai'i's groundwater supply
New research indicates that rain brought to the islands by hurricanes and Kona storms can often be the most important precipitation for re-supplying groundwater in many regions of the island of O'ahu.
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Johnson & Johnson Pauses COVID-19 Vaccine Trials
The company voluntarily paused its studies, including one in Phase 3, after an unexplained illness in a patient.
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Our midcentury climate goals require radical change today
Climate scientists have found that any scenario that prevents the planet from shooting past 1.5 ˚C of warming requires effectively eliminating greenhouse-gas emissions by around midcentury. But can that still be done after decades of delayed action on climate change? In its annual report released on Tuesday , the International Energy Agency (IEA) has taken a detailed look at what it may take for
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Why the "homework gap" is key to America's digital divide
When the pandemic hit, parents scrambled to get enough devices to get their kids for online schooling. But even when they did, not everything went smoothly. Getting multiple people online for hours at a time in a home was one big obstacle; making sure entire communities were able to sign on was another. Jessica Rosenworcel, the senior Democrat on the Federal Communications Commission, wasn't surp
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Daily briefing: COVID-19 reinfections raise immunity questions
Nature, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02906-0 Coronavirus reinfections, long-term immunity and the prospects for a vaccine. Plus, auction insights win the economics Nobel and why NASA astronauts are cheering the new space toilet.
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Taste test: how mosquitoes tell nectar from human blood
Nature, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02892-3 The insects savour blood meals with the help of specialized nerve cells in their biting apparatus.
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Atmospheric dust levels are rising in the Great Plains
A study finds that atmospheric dust levels are rising across the Great Plains at a rate of up to 5% per year. The trend of rising dust parallels expansion of cropland and even seasonal crop cycles. And if the Great Plains becomes drier, a possibility under climate change scenarios, then all the pieces are in place for a repeat of the Dust Bowl that devastated the Midwest in the 1930s.
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Astronomers solve dark matter puzzle of strange galaxy
Astronomers have found that the total number of globular clusters around Dragonfly 44 and, therefore, the dark matter content, is much less than earlier findings had suggested, which shows that this galaxy is neither unique nor anomalous.
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Perception of risk and optimism barriers in behavior during coronavirus
Until a vaccine and/or effective cure for COVID-19 becomes available, battling the current pandemic strongly relies on how well people follow behavioural advice, such as adhering to local restrictions, social distancing rules, and engaging in effective personal hygiene.
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A tiny jaw from Greenland sheds light on the origin of complex teeth
Scientists have described the earliest known example of dentary bone with two rows of cusps on molars and double-rooted teeth. The new findings offer insight into mammal tooth evolution, particularly the development of double-rooted teeth.
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New 3-D model of a DNA-regulating complex in human cells provides cancer clues
Scientists have created an unprecedented 3-dimensional structural model of a key molecular 'machine' known as the BAF complex, which modifies DNA architecture and is frequently mutated in cancer and some other diseases.
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Unique view into the new Arctic
With the return of the Polarstern, the largest Arctic expedition of all times has come to a successful end. For more than a year, the German research icebreaker traveled in 5 cruise legs with more than 400 people from 20 countries to investigate the epicenter of climate change more precisely than ever before.
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Darwin's theory about coral reef atolls is fatally flawed
Charles Darwin's 1842 theory about the formation of ring-shaped reefs, called atolls, is incorrect, but 'it's so beautiful, so simple and pleasing' that it still appears in textbooks and university courses, said a marine geologist. The accurate description is more complicated, and biologists are hoping to set the record straight.
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Ultrafast fiber laser produces record high power
Researchers have developed an ultrafast fiber laser that delivers an average power more than ten times what is available from today's high-power lasers. The technology is poised to improve industrial-scale materials processing and paves the way for visionary applications.
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Rainforest model offers glimpse into future of the Amazon
Tropical Forests may be more resilient to climate change than previously thought, according to ecologists. The results help solve an ongoing debate about the mechanism responsible for declines in tropical forest productivity that go hand in hand with rising global temperatures.
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And the winner is… dependent on judging accountability
A new study suggests that the status of award nominees combined with the level of social connection that they have with members of a judging panel can work both ways towards determining how successful they are — depending on whether or not they are judged publicly or privately.
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Port engineers need guidance incorporating sea level rise into construction designs
A survey of maritime infrastructure engineers by University of Rhode Island researchers found that the rising sea level is often not factored into designs of ports, breakwaters, fishing piers and other coastal infrastructure.
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Found: genes that sway the course of the coronavirus
Host variants boost severity risk, may point to drug options
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Researchers Built a Powerful Robot Arm to Do Colonoscopies
In an attempt to make colonoscopies less unpleasant, a team of University of Leeds scientists has developed a new robotic arm that takes the deed out of a human doctor's hands . There are probably few things that sound more horrible than a robot colonoscopy, but the scientists tell New Scientist that the autonomous machine learning-trained system may actually be able to better guide an endoscope
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Starmer calls for Covid 'circuit breaker' as pressure on Johnson mounts
Scientific advisers say 2-week national lockdown could save thousands of lives
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Two SwRI experiments fly aboard Blue Origin's new Shepard suborbital rocket
Two Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) experi-ments were aboard Blue Origin's New Shepard suborbital rocket today, which launched from Van Horn, Texas. The Box of Rocks Experiment II (BORE II) tested a new technology for magnetically attaching to and sampling asteroids. The second experi-ment evaluated a tapered liquid acquisition device (LAD) designed to safely deliver liquid propellant to a roc
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Scientists develop detector for investigating the Sun
Researchers from MIPT have developed a prototype detector of solar particles. The device is capable of picking up protons at kinetic energies between 10 and 100 megaelectronvolts, and electrons at 1-10 MeV. This covers most of the high-energy particle flux coming from the Sun. The new detector can improve radiation protection for astronauts and spaceships, as well as advancing our understanding of
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American Statistical Association releases 2020 Census Quality Indicators, urges prompt action
The American Statistical Association Board of Directors has endorsed the recommendations of the 2020 Census Quality Indicators report, written by a task force of census experts to shed light on the quality, accuracy, and coverage of the 2020 Census counts. The task force, co-chaired by former US Chief Statistician Nancy Potok and ASA President-elect Robert Santos, was formed in early September in
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Properties of catalysts studied with gamma ray resonance
Steam-assisted oil extraction methods for heavy deposits have long been the focus of attention at Kazan Federal University. In particular, much attention is paid to in-situ combustion catalysts.
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An astonishing common denominator among storage jars in Israel
Storage jars form one of the main ceramic types which were produced and abundantly used ever since pottery was invented. The need to collect, store, and distribute agricultural products such as grains, oils and wine in large vessels has littered excavation sites with an abundance of ceramic jar fragments of various designs, sizes and shapes. However, for all of their variety, three Israeli archeol
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Asthma interventions keep kids out of the hospital
Several widely available asthma interventions are associated with both reduced medical costs and a reduced likelihood children will need to go to the hospital, according to a new study. "This work shows that you can improve the quality of life for children with asthma and you can reduce government spending by implementing these proactive interventions," says lead author Julie Swann, department he
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A Physicist's Approach to Biology Brings Ecological Insights
Last year, Jeff Gore strode down a short hallway from his office to his laboratory in one of the university buildings on Technology Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Machines hummed, and a faint chlorine smell provided assurance that things were being kept properly sterile. Lab counters were strewn with pipettes and roughly smartphone-size plastic plates that held 96 semi-spherical wells, each
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New method uses noise to make spectrometers more accurate
Optical spectrometers are instruments with a wide variety of uses. By measuring the intensity of light across different wavelengths, they can be used to image tissues or measure the chemical composition of everything from a distant galaxy to a leaf. Now researchers at the UC Davis Department of Biomedical Engineering have come up a with a new, rapid method for characterizing and calibrating spectr
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Technique to recover lost single-cell RNA-sequencing information
MIT and Ragon Institute researchers have greatly boosted the amount of information that can be obtained using Seq-Well, a technique for rapidly sequencing RNA from single cells. This advance should enable scientists to learn more about the critical genes expressed in each cell, and to discover subtle differences between healthy and diseased cells for designing new preventions and cures.
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New study shows which medical procedures pose COVID-19 risk to health-care providers
Autopsy, airway suctioning and cardiopulmonary resuscitation are among the list of medical procedures that pose a risk of spreading COVID-19 from a patient to their health-care provider by creating aerosols, according to new research published in the journal BMJ Open Respiratory Research. The team, led by UAlberta medicine professor Sebastian Straube, carried out a systematic review of public heal
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Record high values of peak power with picosecond generators
Powerful picosecond generators are in demand in various fields of experimental electrophysics to produce ultrashort electron beams and X-ray pulses in vacuum diodes and to form runaway electron flows in gases.
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Sea star's ability to clone itself may empower this mystery globetrotter
For decades, biologists have captured tiny sea star larvae in their nets that did not match the adults of any known species. A Smithsonian team recently discovered what these larvae grow up to be and how a special superpower may help them move around the world. Their results are published online in the Biological Bulletin.
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Sea star's ability to clone itself may empower this mystery globetrotter
For decades, biologists have captured tiny sea star larvae in their nets that did not match the adults of any known species. A Smithsonian team recently discovered what these larvae grow up to be and how a special superpower may help them move around the world. Their results are published online in the Biological Bulletin.
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Crystal insecticide is 12x better at killing malaria mosquitoes
A new crystal form of insecticide is much more effective at fighting mosquitoes and malaria, researchers report. Using a simple process of heating and cooling, the researchers created a new crystal form of deltamethrin—a common insecticide used to control malaria—that is up to 12 times more effective against mosquitoes than the existing form. The findings in the Proceedings of the National Academ
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The bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination allows the innate immune system to provide protection from severe COVID-19 infection [Biological Sciences]
We have read the paper by Escobar et al. (1), and we also support a similar hypothesis (2), which arose from the observation of the so-called Iberian Peninsula paradox. As they also report, in the same geographical area with similar socioeconomic conditions, completely different and particularly high mortality rates have…
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Reply to Patella et al. and Lindestam Arlehamn et al.: Complex pandemic dynamics and effect of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination on COVID-19 prevalence and mortality [Biological Sciences]
In agreement with our published results (1), the epidemiological analysis by Lindestam Arlehamn et al. (2), with COVID-19 data from April 22, 2020, found a significant negative correlation (P = 0.0006) between mean bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination coverage and deaths from COVID-19. However, this correlation did not hold when the authors…
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The early Aurignacian dispersal of modern humans into westernmost Eurasia [Anthropology]
Documenting the first appearance of modern humans in a given region is key to understanding the dispersal process and the replacement or assimilation of indigenous human populations such as the Neanderthals. The Iberian Peninsula was the last refuge of Neanderthal populations as modern humans advanced across Eurasia. Here we present…
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Glide symmetry breaking and Ising criticality in the quasi-1D magnet CoNb2O6 [Applied Physical Sciences]
We construct a microscopic spin-exchange Hamiltonian for the quasi–one-dimensional (1D) Ising magnet CoNb2O6 that captures detailed and hitherto-unexplained aspects of its dynamic spin structure factor. We perform a symmetry analysis that recalls that an individual Ising chain in this material is buckled, with two sites in each unit cell related…
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Stiffness of the interface between a colloidal body-centered cubic crystal and its liquid [Applied Physical Sciences]
Equilibrium interfaces were established between body-centered cubic (BCC) crystals and their liquid using charged colloidal particles in an electric bottle. By measuring a time series of interfacial positions and computing the average power spectrum, their interfacial stiffness was determined according to the capillary fluctuation method. For the (100) and the…
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Universal motifs and the diversity of autocatalytic systems [Applied Physical Sciences]
Autocatalysis is essential for the origin of life and chemical evolution. However, the lack of a unified framework so far prevents a systematic study of autocatalysis. Here, we derive, from basic principles, general stoichiometric conditions for catalysis and autocatalysis in chemical reaction networks. This allows for a classification of minimal…
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Speech can produce jet-like transport relevant to asymptomatic spreading of virus [Applied Physical Sciences]
Many scientific reports document that asymptomatic and presymptomatic individuals contribute to the spread of COVID-19, probably during conversations in social interactions. Droplet emission occurs during speech, yet few studies document the flow to provide the transport mechanism. This lack of understanding prevents informed public health guidance for risk reduction and…
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Spontaneous outflow efficiency of confined liquid in hydrophobic nanopores [Applied Physical Sciences]
The suspension of nanoporous particles in a nonwetting liquid provides a unique solution to the crux of superfluid, sensing, and energy conversion, yet is challenged by the incomplete outflow of intruded liquid out of nanopores for the system reusability. We report that a continuous and spontaneous liquid outflow from hydrophobic…
6d
Three-dimensional digital PCR through light-sheet imaging of optically cleared emulsion [Applied Physical Sciences]
The realization of the vast potential of digital PCR (dPCR) to provide extremely accurate and sensitive measurements in the clinical setting has thus far been hindered by challenges such as assay robustness and high costs. Here we introduce a lossless and contamination-free dPCR technology, termed CLEAR-dPCR, which addresses these challenges…
6d
Distinct RNA N-demethylation pathways catalyzed by nonheme iron ALKBH5 and FTO enzymes enable regulation of formaldehyde release rates [Biochemistry]
The AlkB family of nonheme Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate–dependent oxygenases are essential regulators of RNA epigenetics by serving as erasers of one-carbon marks on RNA with release of formaldehyde (FA). Two major human AlkB family members, FTO and ALKBH5, both act as oxidative demethylases of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) but furnish different major products, N6-hydroxymethyladenosine…
6d
Modular and coordinated activity of AAA+ active sites in the double-ring ClpA unfoldase of the ClpAP protease [Biochemistry]
ClpA is a hexameric double-ring AAA+ unfoldase/translocase that functions with the ClpP peptidase to degrade proteins that are damaged or unneeded. How the 12 ATPase active sites of ClpA, 6 in the D1 ring and 6 in the D2 ring, work together to fuel ATP-dependent degradation is not understood. We…
6d
Deep profiling of protease substrate specificity enabled by dual random and scanned human proteome substrate phage libraries [Biochemistry]
Proteolysis is a major posttranslational regulator of biology inside and outside of cells. Broad identification of optimal cleavage sites and natural substrates of proteases is critical for drug discovery and to understand protease biology. Here, we present a method that employs two genetically encoded substrate phage display libraries coupled with…
6d
Characterization and engineering of a two-enzyme system for plastics depolymerization [Biochemistry]
Plastics pollution represents a global environmental crisis. In response, microbes are evolving the capacity to utilize synthetic polymers as carbon and energy sources. Recently, Ideonella sakaiensis was reported to secrete a two-enzyme system to deconstruct polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to its constituent monomers. Specifically, the I. sakaiensis PETase depolymerizes PET, liberating…
6d
Cockayne syndrome B protein acts as an ATP-dependent processivity factor that helps RNA polymerase II overcome nucleosome barriers [Biochemistry]
While loss-of-function mutations in Cockayne syndrome group B protein (CSB) cause neurological diseases, this unique member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of chromatin remodelers has been broadly implicated in transcription elongation and transcription-coupled DNA damage repair, yet its mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we use a reconstituted in vitro transcription system…
6d
Visualizing Rev1 catalyze protein-template DNA synthesis [Biochemistry]
During DNA replication, replicative DNA polymerases may encounter DNA lesions, which can stall replication forks. One way to prevent replication fork stalling is through the recruitment of specialized translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases that have evolved to incorporate nucleotides opposite DNA lesions. Rev1 is a specialized TLS polymerase that bypasses abasic…
6d
Physics of virus transmission by speaking droplets [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
To make the physics of person-to-person virus transmission from emitted droplets of oral fluid while speaking easily understood, we present simple and transparent algebraic equations that capture the essential physics of the problem. Calculations with these equations provide a straightforward way of determining whether emitted droplets remain airborne or rapidly…
6d
Functional rewiring across spinal injuries via biomimetic nanofiber scaffolds [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The regrowth of severed axons is fundamental to reestablish motor control after spinal-cord injury (SCI). Ongoing efforts to promote axonal regeneration after SCI have involved multiple strategies that have been only partially successful. Our study introduces an artificial carbon-nanotube based scaffold that, once implanted in SCI rats, improves motor function…
6d
Diffusioosmotic and convective flows induced by a nonelectrolyte concentration gradient [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Glucose is an important energy source in our bodies, and its consumption results in gradients over length scales ranging from the subcellular to entire organs. Concentration gradients can drive material transport through both diffusioosmosis and convection. Convection arises because concentration gradients are mass density gradients. Diffusioosmosis is fluid flow induced…
6d
The role of fibril structure and surface hydrophobicity in secondary nucleation of amyloid fibrils [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Crystals, nanoparticles, and fibrils catalyze the generation of new aggregates on their surface from the same type of monomeric building blocks as the parent assemblies. This secondary nucleation process can be many orders of magnitude faster than primary nucleation. In the case of amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer's disease, this…
6d
Functional plasticity and evolutionary adaptation of allosteric regulation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Allostery is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of protein function. Despite notable advances, understanding the molecular determinants of allostery remains an elusive goal. Our current knowledge of allostery is principally shaped by a structure-centric view, which makes it difficult to understand the decentralized character of allostery. We present a function-centric approach…
6d
Robust parallel decision-making in neural circuits with nonlinear inhibition [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
An elemental computation in the brain is to identify the best in a set of options and report its value. It is required for inference, decision-making, optimization, action selection, consensus, and foraging. Neural computing is considered powerful because of its parallelism; however, it is unclear whether neurons can perform this…
6d
Alternative proton-binding site and long-distance coupling in Escherichia coli sodium-proton antiporter NhaA [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Escherichia coli NhaA is a prototypical sodium–proton antiporter responsible for maintaining cellular ion and volume homeostasis by exchanging two protons for one sodium ion; despite two decades of research, the transport mechanism of NhaA remains poorly understood. Recent crystal structure and computational studies suggested Lys300 as a second proton-binding site;…
6d
Fusidic acid resistance through changes in the dynamics of the drug target [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Antibiotic resistance in clinically important bacteria can be mediated by target protection mechanisms, whereby a protein binds to the drug target and protects it from the inhibitory effects of the antibiotic. The most prevalent source of clinical resistance to the antibiotic fusidic acid (FA) is expression of the FusB family…
6d
Evolutionarily diverse LIM domain-containing proteins bind stressed actin filaments through a conserved mechanism [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The actin cytoskeleton assembles into diverse load-bearing networks, including stress fibers (SFs), muscle sarcomeres, and the cytokinetic ring to both generate and sense mechanical forces. The LIM (Lin11, Isl- 1, and Mec-3) domain family is functionally diverse, but most members can associate with the actin cytoskeleton with apparent force sensitivity….
