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Millennials reconsidering finances and future under COVID-19
Millennials have been labeled the "unluckiest generation in U.S. history" after the one-two financial punch of the Great Recession and the pandemic shutdowns. A recent survey found that about a third of millennials felt financially unprepared for the pandemic and have begun saving. To achieve financial freedom, millennials will need to take control of their finances and reinterpret their relation
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China's Covid-19 vaccine diplomacy steals a march on US
Beijing has promised to help developing world but regulatory and logistical hurdles loom
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The Ozone Hole Over Antarctica Has Grown Much Deeper And Wider in 2020
A year ago, it was the smallest on record.
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Locomotor and taxonomic diversity of Sterkfontein hominins not supported by current trabecular evidence of the femoral head [Letters (Online Only)]
Based on trabecular microarchitecture of two hominin femoral head fossils, Georgiou et al. (1) advocate for locomotor and taxonomic diversity at Sterkfontein, South Africa. They describe the trabecular pattern of StW 522 (Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein Member 4, dated to 2.6 to 2.1 Ma) (2) as human-like, while arguing that…
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Reply to Haeusler et al.: Internal structure of the femur provides robust evidence for locomotor and taxonomic diversity at Sterkfontein [Letters (Online Only)]
Haeusler et al. (1) suggest that our analysis (2) of the distribution of relative bone volume across the articular surface (figure 5) does not justify different taxonomic allocations or locomotor classifications. We agree with their first suggestion, and we did not use these data to make direct arguments for the…
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RCP8.5 is a problematic scenario for near-term emissions [Letters (Online Only)]
Schwalm et al. (1) argue that both historical and near-term (through 2050) cumulative emissions are more in line with Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) than other RCPs (2), and take issue with our suggestion (3) that the treatment of the scenario as "business as usual" is misleading. We previously pointed…
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Nasa Osiris-Rex spacecraft lands on asteroid Bennu in mission to collect dust
Spacecraft 'kissed the surface' in brief landing on asteroid 200m miles away from Earth in US-first mission A Nasa spacecraft has successfully landed on an asteroid, dodging boulders the size of buildings, in order to collect a handful of cosmic rubble for analysis back on Earth. The space agency team behind the Osiris-Rex project said preliminary data showed the sample collection went as planned
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Skal Schmidtshammer, georadar og ultralyd i sving? Tilsyn med gamle altaner vil koste op til 571 mio.
PLUS. Det koster mellem 5.000 og 20.000 kroner at undersøge en altans tilstand.
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The Pandemic's Real Toll? 300,000 Deaths, and It's Not Just From the Coronavirus
A C.D.C. analysis finds that overall death rates have risen, particularly among young adults and people of color.
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Resources for being antiracist
The 2020 "Support Black Lives at MIT" petition by the Black Graduate Student Association (BGSA) and Black Students' Union (BSU): http://bgsa.mit.edu/sbl2020 The Tech's article on student evaluation of the 2015 BSU/BGSA recommendations: https://thetech.com/2020/06/02/letter-bsa-bgsa-recommendations 2015 BSU Recommendations: https://drive.google.com/file/d/13wGeu4Soj5a5pO0J-33uB0qmQtjJhcny/view 201
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High levels of microplastics released from infant feeding bottles during formula prep
New research shows that high levels of microplastics (MPs) are released from infant-feeding bottles (IFBs) during formula preparation. The research also indicates a strong relationship between heat and MP release, such that warmer liquids (formula or water used to sterilize bottles) result in far greater release of MPs. The work underlines the need for appropriate mitigation strategies and new pla
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River Ecosystem Restoration Can Mean Just Add Water
Planners returned water to the dry bed of Arizona's Santa Cruz River in 2019, and various species began showing up on the same day.
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The Atlantic Daily: What Trump Revealed About the World Order
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox . ROHAN HANDE President Donald Trump held up a mirror to the American foreign-policy establishment, two of our writers argue, forcing it to reckon with a broken status quo. "Trump may have no idea
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New risk model estimates likelihood of death or hospitalization from COVID-19
Evidence-based model uses a range of factors such as age, sex, ethnicity and existing medical conditions to predict risk of death or hospitalization from COVID-19. Model provides nuanced information on people's risk of serious illness due to COVID-19 and has the potential to help patients and doctors reach a shared understanding of risk. The 'living' risk prediction model will be updated regularly
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New tool predicts risks of hospital admission and death from Covid-19
A new risk tool, developed by UK researchers to predict a person's risk of being admitted to hospital and dying from Covid-19 has been published by The BMJ today.
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Reply to Hausfather and Peters: RCP8.5 is neither problematic nor misleading [Letters (Online Only)]
Historical and anticipated future total CO2 emissions to 2050 show more agreement with Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) than other Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5)-era RCPs (1). Hausfather and Peters (2) attempt to argue against this by emphasizing 1) RCP4.5 or RCP6.0 better match fossil fuel emissions (FF) relative…
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What is the correct stoichiometry of Kv2.1:Kv6.4 heteromers? [Letters (Online Only)]
Möller et al. (1) propose that the predominant native stoichiometry of Kv2.1:Kv6.4 heteromeric K+ channels is 2:2, a finding that is unexpected based on past analyses which support a 3:1 stoichiometry for Kv2.1:KvS regulatory subunit heteromers, including Kv6.4 and Kv9.3 (2-4). Like Möller et al. (1), we used a combination…
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Reply to Pisupati et al.: Evaluating single subunit counting data to find the correct stoichiometry [Letters (Online Only)]
In their Letter (1), Pisupati et al. comment that they found a different Kv2.1:Kv6.4 stoichiometry (2) than we report in Möller et al. (3). Our manuscript was still under review when their article was published. Realizing that the results were inconsistent, we added an objective evaluation algorithm calculating relative probabilities…
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Initial economic damage from the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States is more widespread across ages and geographies than initial mortality impacts [Economic Sciences]
The economic and mortality impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been widely discussed, but there is limited evidence on their relationship across demographic and geographic groups. We use publicly available monthly data from January 2011 through April 2020 on all-cause death counts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention…
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Cyclic peptides can engage a single binding pocket through highly divergent modes [Biochemistry]
Cyclic peptide library screening technologies show immense promise for identifying drug leads and chemical probes for challenging targets. However, the structural and functional diversity encoded within such libraries is largely undefined. We have systematically profiled the affinity, selectivity, and structural features of library-derived cyclic peptides selected to recognize three closely…
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N-glycosylation shields Phytophthora sojae apoplastic effector PsXEG1 from a specific host aspartic protease [Plant Biology]
Hosts and pathogens are engaged in a continuous evolutionary struggle for physiological dominance. A major site of this struggle is the apoplast. In Phytophthora sojae–soybean interactions, PsXEG1, a pathogen-secreted apoplastic endoglucanase, is a key focal point of this struggle, and the subject of two layers of host defense and pathogen…
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Conservative and liberal attitudes drive polarized neural responses to political content [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
People tend to interpret political information in a manner that confirms their prior beliefs, a cognitive bias that contributes to rising political polarization. In this study, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with semantic content analyses to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie the biased processing of real-world political content….
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Transcriptional and proteomic insights into the host response in fatal COVID-19 cases [Microbiology]
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, has resulted thus far in greater than 933,000 deaths worldwide; yet disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Clinical and immunological features of patients with COVID-19 have highlighted a potential role for changes in immune activity in regulating disease severity. However, little is…
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Unexpected specificity within dynamic transcriptional protein-protein complexes [Chemistry]
A key functional event in eukaryotic gene activation is the formation of dynamic protein–protein interaction networks between transcriptional activators and transcriptional coactivators. Seemingly incongruent with the tight regulation of transcription, many biochemical and biophysical studies suggest that activators use nonspecific hydrophobic and/or electrostatic interactions to bind to coactivat
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Behavior and mechanics of dense microgel suspensions [Applied Physical Sciences]
Suspensions of soft and highly deformable microgels can be concentrated far more than suspensions of hard colloids, leading to their unusual mechanical properties. Microgels can accommodate compression in suspensions in a variety of ways such as interpenetration, deformation, and shrinking. Previous experiments have offered insightful, but somewhat conflicting, accounts of…
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The UBC27-AIRP3 ubiquitination complex modulates ABA signaling by promoting the degradation of ABI1 in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
Abscisic acid (ABA) is the key phytohormone in plant drought tolerance and stress adaptation. The clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) like ABI1 (ABA-INSENSITIVE 1) work as coreceptors of ABA and regulate multiple ABA responses. Ubiquitination of ABI1 has been proven to play important regulatory roles in ABA signaling. However,…
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Bifidobacterium alters the gut microbiota and modulates the functional metabolism of T regulatory cells in the context of immune checkpoint blockade [Immunology and Inflammation]
Immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies that attenuate immune tolerance have been used to effectively treat cancer, but they can also trigger severe immune-related adverse events. Previously, we found that Bifidobacterium could mitigate intestinal immunopathology in the context of CTLA-4 blockade in mice. Here we examined the mechanism underlying this process. We found…
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MNK2 governs the macrophage antiinflammatory phenotype [Medical Sciences]
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) continuously fine tune their immune modulatory properties, but how gene expression programs coordinate this immune cell plasticity is largely unknown. Selective mRNA translation, controlled by MNK1/MNK2 and mTOR pathways impinging on eIF4E, facilitates reshaping of proteomes without changes in abundance of corresponding mRNAs. Using polysome profiling developed.
