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This Week's Awesome Tech Stories From Around the Web (Through October 17)
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE A Radical New Technique Lets AI Learn With Practically No Data Karen Hao | MIT Technology Review "Shown photos of a horse and a rhino, and told a unicorn is something in between, [children] can recognize the mythical creature in a picture book the first time they see it. …Now a new paper from the University of Waterloo in Ontario suggests that AI models should also be able
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What Democrats Don't Understand About Latino Voters
For 30 years, political consultants have been predicting that in the next presidential election, a growing Latino electorate in the United States will finally awaken, sway the outcome, and usher in a new era of Latino political power. And for 30 years, they have been wrong. The 2020 election may prove no different. Again and again, political analysts have underestimated the diversity among Americ
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Efter årtiers arbejde med jordforurening: Måske har vi end ikke nået toppen
PLUS. Kortlægning, undersøgelser og oprydning af jordforureninger skrider frem over hele landet, men med op mod 38.000 forurenede grunde og et endnu uoverskueligt pesticidproblem er der ikke klare svar på, om opgaven stadig vokser.
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A Cut Cable Knocked Out Virginia's Voter Registration Site
Plus: Barnes and Noble got hacked, Zoom adds real end-to-end encryption, and more of the week's top security news.
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The Life of Genghis Khan, the Ruthless Warlord Who Created the World's Largest Empire
800 years ago, a young man rose to power in Mongolia. The world would never be the same.
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50, 100 & 150 Years Ago: October 2020
An air cargo system in 1920 was ahead of its time — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Gloves that make excellent gifts for just about anybody
Gifts to keep hands toasty. (Alex Iby via Unsplash/) When the weather turns and the wind picks up, our bodies' extremities are the first to feel the chill. Blood gets redirected to the center of the body to keep vital organs warm, and fingers and toes can quickly experience diminished feeling and loss of mobility. Everyone should have a reliable pair of gloves on standby to ensure comfort and pre
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The Mad, Mad World of Niche Sports Among Ivy League–Obsessed Parents
Photo illustrations by Pelle Cass Updated at 10:03 a.m. ET on October 19, 2020. To make the images that appear in this story, the photographer Pelle Cass locked his camera onto a tripod for the duration of an event, capturing up to 1,000 photographs from one spot. The images were then layered and compiled into a single digital file to create a kind of time-lapse still photo. Image above: Cornell
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Want Some Eco-Friendly Tips? A New Study Says No, You Don't
Nagging, giving unsolicited advice, and "ecopiety" are out. But there are better ways to get people to adopt green habits.
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Foiled Again: Murder Hornet Eludes Washington State Scientists
An Asian giant hornet fell off researchers' radar during their latest attempt to find its nest. The team is racing to exterminate the invasive species before it devastates U.S. bee populations. (Image credit: Courtesy of the Washington State Department of Agriculture)
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Jacinda Ardern's Job Will Only Get Harder
In February, Jacinda Ardern's Labour Party was down in the polls . Voters were expressing frustrations that her government had overpromised and underdelivered on major campaign issues such as inequality and housing. Some observers suggested that the New Zealand prime minister's first term would be her last. Then the pandemic happened. While many countries floundered over how to manage the public-
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Ammonite: Who was the real Mary Anning?
In a romantic Victorian-era drama, Kate Winslet plays the role of fossilist Mary Anning. Who was she?
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Unlocking the secrets of 'six-headed chief' burial
Archaeologists have used DNA analysis to help explain who was buried in the ancient Highlands grave.
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Helping Hands Need A Break, Too: How To Lend Support Without Burning Out
These days, there are hundreds of reasons to open your heart to others, but it's easy to get exhausted. Try these tips honed by social workers for staying healthy and empathetic. (Image credit: Hanna Barczyk for NPR)
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A Radically Different Way to Look at Incarceration
The prison abolitionist and scholar Ruth Wilson Gilmore once wrote, "Prison is not a building 'over there,' but a set of relationships that undermine rather than stabilize everyday lives everywhere." This idea is the focus of the filmmaker Garrett Bradley's Time , a gripping documentary that reframes the perception of mass incarceration and its far-reaching effects. Counter to the slew of prison
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A Black Hole's Lunch: Stellar Spaghetti
Astronomers observed a star become a "feast" for a cosmic monster.
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Paris' første metrolinje blev bygget på to år
Det største problem ved at bygge nye metrolinjer i Paris er pladsmanglen i byens undergrund. Det fortalte kvalitetsingeniør Kim Milton Knudsen til Ingeniøren i 1994, efter at han selv havde været med til at udføre to tunnelrør til den førerløse Meteor-bane.
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Stjerneskud, ugle-hyl og dyr på jagt: Her er din guide til natur-oplevelser om natten
Denne weekend er der 'Nat i Naturen' med masser af aktiviteter landet over.
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Skeptikerpub Online med Sven Ove Hansson
Den 7 oktober hölls höstens första Skeptikerpub Online med VoF Sven Ove Hansson talade på temat Ny forskning om klimatförnekarna och svarade sedan på frågor som skickats in under föredraget. Evenemanget spelades in och finns nu att se på VoFs Youtube-kanal. Direktlänk till föredraget finns här. Nästa Skeptikerpub Online Den 10 november kl 19:30 kommer […] The post appeared first on Vetenskap och
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The Beats Flex wireless headphones offer some AirPod functionality for just $50
They charge via USB-C and offer 12 hours of battery life. (Beats/) Earlier this week, Apple announced that it would no longer include headphones or a charging brick in the box with its smartphones, starting with the new iPhone 12 . The company says the change allows for a smaller retail package that ships more efficiently, and makes a considerable dent in the materials required to assemble each p
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Electricity and fear: The trouble with nuclear energy
No other power-generating device raises as much concern as the nuclear reactor. Because of this, until recently the future of the entire energy sector has been determined by its past. On the eve of the pandemic, the European energy sector found itself at a crossroads, somewhere between Great Britain, Germany and Poland. Five years ago, across the English Channel, the then Prime Minister David Cam
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Vilken robotframtid vill vi ha?