6d
Metabolic precision labeling enables selective probing of O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine glycosylation [Cell Biology]
Protein glycosylation events that happen early in the secretory pathway are often dysregulated during tumorigenesis. These events can be probed, in principle, by monosaccharides with bioorthogonal tags that would ideally be specific for distinct glycan subtypes. However, metabolic interconversion into other monosaccharides drastically reduces such specificity in the living cell….
6d
Asbestos induces mesothelial cell transformation via HMGB1-driven autophagy [Cell Biology]
Asbestos causes malignant transformation of primary human mesothelial cells (HM), leading to mesothelioma. The mechanisms of asbestos carcinogenesis remain enigmatic, as exposure to asbestos induces HM death. However, some asbestos-exposed HM escape cell death, accumulate DNA damage, and may become transformed. We previously demonstrated that, upon asbestos exposure, HM and…
6d
Analysis of barotactic and chemotactic guidance cues on directional decision-making of Dictyostelium discoideum cells in confined environments [Cell Biology]
Neutrophils and dendritic cells when migrating in confined environments have been shown to actuate a directional choice toward paths of least hydraulic resistance (barotaxis), in some cases overriding chemotactic responses. Here, we investigate whether this barotactic response is conserved in the more primitive model organism Dictyostelium discoideum using a microfluidic…
6d
Driver mutations of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence govern the intestinal epithelial global translational capacity [Cell Biology]
Deregulated global mRNA translation is an emerging feature of cancer cells. Oncogenic transformation in colorectal cancer (CRC) is driven by mutations in APC, KRAS, SMAD4, and TP53, known as the adenoma-carcinoma sequence (ACS). Here we introduce each of these driver mutations into intestinal organoids to show that they are modulators…
6d
The enigma of Oligocene climate and global surface temperature evolution [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Falling atmospheric CO2 levels led to cooling through the Eocene and the expansion of Antarctic ice sheets close to their modern size near the beginning of the Oligocene, a period of poorly documented climate. Here, we present a record of climate evolution across the entire Oligocene (33.9 to 23.0 Ma)…
6d
Impact shock origin of diamonds in ureilite meteorites [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The origin of diamonds in ureilite meteorites is a timely topic in planetary geology as recent studies have proposed their formation at static pressures >20 GPa in a large planetary body, like diamonds formed deep within Earth's mantle. We investigated fragments of three diamond-bearing ureilites (two from the Almahata Sitta…
6d
Emergence of the Southeast Asian islands as a driver for Neogene cooling [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Steep topography, a tropical climate, and mafic lithologies contribute to efficient chemical weathering and carbon sequestration in the Southeast Asian islands. Ongoing arc–continent collision between the Sunda-Banda arc system and Australia has increased the area of subaerially exposed land in the region since the mid-Miocene. Concurrently, Earth's climate has cooled…
6d
Organic matter from the Chicxulub crater exacerbated the K-Pg impact winter [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
An asteroid impact in the Yucatán Peninsula set off a sequence of events that led to the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) mass extinction of 76% species, including the nonavian dinosaurs. The impact hit a carbonate platform and released sulfate aerosols and dust into Earth's upper atmosphere, which cooled and darkened the planet—a…
6d
Particle motion on burned and vegetated hillslopes [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Climate change is causing increasingly widespread, frequent, and intense wildfires across the western United States. Many geomorphic effects of wildfire are relatively well studied, yet sediment transport models remain unable to account for the rapid transport of sediment released from behind incinerated vegetation, which can fuel catastrophic debris flows. This…
6d
High concentration of ultrafine particles in the Amazon free troposphere produced by organic new particle formation [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The large concentrations of ultrafine particles consistently observed at high altitudes over the tropics represent one of the world's largest aerosol reservoirs, which may be providing a globally important source of cloud condensation nuclei. However, the sources and chemical processes contributing to the formation of these particles remain unclear. Here…
6d
The 17-y spatiotemporal trend of PM2.5 and its mortality burden in China [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Investigations on the chronic health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in China are limited due to the lack of long-term exposure data. Using satellite-driven models to generate spatiotemporally resolved PM2.5 levels, we aimed to estimate high-resolution, long-term PM2.5 and associated mortality burden in China. The multiangle implementation of…
6d
Rapid onsets of warming events trigger mass mortality of coral reef fish [Ecology]
Our study reveals a hitherto overlooked ecological threat of climate change. Studies of warming events in the ocean have typically focused on the events' maximum temperature and duration as the cause of devastating disturbances in coral reefs, kelp forests, and rocky shores. In this study, however, we found that the…
6d
Constrained optimal foraging by marine bacterioplankton on particulate organic matter [Ecology]
Optimal foraging theory provides a framework to understand how organisms balance the benefits of harvesting resources within a patch with the sum of the metabolic, predation, and missed opportunity costs of foraging. Here, we show that, after accounting for the limited environmental information available to microorganisms, optimal foraging theory and,…
6d
Fast behavioral feedbacks make ecosystems sensitive to pace and not just magnitude of anthropogenic environmental change [Ecology]
Anthropogenic environmental change is altering the behavior of animals in ecosystems around the world. Although behavior typically occurs on much faster timescales than demography, it can nevertheless influence demographic processes. Here, we use detailed data on behavior and empirical estimates of demography from a coral reef ecosystem to develop a…
6d
Birds advancing lay dates with warming springs face greater risk of chick mortality [Ecology]
In response to a warming planet with earlier springs, migratory animals are adjusting the timing of essential life stages. Although these adjustments may be essential for keeping pace with resource phenology, they may prove insufficient, as evidenced by population declines in many species. However, even when species can match the…
6d
A connectivity portfolio effect stabilizes marine reserve performance [Ecology]
Well-managed and enforced no-take marine reserves generate important larval subsidies to neighboring habitats and thereby contribute to the long-term sustainability of fisheries. However, larval dispersal patterns are variable, which leads to temporal fluctuations in the contribution of a single reserve to the replenishment of local populations. Identifying management strategies that…
6d
Unethical amnesia responds more to instrumental than to hedonic motives [Economic Sciences]
Humans care about morality. Yet, they often engage in actions that contradict their moral self. Unethical amnesia is observed when people do not remember or remember less vividly these actions. This paper explores two reasons why individuals may experience unethical amnesia. Forgetting past unethical behavior may be motivated by purely…
6d
Near-hysteresis-free soft tactile electronic skins for wearables and reliable machine learning [Engineering]
Electronic skins are essential for real-time health monitoring and tactile perception in robots. Although the use of soft elastomers and microstructures have improved the sensitivity and pressure-sensing range of tactile sensors, the intrinsic viscoelasticity of soft polymeric materials remains a long-standing challenge resulting in cyclic hysteresis. This causes sensor data…
6d
Roboticizing fabric by integrating functional fibers [Engineering]
Fabrics are ubiquitous materials that have conventionally been passive assemblies of interlacing, inactive fibers. However, the recent emergence of active fibers with actuation, sensing, and structural capabilities provides the opportunity to impart robotic function into fabric substrates. Here we present an implementation of robotic fabrics by integrating functional fibers into…
6d
Proteome-wide effects of naphthalene-derived secondary organic aerosol in BEAS-2B cells are caused by short-lived unsaturated carbonyls [Environmental Sciences]
Exposure to air pollution causes adverse health outcomes, but the toxicity mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the dynamic toxicities of naphthalene-derived secondary organic aerosol (NSOA) in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and identified the chemical components responsible for toxicities. The chemical composition of NSOA was found to…
6d
The origin and diversification of pteropods precede past perturbations in the Earth's carbon cycle [Evolution]
Pteropods are a group of planktonic gastropods that are widely regarded as biological indicators for assessing the impacts of ocean acidification. Their aragonitic shells are highly sensitive to acute changes in ocean chemistry. However, to gain insight into their potential to adapt to current climate change, we need to accurately…
6d
Adaptive introgression from maize has facilitated the establishment of teosinte as a noxious weed in Europe [Evolution]
Global trade has considerably accelerated biological invasions. The annual tropical teosintes, the closest wild relatives of maize, were recently reported as new agricultural weeds in two European countries, Spain and France. Their prompt settlement under climatic conditions differing drastically from that of their native range indicates rapid genetic evolution. We…
6d
A mouse tissue atlas of small noncoding RNA [Genetics]
Small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a vital role in a broad range of biological processes both in health and disease. A comprehensive quantitative reference of small ncRNA expression would significantly advance our understanding of ncRNA roles in shaping tissue functions. Here, we systematically profiled the levels of five ncRNA classes…
6d
Genetic nurturing, missing heritability, and causal analysis in genetic statistics [Genetics]
Genetic nurturing, the effect of parents' genotypes on offspring phenotypes through parental phenotypic transmission, can be modeled in terms of gene–culture interactions. This paper first uses a simple one-locus, two-phenotype gene–culture cotransmission model to compute the effect of genetic nurturing in terms of regression of children's phenotypes on transmitted and…
6d
Superantigenic character of an insert unique to SARS-CoV-2 spike supported by skewed TCR repertoire in patients with hyperinflammation [Immunology and Inflammation]
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 is a newly recognized condition in children with recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. These children and adult patients with severe hyperinflammation present with a constellation of symptoms that strongly resemble toxic shock syndrome, an escalation of the…
6d
Deep learning of immune cell differentiation [Immunology and Inflammation]
Although we know many sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs), how the DNA sequence of cis-regulatory elements is decoded and orchestrated on the genome scale to determine immune cell differentiation is beyond our grasp. Leveraging a granular atlas of chromatin accessibility across 81 immune cell types, we asked if a convolutional neural…
6d
Delineation of a molecularly distinct terminally differentiated memory CD8 T cell population [Immunology and Inflammation]
Memory CD8 T cells provide durable protection against diverse intracellular pathogens and can be broadly segregated into distinct circulating and tissue-resident populations. Paradigmatic studies have demonstrated that circulating memory cells can be further divided into effector memory (Tem) and central memory (Tcm) populations based on discrete functional characteristics. Following resolution…
6d
Synergy between 15-lipoxygenase and secreted PLA2 promotes inflammation by formation of TLR4 agonists from extracellular vesicles [Immunology and Inflammation]
Damage-associated endogenous molecules induce innate immune response, thus making sterile inflammation medically relevant. Stress-derived extracellular vesicles (stressEVs) released during oxidative stress conditions were previously found to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), resulting in expression of a different pattern of immune response proteins in comparison to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), un
6d
B cells reappear less mature and more activated after their anti-CD20-mediated depletion in multiple sclerosis [Immunology and Inflammation]
B cell depletion via anti-CD20 antibodies is a highly effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known about the maturation/activation stage of the returning B cell population after treatment cessation and the wider effects on other immune cells. In the present study, 15 relapsing-remitting MS patients receiving 1,000…
6d
CtIP-mediated DNA resection is dispensable for IgH class switch recombination by alternative end-joining [Immunology and Inflammation]
To generate antibodies with different effector functions, B cells undergo Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR). The ligation step of CSR is usually mediated by the classical nonhomologous end-joining (cNHEJ) pathway. In cNHEJ-deficient cells, a remarkable ∼25% of CSR can be achieved by the alternative end-joining (Alt-EJ) pathway…
6d
Genetic landscape and autoimmunity of monocytes in developing Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease [Immunology and Inflammation]
Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) disease is a systemic autoimmune disorder affecting multiple organs, including eyes, skin, and central nervous system. It is known that monocytes significantly contribute to the development of autoimmune disease. However, the subset heterogeneity with unique functions and signatures in human circulating monocytes and the identity of disease-specific monocytic…
6d
Ultrasensitive CRISPR-based diagnostic for field-applicable detection of Plasmodium species in symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria [Medical Sciences]
Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium parasites hamper malaria control and eradication. Achieving malaria eradication requires ultrasensitive diagnostics for low parasite density infections (<100 parasites per microliter blood) that work in resource-limited settings (RLS). Sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are also lacking for nonfalciparum malaria, which is characterized by lower density infectio
6d
Loss of UTX/KDM6A and the activation of FGFR3 converge to regulate differentiation gene-expression programs in bladder cancer [Medical Sciences]
Bladder cancer prognosis is closely linked to the underlying differentiation state of the tumor, ranging from the less aggressive and most-differentiated luminal tumors to the more aggressive and least-differentiated basal tumors. Sequencing of bladder cancer has revealed that loss-of-function mutations in chromatin regulators and mutations that activate receptor tyrosine kinase…
6d
Inferring transmission trees to guide targeting of interventions against visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis [Medical Sciences]
Understanding of spatiotemporal transmission of infectious diseases has improved significantly in recent years. Advances in Bayesian inference methods for individual-level geo-located epidemiological data have enabled reconstruction of transmission trees and quantification of disease spread in space and time, while accounting for uncertainty in missing data. However, these methods have rarely…
6d
ssRNA phage penetration triggers detachment of the F-pilus [Microbiology]
Although the F-specific ssRNA phage MS2 has long had paradigm status, little is known about penetration of the genomic RNA (gRNA) into the cell. The phage initially binds to the F-pilus using its maturation protein (Mat), and then the Mat-bound gRNA is released from the viral capsid and somehow crosses…
6d
Coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase and spike proteins coevolve for functional balance and optimal virion avidity [Microbiology]
Human coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1 are respiratory pathogens of zoonotic origin that have gained worldwide distribution. OC43 apparently emerged from a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) spillover. All three viruses attach to 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans via spike protein S with hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) acting as a receptor-destroying enzyme. In BCoV, an HE lectin domain…
6d
Characterization of alkylguaiacol-degrading cytochromes P450 for the biocatalytic valorization of lignin [Microbiology]
Cytochrome P450 enzymes have tremendous potential as industrial biocatalysts, including in biological lignin valorization. Here, we describe P450s that catalyze the O-demethylation of lignin-derived guaiacols with different ring substitution patterns. Bacterial strains Rhodococcus rhodochrous EP4 and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 both utilized alkylguaiacols as sole growth substrates. Transcriptomics of
6d
Myristate can be used as a carbon and energy source for the asymbiotic growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [Microbiology]
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, forming symbiotic associations with land plants, are obligate symbionts that cannot complete their natural life cycle without a host. The fatty acid auxotrophy of AM fungi is supported by recent studies showing that lipids synthesized by the host plants are transferred to the fungi, and that…
6d
Experience-dependent plasticity in an innate social behavior is mediated by hypothalamic LTP [Neuroscience]
All animals can perform certain survival behaviors without prior experience, suggesting a "hard wiring" of underlying neural circuits. Experience, however, can alter the expression of innate behaviors. Where in the brain and how such plasticity occurs remains largely unknown. Previous studies have established the phenomenon of "aggression training," in which…
6d
Single-nucleus transcriptome analysis reveals dysregulation of angiogenic endothelial cells and neuroprotective glia in Alzheimer's disease [Neuroscience]
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia but has no effective treatment. A comprehensive investigation of cell type-specific responses and cellular heterogeneity in AD is required to provide precise molecular and cellular targets for therapeutic development. Accordingly, we perform single-nucleus transcriptome analysis of 169,496 nuclei from the…
6d
Matched-filter coding of sky polarization results in an internal sun compass in the brain of the desert locust [Neuroscience]
Many animals use celestial cues for spatial orientation. These include the sun and, in insects, the polarization pattern of the sky, which depends on the position of the sun. The central complex in the insect brain plays a key role in spatial orientation. In desert locusts, the angle of polarized…
6d
Metabolic tuning of inhibition regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain [Neuroscience]
Hippocampus-engaged behaviors stimulate neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus by largely unknown means. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we used tetrode recording to analyze neuronal activity in the dentate gyrus of freely moving adult mice during hippocampus-engaged contextual exploration. We found that exploration induced an overall sustained increase in inhibitory…
6d
The auxiliary glutamate receptor subunit dSol-1 promotes presynaptic neurotransmitter release and homeostatic potentiation [Neuroscience]
Presynaptic glutamate receptors (GluRs) modulate neurotransmitter release and are physiological targets for regulation during various forms of plasticity. Although much is known about the auxiliary subunits associated with postsynaptic GluRs, far less is understood about presynaptic auxiliary GluR subunits and their functions. At the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, a presynaptic GluR,…
6d
Low doses of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid induce ROS triggering neurological and metabolic impairments in Drosophila [Neuroscience]
Declining insect population sizes are provoking grave concern around the world as insects play essential roles in food production and ecosystems. Environmental contamination by intense insecticide usage is consistently proposed as a significant contributor, among other threats. Many studies have demonstrated impacts of low doses of insecticides on insect behavior,…
6d
Subunit-selective iGluR antagonists can potentiate heteromeric receptor responses by blocking desensitization [Pharmacology]
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are key molecules for synaptic signaling in the central nervous system, which makes them promising drug targets. Intensive efforts are being devoted to the development of subunit-selective ligands, which should enable more precise pharmacologic interventions while limiting the effects on overall neuronal circuit function. However, many…
6d
Quantum approximate optimization of the long-range Ising model with a trapped-ion quantum simulator [Physics]
Quantum computers and simulators may offer significant advantages over their classical counterparts, providing insights into quantum many-body systems and possibly improving performance for solving exponentially hard problems, such as optimization and satisfiability. Here, we report the implementation of a low-depth Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) using an analog quantum simulato
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Generation of thermofield double states and critical ground states with a quantum computer [Physics]
Finite-temperature phases of many-body quantum systems are fundamental to phenomena ranging from condensed-matter physics to cosmology, yet they are generally difficult to simulate. Using an ion trap quantum computer and protocols motivated by the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA), we generate nontrivial thermal quantum states of the transverse-field Ising model…
6d
Dynamic phase transitions in freestanding polymer thin films [Physics]
After more than two decades of study, many fundamental questions remain unanswered about the dynamics of glass-forming materials confined to thin films. Experiments and simulations indicate that free interfaces enhance dynamics over length scales larger than molecular sizes, and this effect strengthens at lower temperatures. The nature of the influence…
6d
Extracellular vesicle-associated VEGF-C promotes lymphangiogenesis and immune cells infiltration in endometriosis [Physiology]
Endometriosis is a highly prevalent gynecological disease with severe negative impacts on life quality and financial burden. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this disease, which highlights the need for further investigation about the pathophysiology of this disease to provide clues for developing novel therapeutic regimens. Herein, we identified that…
6d
Nuclear receptor REVERB{alpha} is a state-dependent regulator of liver energy metabolism [Physiology]
The nuclear receptor REVERBα is a core component of the circadian clock and proposed to be a dominant regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Using antibody-independent ChIP-sequencing of REVERBα in mouse liver, we reveal a high-confidence cistrome and define direct target genes. REVERBα-binding sites are highly enriched for consensus RORE or…
6d
EPSIN1 and MTV1 define functionally overlapping but molecularly distinct trans-Golgi network subdomains in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
The plant trans-Golgi network (TGN) is a central trafficking hub where secretory, vacuolar, recycling, and endocytic pathways merge. Among currently known molecular players involved in TGN transport, three different adaptor protein (AP) complexes promote vesicle generation at the TGN with different cargo specificity and destination. Yet, it remains unresolved how…
6d
The dependency of red Rubisco on its cognate activase for enhancing plant photosynthesis and growth [Plant Biology]
Plant photosynthesis and growth are often limited by the activity of the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco. The broad kinetic diversity of Rubisco in nature is accompanied by differences in the composition and compatibility of the ancillary proteins needed for its folding, assembly, and metabolic regulation. Variations in the protein folding needs…
6d
The rise of COVID-19 cases is associated with support for world leaders [Political Sciences]
COVID-19 has emerged as one of the deadliest and most disruptive events in recent human history. Drawing from political science and psychological theories, we examine the effects of daily confirmed cases in a country on citizens' support for the political leader through the first 120 d of 2020. Using three…
6d
Transmission dynamics reveal the impracticality of COVID-19 herd immunity strategies [Population Biology]
The rapid growth rate of COVID-19 continues to threaten to overwhelm healthcare systems in multiple countries. In response, severely affected countries have had to impose a range of public health strategies achieved via nonpharmaceutical interventions. Broadly, these strategies have fallen into two categories: 1) "mitigation," which aims to achieve herd…
6d
Modeling between-population variation in COVID-19 dynamics in Hubei, Lombardy, and New York City [Population Biology]
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, formulating targeted policy interventions that are informed by differential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission dynamics will be of vital importance to national and regional governments. We develop an individual-level model for SARS-CoV-2 transmission that accounts for location-dependent distributions of age, household struc
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Compulsivity is linked to reduced adolescent development of goal-directed control and frontostriatal functional connectivity [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
A characteristic of adaptive behavior is its goal-directed nature. An ability to act in a goal-directed manner is progressively refined during development, but this refinement can be impacted by the emergence of psychiatric disorders. Disorders of compulsivity have been framed computationally as a deficit in model-based control, and have been…
6d
Different mechanisms underlie implicit visual statistical learning in honey bees and humans [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
The ability of developing complex internal representations of the environment is considered a crucial antecedent to the emergence of humans' higher cognitive functions. Yet it is an open question whether there is any fundamental difference in how humans and other good visual learner species naturally encode aspects of novel visual…
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An expert advantage in detecting unfamiliar visual signals in noise [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Diagnostic radiologists are experts in discriminating and classifying medical images for clinically significant anomalies. Does their perceptual expertise confer an advantage in unfamiliar visual tasks? Here, this issue was investigated by comparing the performance of 10 radiologists and 2 groups of novices on the ability to detect novel visual signals:…
6d
Health benefits of on-road transportation pollution control programs in China [Sustainability Science]
China started to implement comprehensive measures to mitigate traffic pollution at the end of 1990s, but the comprehensive effects, especially on ambient air quality and public health, have not yet been systematically evaluated. In this study, we analyze the effects of vehicle emission control measures on ambient air pollution and…
6d
On the accuracy of official Chinese crop production data: Evidence from biophysical indexes of net primary production [Systems Biology]
With rapid economic growth and urbanization, self-sufficiency in crop production has become central to China's agriculture policy. Accurate crop production statistics are essential for research, monitoring, and planning. Although researchers agree that China's statistical authority has considerably modernized over time, China's economic statistics have still been viewed as unreliable and…
6d
Correction for Zhang et al., Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19 [Correction]
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for "Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19," by Renyi Zhang, Yixin Li, Annie L. Zhang, Yuan Wang, and Mario J. Molina, which was first published June 11, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2009637117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 14857–14863)….