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Magnetized topological insulator multilayers [Physics]
We discuss the magnetic and topological properties of bulk crystals and quasi–two-dimensional (quasi-2D) thin films formed by stacking intrinsic magnetized topological insulator (for example, Mn (SbxBi1−x)2X4 with X = Se,Te) septuple layers and topological insulator quintuple layers in arbitrary order. Our analysis makes use of a simplified model that retains…
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Liquid-liquid phase separation promotes animal desiccation tolerance [Physiology]
Proteinaceous liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) occurs when a polypeptide coalesces into a dense phase to form a liquid droplet (i.e., condensate) in aqueous solution. In vivo, functional protein-based condensates are often referred to as membraneless organelles (MLOs), which have roles in cellular processes ranging from stress responses to regulation of…
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Nucleosome Positioning Regulates the Establishment, Stability, and Inheritance of Heterochromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Genetics]
Heterochromatic domains are complex structures composed of nucleosome arrays that are bound by silencing factors. This composition raises the possibility that certain configurations of nucleosome arrays facilitate heterochromatic silencing. We tested this possibility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by systematically altering the distance between heterochromatic nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs), whic
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Polymerase {delta} promotes chromosomal rearrangements and imprecise double-strand break repair [Medical Sciences]
Recent studies have implicated DNA polymerases θ (Pol θ) and β (Pol β) as mediators of alternative nonhomologous end-joining (Alt-NHEJ) events, including chromosomal translocations. Here we identify subunits of the replicative DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) as promoters of Alt-NHEJ that results in more extensive intrachromosomal mutations at a single…
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DOT1L-controlled cell-fate determination and transcription elongation are independent of H3K79 methylation [Biochemistry]
Actively transcribed genes in mammals are decorated by H3K79 methylation, which is correlated with transcription levels and is catalyzed by the histone methyltransferase DOT1L. DOT1L is required for mammalian development, and the inhibition of its catalytic activity has been extensively studied for cancer therapy; however, the mechanisms underlying DOT1L's functions…
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Prenatal and early-life exposure to the Great Chinese Famine increased the risk of tuberculosis in adulthood across two generations [Environmental Sciences]
Global food security is a major driver of population health, and food system collapse may have complex and long-lasting effects on health outcomes. We examined the effect of prenatal exposure to the Great Chinese Famine (1958–1962)—the largest famine in human history—on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) across consecutive generations in a major…
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America in pain, the nation's well-being at stake [Commentaries]
Pain is a signal of distress in the body. It can erode one's ability to work or to enjoy life. Some people try to numb pain with painkillers, illicit drugs, and alcohol, and intolerable pain is implicated in suicide and other deaths of despair (1–3). Pain is commonly triggered by…
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Three-dimensional deconvolution processing for STEM cryotomography [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The complex environment of biological cells and tissues has motivated development of three-dimensional (3D) imaging in both light and electron microscopies. To this end, one of the primary tools in fluorescence microscopy is that of computational deconvolution. Wide-field fluorescence images are often corrupted by haze due to out-of-focus light, i.e.,…
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A novel spectroscopic window on conical intersections in biomolecules [Commentaries]
In PNAS, Keefer et al. propose an experimental approach which allows visualizing in detail the dynamics of a molecule as it passes a conical intersection (CI), that is, a real crossing point between two electronic states (1). In order to describe the photoinduced dynamics of molecules one needs to solve…
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Chaos in a simple model of a delta network [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The flux partitioning in delta networks controls how deltas build land and generate stratigraphy. Here, we study flux-partitioning dynamics in a delta network using a simple numerical model consisting of two orders of bifurcations. Previous work on single bifurcations has shown periodic behavior arising due to the interplay between channel…
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Optical signatures of multifold fermions in the chiral topological semimetal CoSi [Applied Physical Sciences]
We report the optical conductivity in high-quality crystals of the chiral topological semimetal CoSi, which hosts exotic quasiparticles known as multifold fermions. We find that the optical response is separated into several distinct regions as a function of frequency, each dominated by different types of quasiparticles. The low-frequency intraband response…
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Life cycle patterns of cognitive performance over the long run [Economic Sciences]
Little is known about how the age pattern in individual performance in cognitively demanding tasks changed over the past century. The main difficulty for measuring such life cycle performance patterns and their dynamics over time is related to the construction of a reliable measure that is comparable across individuals and…
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A 3D-printed molecular ferroelectric metamaterial [Engineering]
Molecular ferroelectrics combine electromechanical coupling and electric polarizabilities, offering immense promise in stimuli-dependent metamaterials. Despite such promise, current physical realizations of mechanical metamaterials remain hindered by the lack of rapid-prototyping ferroelectric metamaterial structures. Here, we present a continuous rapid printing strategy for the volumetric deposit
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Revealing mechanisms of mating plug function under sexual selection [Evolution]
Mating plugs are produced by many sexually reproducing animals and are hypothesized to promote male fertilization success under promiscuous mating. However, tests of this hypothesis have been constrained by an inability to discriminate ejaculates of different males in direct competition. Here, we use stable isotope labeling in vivo and proteomics…
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Correction for Wu et al., Isolation of exosomes from whole blood by integrating acoustics and microfluidicss [Corrections]
ENGINEERING, CELL BIOLOGY Correction for "Isolation of exosomes from whole blood by integrating acoustics and microfluidics," by Mengxi Wu, Yingshi Ouyang, Zeyu Wang, Rui Zhang, Po-Hsun Huang, Chuyi Chen, Hui Li, Peng Li, David Quinn, Ming Dao, Subra Suresh, Yoel Sadovsky, and Tony Jun Huang, which was first published September…
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Sanctuary policies reduce deportations without increasing crime [Political Sciences]
The US government maintains that local sanctuary policies prevent deportations of violent criminals and increase crime. This report tests those claims by combining Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) deportation data and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) crime data with data on the implementation dates of sanctuary policies between 2010 and…
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Correction for Sim et al., High-affinity oligoclonal TCRs define effective adoptive T cell therapy targeting mutant KRAS-G12D [Corrections]
BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for "High-affinity oligoclonal TCRs define effective adoptive T cell therapy targeting mutant KRAS-G12D," by Malcolm J. W. Sim, Jinghua Lu, Matthew Spencer, Francis Hopkins, Eric Tran, Steven A. Rosenberg, Eric O. Long, and Peter D. Sun, which was first published May 27, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1921964117 (Proc….
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Interactions between host genetics and gut microbiota determine susceptibility to CNS autoimmunity [Immunology and Inflammation]
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. The etiology of MS is multifactorial, with disease risk determined by genetics and environmental factors. An emerging risk factor for immune-mediated diseases is an imbalance in the gut microbiome. However, the identity of gut microbes associated with disease…
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Ancient genomes reveal tropical bovid species in the Tibetan Plateau contributed to the prevalence of hunting game until the late Neolithic [Ecology]
Local wild bovids have been determined to be important prey on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP), where hunting game was a major subsistence strategy until the late Neolithic, when farming lifestyles dominated in the neighboring Loess Plateau. However, the species affiliation and population ecology of these prehistoric wild bovids in…
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Superhydrophobic surfaces for extreme environmental conditions [Engineering]
Superhydrophobic surfaces for repelling impacting water droplets are typically created by designing structures with capillary (antiwetting) pressures greater than those of the incoming droplet (dynamic, water hammer). Recent work has focused on the evolution of the intervening air layer between droplet and substrate during impact, a balance of air compression…
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Acceleration of plague outbreaks in the second pandemic [Population Biology]
Historical records reveal the temporal patterns of a sequence of plague epidemics in London, United Kingdom, from the 14th to 17th centuries. Analysis of these records shows that later epidemics spread significantly faster ("accelerated"). Between the Black Death of 1348 and the later epidemics that culminated with the Great Plague…
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Changing nutrient cycling in Lake Baikal, the world's oldest lake [Environmental Sciences]
Lake Baikal, lying in a rift zone in southeastern Siberia, is the world's oldest, deepest, and most voluminous lake that began to form over 30 million years ago. Cited as the "most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem" and designated a World Heritage Site in 1996 due to its high…
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Global diversity of microbial communities in marine sediment [Microbiology]
Microbial life in marine sediment contributes substantially to global biomass and is a crucial component of the Earth system. Subseafloor sediment includes both aerobic and anaerobic microbial ecosystems, which persist on very low fluxes of bioavailable energy over geologic time. However, the taxonomic diversity of the marine sedimentary microbial biome…
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How Egypt is growing forests in middle of the desert
submitted by /u/Wild-Damage [link] [comments]
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Energy scavenging nanogenerator finds power all around us
submitted by /u/InspectorPraline [link] [comments]
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There are political and cultural problems that occur with social change in a society with high and/or rising life expectancies.