Vad händer med människan när robotar och AI sköter allt fler arbetsuppgifter? Om det handlar en ny antologi skriven av forskare inom fält som etnologi, idéhistoria och konstvetenskap. Maskiner har i alla tider tagit över tunga och rutinmässiga jobb, men med AI ökar takten och det är hög tid att diskutera vad vi vill med tekniken, menar författarna.
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Engineers' report bolsters proposed Mississippi pump project
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers on Friday published a draft of a new environmental impact statement that supports a proposal for massive pumps to drain floodwaters from parts of the rural Mississippi Delta—a reversal of a previous federal report that said the project would hurt wetlands.
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'Classified knots': Researchers create optical framed knots to encode information
In a world first, researchers from the University of Ottawa in collaboration with Israeli scientists have been able to create optical framed knots in the laboratory that could potentially be applied in modern technologies. Their work opens the door to new methods of distributing secret cryptographic keys—used to encrypt and decrypt data, ensure secure communication and protect private information.
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AI kan lægge ny tale på ansigter i videoklip
PLUS. Eftersynkronisering, forfalskning eller bedre videokonferencer: Indiske forskere viser, hvordan AI kan synkronisere stemme og billede på et videoklip.
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The tardigrade in the ice hole: how extreme life finds a way in the Arctic
Tiny organisms nicknamed water bears offer clues about possible alien life but the changing climate means their habitat faces an uncertain future As we make our way across Greenland's ice sheets, I look around. We're surrounded by numerous tiny black holes, some only a few centimeters in diameter, others up to 4-8in (10-20cm) wide. As we advance, we notice that more and more holes are magically a
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Covid reinfections 'to be expected' as virus spreads, say government scientists
Reports suggest timeframe between recovery and reinfection 'relatively short' for those who contracted virus twice Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Government science advisers have warned that reinfections with Covid-19 are "to be expected" as the virus spreads, based on what is known about people's immunity to other coronaviruses that cause the common cold. Researche
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Din telefon bliver hurtigere og hurtigere: Men kan udviklingen fortsætte?
Ja, men udviklingen foregår ikke inde i selve telefonen.
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Molecular design strategy reveals near infrared-absorbing hydrocarbon
The lessons learned from a near infrared absorbing, bowl-shaped molecule made only from hydrogen and carbon atoms offers insights for future organic conductors.
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Echo from the past makes rice paddies a good home for wetland plants
Tokyo, Japan – Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University studied the biodiversity of wetland plants over time in rice paddies in the Tone River basin, Japan. They found that paddies which were more likely to have been wetland before agricultural use retained more wetland plant species. On the other hand, land consolidation and agricultural abandonment were both found to negatively impact biod
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Oncotarget: Induction of phenotypic changes in HER2-postive breast cancer cells
The cover for issue 30 of Oncotarget features Figure 4, "RNAseq results demonstrating differences between normal, cancer, and redirected cells," by Frank-Kamenetskii, et al. which reported that the influence of breast cancer cells on normal cells of the microenvironment, such as fibroblasts and macrophages, has been heavily studied but the influence of normal epithelial cells on breast cancer cell
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Census Bureau needs outside help to save the 2020 census from political meddling, experts say
As agency rushes to deliver final count, report recommends independent monitoring for quality
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Diatom modulation of select bacteria through use of two unique secondary metabolites [Ecology]
Unicellular eukaryotic phytoplankton, such as diatoms, rely on microbial communities for survival despite lacking specialized compartments to house microbiomes (e.g., animal gut). Microbial communities have been widely shown to benefit from diatom excretions that accumulate within the microenvironment surrounding phytoplankton cells, known as the phycosphere. However, mechanisms that enable diatom
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Extremely small twist elastic constants in lyotropic nematic liquid crystals [Physics]
Recent measurements of the elastic constants in lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have revealed an anomalously small twist elastic constant compared to the splay and bend constants. Interestingly, measurements of the elastic constants in the micellar lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) that are formed by surfactants, by far the most ubiquitous…
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Selective tumor antigen vaccine delivery to human CD169+ antigen-presenting cells using ganglioside-liposomes [Immunology and Inflammation]
Priming of CD8+ T cells by dendritic cells (DCs) is crucial for the generation of effective antitumor immune responses. Here, we describe a liposomal vaccine carrier that delivers tumor antigens to human CD169/Siglec-1+ antigen-presenting cells using gangliosides as targeting ligands. Ganglioside-liposomes specifically bound to CD169 and were internalized by in…
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Voluntary leadership and the emergence of institutions for self-governance [Sustainability Science]
Strong local institutions are important for the successful governance of common-pool resources (CPRs), but why do such institutions emerge in the first place and why do they sometimes not emerge at all? We argue that voluntary local leaders play an important role in the initiation of self-governance institutions because such…
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Histone H3.3 G34 mutations promote aberrant PRC2 activity and drive tumor progression [Biochemistry]
A high percentage of pediatric gliomas and bone tumors reportedly harbor missense mutations at glycine 34 in genes encoding histone variant H3.3. We find that these H3.3 G34 mutations directly alter the enhancer chromatin landscape of mesenchymal stem cells by impeding methylation at lysine 36 on histone H3 (H3K36) by…
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Overparameterized neural networks implement associative memory [Computer Sciences]
Identifying computational mechanisms for memorization and retrieval of data is a long-standing problem at the intersection of machine learning and neuroscience. Our main finding is that standard overparameterized deep neural networks trained using standard optimization methods implement such a mechanism for real-valued data. We provide empirical evidence that 1) overparameterized…
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In vitro evolution of antibody affinity via insertional scanning mutagenesis of an entire antibody variable region [Applied Biological Sciences]