6d
Correction for Heberle et al., Direct label-free imaging of nanodomains in biomimetic and biological membranes by cryogenic electron microscopy [Correction]
BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for "Direct label-free imaging of nanodomains in biomimetic and biological membranes by cryogenic electron microscopy," by Frederick A. Heberle, Milka Doktorova, Haden L. Scott, Allison D. Skinkle, M. Neal Waxham, and Ilya Levental, which was first published August 5, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2002200117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci….
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Correction for Geldmann et al., A global-level assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas at resisting anthropogenic pressures [Correction]
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Correction for "A global-level assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas at resisting anthropogenic pressures," by Jonas Geldmann, Andrea Manica, Neil D. Burgess, Lauren Coad, and Andrew Balmford, which was first published October 28, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1908221116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 23209–23215). The authors note that for…
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Correction for Montay-Gruel et al., Long-term neurocognitive benefits of FLASH radiotherapy driven by reduced reactive oxygen species [Correction]
MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for "Long-term neurocognitive benefits of FLASH radiotherapy driven by reduced reactive oxygen species," by Pierre Montay-Gruel, Munjal M. Acharya, Kristoffer Petersson, Leila Alikhani, Chakradhar Yakkala, Barrett D. Allen, Jonathan Ollivier, Benoit Petit, Patrik Gonçalves Jorge, Amber R. Syage, Thuan A. Nguyen, Al Anoud D. Baddour, Celine Lu,…
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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Rapid warming and mass mortality of fish A dead lionfish floating near the surface above the coral reef of Eilat, Gulf of Aqaba, in summer 2017. Studies of the ecological impacts of ocean warming have traditionally focused on the duration and maximum temperatures of warming events, but not on the…
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Not all trauma is the same [Social Sciences]
In a recent Brief Report by Raker et al. (1), the investigators analyze data from a prospective study of young, low-income mothers who survived Hurricane Katrina and apply this to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to discuss strategies to mitigate the pandemic's indirect effects on survivors. We appreciate…
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Reply to Ng et al.: Not all trauma is the same, but lessons can be drawn from commonalities [Social Sciences]
In their Letter, Ng et al. (1) state that our (2) comparison of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to Hurricane Katrina is "slightly contrived." We appreciate the opportunity for discussion. However, we maintain that there is much to be learned from prior disasters, including Hurricane Katrina, for anticipating and mitigating…
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Lack of evidence for BCG vaccine protection from severe COVID-19 [Biological Sciences]
It is important to understand the divergent incidence and impact of COVID-19 on different countries. A recent study in PNAS (1) hypothesized that bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination may protect from COVID-19 based on a negative correlation of bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination rates and COVID-19 mortality between countries, even after careful correction for…
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QnAs with J. Michael Kosterlitz [QnAs]
From biology to astrophysics, the transition from a disordered to an ordered state in any complex system proceeds through often nonlinear steps. The variability inherent in the transitions hampers researchers' ability to predict where and how the systems will come to a resting state. J. Michael Kosterlitz, the Harrison E….
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Profile of Subra Suresh [Profiles]
During his long and distinguished career, Subra Suresh has made crucial contributions to the field of engineering. While finishing up high school in India in the 1970s, however, Suresh was not even sure of going to college, let alone becoming an engineer. Nonetheless, Suresh decided to take a shot at…
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One model to rule them all in network science? [Computer Sciences]
If you have ever used a social network platform, you know that you are regularly prompted about people you may know in the network. Sometimes these recommendations are striking—we get a suggestion for a person we have met only once, or an old acquaintance that we have not seen in…
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Cis-regulatory units of grass genomes identified by their DNA methylation [Plant Biology]
With the large number of genomes currently being sequenced, detailed annotation of these sequences has now become the bottleneck of genome analysis. Identification of protein-coding genes and transposable elements is easy compared with the difficult task of annotating the regulatory regions upstream of core promoters. These regions are relatively small…
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Inner Workings: Researchers peek into chromosomes' 3D structure in unprecedented detail [Chemistry]
Clodagh O'Shea will never forget the moment in early 2015 when she peered at the cell's nucleus in a way no one had ever done before. Using a new technique to visualize three-dimensional (3D) chromosomes as they exist in the active, unadulterated nucleus, O'Shea was able to zoom in on…
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COVID-19 recovery at home possible for most patients
A new study shows that the vast majority of patients who visited the Ruth and Harry Roman Emergency Department at Cedars-Sinai with suspected COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) symptoms, and who were treated and sent home to recuperate, recovered within a week.
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Alcohol use changed right after COVID-19 lockdown
One in four adults reported a change in alcohol use almost immediately after stay-at-home orders were issued: 14 percent reported drinking more alcohol and reported higher levels of stress and anxiety than those who did not drink and those whose use stayed the same. The 11 percent who decreased their drinking also had higher levels of stress and anxiety — suggesting that any change in alcohol use
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Stopping lethal lung damage from the flu with a natural human protein
The raging lung inflammation that can contribute to death from the flu can be stopped in its tracks by a drug derived from a naturally occurring human protein, a new animal study suggests.
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Which is more creative, the arts or the sciences?
An expert in creativity and innovation is calling for schools and universities to increase their emphasis on teaching creativity, as new research shows it is a core competency across all disciplines and critical for ensuring future job success.
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The deep sea is slowly warming
New research reveals temperatures in the deep sea fluctuate more than scientists previously thought and a warming trend is now detectable at the bottom of the ocean.
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Study first to tally biomass from oceanic plastic debris using visualization method
Scientists examined cell abundances, size, cellular carbon mass, and how photosynthetic cells differ on polymeric and glass substrates over time, exploring nanoparticle generation from plastic like polystyrene and how this might disrupt microalgae. Conservative estimates suggest that about 1 percent of microbial cells in the ocean surface microlayer inhabit plastic debris globally. This mass of ce
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Autism's Gut Connection: Microbes Could Soon Lead to New Treatments
Researchers are finding clues to autistic behavior — in patients' gut bacteria. Using fecal transplants to improve symptoms have shown promise in preliminary studies.
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Airborne particulate matter and health effects on bees: A correlation does not indicate causation [Letters (Online Only)]
Thimmegowda et al. (1) analyzed the sublethal effects of exposure of the honey bee Apis dorsata to high levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) in polluted areas in Bangalore (India). Airborne PM is a mixture of chemicals; its solid components are commonly classified by size, ranging from several micrometers (PM10)…
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Reply to Negri et al.: Air pollution and health impacts on bees: Signs of causation [Letters (Online Only)]
In their Letter, Negri et al. (1) point out four concerns with our recent publication (2). The first is that the study is correlative, and the next two that we did not measure the toxicity of air pollution directly, nor how the particulate matter (PM) measured on the surface of…
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p31comet promotes homologous recombination by inactivating REV7 through the TRIP13 ATPase [Cell Biology]
The repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that arise from external mutagenic agents and routine cellular processes is essential for life. DSBs are repaired by two major pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ). DSB repair pathway choice is largely dictated at the step of 5′-3′…
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Motile ghosts of the halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volcanii [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Archaea swim using the archaellum (archaeal flagellum), a reversible rotary motor consisting of a torque-generating motor and a helical filament, which acts as a propeller. Unlike the bacterial flagellar motor (BFM), ATP (adenosine-5′-triphosphate) hydrolysis probably drives both motor rotation and filamentous assembly in the archaellum. However, direct evidence is still…
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EXO70D isoforms mediate selective autophagic degradation of type-A ARR proteins to regulate cytokinin sensitivity [Plant Biology]
The phytohormone cytokinin influences many aspects of plant growth and development, several of which also involve the cellular process of autophagy, including leaf senescence, nutrient remobilization, and developmental transitions. The Arabidopsis type-A response regulators (type-A ARR) are negative regulators of cytokinin signaling that are transcriptionally induced in response to cytokinin….
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Protective effect of mandatory face masks in the public—relevant variables with likely impact on outcome were not considered [Letters (Online Only)]
Zhang et al. (1) conclude that wearing a face mask in public is the most effective means to prevent transmission. This conclusion is scientifically highly questionable. First, the number of epidemic-curve examples is small; an explanation of how they were chosen is lacking. Second, the evaluation is flawed by not…
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Seasonality and uncertainty in global COVID-19 growth rates [Ecology]
The virus causing COVID-19 has spread rapidly worldwide and threatens millions of lives. It remains unknown, as of April 2020, whether summer weather will reduce its spread, thereby alleviating strains on hospitals and providing time for vaccine development. Early insights from laboratory studies and research on related viruses predicted that…
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Coupling stabilizers open KV1-type potassium channels [Pharmacology]
The opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels are regulated by voltage sensors coupled to a gate that controls the ion flux across the cellular membrane. Modulation of any part of gating constitutes an entry point for pharmacologically regulating channel function. Here, we report on the discovery of a large…
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Contractile pericytes determine the direction of blood flow at capillary junctions [Physiology]
The essential function of the circulatory system is to continuously and efficiently supply the O2 and nutrients necessary to meet the metabolic demands of every cell in the body, a function in which vast capillary networks play a key role. Capillary networks serve an additional important function in the central…
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One-dimensional spatial patterning along mitotic chromosomes: A mechanical basis for macroscopic morphogenesis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Spatial patterns are ubiquitous in both physical and biological systems. We have recently discovered that mitotic chromosomes sequentially acquire two interesting morphological patterns along their structural axes [L. Chu et al., Mol. Cell, 10.1016/j.molcel.2020.07.002 (2020)]. First, axes of closely conjoined sister chromosomes acquire regular undulations comprising nearly planar arrays of…
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Performance vs. competence in human-machine comparisons [Perspectives]
Does the human mind resemble the machines that can behave like it? Biologically inspired machine-learning systems approach "human-level" accuracy in an astounding variety of domains, and even predict human brain activity—raising the exciting possibility that such systems represent the world like we do. However, even seemingly intelligent machines fail in…
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Identify potent SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors via accelerated free energy perturbation-based virtual screening of existing drugs [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global crisis. There is no therapeutic treatment specific for COVID-19. It is highly desirable to identify potential antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 from existing drugs available for other diseases and thus repurpose them for treatment of…
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UK Space Agency hopes first woman on moon mission will make it key player
UK wants to be deeply involved in next frontier of space exploration – the mission to Mars When the first female astronaut walks on the moon, more than half a century after Neil Armstrong took that historic first step, it will probably be heralded as a small step for a woman but a giant leap for womankind. But in the corridors of the UK Space Agency it will also be marked as the moment when Brita
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An international effort to understand cycad pollinators
University of Guam researchers continue to expand knowledge of a unique group of plants called cycads. The world's contemporary cycad plants depend on small insects for pollination services. The Guam team's 2017 discovery of the new Cycadophila samara beetle and its pollination of cycads is now contributing to an international effort to more fully understand the intimate relationship between plant
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Scientists Want to Use Moths to Blanket the Earth in Tiny Sensors
Special Delivery Scientists have a plan to cover the Earth in tiny sensors that record parameters like temperature and humidity. And to help them with particularly hard-to-reach areas, they're recruiting an army of bugs. A team of University of Washington scientists built a tiny, lightweight sensor that can survive long drops, and now wants them to stick them onto moths that then distribute them
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All the big announcements from Apple's iPhone 12 launch event
Hello, 5G iPhone. (Apple Inc./) We've finally reached Apple's annual Autumn tradition. It's time for new iPhones. We already have some idea about what's coming from the endless rumors , but now we'll get the info straight from the source. The headliner will likely be the iPhone 12 with its new 5G compatibility, but this is one of Apple's biggest events of the year, so I wouldn't be surprised to s
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Why autumn air smells so delicious and sweet
As katsura leaves get old and die off in the autumn, they release a sweet smelling compound that's not too unlike caramel or cotton candy. (Megan E Hansen /) Fall is in the air, quite literally, and not just because of pumpkin spice lattes and fresh apple cider. As trees bid farewell to their leaves, their foliage releases a symphony of smells, which to our untrained noses can smell like anything
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30 Great Deals at Best Buy, Target, and Other Amazon Prime Day Rivals (Updated)
Amazon isn't the only store with deals today. Here are our top picks from Walmart, Target, Best Buy, and others.
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The Pentecostal movement seeks a healthier form of community
Pentecostalism is the largest and fastest growing branch of Christianity in the world after the Catholic Church. Thanks to its focus on missionary work, Pentecostalism wields significant power particularly in areas where western secular culture has not gained dominant status, such as in many parts of Africa.
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Without the North American monsoon, reining in wildfires gets harder
The North American monsoon has dictated the length of wildfire season for centuries in the U.S.-Mexico border region, according to new University of Arizona research that can inform land management amid global climate change.
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Mathematician refines model of predator-prey relations in the wild
The traditional mathematical model of predator-prey relations in the wild does not take into account indirect nonlocal interactions. However, according to a mathematician from RUDN University, they affect the dynamics of predators and prey in a system, and the nature of this effect is sensitive to the initial conditions. An article about his work was published in the Communications in Nonlinear Sc
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Magnitude comparison distinguishes small earthquakes from explosions in US West
By comparing two magnitude measurements for seismic events recorded locally, researchers can tell whether the event was a small earthquake or a single-fire buried chemical explosion.
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An international effort to understand cycad pollinators
University of Guam researchers continue to expand knowledge of a unique group of plants called cycads. The world's contemporary cycad plants depend on small insects for pollination services. The Guam team's 2017 discovery of the new Cycadophila samara beetle and its pollination of cycads is now contributing to an international effort to more fully understand the intimate relationship between plant
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Mathematician refines model of predator-prey relations in the wild
The traditional mathematical model of predator-prey relations in the wild does not take into account indirect nonlocal interactions. However, according to a mathematician from RUDN University, they affect the dynamics of predators and prey in a system, and the nature of this effect is sensitive to the initial conditions. An article about his work was published in the Communications in Nonlinear Sc
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Bacterial toxin with healing effect
A bacterial toxin promoting tissue healing has been discovered by an international research team led by scientists from University of Jena (Germany). The compound α-Hemolysine found in Staphylococcus aureus does not just damage cells, but also stimulates tissue regeneration.
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Cameras that can learn
Intelligent cameras could be one step closer thanks to a research collaboration between the Universities of Bristol and Manchester who have developed cameras that can learn and understand what they are seeing.
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New global temperature data will inform study of climate impacts on health, agriculture
A new data set provides high-resolution, daily temperatures from around the globe that could prove valuable in studying human health impacts from heat waves, risks to agriculture, droughts, potential crop failures, and food insecurity.
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Building 'ToxAll' — a smart, self-assembling nano-vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis
A team of researchers at the University of Chicago are developing a toolbox of self-assembling nanoparticles to be used as vaccines against infections including the parasitic Toxoplasma gondii.
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Study: There's work to be done before people feel ready for COVID-19 vaccine
A new study in the journal Vaccines indicates some significant public messaging should be communicated before any COVID-19 vaccines are made available in the US. And with vaccines potentially being approved by the end of the year or early next year, the clock is ticking.