Currently, the life expectancy in the US, central Europe, and Brazil is in the mid-to-high 70s. That in Western Europe, Japan, and Australia for instance is even higher. That means (I'm simplifying the math a lot) that an older but not extremely old person in those countries is likely a child of the 1940s, having been born not only before the internet but also before color television, before Budd
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Today's Elderly Are Healthier Than a Generation Ago | Lifespan News
submitted by /u/Hot-Supermarket [link] [comments]
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Smart Toilets could be the ultimate health monitoring device.
submitted by /u/Digital_Absurdist [link] [comments]
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Energy scavenging nanogenerator finds power all around us
submitted by /u/Cococlimbingjewelry [link] [comments]
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MIT Validates Science Behind New Nuclear Fusion Reactor Design
submitted by /u/Memetic1 [link] [comments]
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This Hilariously Odd Short Film Was Written by GPT-3 | Digital Trends
submitted by /u/VausProd [link] [comments]
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Announcement: Power Materials moving to daily format, expanding coverage
submitted by /u/Suckstoyourassmar2 [link] [comments]
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Radiative cooler that cools down even under sunlight
submitted by /u/altmorty [link] [comments]
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Everywhere basic income has been tried, in one map.
submitted by /u/onlyartist6 [link] [comments]
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The encryption war is on again, and this time government has a new strategy
submitted by /u/onlyartist6 [link] [comments]
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Got any signal up here? Nokia to build mobile network on the moon.
submitted by /u/filosoful [link] [comments]
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Molecular design strategy reveals near infrared-absorbing hydrocarbon
submitted by /u/DemsSemsie [link] [comments]
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The US government plans to file antitrust charges against Google today
submitted by /u/Gari_305 [link] [comments]
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How the F.D.A. Stood Up to the President
After months of caving to pressures from the White House, Commissioner Stephen Hahn and a band of agency scientists have eked out a few victories.
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What cold lizards in Miami can tell us about climate change resilience
It was raining iguanas on a sunny morning.
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NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft successfully touches asteroid
NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft unfurled its robotic arm Tuesday, and in a first for the agency, briefly touched an asteroid to collect dust and pebbles from the surface for delivery to Earth in 2023.
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What cold lizards in Miami can tell us about climate change resilience
It was raining iguanas on a sunny morning.
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Lily the barn owl reveals how birds fly in gusty winds
Scientists from the University of Bristol and the Royal Veterinary College have discovered how birds are able to fly in gusty conditions—findings that could inform the development of bio-inspired small-scale aircraft.
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How Old Family Fishing Photos Unlock the History of Atlantic Fisheries
One captain's old fishing photos grew into a citizen science project called FISHstory. Researchers hope it can teach them about the health of today's fish populations.
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Lily the barn owl reveals how birds fly in gusty winds
Scientists from the University of Bristol and the Royal Veterinary College have discovered how birds are able to fly in gusty conditions—findings that could inform the development of bio-inspired small-scale aircraft.
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River Ecosystem Restoration Can Mean Just Add Water
Planners returned water to the dry bed of Arizona's Santa Cruz River in 2019, and various species began showing up on the same day. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Coronavirus live news: CDC finds 300,000 excess deaths in US; Spain nears 1m cases
Finding means Covid-19 death toll might be "underascertained", says CDC ; Boris Johnson imposes toughest restrictions on Manchester; US congress moves closer to agreement new coronavirus relief package. Follow the latest updates Global report: record Covid cases and new lockdowns across Europe Spain poised to become first European country with over 1m cases Lombardy curfew aims to curb Covid hosp
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River Ecosystem Restoration Can Mean Just Add Water
Planners returned water to the dry bed of Arizona's Santa Cruz River in 2019, and various species began showing up on the same day. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Steroid inhalers/pills for asthma linked to heightened risk of brittle bones and fractures
Taking steroid inhalers or tablets to treat asthma or control flare-ups is linked to a heightened risk of brittle bones (osteoporosis) and increased vulnerability to broken bones (fragility fractures), finds research published online in the journal Thorax.
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Drinking green tea and coffee daily linked to lower death risk in people with diabetes
Drinking plenty of both green tea and coffee is linked to a lower risk of dying from any cause among people with type 2 diabetes, suggests research published in the online journal BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.
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6 easy ways to transition to a plant-based diet
Transitioning to a plant-based diet could help reduce obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. Humans are destroying entire ecosystems to perpetuate destructive food habits. Understanding how to properly transition to a plant-based diet is important for success. Industrial farming is having a catastrophic impact on the planet—and our health. It's tough to separate the two given how d
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The DOJ says Google monopolizes search. Here's how.
The US Department of Justice and attorneys general from 11 Republican-led states filed an antitrust lawsuit against Google on Tuesday, alleging that the company maintains an illegal monopoly on online search and advertising. The lawsuit follows a 16-month investigation, and repeated promises from President Trump to hold Big Tech to account amid unproven allegations of anti-conservative bias. But
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Research in the time of covid
Maria Zuber got the word on a Friday: Harvard had shut down its research labs. As vice president for research, Zuber consulted with lead researchers across campus over whether MIT should follow suit. "Don't you dare," she remembers them saying. "Don't you dare be like those Harvard people." As covid-19 cases continued to rise across the country, however, she and other senior administrators made t
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Elation as Nasa's Osiris-Rex probe tags asteroid Bennu in sample bid
Osiris-Rex makes brief contact with asteroid Bennu in an effort to pick up fragments of rock.