We report a systematic combinatorial exploration of affinity enhancement of antibodies by insertions and deletions (InDels). Transposon-based introduction of InDels via the method TRIAD (transposition-based random insertion and deletion mutagenesis) was used to generate large libraries with random in-frame InDels across the entire single-chain variable fragment gene that were further…
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Mapping glycan-mediated galectin-3 interactions by live cell proximity labeling [Chemistry]
Galectin-3 is a glycan-binding protein (GBP) that binds β-galactoside glycan structures to orchestrate a variety of important biological events, including the activation of hepatic stellate cells and regulation of immune responses. While the requisite glycan epitopes needed to bind galectin-3 have long been elucidated, the cellular glycoproteins that bear these…
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The cytokine MIF controls daily rhythms of symbiont nutrition in an animal-bacterial association [Microbiology]
The recent recognition that many symbioses exhibit daily rhythms has encouraged research into the partner dialogue that drives these biological oscillations. Here we characterized the pivotal role of the versatile cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in regulating a metabolic rhythm in the model light-organ symbiosis between Euprymna scolopes and…
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Desmosome architecture derived from molecular dynamics simulations and cryo-electron tomography [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Desmosomes are cell–cell junctions that link tissue cells experiencing intense mechanical stress. Although the structure of the desmosomal cadherins is known, the desmosome architecture—which is essential for mediating numerous functions—remains elusive. Here, we recorded cryo-electron tomograms (cryo-ET) in which individual cadherins can be discerned; they appear variable in shape, spacing,…
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Prediction and prevention of disproportionally dominant agents in complex networks [Applied Physical Sciences]
We develop an early warning system and subsequent optimal intervention policy to avoid the formation of disproportional dominance ("winner takes all," WTA) in growing complex networks. This is modeled as a system of interacting agents, whereby the rate at which an agent establishes connections to others is proportional to its…
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Funneled energy landscape unifies principles of protein binding and evolution [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Most proteins have evolved to spontaneously fold into native structure and specifically bind with their partners for the purpose of fulfilling biological functions. According to Darwin, protein sequences evolve through random mutations, and only the fittest survives. The understanding of how the evolutionary selection sculpts the interaction patterns for both…
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The Atlantic Daily: QAnon Isn't Going Away
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox . EVAN VUCCI / AP Last night, President Donald Trump was given the opportunity to denounce QAnon outright. He didn't. As my colleague Russell Berman writes, that news is shocking but not surprising
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Solar power now generates the cheapest electricity in history, IEA says
The International Energy Agency is an intergovernmental organization that advises member nations on issues related to energy and the environment. In its annual report, the IEA reported that the cost of solar is dropping more rapidly than previously thought, providing some parts of the world with historically cheap electricity. The IEA predicted that, over the next decade, renewables will meet 80
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'Classified knots': Researchers create optical framed knots to encode information
Researchers have been able to create optical framed knots in the laboratory that could potentially be applied in modern technologies. Their work opens the door to new methods of distributing secret cryptographic keys – used to encrypt and decrypt data, ensure secure communication and protect private information.
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Octopus-inspired sucker transfers thin, delicate tissue grafts and biosensors
Thin tissue grafts and flexible electronics have a host of applications for wound healing, regenerative medicine and biosensing. A new device inspired by an octopus's sucker rapidly transfers delicate tissue or electronic sheets to the patient, overcoming a key barrier to clinical application.
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Octopus-inspired sucker transfers thin, delicate tissue grafts and biosensors
Thin tissue grafts and flexible electronics have a host of applications for wound healing, regenerative medicine and biosensing. A new device inspired by an octopus's sucker rapidly transfers delicate tissue or electronic sheets to the patient, overcoming a key barrier to clinical application.
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New research comparing HIV medications set to change international recommendations
A new study is set to change international treatment recommendations for people who are newly diagnosed with HIV — an update that could affect nearly two million people per year worldwide.
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Coronavirus live news: 20 cases linked to Trump rally; hope in Victoria after just one new case recorded
Minnesota authorities tackling rally-based 'outbreak'; calls to ease restrictions in Australian state of Victoria; UK accuses Russia of trying to disrupt vaccine research Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage 1.46am BST Daniel Andrews is now addressing the news that 17 New Zealanders snuck into Melbourne yesterday. New Zealanders are allowed into NSW and the NT now without
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The best TV and media stands for your home
A place for your TV, streaming boxes, and all other media. (Wang John via Unsplash/) Our televisions are so much more than just a place to watch a quick show—they're hubs for streaming content, the internet, video games, and more. With wireless high speed internet, most homes are now centered around our media lives. Why not support and highlight these centers in style? Whether you are looking for
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Use every inch of your pantry with these door organizers
Door organization for your pantry. (Annie Spratt via Unsplash/) Nobody wants clutter—it overloads our senses and causes undue stress in all aspects of our lives. Luckily, there are innovative, durable, and affordable door hangers to organize and expand storage in your kitchen, bedroom, and bathroom. So if the shelves and drawers in your pantry are stuffed to the max, but you still have another ba
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Those funky cheese smells allow microbes to 'talk' to and feed each other
Researchers found that bacteria essential to ripening cheese can sense and respond to compounds produced by fungi in the rind and released into the air, enhancing the growth of some species of bacteria over others. The make-up of the cheese microbiome is critical to flavor and quality of the cheese.