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How psychological ownership can enhance stewardship for public goods
How can consumers be encouraged to take better care of public goods and resources? That's the question posed in a new research paper in the Journal of Marketing.
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Eastern Pacific is a major supply chain for illegal shark fin trade, researchers find
New research reveals the Eastern Pacific is a particular hotspot for the shark fin trade—and a danger zone for an endangered species fighting for survival.
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The Wonderfully Weird World of Deep-Sea Squids
For this month's "Meet a SI-entist," the Smithsonian's curator of cephalopods says these are the "intelligent invertebrates"
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Chunks of Venus may have smashed into the moon
Pieces of Venus, perhaps billions of them, are likely to have crashed on the moon, researchers say. A growing body of research suggests the planet Venus may have had an Earth-like environment billions of years ago, with water and a thin atmosphere. Yet testing such theories is difficult without geological samples to examine. The solution, according to Samuel Cabot and Gregory Laughlin, astronomer
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SARS-CoV-2 antibodies provide lasting immunity, say UArizona Health Sciences researchers
University of Arizona Heath Sciences researchers developed one of the most accurate COVID-19 antibody tests available and now have shown antibodies persist for months after infection, providing long-term immunity.
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Magnitude comparison distinguishes small earthquakes from explosions in US west
By comparing two magnitude measurements for seismic events recorded locally, researchers can tell whether the event was a small earthquake or a single-fire buried chemical explosion.
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Combination therapy against cancer
In their quest to destroy cancer cells, researchers are turning to combinational therapies more and more. Scientists from Germany and China have now combined a chemotherapeutic and photodynamic approach. All agents are encapsulated in nanocapsules with a protein shell to be delivered to the tumor. There, light irradiation triggers a cascade of events, which lead to the destruction of the tumor cel
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RUDN University mathematician refined the model of predator-prey relations in the wild
The traditional mathematical model of predator-prey relations in the wild does not take into account indirect nonlocal interactions. However, according to a mathematician from RUDN University, they affect the dynamics of predators and prey in a system, and the nature of this effect is sensitive to the initial conditions.
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Without the North American monsoon, reining in wildfires gets harder
New research shows that while winter rains can temper the beginning of the wildfire season, monsoon rains are what shut them down. This monsoon season was the second-driest on record, leaving Southern Arizona dry and vulnerable.
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Scientists use holographic imaging to detect viruses and antibodies
A team of scientists has developed a method using holographic imaging to detect both viruses and antibodies. The breakthrough has the potential to aid in medical diagnoses and, specifically, those related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
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The mountains of Pluto are snowcapped, but not for the same reasons as on Earth
In 2015, the New Horizons space probe discovered spectacular snowcapped mountains on Pluto, which are strikingly similar to mountains on Earth. Such a landscape had never before been observed elsewhere in the Solar System. An international team led by CNRS scientists determined that the methane snow could only appear at the peaks of Pluto's mountains high enough to reach this enriched zone that th
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Scientists develop detector for investigating the sun
Researchers from MIPT have developed a prototype detector of solar particles. The device is capable of picking up protons at kinetic energies between 10 and 100 megaelectronvolts, and electrons at 1-10 MeV. This covers most of the high-energy particle flux coming from the sun. The new detector can improve radiation protection for astronauts and spaceships, as well as advancing our understanding of
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Want to wait less at the bus stop? Beware real-time updates
Smartphone apps that tell commuters when a bus will arrive at a stop don't result in less time waiting than reliance on an official bus route schedule, a new study suggests.In fact, people who followed the suggestions of transit apps to time their arrival for when the bus pulls up to the stop were likely to miss the bus about three-fourths of the time, results showed.
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New deep learning models: Fewer neurons, more intelligence
An international research team from TU Wien, IST Austria and MIT has developed a new artificial intelligence system based on the brains of tiny animals, such as threadworms. This novel AI-system can control a vehicle with just a few artificial neurons. It copes much better with noisy input, and, because of its simplicity, its mode of operation can be explained in detail. This new deep learning mod
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Anticancer compounds for B cell cancer therapy targeting cellular stress response
Wistar and collaborators from the University of Notre Dame are developing anticancer compounds targeting a pathway of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response implicated in the development of multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and lymphoma.
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Lack of diversity among cardiovascular health-care professionals continues
Despite working for more than two decades to address underrepresentation of women in cardiology, disparities among cardiovascular professionals continue to exist. Profound inequities also exist for individuals underrepresented in medicine, such as African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Native Americans, who constitute 32 percent of the U.S. population but only eight percent of practicing cardio
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The distance local energy goes to bring power to the people
A study published today in the journal Frontiers in Sustainability by the University of California, Davis, sheds light on the lengths alternative energy providers go to bring electrical power to customers.
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Research team discovers mechanism that restores cell function after genome damage
A research team from Cologne has discovered that a change in the DNA structure—more precisely in the chromatin—plays a decisive role in the recovery phase after DNA damage. The key is a double occupation by two methyl groups on the DNA packaging protein histone H3 (H3K4me2). The discovery was made by scientists under the direction of Prof. Björn Schumacher of the Cluster of Excellence for Aging Re
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The puzzle of the strange galaxy made of 99.9% dark matter is solved
At present, the formation of galaxies is difficult to understand without the presence of a ubiquitous, but mysterious component, termed dark matter. Astronomers have measure how much dark matter there is around galaxies, and have found that it varies between 10 and 300 times the quantity of visible matter. However, a few years ago, the discovery of a very diffuse object, named Dragonfly 44, change
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Physicists successfully carry out controlled transport of stored light
A team of physicists led by Professor Patrick Windpassinger at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) has successfully transported light stored in a quantum memory over a distance of 1.2 millimeters. They have demonstrated that the controlled transport process and its dynamics has only little impact on the properties of the stored light. The researchers used ultra-cold rubidium-87 atoms as a st
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Atmospheric dust levels are rising in the Great Plains
Got any spaces left on that 2020 bingo card? Pencil in "another Dust Bowl in the Great Plains." A study from University of Utah researchers and their colleagues finds that atmospheric dust levels are rising across the Great Plains at a rate of up to 5% per year.
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Well-formed disorder for versatile light technologies
From microscopes to data transfer via optical fibers all the way to modern quantum technologies, light plays an important role in science and industry. Particularly methods for changing the color—and hence the frequency and wavelength—of light are of great importance in modern applications. Those methods require the use of nonlinear crystals. In such crystals, two photons of a particular frequency
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Perovskite materials: Neutrons show twinning in halide perovskites
A good ten years ago, research teams discovered the class of semi-organic halide perovskites, which are now making a rapid career as new materials for solar cells. The mixed organic-inorganic semiconductors achieved efficiencies of over 25 percent within a few years. They take their name from their basic structure, which is very similar to that of the mineral perovskite (CaTiO3), but contains othe
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People can do more than use less plastic to help save the GBR
Many Australians do not know what they can individually do to make a difference to the health of the World Heritage-listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR), according to a survey led by QUT researchers.
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Researchers are working on tech so machines can thermally 'breathe'
In the era of electric cars, machine learning and ultra-efficient vehicles for space travel, computers and hardware are operating faster and more efficiently. But this increase in power comes with a trade-off: They get superhot.
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Is There a Safe Way to Be Home for the Holidays?
Editor's Note: The Atlantic is making vital coverage of the coronavirus available to all readers. Find the collection here . One of American culture's most cherished traditions is for a mix of young and old people from different households to sit close together and share food in a poorly ventilated space without masks on for an extended period of time. It's called Thanksgiving. This year, the hol
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Project Artemis: UK signs up to Nasa's Moon exploration principles
The UK backs the accords that will guide the American-led return to the Moon this decade.
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Eastern Pacific is a major supply chain for illegal shark fin trade, researchers find
New research reveals the Eastern Pacific is a particular hotspot for the shark fin trade—and a danger zone for an endangered species fighting for survival.
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Research team discovers mechanism that restores cell function after genome damage
A research team from Cologne has discovered that a change in the DNA structure—more precisely in the chromatin—plays a decisive role in the recovery phase after DNA damage. The key is a double occupation by two methyl groups on the DNA packaging protein histone H3 (H3K4me2). The discovery was made by scientists under the direction of Prof. Björn Schumacher of the Cluster of Excellence for Aging Re
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Earphone tracks facial expressions, even with a face mask
Researchers have invented an earphone that can continuously track full facial expressions by observing the contour of the cheeks – and can then translate expressions into emojis or silent speech commands.
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Columbia Professor: There's a 50% Chance We're Living in a Simulation
In an influential 2003 paper , University of Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom laid out the possibility that our reality is a computer simulation dreamed up by a highly advanced civilization. In the paper, he argued that at least one of three propositions must be true: Civilizations usually go extinct before developing the capability of creating reality simulations. Advanced civilizations usually h
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Antallet af vejr-katastofer er femdoblet: I Danmark er vand den største trussel
Ekstremt vejr bliver mere og mere normalt på grund af klimaforandringer.
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Scientists replicated self-cleaning anti-reflective coating of insects' eyes
Scientists from Russia and Switzerland have probed into nanostructures covering the corneas of the eyes of small fruit flies. Investigating them the team learned how to produce the safe biodegradable nanocoating with antimicrobial, anti-reflective, and self-cleaning properties in a cost-effective and eco-friendly way. The protection coating might find applications in diverse areas of economics inc
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Machine learning predicts how long museum visitors will engage with exhibits
In a proof-of-concept study, education and artificial intelligence researchers have demonstrated the use of a machine-learning model to predict how long individual museum visitors will engage with a given exhibit. The finding opens the door to a host of new work on improving user engagement with informal learning tools.
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Properties of catalysts studied with gamma ray resonance
Steam-assisted oil extraction methods for heavy deposits have long been the focus of attention at Kazan Federal University. In particular, much attention is paid to in-situ combustion catalysts.
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Computer model uses virus 'appearance' to better predict winter flu strains
Combining genetic and experimental data into models about the influenza virus can help predict more accurately which strains will be most common during the next winter, says a study published recently in eLife.
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A tiny jaw from Greenland sheds light on the origin of complex teeth
A team of scientists led from Uppsala University have described the earliest known example of dentary bone with two rows of cusps on molars and double-rooted teeth. The new findings offer insight into mammal tooth evolution, particularly the development of double-rooted teeth. The results are published in the scientific journal PNAS.
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New insight on mole growth could aid development of skin cancer treatments
Moles stop growing when they reach a certain size due to normal interactions between cells, despite having cancer-associated gene mutations, says a new study published today in eLife.
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IU study examines effects of low-level lead exposure and alcohol consumption
A new IU study examining effects of low-level developmental lead exposure in mice could explain why some people dependent on alcohol return to using.
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UCF researchers are working on tech so machines can thermally 'breathe'
In the era of electric cars, machine learning and ultra-efficient vehicles for space travel, computers and hardware are operating faster and more efficiently. But this increase in power comes with a trade-off: They get superhot.To counter this, University of Central Florida researchers are developing a way for large machines to "breathe" in and out cooling blasts of water to keep their systems fro
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Scientists shed new light on mechanisms of malaria parasite motility
New insight on the molecular mechanisms that allow malaria parasites to move and spread disease within their hosts has been published today in the open-access eLife journal.
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Cancer-killing T cells 'swarm' to tumors, attracting others to the fight
When immune system T cells find and recognise a target, they release chemicals to attract more T cells which then swarm to help subdue the threat, shows a new study published today in eLife.
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Statins may reduce cancer risk through mechanisms separate to cholesterol
Cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins may reduce cancer risk in humans through a pathway unrelated to cholesterol, says a study published today in eLife.
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Penn engineers create helical topological exciton-polaritons
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Engineering and Applied Science are the first to create an even more exotic form of the exciton-polariton, one which has a defined quantum spin that is locked to its direction of motion. Depending on the direction of their spin, these helical topological exciton-polaritons move in opposite directions along the surface of an equally speciali
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COVID-19 recovery at home possible for most patients
A new study shows that the vast majority of patients who visited the Ruth and Harry Roman Emergency Department at Cedars-Sinai with suspected COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) symptoms, and who were treated and sent home to recuperate, recovered within a week.
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Why does a high-impact publication matter so much for a career in research?
Nature, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02875-4 Should academic science reconsider the definition of success, asks Yvonne Couch.
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Economics Nobel for auctions rewards work that has modern-age urgency
Nature, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02904-2 Studies by Paul Milgrom and Robert Wilson on how auctions can be made more efficient are, unexpectedly, used everywhere, every day.
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Lioness Sex Toy Collects Data for Researchers Studying The Female Orgasm
How a smart vibrator is closing the orgasm gap.
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Modelling extreme magnetic fields and temperature variation on distant stars
New research is helping to explain one of the big questions that has perplexed astrophysicists for the past 30 years – what causes the changing brightness of distant stars called magnetars. Magnetars were formed from stellar explosions or supernovae and they have extremely strong magnetic fields, estimated to be around 100 million, million times greater than the magnetic field found on earth.
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The effects of repeated droughts on different kinds of forests
Drought is endemic to the American West along with heatwaves and intense wildfires. But scientists are only beginning to understand how the effects of multiple droughts can compound to affect forests differently than a single drought alone.
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Act now on wildfires, global climate change, human health, study says
Immediate actions are needed to limit the greenhouse gas emissions that are driving climate change that helps fuel wildfires, a new study says.
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Finding the right color to control magnets with laser pulses
Scientists have discovered a new way to manipulate magnets with laser light pulses shorter than a trillionth of a second. The international team of researchers also identified the light wavelength or color which enables the most efficient manipulation.
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One important benefit of quarantine: reduced noise
Excess noise leads to elevated fatigue, stress, blood pressure elevation, and negative attitudes. Increased levels of noise have been shown to negatively impact our ability to learn. A new study shows that noise levels have dropped significantly during quarantine. We live in a noisy world. Humans have made it much, much noisier. Levels of urban noise in the United States increased by 12 percent b
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Winners and losers of energy transition
Drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity sector could have substantial economic and social impacts. Some regions might benefit more than others from new employment opportunities and from reduced air pollution, while others face threats to employment. Such a transition to renewable electricity thus risks creating new regional winners and losers. In a study published in Natur
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Research team discovers mechanism that restores cell function after genome damage
Researchers at the University of Cologne have found out how cells can recover their development and longevity after damage by UV / discovery may enable therapy against premature aging
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Quantum physics: Physicists successfully carry out controlled transport of stored light
A team of physicists at Mainz University has successfully transported light stored in a quantum memory over a distance of 1.2 millimeters. They have demonstrated that the controlled transport process and its dynamics has only little impact on the properties of the stored light. The researchers used ultra-cold rubidium-87 atoms as a storage medium for the light as to achieve a high level of storage
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If the glove fits
Israeli archaeologists found an astonishing common denominator among storage jars in Israel over a period of 350 years: the inner-rim diameter of the jar's neck. It's consistent with measurements of the palm of a (male) hand and may reflect the use of the original metrics for the biblical measurement of the "tefach," a unit of measurement that was used primarily by ancient Israelites, appears freq
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Alcohol use changed right after COVID-19 lockdown
One in four adults reported a change in alcohol use almost immediately after stay-at-home orders were issued: 14% reported drinking more alcohol and reported higher levels of stress and anxiety than those who did not drink and those whose use stayed the same. The 11% who decreased their drinking also had higher levels of stress and anxiety–suggesting that any change in alcohol use may be associat
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Well-formed disorder for versatile light technologies
Researchers at ETH have managed to make an efficient material for broadband frequency doubling of light using microspheres made of disordered nanocrystals. The crucial idea for the method arose during a coffee break. In the future, the new approach could be used in lasers and other light technologies.
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Mental accounting is impacting sustainable behavior
Human beings tend to create separate mental budget compartments where specific acts of consumption and payments are linked. This mechanism can be counter-productive when it comes to energy consumption and can have a negative impact on attempts to reduce carbon emissions. Psychologists from the University of Geneva, have linked theories and research on mental accounting to energy and sustainability
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A study indicates that hair loss might be prevented by regulating stem cell metabolism
An international research group headed by Associate Professor Sara Wickstrom at the University of Helsinki has identified a mechanism that is likely to prevent hair loss.
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Physical activity in the morning could be most beneficial against cancer
The time of day when we exercise could affect the risk of cancer due to circadian disruption, according to a new study with about 3,000 Spanish people
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The puzzle of the strange galaxy made of 99.9% dark matter is solved
At present, the formation of galaxies is difficult to understand without the presence of a ubiquitous, but mysterious component, termed dark matter. Astronomers have measure how much dark matter there is around galaxies, and have found that it varies between 10 and 300 times the quantity of visible matter. However, a few years ago, the discovery of a very diffuse object, named Dragonfly 44, change
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On the trail of novel infectious agents in wildlife
A research team led by Kristin Mühldorfer from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) and Tobias Eisenberg from the Hessian State Laboratory investigated the causes of severe respiratory disease in peccaries and taxonomically characterised a novel Streptococcus species (Streptococcus catagoni sp. nov.) based on its phenotypic properties and genetic features.
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Perovskite materials: Neutrons show twinning in halide perovskites
Solar cells based on hybrid halide perovskites achieve high efficiencies. These mixed organic-inorganic semiconductors are usually produced as thin films of microcrystals. An investigation with the Laue camera at the neutron source BER II could now clarify that twinning occurs during crystallisation even at room temperature. This insight is helpful for optimising production processes of halide per
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Head and neck injuries make up nearly 28% of all electric scooter accident injuries
A Henry Ford study is sounding the alarm on the rise of electric scooter injuries, and particularly head and neck injuries, since the 2017 introduction of e-scooter rideshare programs in urban centers.
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Unraveling the network of molecules that influence COVID-19 severity
Researchers from the Morgridge Institute for Research, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Albany Medical College have identified more than 200 molecular features that strongly correlate with COVID-19 severity, offering insight into potential treatment options for those with advanced disease.
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Atmospheric dust levels are rising in the Great Plains
A study finds that atmospheric dust levels are rising across the Great Plains at a rate of up to 5% per year. The trend of rising dust parallels expansion of cropland and even seasonal crop cycles. And if the Great Plains becomes drier, a possibility under climate change scenarios, then all the pieces are in place for a repeat of the Dust Bowl that devastated the Midwest in the 1930s.
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Space Debris Trackers Warn of "Explosions in Orbit"
With thousands of new satellites jamming up Earth's orbit, the risk of dangerous collisions is on the rise, experts warn. Just last month, the International Space Station had to fire up its thrusters to avoid smashing into a piece of space junk — for the third time this year. "The biggest contributor to the current space debris problem is explosions in orbit, caused by left-over energy — fuel and
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Setting a TRAP for pandemic-causing viruses
A new laboratory technique quickly sifts through trillions of synthetic proteins to find ones that can target viruses, helping healthcare authorities rapidly respond to evolving pandemics.