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Author Correction: Electron energy increase in a laser wakefield accelerator using up-ramp plasma density profiles
Scientific Reports, Published online: 21 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-75483-x
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Check out the breathtaking winners of the 2020 Wildlife Photographer of the Year contest
From erupting volcanoes in Italy, to remote Mongolian forests, to the Philippine Sea, this year's winners of the Wildlife Photographer of the Year Award went above and beyond to capture images that displayed the beauty of the natural world. The 56th annual photography competition, hosted by London's Natural History Museum, received over 49,000 submissions from all over the world. The competition
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Combating record unemployment with the help of strangers
In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, Frederick Goff, SM '01, and his teammates from a machine-learning-based hedge fund decided to apply their technology to job search engines, for which there was widespread demand. In 2015, they created a new platform, Jobcase, to help people "manage their own future of work with a set of open tools." The result: a social-media platform where strangers help
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The science and technology of sound sleep
Pandemic worries have kept many of us awake this year. But David Rapoport '70 has long known a thing or two about not getting a good night's sleep. Rapoport is a leading expert in sleep medicine and the physiology of sleep-disordered breathing (sleep apnea and snoring). An estimated 10% to 15% of US adults have moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea, when soft tissues in the upper airways rep
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Bringing the margin to the center
Today, one in every six people on Earth lives in an informal urban or squatter settlement. United Nations analysts estimate that number will rise to one in three by 2050. "Traditionally, policymakers see these people as a problem," says Janice Perlman, PhD '71. "I believe they're part of the solution." Perlman's landmark 1976 book The Myth of Marginality invited readers to look at squatter settle
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Redfin chief economist sees the human side of the housing market
How is it possible the housing market is as strong as it is, given that the overall economy is as weak as it is? Confronting questions like these, Daryl Fairweather '10, chief economist of the real estate website and brokerage Redfin, seeks explanations based in complex human motivations. "When people make the decision to buy a home, so many factors are involved beyond whether they can afford it,
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New help for a health problem women don't talk about
In 2004, Gloria Ro Kolb '94 was leading her first startup, Fossa Medical, which developed therapies for kidney stones, when she learned a startling statistic: one in three women over 30 deals with urinary incontinence. However, it wasn't until Kolb had three kids that she began to understand the scope of the problem—and the need for a better solution. "I looked into all the treatment options and
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Sally Yu '00 and Jeff Shen
Sally Yu became an MIT volunteer almost immediately after graduating. "It's like I never left!" she says. "For the little volunteering I do, I gain so much in knowledge, friendships, and personal growth." She and her spouse, Jeff Shen, recently continued their support of the Institute by creating the Yu Endowed Scholarship Fund for undergraduates as Yu's 20th-reunion gift. Supporting economic mob
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"I burned with indignation"
In 1892, Hannah Knox Luscomb took her five-year-old daughter, Florence, to hear Susan B. Anthony speak. The speech made such an impression on Florence that she always began her life story with this moment, which inspired her long career as an activist. She would begin as a college student, working in concert with a group of MIT alumnae who played key roles in the quest to earn women the right to
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Profits and purpose
In 1996, Life magazine published a shocking exposé of child labor practices in South Asia. The lead photograph showed a 12-year-old boy in northern Pakistan, stitching soccer balls stamped with the Nike logo. It would take two years—and a collapse in profits—for the company's cofounder and CEO, Phil Knight, to declare a commitment to social responsibility. In 2015, Nike was independently ranked t
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A front-row seat to #BlackLivesMatter
Before coming to the States for college, I had never gone beyond the borders of Kenya. While I had expected some level of culture shock, I wasn't prepared for the jarring reality of being Black in America. Sure, I had skimmed through US Black history in my high school lessons, so I was familiar with the basics — slavery and its abolition, the civil rights movement, school desegregation. I had rea
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Engineering while Black
My first week at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech­nology was rife with revelations. I learned that five days sufficed to build a photosensitive robot from wires, circuit boards, and Legos; that burritos were tasty, if a bit messy, their insides prone to spilling on formerly white shoes; that I had an accent. This last bit revealed itself directly, from the passing remarks of an airport taxi dr
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How music therapy benefits the autistic brain
Music is used in many different therapies. Used in conjunction with traditional therapies, music therapy benefits us in a variety of different ways. According to a 2004 study, music intervention used with children and teens with ASD (autism spectrum disorder) can improve their social behaviors, increase focus and attention, and reduce their anxiety and improve body awareness. Various music therap
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New Research Claims That Consciousness Itself Is an Energy Field
Making Waves An unusual new idea in neuroscience suggests that our consciousness is derived from a field of electromagnetic waves given off by neurons as they fire. The idea is that these waves of electrical activity get sent out by neurons and, as they propagate across swaths of the brain, orchestrate our entire conscious experience. The research , published last month in the journal Neuroscienc
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The Anticlimax of the Google Antitrust Suit
The justice department's case against Microsoft in the 1990s was much stronger than the one it's concocted against the Mountain View tech giant.
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Evidence review confirms CDC guidance about infectivity of novel coronavirus
A new review of dozens of studies suggests that people may shed virus for prolonged periods, but those with mild or no symptoms may be infectious for no more than about 10 days. People who are severely ill from COVID-19 may be infectious for as long as 20 days, according to the review.
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Phenibut: The Russian Cosmonaut Drug You Can Buy Online to Reduce Anxiety
Billed as safe and legal, the popular supplement has some hidden dangers.
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How to Reintroduce a Long-Lost Species
Conservation biologist John Ewen discusses the recent reintroduction of Tasmanian devils to mainland Australia after a 3,000-year absence and issues that need to be considered when bringing long-departed animals back into an area.
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Strict biodiversity laws prevent Indian scientists from sharing new microbes with the world
Dozens of species remain unreported because India's biopiracy law clashes with international taxonomy rules
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Targeting Proteins and Proteolysis to Counter Cancer
Daohong Zhou and Aileen Frost explore how they target the proteolysis mechanism and fight cancer using proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) technology.
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How initiatives empowering employees can backfire
Strategies meant to motivate people in the workplace may have unintended consequences — depending on who's in charge. Recent research shows that empowerment initiatives aren't necessarily the answer for business leaders hoping to motivate their employees.
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Light pollution may increase biting behavior at night in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Artificial light abnormally increases mosquito biting behavior at night in a species that typically prefers to bite people during the day, according to new research.
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Plantwatch: Australia's giant stinging trees – 35m tall with a poison that can last for months
Scientists are hoping that research into Dendrocnide excelsa could lead to new painkillers It sounds like something out of The Day of the Triffids: a stinging nettle the size of a large tree, with a sting so vicious it inflicts excruciating pain that can last for days, weeks or even months. But this is no science fiction, these are the stinging trees of Australia. Dendrocnide excelsa can grow up
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The Space Station's Toilet, Oven, and Air Supply All Broke Last Night
Comes In Threes Things seem to be falling into disarray on the International Space Station. On Monday night, several important pieces of equipment broke down one after another, Gizmodo reports . They include the toilet in the Russian segment of the ISS, one of two systems that generates oxygen for the crew, and the space station's oven. Everyone is safe and everything's back up and running now, b
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Safety considerations for visiting primary care doctors
Ann M. Nguyen, an assistant research professor at Rutgers Center for State Health Policy at the Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, who recently published a paper on safety measures at physician offices, discusses what people should know about visiting their doctor and why putting off appointments that need to be done in person could lead to other health problems.
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Tradition of petrified birds in the Dome of the Rock
On the southern exterior wall of the Dome of the Rock, a very important Islamic shrine in Jerusalem's Old City, there are two marble slabs, both carved from the same stone and placed side by side to form a symmetrical pattern, that depicts two birds. In a recent article published in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies, "Solomon and The Petrified Birds on the Dome of the Rock," author Elon Harvey e
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Inside the information war on Black voters
In August, about 12,000 cell phones with Detroit area code 313 got recorded messages from "Tamika Taylor." She claimed to be a member of a civil rights organization called Project 1599, and said she was calling to warn that applying to vote by mail could lead people's personal information to be entered into a public government database. Her tone and language led listeners to believe she was a Bla
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Daily briefing: A popular unproven COVID treatment is hindering drug trials
Nature, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02969-z Scientists are struggling to run clinical trials for ivermectin in Latin America. Plus: the unsung heroes of a Nobel-winning discovery and Nature has its first open-access agreement.
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Window opens for Virgin Galactic's final round of testing
The window for the final round of testing of Virgin Galactic's rocket-powered spacecraft opens later this week as the company inches toward commercial flights.
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Light pollution may increase biting behavior at night in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Artificial light abnormally increases mosquito biting behavior at night in a species that typically prefers to bite people during the day, according to research from the University of Notre Dame that was published in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene .
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Tradition of petrified birds in the Dome of the Rock
The legend of Solomon and the birds associated with the Dome of the Rock was developed over time. Stories about the two birds demonstrate that Sufi traditions and the figure of Solomon were still very influential in shaping the appearance and conception of the Dome of the Rock.
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Deals. Profits. Lock-in. Behind the DOJ Case Against Google
In an antitrust suit, the Justice Department claims the company uses exclusive deals with device makers and browser makers to prop up its near-monopoly on search.
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Peru unveils giant cat etching at famous Nazca site
A giant 2,000-year-old figure of a feline that was on the brink of disappearing will be the new cat's meow when Peru's remarkable Nazca Lines attraction reopens to tourists in November.
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Invasive species of jellyfish seen off three North Carolina beaches, experts say
Jellyfish native to the other side of the world have been seen off multiple North Carolina beaches, prompting some experts to tell beachgoers to kill the invasive species if the opportunity arises.
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Trump's Antibody 'Cure' Will Be in Short Supply
All the weak points of American health care — testing delays, communication breakdowns, inequity — are working against this potential treatment.
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Invasive species of jellyfish seen off three North Carolina beaches, experts say
Jellyfish native to the other side of the world have been seen off multiple North Carolina beaches, prompting some experts to tell beachgoers to kill the invasive species if the opportunity arises.
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Restoring Seagrass Brings Barren Bays To Life
Seeding empty bottom mud with marine grasses has brought back fish, shellfish, and cleaned the water — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Repairing the photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco
Manajit Hayer-Hartl, head of the research group "Chaperonin-assisted Protein Folding," has a long-standing interest in the central enzyme of photosynthesis called Rubisco. Her team has already reported on many of the interacting partners of Rubisco that are required for the folding and assembly of this highly abundant protein. In the current study, they have elucidated how Rubisco activase works.