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Ground-breaking discovery finally proves rain really can move mountains
A pioneering technique which captures precisely how mountains bend to the will of raindrops has helped solve a long-standing scientific enigma.
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Application of Neurotech in Cogntive Science – Dr. David Eagleman
​ https://preview.redd.it/gyexsaetzft51.jpg?width=1080&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6f50102612515338fe82790d711daf8b80d1b4c8 Register using the link : https://www.meetup.com/NeuroTechX-India/events/273565090/ submitted by /u/therealneo31415 [link] [comments]
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Is anyone else alarmed by the double edged sword of open science?
Don't get me wrong, I'm an advocate of open science. However, I'm increasingly frustrated and worried by the way preprints are being picked up by the media and reported to the general public. I don't think Preprints should be allowed to be reported by the media, it could do a lot more harm than good. We all know how much peer review improves/alters/destroys your papers. With science so heavily in
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Economics Student interested in pursuing Cognitive Science. What to do?
Hi Reddit, I am a second-year Bachelor student of Economics in Poland. I am starting additionally Econometrics bachelor studies this academic year, however, the decision about beginning Econometrics was a little bit short-sided and I have doubts about it, that's why I am writing there. I checked what are my options for second-cycle studies that are much closer to my interests than Economics and B
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Study reveals kidney disease or injury is associated with much higher risk of mortality for COVID-19 patients in ICU
New research published in Anaesthesia (a journal of the Association of Anaesthetists) reveals the much higher risk of mortality faced by COVID-19 patients in intensive care who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) or, those who develop new (acute) kidney injury (AKI) as a result of developing COVID-19.
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Distant seas might predict Colorado River droughts
New study links ocean temperatures to dry spells years later
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Firefighters Are Using Drones That Drop Fireballs
Raining Fireballs Firefighters across the West Coast are dropping special fireballs from drones to keep an unusually severe wildfire season under control, National Geographic reports . The ping pong ball-sized incendiaries, called "Dragon Eggs," explode when they hit the ground and start small fires known as backfires. While that may sound counterintuitive, the goal is to remove any possible fuel
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Cornell University program aims to end world hunger in 10 years
An international team of researchers has released a series of studies geared towards ending world hunger. They are thought to be some of the first people to use Evidence Synthesis for agricultural data. Their ideas could increase food production and lower poverty for a low cost, regardless if they meet their lofty goal. World Hunger is one of those problems that everybody seems to want to solve b
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Results from the DEFINE-FLOW study reported at TCT Connect
A new observational study of deferred lesions following combined fractional flow reserve (FFR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessments found that untreated vessels with abnormal FFR but intact CFR do not have non-inferior outcomes compared to those with an FFR greater than 0.8 and a CFR greater than or equal to two when treated medically.
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Results from the TARGET FFR study reported at TCT Connect
Results from the randomized controlled TARGET FFR trial show that while a physiology-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategy did not achieve a significant increase in the proportion of patients with final FFR ?0.90, it reduced the proportion of patients with a residual FFR ?0.80 following PCI.
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Take heart, Melbourne: it's time for the next step in easing Covid restrictions | Jodie McVernon and James McCaw
Blanket restrictions have served their purpose. Their harms now outweigh their benefits As Daniel Andrews signals "significant steps" will be taken to ease Victoria's Covid rules on Sunday , there is ever more pointed attention to the number five. Five is the target set for the rolling 14-day case average that will allow us to move to the next step of easing restrictions on our journey to social
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Cases of Covid-19 continue to sharply rise in US Midwest
Trump claims country is 'prevailing' despite cases passing 8m and record increases in certain states
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Serotonin and Dopamine Linked to Decision-Making: Study
In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers monitored subsecond changes in levels of the neurotransmitters in the human brain, unlocking new insight into their function.
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Viral 'molecular scissor' is next COVID-19 drug target
Inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2-PLpro enzyme is a novel avenue to explore in rational design of COVID-19 drugs, according to new research.
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Unprecedented energy use since 1950 has transformed humanity's geologic footprint
A new study makes clear the extraordinary speed and scale of increases in energy use, economic productivity and global population that have pushed the Earth towards a new geological epoch, known as the Anthropocene.
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During COVID, scientists turn to computers to understand C4 photosynthesis
When COVID closed down their lab, a team of researchers turned to computational approaches to understand what makes some plants better adapted to transform light and carbon dioxide into yield through photosynthesis. Most plants use C3 photosynthesis, which is more common but not as efficient as C4. The researchers uncovered clues as to how C4 crops are able to express key enzymes in specialized ce
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Fraction of money earmarked for COVID-19 recovery could boost climate efforts
Global stimulus plans for economic recovery after the pandemic could easily cover climate-friendly policies, suggests a new study.
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How mystery flavors confuse our taste buds
Hints of fruity, chewy, tangy, and who knows what else. (Travis Rathbone/) Mystery flavors have multiplied on store shelves of late. Companies tempt consumers into guessing obscure tastes in special editions of everything from chips to cookies. But at least one cryptic bite's profile remains under wraps: Laffy Taffy debuted its White Mystery Airhead in 1993, and the monochrome concoction continue
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Serotonin and Dopamine Play Roles in Decision-Making: Study
In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers monitored subsecond changes in levels of the neurotransmitters in the human brain, unlocking new insight into their function.
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Unprecedented energy use since 1950 has transformed humanity's geologic footprint
A new study makes clear the extraordinary speed and scale of increases in energy use, economic productivity and global population that have pushed the Earth towards a new geological epoch, known as the Anthropocene.