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Famed geyser Old Faithful went quiet in drought's grip
Nature, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02894-1 Future climate change could slow the eruptions of the legendary volcanic spring.
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Tired of science being ignored? Get political
Nature, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02854-9 The idea that competent researchers are apolitical is false, and it costs lives.
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Computational planning of the synthesis of complex natural products
Nature, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2855-y
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Daily briefing: A plan to make journal abstracts free to read in one place
Nature, Published online: 12 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02898-x A single site for free journal abstracts, how institutions can promote research integrity and a travelling-salesperson breakthrough.
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A Spacecraft Is Going to Hunt Life in Venus' Clouds This Week
Popping By Late Wednesday night, a space probe named BepiColombo will sail past Venus and scan its atmosphere for signs of life. It's remarkable timing, as NBC News reports : BepiColombo's maneuver has been planned for years, but just last month scientists found signs of phosphine in Venus' atmosphere, a tantalizing potential sign of life in the hostile planet's clouds. The space probe may not co
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Study links eating disorders with body dysmorphia
People with eating disorders are 12 times more likely to be preoccupied with perceived flaws in their physical appearance than those without, according to new research published in the journal Eating and Weight Disorders.
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Empathy prevents COVID-19 spreading
The more empathetic we are, the more likely it is that we will keep our distance and use face masks to prevent coronavirus spreading. This study demonstrates that it is possible to increase our empathy and willingness to follow advice on social distancing and face masks.
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Perception of risk and optimism barriers in behavior during coronavirus
Until a vaccine and/or effective cure for COVID-19 becomes available, battling the current pandemic strongly relies on how well people follow behavioural advice, such as adhering to local restrictions, social distancing rules, and engaging in effective personal hygiene.
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Wearable IT devices: Dyeing process gives textiles electronic properties
Whether in fitness, medicine or in the entertainment industry, IT devices worn on the body, such as smart watches, are becoming increasingly popular. Such wearables benefit from the input device fitting as naturally as possible to the body – for example as electro-sensitive fabrics, so-called e-textiles.
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University of Guam part of international effort to understand cycad pollinators
The Guam team's 2017 discovery of the new Cycadophila samara beetle and its pollination of cycads is now contributing to an international effort to more fully understand the intimate relationship between plant and insect.
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Modeling organic-field effect transistors with a molecular resolution
Organic field-effect transistors represent a promising type of organic electronic device with applications including (bio)sensors, electrical circuits, or data storage. A fundamental understanding of their operation is critical to their further development and the design of more efficient organic semiconductors. Scientists based in the United States summarize here recent advances in the molecular-
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Relationship value and economic value are evaluated by the same part of the brain
Researchers from several Japanese universities have revealed that the orbitofrontal cortex, the part of the brain responsible for calculating economic value, is also responsible for judging the value of relationships with friends based on the received commitment signals.
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Sea star's ability to clone itself may empower this mystery globetrotter
The identity of wild cloning sea star larvae has been a mystery since they were first documented in the Caribbean. The most commonly collected cloning species was thought to belong to the Oreasteridae, on the basis of similarity with sequences from Oreaster reticulatus and Oreaster clavatus.
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People can do more than use less plastic to help save the GBR: QUT research
There are many threats to Australia's Great Barrier Reef – cyclones, shipping, crown-of-thorns starfish – but QUT researchers say climate change is its worst enemy. Yet a survey they conducted found most people don't make a connection between climate change and reef health. They say there is more individuals could do on this front, both in the home and to influence government policies
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The perfect angle for e-skin energy storage
Researchers at DGIST have found an inexpensive way to fabricate tiny energy storage devices that can effectively power flexible and wearable skin sensors along with other electronic devices, paving the way towards remote medical monitoring & diagnoses and wearable devices. Their findings were published in the journal Nano Energy.
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Customers prefer partitions over mannequins in socially-distanced dining rooms
Restaurants have had to get creative to enforce social distancing guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic, including utilizing mannequins. Others were more conservative and opted to place plastic or glass partitions between tables. A researcher found out which socially-distanced dining room consumers prefer.
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Study underscores the gut-brain connection, shows hunger hormone impacts memory
Rats that lacked the hormone ghrelin tended to eat more frequently and gained more weight. They also showed signs that they could not remember when they had last eaten.
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Software spots and fixes hang bugs in seconds, rather than weeks
Hang bugs – when software gets stuck, but doesn't crash – can frustrate both users and programmers, taking weeks for companies to identify and fix. Now researchers have developed software that can spot and fix the problems in seconds.
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Is the flying saucer the best shape for a spaceship?
The long-running series in which readers answer other readers' questions on subjects ranging from trivial flights of fancy to profound scientific and philosophical concepts UFO sightings are often of saucer- or disc-shaped objects. Is there any evidence that this is an efficient or indeed feasible shape for intergalactic travel? Graham Hines Continue reading…
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Professor: Symptomer på COVID-19 er dårlig markør for faktisk smitte
En stor engelsk befolkningsundersøgelse viser, at tre ud af fire ikke har symptomer på COVID-19, når de bliver testet positiv. Derfor bør teststrategien genovervejes, mener dansk professor bag undersøgelsen.
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How consumers responded to COVID-19
The unpredictability of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on people's daily lives has facilitated changes ranging from social interactions to purchasing behavior. Adjusting to the many disruptions may seem difficult, but people are more adaptive than you might think, according to findings published in the October 2020 issue of the Journal of Consumer Research.
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Unique view into the 'new Arctic': International MOSAiC expedition successfully completed
Bremerhaven/Leipzig. With the return of the Polarstern, the largest Arctic expedition of all times has come to a successful end. For more than a year, the German research icebreaker traveled in 5 cruise legs with more than 400 people from 20 countries to investigate the epicenter of climate change more precisely than ever before. At the end of the expedition, which cost around 140 million euros, t
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Hurricanes, heavy rains are critical for Hawai'i's groundwater supply
Located within the most isolated archipelago in the world, Hawai'i is critically dependent on a clean, ample supply of fresh water. New research led by University of Hawai'i at Mānoa scientists indicates that rain brought to the islands by hurricanes and Kona storms can often be the most important precipitation for re-supplying groundwater in many regions of the island of O'ahu.
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The deep sea is slowly warming
New research reveals temperatures in the deep sea fluctuate more than scientists previously thought and a warming trend is now detectable at the bottom of the ocean.
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New facility to revolutionize particle accelerators now in operation
A new facility that could pave the way for a future generation of particle colliders and powerful light sources has turned on at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Operating as a DOE user facility, FACET-II is the only facility in the world capable of providing high-energy electron and positron beams for researching a vast array of revolutionary accelerator technologi
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Which is more creative, the arts or the sciences?
International expert in creativity and innovation, UniSA's Professor David Cropley, is calling for Australian schools and universities to increase their emphasis on teaching creativity, as new research shows it is a core competency across all disciplines and critical for ensuring future job success.
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Researchers discover a cell type responsible for cardiac repair after infarction
The researcher of the Faculty of Science of the UMA Adrián Ruiz-Villalba, who is also member of the Andalusian Center for Nanomedicine and Biotechnology (BIONAND) and the Biomedical Research Institute of Malaga (IBIMA), is the first author of an international study that has identified the heart cells in charge of repairing the damage caused to this organ after infarction. This study has been recen
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New 3-D model of a DNA-regulating complex in human cells provides cancer clues
Scientists have created an unprecedented 3-dimensional structural model of a key molecular "machine" known as the BAF complex, which modifies DNA architecture and is frequently mutated in cancer and some other diseases.
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Respiratory symptoms among adolescent e-cigarette users
Researchers examined the association between use of e-cigarettes and self-reported wheezing among adolescents ages 12 to 17.
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Examining e-cigarette use among current, former smokers
National survey data were used to look at how common electronic cigarette use is among US adults, if they were current or former smokers and used e-cigarettes to help quit smoking.
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Long-term, frequent phone counseling helps cancer patients who smoke quit
Recently diagnosed cancer patients who smoke are significantly more likely to quit and remain tobacco-free if they receive frequent and sustained telephone counseling, according to a new study. The study offers hope that these patients will respond better to treatment and enjoy improved quality of life while coping with cancer.
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Layer of strength, layer of functionality for biomedical fibers
Wound dressing, tissue scaffolding, controlled and sustained drug delivery, and cardiac patching are all biomedical processes requiring a material that combines strength with functionality. Core-sheath polymer fibers, fibers comprised of a strong core surrounded by a biologically applicable sheath layer, are an affordable way to meet these requirements. In the journal Applied Physics Reviews, rese
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A call for more comprehensive smoking cessation programs for cancer patients who smoke
In an editorial published in JAMA, UNC Lineberger's Adam Goldstein, MD, MPH, director of the UNC Tobacco Treatment Programs and professor in the UNC School of Medicine Department of Family Medicine, and his co-authors called for more funding and better reimbursement for smoking cessation counseling for cancer patients who smoke.
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Record high values of peak power with picosecond generators
Powerful picosecond generators are in demand in various fields of experimental electrophysics to produce ultrashort electron beams and X-ray pulses in vacuum diodes and to form runaway electron flows in gases and researchers are constantly striving to obtain shorter and more powerful pulses. In Review of Scientific Instruments, scientists showed compact solid-state pulse generators could generate
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Studies find even minimal physical activity measurably boosts health
Two research teams at UC San Diego School of Medicine sought to understand sedentary lifestyles, with one study finding that even light physical activity, including just standing, can benefit health, and the other that Americans are sitting too much.
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Can an antibody 'cocktail' prevent COVID-19 infection?
In a new COVID-19 clinical trial, Stuart Cohen at UC Davis Health tests monoclonal antibody combination to prevent COVID-19 in adults exposed to infected patients.
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Scientists author papers in Nature Astronomy chronicling legacy of Spitzer space telescope
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, decommissioned earlier this year, made important discoveries about comets, stars, exoplanets and distant galaxies, leaving a lasting legacy of solar system science. A team of more than a dozen scientists from the US and Europe collaborated on two review papers published in the journal Nature Astronomy inventorying the major discoveries made possible by Spitzer.
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How consumers responded to COVID-19
The coronavirus pandemic has been a catalyst for laying out the different threats that consumers face, and that consumers must prepare themselves for a constantly shifting landscape moving forward. A new study sets a framework for researchers to explore these topics and identify the needs of consumers during disruptive times.
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Seven Natural Phenomena Worth Traveling to Alaska For
From salmon spawning to the dancing lights of the aurora borealis, Alaska has some of the country's most impressive natural wonders
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What counts as a 'superspreader' event?
What exactly is a COVID-19 "superspreader" event or person? How can these events be prevented? An expert has answers. "A 10-person birthday celebration or 100-person wedding can all be superspreading events. It only takes a single infected person to infect many." After President Donald Trump contracted COVID-19 and 34 people connected to the White House were infected, there is speculation that a
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First results from new study examining the impact of COVID-19 on working-class women in the UK published today
Working class women have borne the brunt of the cuts to working hours as employers struggle to ride out the pandemic, according to new findings published today by social inequality researchers.
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Demonstrator masters flight sequences for reusable rocket stages
A crucial part of rocket reusability is a smooth return and landing. ESA has helped Romania's National Institute for Aerospace Research, INCAS, to demonstrate vertical takeoff, short hovering and landing maneuvers using a small-scale flight demonstrator.
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3D-printede sensorer fungerer helt uden batterier og elektronik
Nye 3D-printede sensorer kan tale sammen med smartphones over Wi-Fi-netværk helt uden batterier eller elektronik. I stedet reflekteres eksisterende radiobølger, som så kodes til nuller og et-taller med et simpelt mekanisk gear.
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First scientific description of a previously unknown Streptococcus species of Chacoan peccaries
The species richness of zoo and wild animals is reflected in the diversity of infectious agents they harbor. However, our knowledge is sparse and pathogen detection remains challenging. For streptococci, a bacterial family of importance to human and animal health, wildlife research has taken a step forward: A research team led by Kristin Mühldorfer from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife R
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Equatorial mountains on Pluto are covered by methane frosts resulting from a unique atmospheric process
Nature Communications, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18845-3 Pluto is covered by numerous deposits of methane. Here, the authors show that the formation of methane frost on mountain tops and crater rims in Pluto's equatorial regions completely differ from those forming snow-capped mountains on Earth.
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Unconventional oil and gas development and ambient particle radioactivity
Nature Communications, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18226-w Unconventional oil and gas production has increased drastically in the US, but its environmental impacts are not well known. Here, the authors show that these wells can be associated with elevated levels of airborne particle radioactivity in downwind locations.
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The interplay between status and social proximity in peer evaluations
A new study suggests that the status of award nominees combined with the level of social connection that they have with members of a judging panel can work both ways towards determining how successful they are—depending on whether or not they are judged publicly or privately.
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First scientific description of a previously unknown Streptococcus species of Chacoan peccaries
The species richness of zoo and wild animals is reflected in the diversity of infectious agents they harbor. However, our knowledge is sparse and pathogen detection remains challenging. For streptococci, a bacterial family of importance to human and animal health, wildlife research has taken a step forward: A research team led by Kristin Mühldorfer from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife R
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Mental accounting is impacting sustainable behavior
Mental accounting is a concept that describes the mental processes we employ to organize our resource use. Human beings tend to create separate mental budget compartments where specific acts of consumption and payments are linked. This mechanism can be counter-productive when it comes to energy consumption and can have a negative impact on attempts to reduce carbon emissions. Psychologists from th
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COVID-19 frequently causes neurological injuries
Without directly invading the brain or nerves, the virus responsible for COVID-19 causes potentially damaging neurological injuries in about one in seven infected, a new study shows. These injuries range from temporary confusion due to low body-oxygen levels, to stroke and seizures in the most serious cases, say the study authors.
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Environmental impacts of pot fishing
The findings of new research go against previous thinking around the damage caused by pot fishing to the seabed.
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Crayfish 'trapping' fails to control invasive species
Despite being championed by a host of celebrity chefs, crayfish 'trapping' is not helping to control invasive American signal crayfish, according to new research.
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Age and likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Scientists have estimated that the age of an individual does not indicate how likely they are to be infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, development of symptoms, progression of the disease, and mortality are age-dependent.
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Fourteen recommendations for the protection of freshwater biodiversity beyond 2020
The year 2020 marks the end of the "UN Decade of Biodiversity." However, the UN report published in September shows that none of the 20 Aichi-Biodiversity Targets that where agreed on in 2010 has been achieved in the last ten years. Worldwide, the conservation of biodiversity therefore remains a major challenge—this applies particularly to freshwater ecosystems which so far are not sufficiently ta
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Scientists discover mosquitoes' unique blood-taste detectors
The human blood meal is a favorite recipe for female mosquitoes. So drawn to its taste, they can't help but bite—and in the process they spread diseases that claim 500,000 lives each year.
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COVID-19 doesn't have to jump from mother to newborn
During one of the worst periods in New York City's COVID-19 wave when precautions were observed, babies were unlikely to catch the virus from their birth parent. (Pexels/) When the COVID-19 pandemic began earlier this year, the American Association of Pediatrics and several other organizations recommended that hospitals separate birth parents who were positive for COVID-19 and their newborn babie
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Amazon Prime Day: 27 Best Deals if You Work From Home (2020)
Need noise-canceling headphones? Or a laptop stand? We've rounded up discounts on remote working gear from Amazon and other retailers.
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Pluto Has White-Capped Mountains, But Not Because There's Snow
Mountains on Pluto look strikingly similar to white-capped peaks on Earth, but these cold, alien mountains got whitened in a completely different way. (Image credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute)
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Fourteen recommendations for the protection of freshwater biodiversity beyond 2020
The year 2020 marks the end of the "UN Decade of Biodiversity." However, the UN report published in September shows that none of the 20 Aichi-Biodiversity Targets that where agreed on in 2010 has been achieved in the last ten years. Worldwide, the conservation of biodiversity therefore remains a major challenge—this applies particularly to freshwater ecosystems which so far are not sufficiently ta
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Researchers look into the effects of repeated droughts on different kinds of forests
Drought is endemic to the American West along with heatwaves and intense wildfires. But scientists are only beginning to understand how the effects of multiple droughts can compound to affect forests differently than a single drought alone.
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Scientists discover mosquitoes' unique blood-taste detectors
The human blood meal is a favorite recipe for female mosquitoes. So drawn to its taste, they can't help but bite—and in the process they spread diseases that claim 500,000 lives each year.
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Study first to tally biomass from oceanic plastic debris using visualization method
Trillions of plastic debris fragments are afloat at sea, creating the 'perfect storm' for microbial colonization. Introduced more than 50 years ago, plastic substrates are a novel microbial habitat in the world's oceans. This 'plastisphere' consists of a complex community comprised of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microorganisms and microscopic animals.
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Rainforest at biosphere 2 offers glimpse into future of the Amazon
Tropical forests may be more resilient to predicted temperature increases under global climate change than previously thought, a study published in the journal Nature Plants suggests. The results could help make climate prediction models more accurate, according to the authors—an international team led by scientists in the University of Arizona Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
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Scientist gains fresh insight into the origins of earthquakes
Sometimes barely noticeable, and at other times devasting, earthquakes are a major geological phenomenon which provide a stark reminder that our planet is constantly evolving. Scientists have made significant progress in understanding these events over the past 50 years thanks to sensors set up around the world. And while we know that earthquakes are caused by shifts in tectonic plates, a lot rema
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The mountains of Pluto are snowcapped, but not for the same reasons as on Earth
In 2015, the New Horizons space probe discovered spectacular snowcapped mountains on Pluto, which are strikingly similar to mountains on Earth. Such a landscape had never before been observed elsewhere in the Solar System. However, as atmospheric temperatures on our planet decrease at altitude, on Pluto they heat up at altitude as a result of solar radiation.
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Photographing the Microscopic: Winners of Nikon Small World 2020
Nikon has announced the winners of the 2020 Small World Photomicrography Competition and has once again shared some of the winning and honored images with us. The contest invites photographers and scientists to submit images of all things visible under a microscope. More than 2,000 entries were received from 90 countries in 2020, the 46th year of the competition.
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The Surprising Value of a Wandering Mind
(Yael Malka) In college, I took a three-semester class sequence on European intellectual history taught by a long-tenured professor, Mary Gluck, who lectured straight through each session, usually reserving the last five minutes for questions. To some, this model was a nightmare; I loved it. Her lectures on topics including Haussmann's urban design and Hegel's theory of history were so finely hon
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Study first to tally biomass from oceanic plastic debris using visualization method
Trillions of plastic debris fragments are afloat at sea, creating the 'perfect storm' for microbial colonization. Introduced more than 50 years ago, plastic substrates are a novel microbial habitat in the world's oceans. This 'plastisphere' consists of a complex community comprised of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microorganisms and microscopic animals.