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New evidence for geologically recent earthquakes near Portland, Oregon metro area
A paleoseismic trench dug across the Gales Creek fault, located about 35 kilometers (roughly 22 miles) west of Portland, Oregon, documents evidence for three surface-rupturing earthquakes that took place about 8,800, 4,200 and 1,000 years ago.
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Repairing the photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco
Researchers have elucidated how Rubisco activase works. As the name indicates, this enzyme is critical for repairing Rubisco once it has lost its activity.
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Hot-button words trigger conservatives and liberals differently
Researchers have linked a brain region to what they call neural polarization, offering a glimpse into the partisan brain in the weeks leading up to what is arguably the most consequential U.S. presidential election in modern history.
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Salt-based mosquito-control products are ineffective
A new study by a bevy of expert mosquito researchers offers an important warning to consumers: Products claiming to reduce mosquito populations with salt-water solutions are ineffective. In a series of lab tests using nine mosquito species, researchers found no evidence that adult mosquitoes are killed by salt ingested at concentrations used in several popular mosquito-control products.
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Repairing the photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco
Manajit Hayer-Hartl, head of the research group "Chaperonin-assisted Protein Folding," has a long-standing interest in the central enzyme of photosynthesis called Rubisco. Her team has already reported on many of the interacting partners of Rubisco that are required for the folding and assembly of this highly abundant protein. In the current study, they have elucidated how Rubisco activase works.
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Predicting tornadoes on UK cold fronts for the first time
Weather forecasters can more accurately predict when a tornado is likely to hit the UK thanks to a new tool devised in a partnership between the University of Leeds and the Met Office.
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Geologists 'resurrect' missing tectonic plate
The existence of a tectonic plate called Resurrection has long been a topic of debate among geologists, with some arguing it was never real. Others say it subducted—moved sideways and downward—into the earth's mantle somewhere in the Pacific Margin between 40 and 60 million years ago.
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New evidence for geologically recent earthquakes near Portland, Oregon metro area
A paleoseismic trench dug across the Gales Creek fault, located about 35 kilometers (roughly 22 miles) west of Portland, Oregon, documents evidence for three surface-rupturing earthquakes that took place about 8,800, 4,200 and 1,000 years ago.
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'Incredibly rare' white baby sea turtle pops out of the sand on South Carolina beach
An "extremely rare" white baby sea turtle was found Sunday on a beach 25 miles south of Charleston, South Carolina, according to Kiawah Island town officials.
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'Incredibly rare' white baby sea turtle pops out of the sand on South Carolina beach
An "extremely rare" white baby sea turtle was found Sunday on a beach 25 miles south of Charleston, South Carolina, according to Kiawah Island town officials.
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SpaceX Starship Prototype Fires Up Its 3 Engines Ahead of Flight to 12 Miles
Static Fire SpaceX's latest Starship prototype, called SN8, completed a "static fire" test of its three Raptor engines early this morning at the company's test site in Boca Chica, Texas. The event was caught on camera by NASASpaceFlight , showing the water tower-like rocket sending off a large cloud of white smoke. Starship SN8 STATIC FIRE!! The first-ever triple Raptor Static Fire! Mary ( @BocaC
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Scientists: Yes, the COVID-19 Death Toll Is Really That High
The U.S. is currently staring down a third peak in COVID-19 cases, during a pandemic that's infected over 8.2 million people in the country, killing more than 220,000. And yet there's a massive effort — generally motivated by politics — to downplay the devastation of the coronavirus pandemic by disputing and minimizing the established death toll. These claims that the death toll has been inflated
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One way to prevent cancer: map the fundamentals of how cells go awry
Wilmot Cancer Institute scientists focused on proteins involved in breast and brain cancer and melanoma, and made a new discovery.
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How initiatives empowering employees can backfire
Strategies meant to motivate people in the workplace may have unintended consequences — depending on who's in charge. Recent research from Michigan State University shows that empowerment initiatives aren't necessarily the answer for business leaders hoping to motivate their employees.
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Tropical cyclones moving faster in recent decades
Tropical cyclones, regionally known as hurricanes or typhoons, have been moving across ocean basins faster since 1982, according to a new study.
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Severe air pollution drives food delivery consumption and plastic waste
When the air outside is bad, office workers are more likely to order food delivery than go out for lunch, which in turn increases plastic waste from food packaging, according to a study by researchers from the National University of Singapore.
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Hot-button words trigger conservatives and liberals differently
Researchers have linked a brain region to what they call neural polarization, offering a glimpse into the partisan brain in the weeks leading up to what is arguably the most consequential U.S. presidential election in modern history.
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A CNIO team describes how a virus can cause diabetes
CNIO researchers have discovered the molecular mechanism by which coxsackievirus type B4 affects the functions and identity of beta cells that generate insulin, therefore promoting diabetes* They suggest to explore whether the potential of some drugs tested for cancer treatment in combination with antiviral therapies could be effective as a prevention and therapeutic strategy* The finding could be
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From pills to powder: 1 in 3 high school seniors who misused prescription opioids later used heroin
Nearly one-third of students who reported misusing prescription opioids as high school seniors between 1997 and 2000, but did not have a history of medical use, later used heroin by age 35, according to a University of Michigan study.
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Enzymatic DNA synthesis sees the light
Researchers have applied photolithographic techniques from the computer chip industry to enzymatic DNA synthesis, and thus developed a new method to multiplex the superior DNA writing ability of Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase TdT's.
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Here's How to Watch as NASA Attempts to Grab a Sample From an Asteroid
Touchdown NASA is about to send its OSIRIS-REx spacecraft down to the surface of Bennu, a small near-Earth asteroid about 500 meters across, to scoop up a sample and bring it home. OSIRIS-REx has already started making its approach and will make its sample collection at Bennu around 6:12 pm Eastern time today. Luckily, NASA is providing us with live coverage of the event, starting at 5pm. All For
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Repairing the photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry decipher the molecular mechanism of Rubisco Activase
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Removal of synthetic estrogen from water
Synthetic estrogens from pharmaceuticals contaminate rivers and threaten the health of humans and fish. An effective and cost-efficient method for removing synthetic estrogen from bodies of water
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A new material for separating CO2 from industrial waste gases, natural gas, or biogas
With a new material, the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) can be specifically separated from industrial waste gases, natural gas, or biogas, and thereby made available for recycling. The separation process is both energy efficient and cost-effective.
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New Voyager Readings: Space Is Much Denser Outside Solar System
Meeting Resistance Voyager 2, a space probe launched in 1977 that finally made its way out of our solar system in 2018, is recording some weird data out in interstellar space. As it passed the boundary of our solar system, Voyager 2 picked up on an increase rather than a decrease in the particle density in its surroundings, according to ScienceAlert . Based on the assumption that it's, well, the
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A new material for separating CO2 from industrial waste gases, natural gas, or biogas
With a new material, the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) can be specifically separated from industrial waste gases, natural gas, or biogas, and thereby made available for recycling. The separation process is both energy efficient and cost-effective.
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California's Mega Fires Have Arrived 30 Years Early
Climate models that looked at temperature change could not foresee the effects of drought and fire suppression — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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The Machines Rise a Bit More
Here's a new paper in Nature on computer-generated synthesis of natural products. More formally, you'd call it retrosynthesis, since the thought process in organic chemistry tends to work backwards when you have a particular target that you're trying to make: "OK, this part could could be made from something like this. . .and that, you could make by condensing two pieces sort of like these. . ."
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New evidence for geologically recent earthquakes near Portland, Oregon metro area
A paleoseismic trench dug across the Gales Creek fault, located about 35 kilometers (roughly 22 miles) west of Portland, Oregon, documents evidence for three surface-rupturing earthquakes that took place about 8,800, 4,200 and 1,000 years ago.
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Nature Communications publishes Bluestar Genomics' technology for cancer detection study
Bluestar Genomics, an innovative company leading the development of next-generation epigenomic approaches to early cancer detection, announced today the publication of study results in the peer-reviewed journal Nature Communications . The study demonstrates the power of the company's platform to detect pancreatic cancer in its early stages, addressing the unmet need of more than 60,000 patients di
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New anti-AB vaccine could help halt Alzheimer's progression, preclinical study finds
A preclinical study by neuroscientists indicates that an antigen-presenting dendritic vaccine with a specific antibody response to oligomeric A-beta may be safer and offer clinical benefit in treating Alzheimer's disease. The vaccine uses immune cells known as dendritic cells loaded with a modified A beta peptide as the antigen.
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Lost and found: Geologists 'resurrect' missing tectonic plate
A team of geologists believes they have found the lost plate known as Resurrection in northern Canada by using existing mantle tomography images.