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Ultrafast camera films 3-D movies at 100 billion frames per second
New camera technology captures ultrafast video in three dimensions and may help solve some scientific mysteries.
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Results from the FORECAST Trial reported at TCT Connect
In the FORECAST randomized clinical trial, the use of fractional flow reserve management derived from computed tomography (FFRCT) did not significantly reduce costs but did reduce the use of invasive coronary angiography (ICA).
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'Classified knots': uOttawa researchers create optical framed knots to encode information
In a world first, researchers from the University of Ottawa in collaboration with Israeli scientists have been able to create optical framed knots in the laboratory that could potentially be applied in modern technologies. Their work opens the door to new methods of distributing secret cryptographic keys – used to encrypt and decrypt data, ensure secure communication and protect private informatio
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Can Copper Cure Pain?
Arthritis sufferers swear by copper bracelets and creams. But the metal's real benefit is more than skin deep.
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Congenital heart defects may not increase the risk of severe COVID-19 symptoms
People with congenital heart disease had a lower-than-expected risk for severe symptoms from COVID-19, a new study has found.
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New research comparing HIV medications set to change international recommendations
A new study by UBC researchers is set to change international treatment recommendations for people who are newly diagnosed with HIV–an update that could affect nearly two million people per year worldwide.
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Deep sea coral time machines reveal ancient CO2 burps
The fossilised remains of ancient deep-sea corals may act as time machines providing new insights into the effect the ocean has on rising CO2 levels, according to new research carried out by the Universities of Bristol, St Andrews and Nanjing and published today [16 October 2020] in Science Advances.
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China's rare birds may move north as the climate changes, new data suggest
Citizen science database helped map birds' current ranges—and their likely ranges in 2070
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Existing medications may fight coronavirus infection
Researchers have identified three existing drugs with the potential to clear SARS-CoV-2 infections.
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Ultrafast camera films 3-D movies at 100 billion frames per second
New camera technology captures ultrafast video in three dimensions and may help solve some scientific mysteries.
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Boost to develop microalgae into health foods
A new discovery may provide the crucial link that helps accelerate development of microalgae into beneficial human health supplements.
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Twitter's ban almost doubled attention for Biden misinformation
The news: When Twitter banned, and then unbanned, links to a questionably sourced New York Post article about Joe Biden's son Hunter, its stated intention was to prevent people from spreading harmful false material as America heads into the final stretch of the election campaign. But thanks to the cycle of misinformation—and claims from conservatives that social-media platforms are deliberately c
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If a Parent Has Alzheimer's, What's The Likelihood of Their Children Getting It?
Experts say genes are only one part of the equation.
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Order up! AI finds the right material
Engineers are always looking for materials with very specific properties for their projects. Unfortunately, there are way too many options for researchers to simply guess-and-check until they find what they're looking for. Even if they were to simulate materials, instead of testing them in the lab, it would take far too long to find a suitable material.
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Those funky cheese smells allow microbes to 'talk' to and feed each other
Researchers at Tufts University have found that those distinctly funky smells from cheese are one way that fungi communicate with bacteria, and what they are saying has a lot to do with the delicious variety of flavors that cheese has to offer. The research team found that common bacteria essential to ripening cheese can sense and respond to compounds produced by fungi in the rind and released int
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Enzymatic DNA synthesis sees the light
According to current estimates, the amount of data produced by humans and machines is rising at an exponential rate, with the digital universe doubling in size every two years. Very likely, the magnetic and optical data-storage systems at our disposal won't be able to archive this fast-growing volume of digital 1s and 0s anymore at some point. Plus, they cannot safely store data for more than a ce
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Viral 'molecular scissor' is next COVID-19 drug target
Inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2-PLpro enzyme is a novel avenue to explore in rational design of COVID-19 drugs, according to new research from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and collaborators in Wroclaw, Poland.
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Octopus-inspired sucker transfers thin, delicate tissue grafts and biosensors
Thin tissue grafts and flexible electronics have a host of applications for wound healing, regenerative medicine and biosensing. A new device inspired by an octopus's sucker rapidly transfers delicate tissue or electronic sheets to the patient, overcoming a key barrier to clinical application, according to researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and collaborators.
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Those funky cheese smells allow microbes to 'talk' to and feed each other
Researchers at Tufts University have found that those distinctly funky smells from cheese are one way that fungi communicate with bacteria, and what they are saying has a lot to do with the delicious variety of flavors that cheese has to offer. The research team found that common bacteria essential to ripening cheese can sense and respond to compounds produced by fungi in the rind and released int
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Enzymatic DNA synthesis sees the light
According to current estimates, the amount of data produced by humans and machines is rising at an exponential rate, with the digital universe doubling in size every two years. Very likely, the magnetic and optical data-storage systems at our disposal won't be able to archive this fast-growing volume of digital 1s and 0s anymore at some point. Plus, they cannot safely store data for more than a ce
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Treatment and Vaccine Trials are Halted, US Cases Rise, and More Coronavirus News
Catch up on the most important updates from this week.
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Cubs, Goslings, Shark Pups and Other Odd Terms for Baby Animals
A roundup of our favorite adorable and obscure names for nature's tiniest citizens.
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LA Cops Use Aircraft to Hunt Mystery Jetpack Dude
Mysterious Sightings On September 1, an American Airlines pilot saw something highly unusual while looking outside the window at about 3,000 feet, shortly prior to landing at the Los Angeles International Airport. "Tower, American 1997, we just passed a guy in a jetpack," the bewildered pilot told LA's tower, as ABC 7 News reported at the time. Then, this Wednesday, China Airlines pilots made yet
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Why a Perfect Spiral Football Pass Doesn't Break the Laws of Physics
These physicists were never amazing football players, but they've helped explain some of the magic when a quarterback goes deep.