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Rainforest at biosphere 2 offers glimpse into future of the Amazon
Tropical forests may be more resilient to predicted temperature increases under global climate change than previously thought, a study published in the journal Nature Plants suggests. The results could help make climate prediction models more accurate, according to the authors—an international team led by scientists in the University of Arizona Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
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Researchers develop new model of the brain's real-life neural networks
Researchers at the Cyber-Physical Systems Group at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering, in conjunction with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have developed a new model of how information deep in the brain could flow from one network to another and how these neuronal network clusters self-optimize over time. Their findings can open new research directions for biologically inspired
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The deep sea is slowly warming
New research reveals temperatures in the deep sea fluctuate more than scientists previously thought and a warming trend is now detectable at the bottom of the ocean.
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Hurricanes, heavy rains are critical for Hawai'i's groundwater supply
New research led by University of Hawai'i at Mānoa scientists indicates that rain brought to the islands by hurricanes and Kona storms can often be the most important precipitation for re-supplying groundwater in many regions of the island of O'ahu.
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Which is more creative, the arts or the sciences?
International expert in creativity and innovation, UniSA's Professor David Cropley, is calling for Australian schools and universities to increase their emphasis on teaching creativity, as new research shows it is a core competency across all disciplines and critical for ensuring future job success.
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Stopping lethal lung damage from the flu with a natural human protein
The raging lung inflammation that can contribute to death from the flu can be stopped in its tracks by a drug derived from a naturally occurring human protein, a new animal study suggests.
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Tory rebels fire warning shot as 42 MPs vote against stricter Covid measures
Matt Hancock criticised lockdown sceptics amid angry scenes earlier in the Commons Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Conservative rebels fired a warning shot at the government as 42 MPs voted against stricter Covid-19 curbs, amid angry scenes in the Commons where Matt Hancock criticised lockdown sceptics. Tory rebels organised a symbolic vote against one of six restric
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Curtain falls on history's biggest Arctic science expedition
Yearlong MOSAIC expedition ends as German icebreaker returns home
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The life unfolding inside your cells, revealed in 3D | Gokul Upadhyayula
To understand how life works, you need to watch it in action, says bioimaging scientist Gokul Upadhyayula. Taking us down to the cellular level, he shares the work behind cutting-edge microscopes that capture and record, in three dimensions, the complex behaviors of living organisms — from infecting cancer cells to crawling immune cells — and what they're revealing about the dynamics of biology.
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Study first to tally biomass from oceanic plastic debris using visualization method
Scientists examined cell abundances, size, cellular carbon mass, and how photosynthetic cells differ on polymeric and glass substrates over time, exploring nanoparticle generation from plastic like polystyrene and how this might disrupt microalgae. Conservative estimates suggest that about 1 percent of microbial cells in the ocean surface microlayer inhabit plastic debris globally. This mass of ce
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Casting call: why immobilizing helps in healing
DALLAS – Oct. 12, 2020 – By far, the most common injuries seen in emergency rooms in the United States are those affecting extremities. Immobilization is the most common treatment, and yet, until recently, it was unknown exactly why this technique worked to advance healing.
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Study: Darwin's theory about coral reef atolls is fatally flawed
Charles Darwin's 1842 theory about the formation of ring-shaped reefs, called atolls, is incorrect, but "it's so beautiful, so simple and pleasing" that it still appears in textbooks and university courses, said marine geologist André Droxler. The accurate description is more complicated, but Droxler and longtime collaborator Stéphan Jorry are hoping to set the record straight in a comprehensive p
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Customers prefer partitions over mannequins in socially-distanced dining rooms
Restaurants have had to get creative to enforce social distancing guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic, including utilizing mannequins. Others were more conservative and opted to place plastic or glass partitions between tables. A researcher at the University of Houston Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management found out which socially-distanced dining room consumers prefer.
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Ultrafast fiber laser produces record high power
Researchers have developed an ultrafast fiber laser that delivers an average power more than ten times what is available from today's high-power lasers. The technology is poised to improve industrial-scale materials processing and paves the way for visionary applications.
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Serology study provides critical insight into COVID-19 immune response
New research, published in Clinical and Translational Immunology, provides a clearer picture of the protective antibodies induced by SARS-CoV-2 and their role in serious illness and what's needed for full protection.
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Unique view into the "new Arctic": international MOSAiC expedition successfully completed
With the return of the Polarstern, the largest Arctic expedition of all times has come to a successful end. For more than a year, the German research icebreaker travelled in 5 cruise legs with more than 400 people from 20 countries to investigate the epicentre of climate change more precisely than ever before.
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Rainforest at biosphere 2 offers glimpse into future of the Amazon
Tropical Forests may be more resilient to climate change than previously thought, according to a study led by University of Arizona ecologists. The results help solve an ongoing debate about the mechanism responsible for declines in tropical forest productivity that go hand in hand with rising global temperatures.
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Darwin's theory about atolls is 'beautiful' but wrong
Charles Darwin created a "beautiful" theory of how atolls form. But, say researchers, he lacked a key piece for information. Marine geologist and oceanographer André Droxler knows Darwin's theory about atolls is incorrect . But Droxler, who's studied coral reefs for more than 40 years, understands why Darwin's model persists in textbooks, university lecture halls, natural science museums, and Wik
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Athletes don't benefit from relying on a coach for too long
Athletes increasingly relying on a coach over the course of a season may be a sign that they aren't progressing in their development, according to new research.
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Carnivores living near people feast on human food, threatening ecosystems
Ecologists have found that carnivores living near people can get more than half of their diets from human food sources, a major lifestyle disruption that could put North America's carnivore-dominated ecosystems at risk.
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UK's test and trace 'having marginal impact': which countries got it right?
Scientists' verdict on £12bn system has refocused attention on what is working elsewhere in cutting Covid-19 transmission rates Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The newly released assessment by the UK government's scientific advisers that the £12bn test and trace programme "is having a marginal impact" in reducing Covid-19 transmission has refocused attention on how o
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Another Vaccine Trial Halt
The first advice is "Don't panic". You will have heard that last night J&J announced that their coronavirus vaccine dosing has been paused while they investigate an adverse event in the trial. And while you never like to hear that, considering the size of their effort, this sort of thing is likely to happen even if the vaccine turns out to have no real safety issues. Just this morning, the compan
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Scientists release previously unseen footage showing environmental impacts of pot fishing
The findings of research by the University of Plymouth go against previous thinking around the damage caused by pot fishing to the seabed
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Proactive steps linked to reduced medical costs, hospital visits for children with asthma
A new study looking at data from tens of thousands of children with asthma finds that several widely available interventions are associated with both reduced medical costs and a reduced likelihood that the children will need to visit an emergency room or stay in the hospital.
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Labor epidurals do not cause autism; Safe for mothers and infants, say anesthesiology, obstetrics
Five medical societies aim to clearly reassure pregnant women that the article "Association Between Epidural Analgesia During Labor and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring," a new retrospective database study published in JAMA Pediatrics on October 12th, 2020 does not provide credible scientific evidence that labor epidurals for pain relief cause autism.
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CAR NKT cells offer a promising novel immunotherapy for solid tumors
Natural killer T (NKT) cells, a type of immune cells known for their potent anti-cancer properties in murine tumor models, have been developed into a novel form of immunotherapy to treat patients with cancer.
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One-two punch
Drought is endemic to the American West along with heatwaves and intense wildfires. But scientists are only beginning to understand how the effects of multiple droughts can compound to affect forests differently than a single drought alone.
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Earphone tracks facial expressions, even with a face mask
Cornell University researchers have invented an earphone that can continuously track full facial expressions by observing the contour of the cheeks – and can then translate expressions into emojis or silent speech commands.
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New therapy improves treatment for multiple sclerosis
A new therapy that binds a cytokine to a blood protein shows potential in treating multiple sclerosis, and may even prevent it.
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14 recommendations for the protection of freshwater biodiversity beyond 2020
Worldwide, the conservation of biodiversity remains a major challenge — this applies particularly to freshwater ecosystems which so far are not sufficiently taken into account in political processes and regulations. An international research team led by IGB has now issued 14 recommendations for political follow-up agreements on the protection of biological diversity — with special focus on fresh
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Proactivity and partnership pay off for nursing homes in a pandemic, study suggests
A new study details how three Michigan nursing homes limited the spread of the coronavirus within their walls after the first cases were diagnosed in that early peak state. The findings could inform the ongoing effort to protect nursing home residents regionally and nationwide.
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Prospective parents' mental health linked to premature births
Both a mother's and father's mental health are associated with increased risk that their baby will be born premature, a new study has found.
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Musk: Tesla Is Rolling Out a Beta of "Full Self-Driving" Next Week
Private Beta Tesla is releasing a "Full Self-Driving Beta" to certain owners some time next week, according to a tweet by CEO Elon Musk. In August, Musk promised that the next Full Self-Driving update will be a "quantum leap, because it's a fundamental architectural rewrite, not an incremental tweak." "I drive the bleeding edge alpha build in my car personally," he added at the time. "Almost at z
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Tribes Reintroduce Swift Fox to Northern Montana's Fort Belknap Reservation
After absence of more than 50 years, the pint-sized predator returns to the prairie
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Fosfor i fjorden: Forureningen, som det ikke rigtig kan betale sig at rense op
PLUS. På bunden af mange danske fjorde ligger gamle fosforpuljer, som vil være ekstremt dyre at rense op. Problemet forsvinder af sig selv i løbet af 30 år – især hvis vi begrænser landbrugets fortsatte udledning, siger professor i vandmiljø.
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A new strategy for the synthesis of crystalline graphitic nanoribbons
New work from a team of scientists led by Drs. Kuo Li and Haiyan Zheng from the Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR) collaborated with Dr. Jing Ju from Peking University found pressure-induced polymerization of 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne produces crystalline graphitic nanoribbons. Their study provides a new strategy to synthesize crystalline bulk graphene nanoribbo
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How deadly parasites 'glide' into human cells
A group of scientists provide insights into the molecular structure of proteins involved in the gliding movements through which the parasites causing malaria and toxoplasmosis invade human cells.
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Scientists Found a New Way to Control the Brain With Light—No Surgery Required
If I had to place money on a neurotech that will win the Nobel Prize, it's optogenetics. The technology uses light of different frequencies to control the brain. It's a brilliant mind-meld of basic neurobiology and engineering that hijacks the mechanism behind how neurons naturally activate—or are silenced—in the brain. Thanks to optogenetics, in just ten years we've been able to artificially inc
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Modelling extreme magnetic fields and temperature variation on distant stars
New research is helping to explain one of the big questions that has perplexed astrophysicists for the past 30 years – what causes the changing brightness of distant stars called magnetars. Magnetars were formed from stellar explosions or supernovae and they have extremely strong magnetic fields, estimated to be around 100 million, million times greater than the magnetic field found on earth.
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COVID-19 frequently causes neurological injuries
Without directly invading the brain or nerves, the virus responsible for COVID-19 causes potentially damaging neurological injuries in about one in seven infected, a new study shows. These injuries range from temporary confusion due to low body-oxygen levels, to stroke and seizures in the most serious cases, say the study authors.
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A new approach to analyzing the morphology of dendritic spines
Dendritic spines are small protrusions from a neuron's dendrite membrane, where contact with neighboring axons is formed to receive synaptic input. Changes in the characteristics of the dendritic spines are associated with learning and memory and could be a feature of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Scientists examined a novel approach to analyzing th
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EPFL scientist gains fresh insight into the origins of earthquakes
The speed and intensity with which seismic waves propagate after an earthquake depend mainly on forces occurring deep inside the rocks along a fault line, according to a study by EPFL scientist François Passelègue. His sophisticated models are giving us fresh insight into the factors that can trigger an earthquake.
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Software spots and fixes hang bugs in seconds, rather than weeks
Hang bugs – when software gets stuck, but doesn't crash – can frustrate both users and programmers, taking weeks for companies to identify and fix. Now researchers from North Carolina State University have developed software that can spot and fix the problems in seconds.
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Sound the alarm: More effective ways to awaken families during house fire
Researchers from the Center for Injury Research and Policy and the Sleep Disorders Center at Nationwide Children's Hospital conducted a series of studies to identify smoke alarm signals that would more effectively awaken children and other members of the household in the event of a fire.
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USC study underscores the gut-brain connection, shows hunger hormone impacts memory
Rats that lacked the hormone ghrelin tended to eat more frequently and gained more weight. They also showed signs that they could not remember when they had last eaten.
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E-modules increase knowledge, attitude and confidence related to childhood adversity and trauma-informed care
Training health care professionals in the skills and capacity to respond adequately to children and adults who have been exposed trauma, such as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), is recognized as an essential need in health care. But opportunities to educate physicians and physician-trainees in the science of childhood adversity and trauma-informed care are limited.
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Menacing assaults on science causing alarming and avoidable deaths in the U.S.
In 2016, the U.S. was judged to have been best prepared for the existential threat of a pandemic, but turned out to be the least prepared for the actual threat. In a commentary, researchers say that "pandemic politics" is causing assaults on science, the FDA and CDC. They say that politicization of the FDA and CDC is creating continued losses of trust by the U.S. public and continued harm to their
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Finding the right colour to control magnets with laser pulses
Scientists have discovered a new way to manipulate magnets with laser light pulses shorter than a trillionth of a second. The international team of researchers, led by Lancaster and Radboud Universities, also identified the light wavelength or colour which enables the most efficient manipulation. The finding is published in Physical Review Letters.
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Blue Origin's New Shepard Rocket Launches a New Line of Business
Blue Origin's New Shepard rocket hasn't flown space tourists yet, but it has found a business niche with NASA and private science experiments.
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Alternative pandemic scenarios alter economic outlook: IMF
The course of the COVID-19 pandemic could dramatically alter the outlook for the global economy, either for better or for worse, the IMF said Tuesday.
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Big-eyed birds need gloom, not bright human landscapes
The glaring light in human-altered landscapes, such as livestock pastures and crop fields, can stymie big-eyed birds and potentially contribute to their decline, research finds. Researchers found strong links among bird eye size, habitat, and foraging technique. Birds that kept to the shade of the forest had larger eyes than those that inhabited the canopy, and birds with relatively small eyes we
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Imaging light waveforms in air plasma
An international team that includes physicists at LMU has developed a new method with which to characterize the ultrafast oscillation of the electrical fields associated with light.
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Scientists discover mosquitoes' unique blood-taste detectors
Scientists aren't sure how mosquitoes sense taste of blood, or how they know that this, of all things, is something to gorge on. Nothing else, not even sweet nectar, makes them pump as ferociously as when they're draining our veins. New research identifies a unique group of neurons that don't care about simple tastes like sweet or salty. Rather, they activate only when sugar, salt, and other compo
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Even mild fatty liver disease is linked to increased mortality
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD, affects nearly one in four adults in Europe and the U.S. Earlier research has demonstrated an increased risk of death in patients with NAFLD and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. Now, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and Massachusetts General Hospital in the U.S. show that mortality increases with disease severity, but even mild fatty liver dis
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Making disorder for an ideal battery
The lithium batteries that power our electronic devices and electric vehicles have a number of drawbacks. The electrolyte is a flammable liquid and the lithium they're made of is a limited resource. Specialists have now developed a non-flammable, solid electrolyte that operates at room temperature. It transports sodium – which is found everywhere on earth – instead of lithium.
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Scientists engineer bacteria-killing molecules from wasp venom
Scientists have engineered powerful new antimicrobial molecules from toxic proteins found in wasp venom. The team hopes to develop the molecules into new bacteria-killing drugs, an important advancement considering increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
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Using electric current to stabilize low-permeability soils
Scientists have developed a new approach to stabilizing clay soils. The method involves using a battery-like system to apply electric current to carbonate and calcium ions in order to promote soil consolidation.
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The making of memory B cells and long-term immune responses
Researchers have identified two factors necessary for the production of memory B cells, the cells of the immune system that allow fast responses to re-infection. Without expression of the protein Bach2 and reduced mTORC1 signaling, B cells cannot become memory B cells, and are instead recycled. These findings could be useful for creating efficient vaccines that remain effective decades after initi
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Ice melt projections may underestimate Antarctic contribution to sea level rise
Fluctuations in the weather can have a significant impact on melting Antarctic ice, and models that do not include this factor can underestimate the global impact of sea level rise, according to scientists.
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Scientists discover the unique signature of a lion's roar using machine learning
The roar of a lion is one of the most thrilling and captivating sounds of the wild. This characteristic call is typically delivered in a bout consisting of one or two soft moans followed by several loud, full-throated roars and a terminating sequence of grunts.
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Scientists discover the unique signature of a lion's roar using machine learning
The roar of a lion is one of the most thrilling and captivating sounds of the wild. This characteristic call is typically delivered in a bout consisting of one or two soft moans followed by several loud, full-throated roars and a terminating sequence of grunts.
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What can mussel shells teach us about the circular economy?
In a circular economy, design is about more than just creating a sustainable product. In this system based on eliminating waste and minimizing the use of resources, the design process is aimed at preserving the value of products and materials and keeping them in the economic system for as long as possible. So how do you do that? Ph.D. candidate Marita Sauerwein came up with a novel material based
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Invention sparked by COVID-19 pandemic safely disinfects surfaces continuously
An invention to apply plasma to frequently touched items for continuous disinfection could provide a safe and effective, non-chemical way to reduce pathogens on various surfaces such as keypads, escalator handrails and other high-touch surfaces, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) inventors say.
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Scientists release previously unseen footage showing environmental impacts of pot fishing
The global pot fishing industry could be having a greater impact on corals, sponges and other species found on the seabed than previously thought, according to new research.
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Scientists release previously unseen footage showing environmental impacts of pot fishing
The global pot fishing industry could be having a greater impact on corals, sponges and other species found on the seabed than previously thought, according to new research.
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Advocating for a shift from race-based to race-conscious medicine
"I am Italian-Chilean-American (Mapuche), Marie is Haitian-American, and Jenny is Taiwanese-American. We have all experienced racially-tailored care at some point in our lives. Our lived experience enhances the authority of our work," says Yale School of Medicine MD-Ph.D. student Jessica Cerdeña, MPhil.
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What lies beneath a volcano?
The complex plumbing system beneath volcanoes has been revealed in the clearest detail ever, marking a "major step forward" in our understanding of how they are formed and behave.
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The hidden threat of the home office
It may seem a bit contradictory at first glance, but increased flexibility in our workday may have given us less flexibility in the work itself.