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Colorful perovskites: Thermochromic window technologies
Scientists report a breakthrough in developing a next-generation thermochromic window that not only reduces the need for air conditioning but simultaneously generates electricity.
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Cutting-edge, whole-heart imaging provides new details on heart defects
A cutting-edge technique that allows scientists to zoom into tiny details in a 3D image of a whole animal heart may lead to new insights on congenital heart disease.
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Microbial diversity below seafloor is as rich as on Earth's surface
For the first time, researchers have mapped the biological diversity of marine sediment, one of Earth's largest global biomes. The research team discovered that microbial diversity in the dark, energy-limited world beneath the seafloor is as diverse as in Earth's surface biomes.
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Cognitive behavioral therapy reduces insomnia symptoms among young drinkers
More than half of young adults at risk for alcohol-related harm report symptoms of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the first-line treatments for insomnia, but it's never been tested on young adults who are actively drinking. Researchers evaluated CBT's effect on young adult binge drinkers with insomnia to determine if this treatment can improve their sleep and potentially af
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Does the new heart transplant allocation policy encourage gaming by providers?
A new national policy was created to make determining who receives a heart transplant more fair. But new data shows it changed some practice patterns, too.
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Anti-inflammatory therapy shows promise in slowing progression of multiple sclerosis
Intranasal administration of an anti-inflammatory drug helped reduce disease progression in a preclinical model of multiple sclerosis, according to recent research.
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The road to uncovering a novel mechanism for disposing of misfolded proteins
The discovery of the cause of a rare liver disease in babies led to uncovering a novel cellular mechanism for disposing of misfolded proteins that has implications for neurodegenerative conditions of older age.
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Sunny-day flooding linked to sea level, moon orbit
Researchers have uncovered a pattern in sunny-day flooding related to sea level rise. The finding could help coastal communities predict and plan for future high-water events. By comparing a century of sea-level data with records of solar and lunar activity also identified in tree rings, scientists report a link between sunspots, the moon's orbit, and high sea levels in the Gulf of Mexico and the
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Fall Is in the Air: Images of the Season
Autumn is definitely the best season. The autumnal equinox took place a few weeks ago, marking the end of summer and the start of fall across the Northern Hemisphere. Once again it is the season of harvests, festivals, migrations, winter preparations, and, of course, spectacular fall foliage. Across the North, people are beginning to feel a crisp chill in the evening air, leaves are splashing mou
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A Handful of Asteroid Could Help Decipher Our Entire Existence
Many millions of miles from Earth, an asteroid and a spacecraft are traveling together. The asteroid, as wide as a skyscraper is tall, is ancient, almost as old as the solar system itself. The spacecraft, dispatched more recently , circles the asteroid like a tiny mechanical moon. Tonight, if everything goes as planned, the spacecraft will swoop toward the asteroid, touch its surface, and snatch
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Targeting the shell of the Ebola virus
As the world grapples with COVID-19, the Ebola virus is again raging. Researchers are using supercomputers to simulate the inner workings of Ebola (as well as COVID-19), looking at how molecules move, atom by atom, to carry out their functions. Now, they have revealed structural features of the Ebola virus's protein shell to provide therapeutic targets to destabilize the virus and knock it out wit
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DNA-peptide interactions create complex behaviors which may have helped shape biology
Researchers find that simple DNA-peptide interactions create a surprising diversity of compartmentalized higher-ordered phase behaviors, suggesting that these polymers' primordial interactions helped create modern complex biological structures.
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Survey: Women don't know their state abortion laws
Most women of child-bearing age were unfamiliar with their state's abortion laws and commonly repeated abortion myths, a national survey finds. The findings, which appear in the journal Contraception , suggest that inaccurate knowledge of abortion laws could be an additional barrier to care in environments that are hostile toward abortion. "Women have low levels of knowledge about abortion laws,
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The GovLab launches collective intelligence to solve public problems
A new report from The Governance Lab at NYU's Tandon School of Engineering examines global examples of how public institutions are using new technology to take advantage of the collective action and collective wisdom of people in their communities and around the world to address problems like climate change, loneliness and natural disaster response
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A new material for separating CO2 from industrial waste gases, natural gas, or biogas
With the new material, developed at the University of Bayreuth, the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) can be specifically separated from industrial waste gases, natural gas, or biogas, and thereby made available for recycling. The separation process is both energy efficient and cost-effective.
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New anti-AB vaccine could help halt Alzheimer's progression, preclinical study finds
A preclinical study led by University of South Florida Health neuroscientists indicates that an antigen-presenting dendritic vaccine with a specific antibody response to oligomeric Aβ may be safer and offer clinical benefit in treating Alzheimer's disease. The vaccine uses immune cells known as dendritic cells loaded with a modified Aβ peptide as the antigen.
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Quicker treatment could save older stroke patients
A new method treats stroke patients that until now may have been untreatable, researchers report. As reported in a new study in the Journal of Neurosurgery , direct carotid puncture (DCT) offers a life-saving and surprisingly safe alternative to the standard mechanical thrombectomy for patients with difficult-to-access arteries. Americans have more than 795,000 strokes every year, leading to 140,
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Targeting the shell of the Ebola virus
As the world grapples with COVID-19, the Ebola virus is again raging. Researchers are using supercomputers to simulate the inner workings of Ebola (as well as COVID-19), looking at how molecules move, atom by atom, to carry out their functions. Now, they have revealed structural features of the Ebola virus's protein shell to provide therapeutic targets to destabilize the virus and knock it out wit
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Coronavirus vaccines stir doubts among many people worldwide, new study shows
A new study highlights potential global hesitancy to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Based on data collected with the previously validated COVID-SCORE survey of a sample of over 13,400 individuals from 19 countries that have been hard-hit by the virus, the investigators found that 72 percent of participants would likely take the vaccine. Of the remaining 28 percent, 14 percent would refuse, while 14 pe
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Antarctic ozone hole is one of the largest and deepest in recent years
Measurements from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite show that this year's ozone hole over the Antarctic is one of the largest and deepest in recent years. A detailed analyses from the German Aerospace Center indicates that the hole has now reached its maximum size.
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Restoring seagrasses can bring coastal bays back to life
A century ago Virginia's coastal lagoons were a natural paradise. Fishing boats bobbed on the waves as geese flocked overhead. Beneath the surface, miles of seagrass gently swayed in the surf, making the seabed look like a vast underwater prairie.
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Restoring seagrasses can bring coastal bays back to life
A century ago Virginia's coastal lagoons were a natural paradise. Fishing boats bobbed on the waves as geese flocked overhead. Beneath the surface, miles of seagrass gently swayed in the surf, making the seabed look like a vast underwater prairie.
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Scientists record broad spectra with close to one hundred thousand colors in almost complete darkness
Our eyes are sensitive to only three spectral color bands (red, green, blue), and people can no longer distinguish colors if it becomes very dark. Spectroscopists can identify many more colors by the frequencies of the light waves and can distinguish atoms and molecules by their spectral fingerprints. In a proof-of-principle experiment, Nathalie Picqué and Theodor Hänsch from the Max-Planck Instit
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A diversified field produces a higher yield
Farmers can earn more by developing their fields to be more diversified as the fertility of soil improves. At the same time, carbon can also be sequestered.
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Chemists develop new material for the separation of carbon dioxide from industrial waste gases
Chemists at the University of Bayreuth have developed a material that could well make an important contribution to climate protection and sustainable industrial production. With this material, the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO₂) can be specifically separated from industrial waste gases, natural gas, or biogas, and thereby made available for recycling. The separation process is both energy effi
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Prejudice against people with darker skin may make donors less generous
U.S. donors are inclined to give less generously to charities in developing countries when they believe those funds will help people with darker skin.
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A new methodology with chemical and physical analyses differentiates Ibero-Roman from Punic ceramic fragments
The recognition of the various types of amphorae from a morphological point of view is usually used as a tool to learn their origin and, consequently, the trade routes of antiquity. However, this methodology does not always make it possible to learn the origin, so it has been completed with mineralogical and chemical analyses that make it possible to know key aspects like the manufacturing process
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Climate scientists fly more than other researchers, first global study suggests
Climate change researchers, especially professors, fly more than other researchers—but are also more likely to have taken steps to reduce or offset their flying, a new study has found.
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Study reveals why some blame Asian Americans for COVID-19
A blend of racial prejudice, poor coping and partisan media viewing were found in Americans who stigmatized people of Asian descent during the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a new study.