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Scientists Built a Fuel Cell Out of Spinach
Leafy Greens A team of scientists took the same spinach you can buy at the grocery store, added a pinch of salt, and turned it into the catalyst for a clean, efficient fuel cell. The proof-of-concept fuel cell is the latest development in a long history of scientists trying to exploit spinach's high density of energy-generating molecules for industrial use, Ars Technica reports . Plant Power Typi
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Enzymatic DNA synthesis sees the light
Researchers at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and Harvard Medical School have applied photolithographic techniques from the computer chip industry to enzymatic DNA synthesis, and thus developed a new method to multiplex the superior DNA writing ability of Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase TdT's.
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Those funky cheese smells allow microbes to 'talk' to and feed each other
Researchers found that bacteria essential to ripening cheese can sense and respond to compounds produced by fungi in the rind and released into the air, enhancing the growth of some species of bacteria over others. The make-up of the cheese microbiome is critical to flavor and quality of the cheese.
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Internet connectivity is oxygen for research and development work
Fast and reliable internet access is fundamental for research and development activity around the world. Seamless connectivity is a privilege we often take for granted. But in developing nations, technological limitations can become stumbling blocks to efficient communication and cause significant disadvantages.
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Deep-sea corals reveal secrets of rapid carbon dioxide increase as the last ice age ended
The Southern Ocean played a critical role in the rapid atmospheric carbon dioxide increase during the last deglaciation that took place 20,000 to 10,000 years ago, according to a new report by Boston College geochemist Xingchen (Tony) Wang and an international team in the online edition of Science Advances.
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Serotonin and Dopamine Play Role in Decision-Making: Study
In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers monitored subsecond changes in levels of the neurotransmitters in the human brain, unlocking new insight into their function.
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When honey flows faster than water
Physicists surprised to find that in specially coated tubes, the more viscous a liquid is, the faster it flows.
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Study explains the process that exacerbates MS
People with multiple sclerosis (MS) gradually develop increasing functional impairment. Researchers have now found a possible explanation for the progressive course of the disease in mice and how it can be reversed. The study can prove valuable to future treatments.
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Supercomputing study breaks ground for tree mapping, carbon research
A new method for mapping the location and size of trees growing outside of forests helped scientists discover billions of trees in arid and semi-arid regions and lays the groundwork for more accurate global measurement of carbon storage on land.
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Remember that fake news you read? It may help you remember even more
Thinking back on a time you encountered false information or 'fake news' may prime your brain to better recall truthful memories.
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Safe sex or risky romance? Young adults make the rational choice
Eros, the fabled Greek god of love, was said to bring confusion and weaken the mind. New research, however, suggests that young adults are instead quite rational when it comes to selecting potential sexual partners.
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Aaron Sorkin's New Film Is the Right Story for This Moment
The Trial of the Chicago 7 is a courtroom drama where no one—neither the characters, nor the viewers—expects that justice will be done. When the defendants take their seats at the start of Aaron Sorkin's new Netflix film, the audience already knows that the charges against them are ludicrous and the result of a political vendetta. The opening scene shows Richard Nixon's attorney general, John Mit
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Listen: Is COVID-19 a Preexisting Condition?
Many Americans have relied on the Affordable Care Act during the pandemic, but an upcoming Supreme Court case may invalidate it. With worries about the ACA looming over Amy Coney Barrett's confirmation hearings, staff writer James Hamblin and executive producer Katherine Wells are joined on the podcast Social Distance by Karen Pollitz, a senior fellow at the Kaiser Family Foundation. An expert on
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The Books Briefing: Can Democracy Survive Without Journalism?
Newsboy selling the Chicago Defender. (Jack Delano / Library of Congress) Throughout the summer of 1916, " tired of being kicked and cursed ," tens of thousands of African Americans migrated from the South to the North in hopes of a better life—inspired in no small part by the nation's leading Black newspaper, The Chicago Defender . The paper printed accounts of horrific murders by lynching, and
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Internet connectivity is oxygen for research and development work
Fast and reliable internet access is fundamental for research and development activity around the world. Seamless connectivity is a privilege we often take for granted. But in developing nations, technological limitations can become stumbling blocks to efficient communication and cause significant disadvantages.
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Coronavirus News Roundup: October 10-October 16
Here are pandemic highlights for the week — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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New study highlights the role of risk communication in coping with COVID-19
New research from the International Joint Laboratory of Cognitive and Behavioural Scienc (iLCBC) at ZZNU demonstrates the importance of risk communication aimed at encouraging appropriate countermeasures against virus outbreaks.
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Japan Plans to Dump Fukushima's Radioactive Water Into the Sea
Out Of Options The Japanese government confirmed today that it will eventually dump the radioactive water stored at the site of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant back into the sea. The Friday announcement comes after years of debate over how to manage the contaminated water accumulating at the site of the plant, which was destroyed by a 2011 tsunami and went into meltdown. The dumping wil
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Pinpointing the 'silent' mutations that gave the coronavirus an evolutionary edge
Researchers have identified a number of 'silent' mutations in the roughly 30,000 letters of the COVID-19 virus's genetic code that helped it thrive once it made the leap from bats and other wildlife to humans — and possibly helped set the stage for the global pandemic.
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Answer: covfefe? Play Science's election 2020 crossword puzzle!