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Black and Native American students disciplined disproportionately, study finds
Areport from the UC Riverside Center for Social Innovation finds disproportionately high discipline for Black and Native American students in Inland Empire schools.
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Gap between gun owners and non-owners explains disparities in political attitudes, voting patterns
Whether one views gun ownership as positive or negative is a matter of perspective. But according to new research, it's the total number of guns a person owns that may define them politically.
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Vulnerable adults in U.K. police custody missing out on vital support, research shows
Thousands of police detentions and voluntary interviews of vulnerable people may have been carried out without an "appropriate adult" (AA) present, a report has found.
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Tech prints sensors right onto human skin
Researchers have developed a way to print sensors directly on human skin without using heat. Wearable sensors are evolving from watches and electrodes to bendable devices that provide far more precise biometric measurements and comfort for users. "In this article, we report a simple yet universally applicable fabrication technique with the use of a novel sintering aid layer to enable direct print
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Act now on wildfires, global climate change, human health, study says
Immediate actions are needed to limit the greenhouse gas emissions that are driving climate change that helps fuel wildfires, a Monash University study says.
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Research pinpoints major drivers of tobacco epidemic among teens in South Asia
The findings of a new study pinpoint the major drivers of the tobacco epidemic among teens in South Asia.
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Vad vet du om förkylningar – egentligen?
I Sverige får en vuxen i snitt mellan en och två förkylningar per år. Trots det är det inte säkert att vi vet så mycket om sjukdomen.
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Using electric current to stabilize low-permeability soils
Scientists have developed a new approach to stabilizing clay soils. The method involves using a battery-like system to apply electric current to carbonate and calcium ions in order to promote soil consolidation.
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AI-Powered Quadrotor Drone Learns Aerial Acrobatics
Quadrotor drones are extremely maneuverable flying machines. In the hands of a skilled pilot, they can perform feats of aerial acrobatics not possible with any other aircraft. However, most of us are not skilled pilots. What if there was an AI that could do all that fancy flying for you? Researchers from the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich have created just such a system, which operates entir
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Scientists compile new evidence that atolls are formed by cyclic changes in sea level
Marine geologist and oceanographer André Droxler knows Charles Darwin's theory about atolls is incorrect. But Droxler, who's studied coral reefs for more than 40 years, understands why Darwin's model persists in textbooks, university lecture halls, natural science museums and Wikipedia entries.
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Liverpool's intensive care beds 95% full as coronavirus cases surge
City with highest number of infections in England struggles to cope
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The Tech That's Championing the Public Good
While some technologies are tearing us apart, the Tech Spotlight finalists, selected from over 200 submissions worldwide, are helping shape a better future.
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Amazon Prime Day 2020: The 15 Best Laptop Deals (Updated)
These are our favorite Windows notebooks, MacBooks, Chromebooks, and accessories on sale during Amazon's big event.
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What Would Happen If All the Antarctic Ice Melted?
It … let's just say it would not be good. Here, let's do the math.
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Scientists compile new evidence that atolls are formed by cyclic changes in sea level
Marine geologist and oceanographer André Droxler knows Charles Darwin's theory about atolls is incorrect. But Droxler, who's studied coral reefs for more than 40 years, understands why Darwin's model persists in textbooks, university lecture halls, natural science museums and Wikipedia entries.
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Hall error revelations raise aspirations for 2-D materials
One of the first things people do when they come across a new material with potentially interesting electronic properties is measure the Hall voltage. Never has this been more true than with the explosion of new 2-D materials, but it turns out that often, devices made out of 2-D materials intended to take Hall voltage measurements have inappropriate geometry. This is just what Adam Micolich and hi
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This mysterious 'exotic stellar peacock' may open the door to a realm of physics only ever glimpsed
An astronomical discovery is shedding new light on an exquisitely formed star system in our own Milky Way galaxy, featuring two Wolf-Rayet stars. These stars are short-lived and consequently very rare, with only a few hundred confirmed among our galaxy's one hundred billion or so stars.
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Moving in Sync Creates Surprising Social Bonds among People
Dancing, rowing and even finger tapping in unison unleash powerful forces in the brain that drive good feelings — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Moving in Sync Creates Surprising Social Bonds among People
Dancing, rowing and even finger tapping in unison unleash powerful forces in the brain that drive good feelings — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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How immigrants are portrayed on TV has real-life ramifications
The nonprofit media advocacy organization Define American, in collaboration with the Norman Lear Center Media Impact Project at USC Annenberg, has released its second-annual report "Change the Narrative, Change the World: How Immigrant Representation on Television Moves Audiences to Action" examining the portrayal of immigrant characters and storylines across scripted television, and how they can
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How to see what's on the other side of a wormhole without actually traveling through it
Wormholes are incredibly fascinating objects, but also completely hypothetical. We simply don't know if they can truly exist in our universe. But new theoretical insights are showing how we may be able to detect a wormhole—from a spray of high-energy particles emitted at the moment of its formation.
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Finding the right color to control magnets with laser pulses
Scientists have discovered a new way to manipulate magnets with laser light pulses shorter than a trillionth of a second.
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Amerikansk analyse: Det er langt billigere at køre elbil end benzinbil
PLUS. Selvom en elbil i USA, er dyrere i indkøb, så er den, set over hele bilens levetid, billigere at køre i end en benzinbil. Cirka samme forhold gælder i Danmark, vurderer ekspert.
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Excess Deaths From Pandemic Higher Than Official Numbers
How many people have died in the US so far from the COVID-19 pandemic? It depends on how you count the numbers. The official count of US COVID-19 deaths is 214,000. This number is often reported as "at least" this amount, because this is a compilation of all deaths where COVID-19 was officially listed as a cause of death. Experts recognize that this is likely to be a gross underestimation, becaus
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How Patients With Eating Disorders Have Been Affected by the Pandemic
A recent study suggests that worries related to Covid-19 may exacerbate conditions including anorexia and binge eating
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China's COVID lockdown significantly cut air-pollution-related hospitalizations
The stringent lockdown imposed by the Chinese government to slow the spread of COVID-19 early this year significantly eased the strain on hospitals there. Admissions due to non-COVID respiratory illnesses decreased by nearly 5,000, a new study by an international team of scientists shows.
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A tiny jaw from Greenland sheds light on the origin of complex teeth
A team of scientists led from Uppsala University have described the earliest known example of dentary bone with two rows of cusps on molars and double-rooted teeth. The new findings offer insight into mammal tooth evolution, particularly the development of double-rooted teeth. The results are published in the scientific journal PNAS.
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Nitrous oxide emissions are a serious climate problem
Emissions of nitrous oxide, better known as laughing gas, are rapidly increasing, mostly due to large-scale farming with synthetic fertilizers and cattle ranching, researchers report. Nitrous oxide emissions from human activities have ballooned 30% over the past four decades, barreling past the highest emission levels scientists have projected in climate models, according to new estimates in the
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Radio observations detect new brown dwarf
Using the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) radio telescope, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new radio source that turns out to be a cold brown dwarf. The object, designated BDR 1750+3809, is so far the first radio-selected brown dwarf, which proves that such sources can be also directly identified by sensitive wide-area radio surveys. The finding is reported in a paper published O
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Treeswift's autonomous robots take flight to save forests
Forests cover 30% of the Earth's landmass, but that number is on the decline. Despite forests' crucial role in conserving wildlife and processing carbon dioxide, many are threatened by deforestation and wildfires. Complicating these threats is the lack of quantitative information that foresters and environmental researchers need for making important decisions to preserve forests.
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Sage documents show how scientists felt sidelined by economic considerations
Timing of the release, just after the PM's three-tier Covid plan, highlights experts' disquiet Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The government's Sage committee of scientific experts urged ministers to impose a circuit breaker lockdown on 21 September, documents have shown. What is unusual about these Sage documents? Continue reading…
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Treeswift's autonomous robots take flight to save forests
Forests cover 30% of the Earth's landmass, but that number is on the decline. Despite forests' crucial role in conserving wildlife and processing carbon dioxide, many are threatened by deforestation and wildfires. Complicating these threats is the lack of quantitative information that foresters and environmental researchers need for making important decisions to preserve forests.
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Ultrafast fiber laser produces record high power
Researchers have developed an ultrafast fiber laser that delivers an average power more than ten times what is available from today's high-power lasers. The technology is poised to improve industrial-scale materials processing and paves the way for visionary applications.
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A better carbon trap will take greenhouse gases out of the air and put them to use
Carbon capture technologies play a critical role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power plants and factories, while harnessing carbon dioxide (CO2) for other energy production.
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Assaults on science causing alarming and avoidable deaths in the U.S.
COVID-19 is now the third leading cause of death in the United States only behind cardiovascular disease and cancer. The U.S. accounts for more than 20 percent of COVID-19 cases (more than 7.7 million) and deaths (more than 210,000) in the world today while comprising 4.25 percent of the global population.
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The perfect angle for e-skin energy storage
Researchers at DGIST have found an inexpensive way to fabricate tiny energy storage devices that can effectively power flexible and wearable skin sensors along with other electronic devices, paving the way towards remote medical monitoring & diagnoses and wearable devices. Their findings were published in the journal Nano Energy.
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Ge bort 2 nummer till en vän
Vi skickar två nummer utan kostnad till din vän. Tillsammans med första numret (26 nov) skickar vi med ett brev där vi nämner att gåvan kommer från dig. Din vän kommer att få ett erbjudande om prenumeration men förbinder sig inte till att prenumerera och behöver inte höra av sig till oss.
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How deadly parasites 'glide' into human cells
In biological terms, gliding refers to the type of movement during which a cell moves along a surface without changing its shape. This form of movement is unique to parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa, such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Both parasites, which are transmitted by mosquitoes and cats, have an enormous impact on global heath. Plasmodium causes 228 million malaria infections and aroun
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Evolution: No social distancing at the beginning of life
Bacteria are a dominant form of life that inhabit every environment on Earth. This includes human bodies, where they outnumber our cells and genes and regulate many body systems. Bacteria are regularly viewed as simple, single-celled organisms. As bacteria are ancient, it is widely accepted that a bacteria-like, unicellular being was the first life. Recent work published in Molecular Biology and E
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How deadly parasites 'glide' into human cells
In biological terms, gliding refers to the type of movement during which a cell moves along a surface without changing its shape. This form of movement is unique to parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa, such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Both parasites, which are transmitted by mosquitoes and cats, have an enormous impact on global heath. Plasmodium causes 228 million malaria infections and aroun
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Evolution: No social distancing at the beginning of life
Bacteria are a dominant form of life that inhabit every environment on Earth. This includes human bodies, where they outnumber our cells and genes and regulate many body systems. Bacteria are regularly viewed as simple, single-celled organisms. As bacteria are ancient, it is widely accepted that a bacteria-like, unicellular being was the first life. Recent work published in Molecular Biology and E
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Simulations reveal that rocky super-Earths with thin atmospheres are often protected by a Jupiter-like planet
An international group of astronomers, led by Martin Schlecker of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, has found that the arrangement of rocky, gaseous and icy planets in planetary systems is apparently not random and depends on only a few initial conditions. The study, which will appear in the scientific journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, is based on a new simulation that tracks the evolution o
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Stop living in fear and buy the whole fish
Not pictured: steady hands. (Ted Cavanaugh/) This story was originally featured on Saveur . For the better part of American seafood history, home cooks deftly dealt with whole fish, whether they bought them or reeled them in themselves. But when pre-processed fillets were introduced into the American marketplace in the 1920s, these prime cuts became the preferred part of the fish. The rest was pr
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To Mend a Broken Internet, Create Online Parks
We need public spaces, built in the spirit of Walt Whitman, that allow us to gather, communicate, and share in something bigger than ourselves.
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'Meteorite' Is a Love Letter to Space Rocks
For centuries, scientists thought meteorites were too fantastical to exist. A new book reveals that they hold even more mysteries.
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A man caught coronavirus twice—and it was worse the second time
The news: A man in the US caught covid-19 for a second time in the space of just two months, according to a study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases . That makes him the fifth person to have officially caught the coronavirus twice, after cases recorded in Hong Kong, Belgium, Ecuador, and the Netherlands (and there will certainly be more cases we don't know about). However, what's strange
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Research offers path to end world hunger within decade
The world's small-scale farmers now can see a path to solving global hunger over the next decade, with solutions—such as adopting climate-resilient crops through improving extension services—all culled rapidly via artificial intelligence from more than 500,000 scientific research articles.
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New technology accelerates crop improvement with CRISPR
Researchers know how to make precise genetic changes within the genomes of crops, but the transformed cells often refuse to grow into plants. One team has devised a new solution.
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Scientists discover gene associated with slim inflorescence shape of barley
The spikelet meristem (SM) plays a central role during the development of grass inflorescence. Meristems are plant cells or tissues that have the capacity to produce new organs—in this case, spikelets. To do this, however, cells destined to become SM must first attain the SM identity. This is achieved, among other things, by gene regulation. As a result, cells develop normally from meristem to org
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Teens Did Surprisingly Well in Quarantine
As the coronavirus pandemic took hold in the United States in March, work and school moved online, restaurants closed, and unemployment soared. The effects on mental health were immediate: U.S. adults in spring 2020 were three times more likely to experience mental distress, anxiety, or depression than adults in 2018 or 2019. According to data collected by the Census Bureau, anxiety and depressio
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Do We Live in a Simulation? Chances Are about 50–50
Gauging whether or not we dwell inside someone else's computer may come down to advanced AI research—or measurements at the frontiers of cosmology — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Modeling temperature variation on distant stars
New research is helping to explain one of the big questions that has perplexed astrophysicists for the past 30 years—what causes the changing brightness of distant stars called magnetars.
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Research offers path to end world hunger within decade
The world's small-scale farmers now can see a path to solving global hunger over the next decade, with solutions—such as adopting climate-resilient crops through improving extension services—all culled rapidly via artificial intelligence from more than 500,000 scientific research articles.
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New technology accelerates crop improvement with CRISPR
Researchers know how to make precise genetic changes within the genomes of crops, but the transformed cells often refuse to grow into plants. One team has devised a new solution.
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Scientists discover gene associated with slim inflorescence shape of barley
The spikelet meristem (SM) plays a central role during the development of grass inflorescence. Meristems are plant cells or tissues that have the capacity to produce new organs—in this case, spikelets. To do this, however, cells destined to become SM must first attain the SM identity. This is achieved, among other things, by gene regulation. As a result, cells develop normally from meristem to org
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Do We Live in a Simulation? Chances Are about 50–50
Gauging whether or not we dwell inside someone else's computer may come down to advanced AI research—or measurements at the frontiers of cosmology — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Spørg Fagfolket: Hvorfor vokser afstanden til Månen?
En læser har læst, at Månen og Jorden fjerner sig fra hinanden med 3,8 cm om året. Hvad skyldes det? Fysiker fra Aarhus Universitet svarer.
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Using electric current to stabilize low-permeability soils
According to EU Science Hub, increasingly frequent extreme weather events will cause intensifying damage to infrastructure, with losses estimated to reach €20 billion annually by 2030. These pressing threats bring into sharp focus the need for new answers to the problem of soil stabilization.
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Magic Is (Literally) for the Birds
What conjuring techniques can reveal about animal cognition — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Surface waves can help nanostructured devices keep their cool
Due to the continuing progress in miniaturization of silicon microelectronic and photonic devices, the cooling of device structures is increasingly challenging. Conventional heat transport in bulk materials is dominated by acoustic phonons, which are quasiparticles that represent the material's lattice vibrations, similar to the way that photons represent light waves. Unfortunately, this type of c
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All the Ways You Can Pay With a Phone or Smartwatch
It's perfectly possible to leave your wallet at home.
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The Hollow Nihilism of 'Call of Duty'
The first-person shooter franchise has the potential to meaningfully grapple with American history, politics, and ethics. It misses the mark.
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Magic Is (Literally) for the Birds
What conjuring techniques can reveal about animal cognition — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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America's Judiciary Doesn't Look Like America
The identity of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's successor is now in the forefront of the news. The import of that appointment is self-evident. But as the gravity of that singular decision holds the public's focus in its orbit, the American people must not lose sight of the entirety of the federal judiciary that is substantially controlled by whomever is president. Over the past four years, the curr
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Am I What You're Looking For?
Photographs by Endia Beal A s a graduate student at Yale, Endia Beal studied photography. But her time working in the school's IT department provided another kind of inspiration for her career. In that office, the desire a co-worker expressed to touch her hair, a common and discomfiting experience for Black women, became fuel for artistic interrogation. In the eight years since, confronting the m
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Sapphires show their true colors: Not water-loving
In 1805, Thomas Young studied the mechanical equilibrium at the solid/liquid/gas three-phase contact line (the balance of forces acting on the contact line formed by the intersection of the liquid-gas interface and the solid surface), and introduced the macroscopic concept of "contact angle" and Young's equation. Based on the assumptions of an isotropic, homogeneous and smooth surface, Young's equ
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Imens Danmark tøver: Udlandet i fuld gang med at coronaovervåge spildevand
PLUS. I Holland analyseres spildevand for covid-19-rester helt ned på byniveau. I Stockholm brugte forskere målinger til at modbevise teori om, at en stigning skyldtes testhyppighed. SSI mener, at teknologien gør sig bedst i udviklingslande.
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»Konge på verdens elektricitetsmarkeder:« IEA spår lys fremtid for solceller
Det internationale energiagentur udnævner solcelle-teknologien som værende den primære drivkraft i væksten indenfor grøn strøm de kommende ti år.
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Why Amy Coney Barrett Might Surprise Everyone
Commentators are treating Amy Coney Barrett, recently nominated to the Supreme Court, as a conservative Christian who will vote in lockstep with other conservative justices. Her religious background, though, makes her less predictable than many presume. People of Praise, the community into which Barrett was born and to which she still belongs, is one of many communities formed in the heady days o
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Why the World's Biggest Dinosaurs Keep Getting Cut Down to Size
Debate erupts over how best to estimate the sizes of the largest creatures ever to have walked the earth — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Why the World's Biggest Dinosaurs Keep Getting Cut Down to Size
Debate erupts over how best to estimate the sizes of the largest creatures ever to have walked the earth — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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The best Amazon Prime Day deals you'll find in 2020
Sweet savings on everything you need. (Brooke Cagle via Unsplash/) If you've been waiting to grab a pair of headphones , that air fryer your friend can't stop praising , or a new set of gardening tools , you may as well wait to see the deals offered during this year's Amazon's Prime Day . The "day"—now 48 hours—promises some decent deals on electronics, home goods, personal care items, outdoor an
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When school is home and home is school, which rules prevail?