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How some sea slugs keep their ability to carry out plant-like photosynthesis
Scientists have shed new light on a relationship between a sea slug and tiny structures called chloroplasts from their food algae that allow the animals to photosynthesise in a similar way to plants.
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Newly discovered gene may give 'sea pickles' their glow
A new study describes a bioluminescent gene that could be the reason that so-called 'sea pickles,' or pyrosomes, an underwater free-floating colony of thousands of tiny animals, reverberate in blue-green light. If confirmed, the finding would be the first bioluminescent gene identified from a chordate—the group that includes all vertebrates as well as a couple types of invertebrates: sea squirts (
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Researchers discovered the second 'key' used by the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter into human cells
To efficiently infect human cells, SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is able to use a receptor called Neuropilin-1, which is very abundant in many human tissues including the respiratory tract, blood vessels and neurons. The breakthrough discovery was made by a German-Finnish team of researchers led by neuroscientists Mika Simons ,Technical University of Munich, Germany and virologist Gi
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Microbial diversity below seafloor is as rich as on Earth's surface
For the first time, researchers have mapped the biological diversity of marine sediment, one of Earth's largest global biomes. The research team discovered that microbial diversity in the dark, energy-limited world beneath the seafloor is as diverse as in Earth's surface biomes.
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Targeting the shell of the Ebola virus
As the world grapples with COVID-19, the Ebola virus is again raging. A research team at University of Delaware is using supercomputers to simulate the inner workings of Ebola (as well as COVID-19), looking at how molecules move, atom by atom, to carry out their functions. Now, they have revealed structural features of the Ebola virus's protein shell to provide therapeutic targets to destabilize t
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Treatment for inflammatory bowel disease doesn't always work; new study uncovers why
In preclinical study, researchers at Children's Hospital Los Angeles uncover role for TNF, the most common target in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Results pave way for better understanding of how TNF functions in normal intestinal development and provide foundation for future new therapies.
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Study finds tocilizumab improves survival in critically ill patients with COVID-19
The investigators found that when tocilizumab was administered within the first two days of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, there was a 30 percent relative decrease (and a 10 percent absolute decrease) in mortality compared to patients whose treatment did not include early use of tocilizumab.
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Effect of tocilizumab in adults hospitalized with COVID-19 with moderate or severe pneumonia
This randomized clinical trial assessed whether tocilizumab improves outcomes of patients hospitalized with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia compared to usual care.
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Tocilizumab vs standard care on preventing worsening in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia
Researchers in this randomized clinical trial compared the effect of early administration of tocilizumab with standard therapy in preventing clinical worsening in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia.
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Examining association between early treatment with tocilizumab, risk of death among critically ill COVID-19 patients
Whether treatment with tocilizumab in the first two days after being admitted to an intensive care unit was associated with a reduced risk of death among critically ill patients with COVID-19 was investigated in this study.
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How some sea slugs keep their ability to carry out plant-like photosynthesis
Scientists have shed new light on a relationship between a sea slug and tiny structures called chloroplasts from their food algae that allow the animals to photosynthesise in a similar way to plants.
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Newly discovered gene may give 'sea pickles' their glow
A new study describes a bioluminescent gene that could be the reason that so-called 'sea pickles,' or pyrosomes, an underwater free-floating colony of thousands of tiny animals, reverberate in blue-green light. If confirmed, the finding would be the first bioluminescent gene identified from a chordate—the group that includes all vertebrates as well as a couple types of invertebrates: sea squirts (
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Scientists discover unusual materials properties at ultrahigh pressure
An international team of scientists from NUST MISIS (Russia), Linköping University (Sweden) and University of Bayreuth (Germany) found that, contrary to the usual physical and chemical laws, the structure of some materials does not condense at ultrahigh pressures. Actually, it forms a porous framework filled with gas molecules. This happened with samples of Os, Hf, and W put together with N in a d
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Researchers at the forefront of developing machine learning methods for chemical discovery
The discovery and formulation of new drugs, antivirals, antibiotics and in general chemicals with tailored properties is a long and painstaking process. Interdisciplinary research at the crossroads of biochemistry, physics and computer science can change this. The development of machine learning (ML) methods, combined with first principles of quantum and statistical mechanics and trained on increa
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Researchers use gold nanorod scattering to identify immune system's 'killer and savior'
Every biological system is naturally equipped with a defense mechanism to protect against abnormal changes caused by either local, environmental, or biochemical alteration. White blood cells (WBC) play the role of such a 'soldier' in our immune response. One type of WBC, known as macrophages, is the most efficient and specialized fighter since it is simultaneously equipped with the power of select
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Boron nitride nanofilms for protection from bacterial and fungal infections
NUST MISIS material scientists have presented antibacterial nano-coatings based on boron nitride, which are highly effective against microbial pathogens (up to 99.99%). They can become a safe alternative to the usual antibiotics in implantology since they do not have typical negative side effects. The results of the work are published in the international scientific journal ACS Applied Materials &
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Free-college programs have led to large enrollment increases at two-year institutions
A study of 33 public community college promise programs, or free-college programs, across the United States found that they are associated with large enrollment increases of first-time, full-time students—with the biggest boost in enrollment among Black, Hispanic, and female students. The results come as the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is leading states to tighten higher education bud
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Technology ready for back-up detector X-IFU in Athena space telescope
In 2031, ESA launches its new X-ray space telescope Athena. SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research plays a large role in building one of its two instruments, the X-IFU spectrometer, by producing the camera plus the back-up detectors. SRON scientists have now successfully developed detectors that are optimized for a readout based on a special system called Frequency Domain Multiplexing. They
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Asymmetric optical camouflage: Tuneable reflective color accompanied by optical Janus effect
In modern optics, a variety of nanoscale materials and their localisation have been examined, as they lead to novel optical effects. Viewing a direction sensitive information display utilizing the optical Janus effect has attracted great attention owing to its dynamic operation scheme which allows for discriminative information delivery. However, the integration of nano-materials within multiple l
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Confusion undermines launch of Heathrow coronavirus test
Uncertainty about whether Italy would accept results limits new rapid test to three flights to Hong Kong
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CRISPR meets Pac-Man: New DNA cut-and-paste tool enables bigger gene edits
Gene editing for the development of new treatments, and for studying disease as well as normal function in humans and other organisms, may advance more quickly with a new tool for cutting larger pieces of DNA out of a cell's genome, according to a new study.
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A microstructural neural network biomarker for dystonia diagnosis identified by a DystoniaNet deep learning platform [Computer Sciences]
Isolated dystonia is a neurological disorder of heterogeneous pathophysiology, which causes involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal movements and postures. Its diagnosis is remarkably challenging due to the absence of a biomarker or gold standard diagnostic test. This leads to a low agreement between clinicians, with up to 50% of…
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Segregation of four Agrobacterium tumefaciens replicons during polar growth: PopZ and PodJ control segregation of essential replicons [Microbiology]
Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contains four replicons, circular chromosome (CC), linear chromosome (LC), cryptic plasmid (pAt), and tumor-inducing plasmid (pTi), and grows by polar growth from a single growth pole (GP), while the old cell compartment and its old pole (OP) do not elongate. We monitored the replication and segregation of…
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Convergent evolution of zoonotic Brucella species toward the selective use of the pentose phosphate pathway [Microbiology]
Mechanistic understanding of the factors that govern host tropism remains incompletely understood for most pathogens. Brucella species, which are capable of infecting a wide range of hosts, offer a useful avenue to address this question. We hypothesized that metabolic fine-tuning to intrahost niches is likely an underappreciated axis underlying pathogens'…
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Experimental infection of domestic dogs and cats with SARS-CoV-2: Pathogenesis, transmission, and response to reexposure in cats [Microbiology]
The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached nearly every country in the world with extraordinary person-to-person transmission. The most likely original source of the virus was spillover from an animal reservoir and subsequent adaptation to humans sometime during the winter of 2019 in Wuhan…
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Agrobacterium-delivered VirE2 interacts with host nucleoporin CG1 to facilitate the nuclear import of VirE2-coated T complex [Microbiology]
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causal agent of crown gall disease. The bacterium is capable of transferring a segment of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) into recipient cells during the transformation process, and it has been widely used as a genetic modification tool for plants and nonplant organisms. Transferred DNA (T-DNA) has been…
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Chronicling changes in the somatosensory neurons after peripheral nerve injury [Neuroscience]
Current drug discovery efforts focus on identifying lead compounds acting on a molecular target associated with an established pathological state. Concerted molecular changes that occur in specific cell types during disease progression have generally not been identified. Here, we used constellation pharmacology to investigate rat dorsal root ganglion neurons using…
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Point process temporal structure characterizes electrodermal activity [Neuroscience]
Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a direct readout of the body's sympathetic nervous system measured as sweat-induced changes in the skin's electrical conductance. There is growing interest in using EDA to track physiological conditions such as stress levels, sleep quality, and emotional states. Standardized EDA data analysis methods are readily available….