Test your knowledge of the intersection of science and politics past and present
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Deep-sea corals reveal secrets of rapid carbon dioxide increase as the last ice age ended
The Southern Ocean played a critical role in the rapid atmospheric carbon dioxide increase during the last deglaciation that took place 20,000 to 10,000 years ago, an international team of researchers report in Science Advances. The chemical signatures of nitrogen and carbon in the coral fossils revealed that ocean carbon sequestration decreased as phytoplankton failed to devour macronutrients sup
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Malice leaves a nasty smell
Unhealthy behaviours trigger moral judgments that are similar to the basic emotions that contribute to our ability to survive. Two different hypotheses are to be found in the current scientific literature as to the identity of these emotions. After developing a new approach to brain imaging, a research team from the University of Geneva shows that unhealthy behaviours trigger brain responses that
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Humans and climate drove giants of Madagascar to extinction
The entire endemic megafauna of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands Mauritius and Rodrigues was eliminated during the past millennium. To investigate possible drivers of this extinction, an international team of scientists constructed an 8000-year record of the islands' past climate. Their findings imply that the ecosystem was resilient to prior climate stress but ultimately collapsed with an inc
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Study explains the process that exacerbates MS
People with multiple sclerosis (MS) gradually develop increasing functional impairment. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now found a possible explanation for the progressive course of the disease in mice and how it can be reversed. The study, which is published in Science Immunology, can prove valuable to future treatments.
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Arctic Ocean sediments reveal permafrost thawing during past climate warming
Sea floor sediments of the Arctic Ocean can reveal how permafrost responds to climate warming. Researchers from Stockholm University has found evidence of past permafrost thawing during climate warming events at the end of the last ice age. Their findings, published in Science Advances, caution about what could happen in the near future: Arctic warming by only a few degrees Celsius may trigger mas
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A controllable membrane to pull carbon dioxide out of exhaust streams
A system developed by chemical engineers at MIT could provide a way of continuously removing carbon dioxide from a stream of waste gases, or even from the air. The key component is an electrochemically assisted membrane whose permeability to gas can be switched on and off at will, using no moving parts and relatively little energy.
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When honey flows faster than water
Physicists surprised to find that in specially coated tubes, the more viscous a liquid is, the faster it flows
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Diabetes researchers spot dangerous T cells in the pancreas — even in healthy people
It's long been thought that having 'autoreactive' T cells in the pancreas was a sure sign of type 1 diabetes. Yet a new study led by scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) shows that even healthy people have these cells lurking in the pancreas — in surprisingly high numbers.
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Fats fighting back against bacteria
With antibiotic-resistant superbugs on the rise, this research shows a new way that cells are using to protect themselves – using fats as a covert weapon, and giving us new insights into alternative ways to fight infection.
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Ground-breaking discovery finally proves rain really can move mountains
A pioneering technique which captures precisely how mountains bend to the will of raindrops has helped solve a long-standing scientific enigma.
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Does inappropriate behavior hurt or stink? The interplay between neural representations of somatic experiences and moral decisions
Embodied models suggest that moral judgments are strongly intertwined with first-hand somatic experiences, with some pointing to disgust, and others arguing for a role of pain/harm. Both disgust and pain are unpleasant, arousing experiences, with strong relevance for survival, but with distinctive sensory qualities and neural channels. Hence, it is unclear whether moral cognition interacts with s
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Oxygen isotopic heterogeneity in the early Solar System inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud
The Sun is 16 O-enriched ( 17 O = –28.4 ± 3.6) relative to the terrestrial planets, asteroids, and chondrules (–7 17 O 17 O. Ultraviolet CO self-shielding resulting in formation of 16 O-rich CO and 17,18 O-enriched water is the currently favored mechanism invoked to explain the observed range of 17 O. However, the location of CO self-shielding (molecular cloud or protoplanetary disk) remains unkn
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Simulating complex quantum networks with time crystals
Crystals arise as the result of the breaking of a spatial translation symmetry. Similarly, translation symmetries can also be broken in time so that discrete time crystals appear. Here, we introduce a method to describe, characterize, and explore the physical phenomena related to this phase of matter using tools from graph theory. The analysis of the graphs allows to visualizing time-crystalline
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Climate controls on erosion in tectonically active landscapes
The ongoing debate about the nature of coupling between climate and tectonics in mountain ranges derives, in part, from an imperfect understanding of how topography, climate, erosion, and rock uplift are interrelated. Here, we demonstrate that erosion rate is nonlinearly related to fluvial relief with a proportionality set by mean annual rainfall. These relationships can be quantified for tectoni
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Imaging and quantifying homeostatic levels of intracellular silicon in diatoms
Diatoms are an abundant group of microalgae, known for their ability to form an intricate cell wall made of silica. Silicon levels in seawater are in the micromolar range, making it a challenge for diatoms to supply the rapid intracellular silicification process with the needed flux of soluble silicon. Here, we use three-dimensional cryo–electron microscopy and spectroscopy to quantitatively anal
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Viscosity-enhanced droplet motion in sealed superhydrophobic capillaries
It is well known that an increased viscosity slows down fluid dynamics. Here we show that this intuitive rule is not general and can fail for liquids flowing in confined liquid-repellent systems. A gravity-driven, highly viscous glycerol droplet inside a sealed superhydrophobic capillary is moving more than 10 times faster than a water droplet with three-orders-of-magnitude lower viscosity. Using
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When policy and psychology meet: Mitigating the consequences of bias in schools
Harsh exclusionary discipline predicts major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. This breeds racial inequality because Black students are disproportionately at risk for this type of discipline. Can a combination of policy and psychological interventions reduce this kind of discipline and mitigate this inequality? Two preregistered experiments ( N experiment1 =