Toys that look like weapons. Barefoot students. Disruptive imagery in the background. Pets roaming the room. All a clear violation of rules inside most American classrooms. But that was when most American students were actually inside schools.
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Early action vital to stymie climate disasters: report
With extreme weather and natural disasters surging, experts called Tuesday for more efforts to forecast looming disasters and early action to mitigate their impact.
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Biokeramiskt implantat får igång återväxt av skallben
Ett biokeramiskt implantat har visat sig stimulera återväxt av naturligt skallben, så att även stora skalldefekter kan återställas på ett sätt som tidigare inte varit möjligt. Att rekonstruera stora ben- och mjukvävnadsskador i skallen efter olycka eller behandling av hjärntumör, blodpropp eller blödning är en svår utmaning. Klinisk rutin världen över är att transplantera ben, eller använda impla
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Before the US general election, evidence of agreement — and division — on climate issues
A new survey finds that while partisan divides persist on certain issues, the majority of Americans want action on climate change and believe unchecked warming will be a serious problem.
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Brian Deer's book on Andrew Wakefield: "The Doctor Who Fooled the World"
My review of the new book by Brian Deer about what became the biggest medical scandal in recent history: Andrew Wakefield's fraudulent research on MMR vaccines and his antivax campaigning which continues even today.
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In which a researcher named Das plagiarizes from another researcher named Das, one with 20 retractions
Sometimes things get pretty meta around here. Exhibit A: The journal Current Medical Chemistry has retracted a 2012 paper for plagiarizing from a 2011 article — and the senior authors of each article share the same last name. Ho hum, you say. But that name is one that might be familiar to RW readers. Here's … Continue reading
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Has living through a pandemic made us all better at maths? | David Sumpter
A radio host used mathematical theory to take Matt Hancock to task. It's a welcome sign we're all thinking in a more critical way Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage When Boris Johnson addressed the nation to announce new coronavirus restrictions last month, he talked about how the virus would "spread again in an exponential way" and warned us that the "iron laws of geom
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The Man Who Speaks Softly—and Commands a Big Cyber Army
Meet General Paul Nakasone. He reined in chaos at the NSA and taught the US military how to launch pervasive cyberattacks. And he did it all without you noticing.
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Amazon Prime Day 2020: 39 Best Home, Outdoors, Toy Deals
Too tired to shop? Let us do the legwork for you. Here are our favorite deals on Garmins, Roombas, and more.
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Tracking down 'patient zero' is a crucial piece of the pandemic puzzle
The hunt for patient zero during the COVID-19 pandemic led epidemiologists to multiply entry points in the US. All were connected to international travel. (Giorgio Grani/Unsplash/) In early December of 2013, Emile Ouamouno, a 2-year-old boy in southern Guinea, began vomiting from an unknown illness. A few days later, he died. Then, just around New Year's, his mother and sister succumbed to simila
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Smittämnen klarar sig bättre än väntat i luften
Bakterier och virus som sprids via luften är svåra att skydda sig mot och det är svårt att veta när de finns i luften omkring oss. Ny forskning från LTH visar att smittämnen som man inte tidigare trott klarar sig i luften faktiskt gör det. Ett exempel är norovirus som ger upphov till vinterkräksjuka. Nu fortsätter forskningen för att närmare undersöka om coronavirus kan smitta via luften.
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How Milk Tea Became an Anti-China Symbol
As he was exiting a Hong Kong courtroom in August, charged with rioting during the city's protests, Gregory Wong turned to the assembled reporters and photographers and held his right hand in the air, flashing a three-finger salute . Wong, the star of a string of popular Cantonese TV shows and movies whose dating exploits serve as constant tabloid fodder, is accused of breaking into Hong Kong's L
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South Dakota's Tribes Defend Themselves Against the Pandemic
To protect their citizens from Covid-19, tribal nations across the country closed reservation boundaries to non-residents this spring. But in South Dakota, the tribes and the governor are at odds over road checkpoints. An Indigenous rights organization says the state's opposition is a human rights violation.
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Många elever oroar sig för att prata engelska
Närmare en femtedel av eleverna i låg- och mellanstadiet lider av talängslan under engelsklektionerna. Oron stör lärprocessen och bidrar till en negativ självbild visar en studie från Stockholms universitet. Forskaren och lärarutbildaren Maria Nilsson har undersökt hur de elever som inte gärna vill prata engelska tänker kring, och upplever, undervisningen. Studierna visar att närmare tjugo procen
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Antibiotic resistance and virulence of Escherichia coli strains isolated from animal rendering plant
Scientific Reports, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-72851-5
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Circulating antibodies against age-modified proteins in patients with coronary atherosclerosis
Scientific Reports, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-73877-5
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Ectothermy and cardiac shunts profoundly slow the equilibration of inhaled anaesthetics in a multi-compartment model
Scientific Reports, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74014-y
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Fluoroless and contrast-free catheter ablation without a lead apron in routine clinical practice
Scientific Reports, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74165-y
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Enhanced energy density of PVDF-based nanocomposites via a core–shell strategy
Scientific Reports, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-73884-6
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Roll-to-roll gravure-printed flexible perovskite solar cells using eco-friendly antisolvent bathing with wide processing window
Nature Communications, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18940-5 Driven by recent improvement in efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells, the next step toward commercialisation is upscaling. Here, the authors demonstrate pilot-scale fully roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible perovskite solar cells through gravure-printing and antisolvent bathing.
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High-performance light-driven heterogeneous CO2 catalysis with near-unity selectivity on metal phosphides
Nature Communications, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18943-2 There exists an urgent need to develop new materials to convert CO2 to useful products. Here, authors demonstrate metal phosphide nanoparticles to enable light-driven CO2 hydrogenation with high activities and near-unity selectivity.
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Single-cell RNA cap and tail sequencing (scRCAT-seq) reveals subtype-specific isoforms differing in transcript demarcation
Nature Communications, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18976-7 Most single-cell RNA sequencing methods have limited ability to profile the transcriptome at isoform resolution. Here the authors develop scRCAT-seq to characterize the 5′- and 3′-ends of transcripts in single cells, and identify cell-type specific alternative transcript isoforms.
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The multifaceted challenge of evaluating protected area effectiveness
Nature Communications, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18989-2 Protected areas (PAs) are the most important conservation tool, yet assessing their effectiveness is remarkably challenging. We clarify the links between the many facets of PA effectiveness, from evaluating the means, to analysing the mechanisms, to directly measuring biodiversity outcomes.
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Myelination of parvalbumin interneurons shapes the function of cortical sensory inhibitory circuits
Nature Communications, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18984-7 Myelination optimizes conduction speed of excitatory neurons. However, whether myelination of interneurons (INs) refines cortical networks is unclear. Here, the authors show that INs myelination shapes feedforward inhibition of mouse cortical sensory circuits and impacts whisker-mediated behaviour.
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Leptin alters energy intake and fat mass but not energy expenditure in lean subjects
Nature Communications, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18885-9 Leptin treatment is effective to reduce body weight in animal models, but patients with obesity and associated hyperleptinemia do not respond well to leptin therapy. Here the authors report a retrospective analysis of four clinical trials in normo- and mildly hypoleptinemic individuals and show that leptin th
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Well-being as a function of person-country fit in human values
Nature Communications, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18831-9 It has been assumed that incongruence between individuals' values and those of their country or region is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Using representative samples from 29 countries, the authors show that person-country and person-region value congruence predict six well-being outcomes.
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Evolution: No social distancing at the beginning of life
Bacteria are a dominant form of life that inhabit every environment on Earth. This includes human bodies, where they outnumber our cells and genes and regulate our existence for good or bad. Bacteria are regularly viewed as simple, single-celled organisms. As bacteria are ancient, it is widely accepted that a bacteria-like, unicellular being was the first life. Recent work published in 'Molecular
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How deadly parasites 'glide' into human cells
A group of scientists led by EMBL Hamburg's Christian Löw provide insights into the molecular structure of proteins involved in the gliding movements through which the parasites causing malaria and toxoplasmosis invade human cells.
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Ten or more medications, often prescribed to older heart failure patients, raises concerns
More than half of older patients hospitalized for heart failure are discharged with 10 or more prescriptions, and most are not medications to treat heart failure or other cardiovascular conditions.This is important because older patients with heart failure taking 10 or more medications may be at risk for harm related to high medication burden.Regular medication review at each appointment is key to
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Briters data til kontaktopsporing bliver solgt til tredjepart
Private it-virksomheder hjælper flere britiske forretningsdrivende med at indsamle kundedata, som skal bruges af myndighederne til kontaktopsporing. Men ifølge The Times sælger nogle virksomheder også borgernes data til tredjepart.
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Is the US actually a democracy?
Three essential components of democracy are economic equality, social unity, and a government that acts in the interest of the people. America lacks all three of those components, says Vanderbilt University Law School Professor Ganesh Sitaraman. "In study after study, political scientists have shown that our government is responsive primarily to the wealthy and interest groups, not to ordinary pe
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Amazon Prime Day 2020: The 54 Absolute Best Tech Deals
Treat yourself! From Echo speakers to robot vacuums, we've rounded up the best discounts from Amazon, and the other sales happening this week.
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Klimaforandringer i Arktis får det danske land til at hæve sig
Paradoksalt nok kan smeltende is i Arktis være med til at udligne stigende havvand omkring Danmark.
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UK coronavirus live: Covid deaths in England and Wales quadrupled in a month, ONS figures show
Latest updates: minister says Covid restrictions require 'difficult judgment' of protecting lives while prioritising education and jobs Ministers told weeks ago to impose short lockdown or face 'large epidemic' Tempers flare over new Covid rules as Johnson warns: 'We must act now' UK redundancies rise at record rate amid Covid fallout Global coronavirus updates – live See all our coronavirus cove
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Man, 25, catches coronavirus twice in first such US case
Nevada man with no underlying conditions suffers more serious illness the second time with different strain Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Researchers in the US have reported the country's first confirmed case of coronavirus reinfection. A 25-year-old man with no known immune disorders or underlying conditions was infected with Covid-19 on two separate occasions, ac
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Fighting fires to save a natural preserve in Brazil
Nature, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02859-4 Biologist Cristina Cuiabália Neves and her team are dedicated to maintaining a nature reserve that is home to many endangered and threatened species.
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Nu begynder byggeriet: Flis-kedel og varmepumpe skal udgøre fremtidens fjernvarme i Esbjerg
Det kulfyrede Esbjergværk bliver i 2023 erstattet af grønnere teknologier. Første fase af projektet omfatter blandt andet Danmarks største havvandsbaserede varmepumpe.
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Two Covid-19 drug trials halted on safety concerns
Johnson & Johnson and Eli Lilly announce pauses in blow to hopes for pandemic remedy
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Covid reinfection: Man gets Covid twice and second hit 'more severe'
The report raises questions about how much immunity can be built up to the virus and how long it may last.
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Coronavirus: WHO head calls herd immunity approach 'immoral'
Dr Ghebreyesus said allowing coronavirus to spread unchecked would cause unnecessary suffering and death.
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New research suggests innovative method to analyse the densest star systems in the Universe
In a recently published study, a team of researchers led by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav) at Monash university suggests an innovative method to analyse gravitational waves from neutron star mergers, where two stars are distinguished by type (rather than mass), depending on how fast they're spinning.
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Blood tests could be developed to help predict pregnancy complications new study suggests
UCLA researchers say a blood test commonly used to detect fetal genetic abnormalities may help predict complications associated with pregnancy before symptoms develop. Their preliminary study, appearing in Epigenetics, links certain cell-free DNA signatures to adverse outcomes in pregnancy, including ischemic placental disease and gestational diabetes.
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The ur-Iris likely had purple flowers, pollinated by insects for nectar
The genus Iris of flowering plants—named after the Greek rainbow goddess because of the variation in flower color—comprises over 300 species across the northern hemisphere, some of which are Vulnerable or (Critically) Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Due to the poor fossil record, it is not yet known when irises first originated, but scientists believe the genus is only a few
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The ur-Iris likely had purple flowers, pollinated by insects for nectar
The genus Iris of flowering plants—named after the Greek rainbow goddess because of the variation in flower color—comprises over 300 species across the northern hemisphere, some of which are Vulnerable or (Critically) Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Due to the poor fossil record, it is not yet known when irises first originated, but scientists believe the genus is only a few
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Crayfish 'trapping' fails to control invasive species
Despite being championed by a host of celebrity chefs, crayfish 'trapping' is not helping to control invasive American signal crayfish, according to new research by UCL and King's College London.
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Climate change: Better warning systems needed for extreme weather – UN
The UN calls for a rapid rise in investment in early warning systems for extreme weather events.
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Crayfish 'trapping' fails to control invasive species
Despite being championed by a host of celebrity chefs, crayfish 'trapping' is not helping to control invasive American signal crayfish, according to new research by UCL and King's College London.
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Inside Singapore's huge bet on vertical farming
From the outside, VertiVegies looked like a handful of grubby shipping containers put side by side and drilled together. A couple of meters in height, they were propped up on a patch of concrete in one of Singapore's nondescript suburbs. But once he was inside, Ankesh Shahra saw potential. Huge potential. Shahra, who wears his dark hair floppy and his expensive-looking shirts with their top butto
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Dr. Oz Allegedly Selling CBD
Ads selling CBD oil feature Dr. Oz and other celebrities, but Oz warns that he never endorses products, and that ads using his name or image are fraudulent. The post first appeared on Science-Based Medicine .
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'Golden week': wedding season boom in China with 600,000 couples tying knot
Months of delayed nuptials have been crowded together with one man having to attend 23 celebrations Couples have rushed to get married over China's national day holiday in the first wedding season since the coronavirus pandemic began. Months of delayed nuptial celebrations were crowded into the "golden week" holiday, traditionally a popular time for weddings, that ended on Wednesday as hotels, ba
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Virus crisis an opportunity to reshape climate reponse: IEA
Only massive investment in clean energy can help overcome the economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus pandemic while setting the world on a path to meeting its objectives to slow climate change, the International Energy Agency said Tuesday.
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Earth's Space Debris Problem Is Getting Worse, And There's an Explosive Component
We really need to stop leaving trash everywhere we go.
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Lättare att minnas godsaker än grönsaker
Rumsminnet är en sorts inre karta med sinnesintryck som hjälper människor och andra djurarter att hitta till platser och objekt. Det upptäcktes av forskarna John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser och Edvard I. Moser som år 2014 fick dela på Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin för sitt arbete.
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Athletes don't benefit from relying on a coach for too long
Athletes increasingly relying on a coach over the course of a season may be a sign that they aren't progressing in their development, according to new research from Binghamton University.
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Oncotarget: miR-708-5p targets oncogenic prostaglandin E2 production in lung cancer cell
Volume 11, Issue 26 of Oncotarget reported that Lung cancer is of particular importance, as it is the deadliest cancer worldwide.
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When reproductive rights are less restrictive, babies are born healthier
American women living in states with less restrictive reproductive rights policies are less likely to give birth to low-birth weight babies, according to a new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier. The findings show that women, particularly US-born Black women, giving birth in states with less restrictive reproductive rights policies have a seven percent lowe
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Crayfish 'trapping' fails to control invasive species
Despite being championed by a host of celebrity chefs, crayfish 'trapping' is not helping to control invasive American signal crayfish, according to new research by UCL and King's College London.
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The ur-Iris likely had purple flowers, pollinated by insects for nectar
Plant scientists use genomic data to build a family tree of over 200 species in the highly diverse genus Iris, onto which they map traits related to flower color and morphology, and mating system. They deduce that the last common ancestor probably had nectar-producing purple flowers, pollinated by insects and self-compatible, with a crest and a spot on the falls (sepals).
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Eyeglass-attached display device provides fluoroscopic guidance during spine surgery
Researchers from Tokyo tested a device that, when attached to everyday eyeglasses, displays fluoroscopic images used for surgical guidance directly to the surgeon. The device allowed the surgeon to focus on operative tasks more efficiently and resulted in a slightly shorter length of surgery and less exposure to radiation than use of a fluoroscopic monitor in the OR.
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Kommuner fravælger open-source sikkerhedsløsning mod keylogger-angreb
De offentligt tilgængelige computere på Ballerup Bibliotek har installeret en kommunalt udviklet, open-source-løsning, der beskytter mod keylogger-angreb. Men kun 15 ud af 98 kommuner bruger løsningen.
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Covid-19: training dogs to sniff out the virus
What does a disease smell like? Humans might not have the answer, but if they could talk, dogs might be able to tell us. Able to sniff out a range of cancers and even malaria, canines' extraordinary noses are now being put to the test on Covid-19. Nicola Davis hears from Prof Dominique Grandjean about exactly how you train dogs to smell a virus, and how this detection technique could be used in m
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Covid: ministers ignored Sage advice to impose lockdown or face catastrophe
Most Sage proposals not acted upon by government despite strong warnings over second wave Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Ministers were warned three weeks ago that the country faced a "very large epidemic with catastrophic consequences" unless they took immediate action by imposing a two-week "circuit breaker" lockdown to reduce the spread of coronavirus. The govern
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WHO chief says herd immunity approach to pandemic 'unethical'
Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus cites lack of understanding of virus and lasting health effects Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The head of the World Health Organization has warned against deliberately allowing coronavirus to spread in the hope of achieving so-called herd immunity , saying the idea is unethical. "Herd immunity is a concept used for vaccination, in which a
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Covid-19: training dogs to sniff out the virus
What does a disease smell like? Humans might not have the answer, but if they could talk, dogs might be able to tell us. Able to sniff out a range of cancers and even malaria, canines' extraordinary noses are now being put to the test on Covid-19. Nicola Davis hears from Prof Dominique Grandjean about exactly how you train dogs to smell a virus, and how this detection technique could be used in ma
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Scientists highly critical of UK test-and-trace, Sage documents show
Experts issue damning conclusion having earlier argued for 'circuit-breaker' lockdown
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British youth count cost of Covid on their future
As UK economy faces sharp slowdown, unemployment looks set to hit younger generation hardest
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Firma afprøver ny smittesporing på sig selv: Fandt covid-19 i ansattes afføring
PLUS. Længe før sygdommen breder sig, kan rester af udskilt virus fra en enkelt medarbejder blandt tusindvis opdages i spildevandet.
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Ida Wahlström tappade lukten i våras – lever fortfarande utan luktsinne
En dag i våras kände Ida Wahlström inte längre lukten från sitt barns blöja. Nu flera månader senare känner hon fortfarande nästan inga lukter alls. – Jag gissar på att 10 till 15 procent av de som fått luktproblem av covid-19 också kommer att ha det permanent, säger Johan Lundström, docent i neuropsykologi på Karolinska institutet i SVT:s program Fråga Doktorn.
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