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A multimillennial climatic context for the megafaunal extinctions in Madagascar and Mascarene Islands
Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues underwent catastrophic ecological and landscape transformations, which virtually eliminated their entire endemic vertebrate megafauna during the past millennium. These ecosystem changes have been alternately attributed to either human activities, climate change, or both, but parsing their relative importance, particularly in the case
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Rapid shifts in circulation and biogeochemistry of the Southern Ocean during deglacial carbon cycle events
The Southern Ocean plays a crucial role in regulating atmospheric CO 2 on centennial to millennial time scales. However, observations of sufficient resolution to explore this have been lacking. Here, we report high-resolution, multiproxy records based on precisely dated deep-sea corals from the Southern Ocean. Paired deep ( 14 C and 11 B) and surface ( 15 N) proxy data point to enhanced upwelling
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Reliable tumor detection by whole-genome methylation sequencing of cell-free DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of pediatric medulloblastoma
Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common form of pediatric brain malignancy, has a low frequency of oncogenic mutations but pronouncedly abnormal DNA methylation changes. Epigenetic analysis of circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) by liquid biopsy offers an approach for real-time monitoring of tumor status without tumor dissection. In this study, we identified 6598 differentially methylated CpGs
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Remobilization of dormant carbon from Siberian-Arctic permafrost during three past warming events
Carbon cycle models suggest that past warming events in the Arctic may have caused large-scale permafrost thaw and carbon remobilization, thus affecting atmospheric CO 2 levels. However, observational records are sparse, preventing spatially extensive and time-continuous reconstructions of permafrost carbon release during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Using carbon isotopes and biomarke
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Large losses of ammonium-nitrogen from a rice ecosystem under elevated CO2
Inputs of nitrogen into terrestrial ecosystems, mainly via the use of ammonium-based fertilizers in agroecosystems, are enormous, but the fate of this nitrogen under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is not well understood. We have taken advantage of a 15-year free-air CO 2 enrichment study to investigate the influence of elevated CO 2 on the transformation of ammonium-nitrogen in a ric
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Electrochemically mediated gating membrane with dynamically controllable gas transport
The regulation of mass transfer across membranes is central to a wide spectrum of applications. Despite numerous examples of stimuli-responsive membranes for liquid-phase species, this goal remains elusive for gaseous molecules. We describe a previously unexplored gas gating mechanism driven by reversible electrochemical metal deposition/dissolution on a conductive membrane, which can continuousl
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The healthy exocrine pancreas contains preproinsulin-specific CD8 T cells that attack islets in type 1 diabetes
Preproinsulin (PPI) is presumably a crucial islet autoantigen found in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) but is also recognized by CD8 + T cells from healthy individuals. We quantified PPI-specific CD8 + T cells within different areas of the human pancreas from nondiabetic controls, autoantibody-positive donors, and donors with T1D to investigate their role in diabetes development. This spatial
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Electrothermal soft manipulator enabling safe transport and handling of thin cell/tissue sheets and bioelectronic devices
"Living" cell sheets or bioelectronic chips have great potentials to improve the quality of diagnostics and therapies. However, handling these thin and delicate materials remains a grand challenge because the external force applied for gripping and releasing can easily deform or damage the materials. This study presents a soft manipulator that can manipulate and transport cell/tissue sheets and u
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Shedding light on moire excitons: A first-principles perspective
Moiré superlattices in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures could trap long-lived interlayer excitons. These moiré excitons could form ordered quantum dot arrays, paving the way for unprecedented optoelectronic and quantum information applications. Here, we perform first-principles simulations to shed light on moiré excitons in twisted MoS 2 /WS 2 heterostructures. We provide direct evidence of l
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Atrophy associated with tau pathology precedes overt cell death in a mouse model of progressive tauopathy
Tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) first develops in the entorhinal cortex (EC), then spreads to the hippocampus, followed by the neocortex. Overall, tau pathology correlates well with neurodegeneration and cell loss, but the spatial and temporal association between tau pathology and overt volume loss (atrophy) associated with structural changes or cell loss is unclear. Using in vivo magne
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Context-dependent plasticity of adult-born neurons regulated by cortical feedback
In a complex and dynamic environment, the brain flexibly adjusts its circuits to preferentially process behaviorally relevant information. Here, we investigated how the olfactory bulb copes with this demand by examining the plasticity of adult-born granule cells (abGCs). We found that learning of olfactory discrimination elevates odor responses of young abGCs and increases their apical dendritic
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Autonomous atmospheric water seeping MOF matrix
The atmosphere contains an abundance of fresh water, but this resource has yet to be harvested efficiently. To date, passive atmospheric water sorbents have required a desorption step that relies on steady solar irradiation. Since the availability and intensity of solar radiation vary, these limit on-demand desorption and hence the amount of harvestable water. Here, we report a polymer–metal-orga
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Modulating lung immune cells by pulmonary delivery of antigen-specific nanoparticles to treat autoimmune disease
Antigen-specific particles can treat autoimmunity, and pulmonary delivery may provide for easier delivery than intravenous or subcutaneous routes. The lung is a "hub" for autoimmunity where autoreactive T cells pass before arriving at disease sites. Here, we report that targeting lung antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via antigen-loaded poly(lactide- co -glycolide) particles modulates lung CD4 + T
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Activity profiling and crystal structures of inhibitor-bound SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease: A framework for anti-COVID-19 drug design
Viral papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro, NSP3) is essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication and represents a promising target for the development of antiviral drugs. Here, we used a combinatorial substrate library and performed comprehensive activity profiling of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro. On the scaffold of the best hits from positional scanning, we designed optimal fluorogenic substrates and irreversible
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