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Primary and secondary motoneurons use different calcium channel types to control escape and swimming behaviors in zebrafish [Neuroscience]
The escape response and rhythmic swimming in zebrafish are distinct behaviors mediated by two functionally distinct motoneuron (Mn) types. The primary (1°Mn) type depresses and has a large quantal content (Qc) and a high release probability (Pr). Conversely, the secondary (2°Mn) type facilitates and has low and variable Qc and…
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Metformin rescues Parkinson's disease phenotypes caused by hyperactive mitochondria [Neuroscience]
Metabolic dysfunction occurs in many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, yet its role in disease etiology remains poorly understood. We recently discovered a potential causal link between the branched-chain amino acid transferase BCAT-1 and the neurodegenerative movement disorder Parkinson's disease (PD). RNAi-mediated knockdown of Caenorhabditis elegans bcat-1 is known to recapitulate PD-like
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Neddylation is critical to cortical development by regulating Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling [Neuroscience]
Wnt signaling plays a critical role in production and differentiation of neurons and undergoes a progressive reduction during cortical development. However, how Wnt signaling is regulated is not well understood. Here we provide evidence for an indispensable role of neddylation, a ubiquitylation-like protein modification, in inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We show…
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Neuroadaptations in the dorsal hippocampus underlie cocaine seeking during prolonged abstinence [Neuroscience]
Relapse vulnerability in substance use disorder is attributed to persistent cue-induced drug seeking that intensifies (or "incubates") during drug abstinence. Incubated cocaine seeking has been observed in both humans with cocaine use disorder and in preclinical relapse models. This persistent relapse vulnerability is mediated by neuroadaptations in brain regions involved…
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Adhesion-GPCR Gpr116 (ADGRF5) expression inhibits renal acid secretion [Physiology]
The diversity and near universal expression of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) reflects their involvement in most physiological processes. The GPCR superfamily is the largest in the human genome, and GPCRs are common pharmaceutical targets. Therefore, uncovering the function of understudied GPCRs provides a wealth of untapped therapeutic potential. We previously…
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Fecal transplantation and butyrate improve neuropathic pain, modify immune cell profile, and gene expression in the PNS of obese mice [Physiology]
Obesity affects over 2 billion people worldwide and is accompanied by peripheral neuropathy (PN) and an associated poorer quality of life. Despite high prevalence, the molecular mechanisms underlying the painful manifestations of PN are poorly understood, and therapies are restricted to use of painkillers or other drugs that do not…
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An inhibitor of endothelial ETS transcription factors promotes physiologic and therapeutic vessel regression [Physiology]
During the progression of ocular diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity and diabetic retinopathy, overgrowth of retinal blood vessels results in the formation of pathological neovascular tufts that impair vision. Current therapeutic options for treating these diseases include antiangiogenic strategies that can lead to the undesirable inhibition of normal vascular…
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Inactivation of rice starch branching enzyme IIb triggers broad and unexpected changes in metabolism by transcriptional reprogramming [Plant Biology]
Starch properties can be modified by mutating genes responsible for the synthesis of amylose and amylopectin in the endosperm. However, little is known about the effects of such targeted modifications on the overall starch biosynthesis pathway and broader metabolism. Here we investigated the effects of mutating the OsSBEIIb gene encoding…
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Extrahypothalamic oxytocin neurons drive stress-induced social vigilance and avoidance [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Oxytocin increases the salience of both positive and negative social contexts and it is thought that these diverse actions on behavior are mediated in part through circuit-specific action. This hypothesis is based primarily on manipulations of oxytocin receptor function, leaving open the question of whether different populations of oxytocin neurons…
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Evolved differences in energy metabolism and growth dictate the impacts of ocean acidification on abalone aquaculture [Sustainability Science]
Ocean acidification (OA) poses a major threat to marine ecosystems and shellfish aquaculture. A promising mitigation strategy is the identification and breeding of shellfish varieties exhibiting resilience to acidification stress. We experimentally compared the effects of OA on two populations of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), a marine mollusc important to…
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Posttranscriptional regulation of human endogenous retroviruses by RNA-binding motif protein 4, RBM4 [Systems Biology]
The human genome encodes for over 1,500 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), which coordinate regulatory events on RNA transcripts. Most studies of RBPs have concentrated on their action on host protein-encoding mRNAs, which constitute a minority of the transcriptome. A widely neglected subset of our transcriptome derives from integrated retroviral elements, termed…
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Correction for Huang et al., Catalytic prior distributions with application to generalized linear models [Correction]
STATISTICS Correction for "Catalytic prior distributions with application to generalized linear models," by Dongming Huang, Nathan Stein, Donald B. Rubin, and S. C. Kou, which was first published May 15, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1920913117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 12004–12010). The authors note that an additional affiliation should be listed for…
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Correction for Byers-Heinlein et al., Bilingual infants control their languages as they listen [Correction]
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Correction for "Bilingual infants control their languages as they listen," by Krista Byers-Heinlein, Elizabeth Morin-Lessard, and Casey Lew-Williams, which was first published August 7, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1703220114 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, 9032–9037). The authors note that, due to a coding error, a portion of Fig….
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Correction for Vogt et al., Intergenerational resource sharing and mortality in a global perspective [Correction]
SOCIAL SCIENCES Correction for "Intergenerational resource sharing and mortality in a global perspective," by Tobias Vogt, Fanny Kluge, and Ronald Lee, which was first published August 31, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1920978117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 22793–22799). The editors note that Luis Rosero-Bixby's affiliation appeared incorrectly as University of California, Berkeley,…
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Correction for Wang et al., Regenerative therapy based on miRNA-302 mimics for enhancing host recovery from pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae [Correction]
MICROBIOLOGY Correction for "Regenerative therapy based on miRNA-302 mimics for enhancing host recovery from pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae," by Yan Wang, Yong Li, Peggy Zhang, Sandy T. Baker, Marla R. Wolfson, Jeffrey N. Weiser, Ying Tian, and Hao Shen, which was first published April 10, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1818522116 (Proc. Natl….
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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Wildlife value of tropical forest restoration Selective logging at the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems project site, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Habitat degradation in tropical forests continues to harm vital ecosystems. Because such degradation affects approximately 4 billion ha of tropical forest, global efforts to increase conservation and restoration are underway….
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Dangerous to claim "no clear association" between intergenerational relationships and COVID-19 [Social Sciences]
Arpino et al. (1) report the failure of aggregate data to show an association between intergenerational relationships (IR) and COVID-19 mortality. We hypothesized that high mortality in countries like Italy may stem from the interaction of early infection seeding, high levels of IR, and older population age structures (2). High…
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Reply to Dowd et al.: Dangerous to overemphasize the importance of specific COVID-19 risk factors based on (unadjusted) macro-level analyses [Social Sciences]
Dowd et al. (1) state that it is "dangerous to claim 'no clear association' between intergenerational relationships and COVID-19." We agree. However, our paper's title (2) already specifies "from macro-level analyses." The main criticism in ref. 1 originates in a misunderstanding of our macro-level analyses as a denial of risks…
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Involvement of nasal trigeminal function in human stereo smelling [Biological Sciences]
Wu et al. (1) show that human motion perception is influenced by odors presented simultaneously to the left and right nostrils. They conclude that this does not involve trigeminal intranasal sensitivity. This is not fully supported by their data. The odor used in most experiments can be localized in the…
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Reply to Croy and Hummel: Stereo smelling without involvement of nasal trigeminal function [Biological Sciences]
Many odorants stimulate the trigeminal nerve at high, but not low, concentrations, and trigeminal stimulation produces hot, cold, itching, tingling, or electric feelings that are spatially localizable. What has been under debate is whether internostril differences yield directionality in human olfaction without involving the trigeminal system. To address this issue,…
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Shedding light on manganese cycling in the early oceans [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Agreement is often in short supply within the community of researchers asking questions about Earth's earliest history. One exception, however, is the near-consensus view that oxygen (O2) was mostly absent from the atmosphere and oceans before about 2.4 to 2.3 Ga—the so-called Great Oxidation Event (GOE). It is also widely…
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Toward causality and improving external validity [Statistics]
"Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas," from the Latin poet Virgil (1), literally translated as "Fortunate, who was able to know the causes of things," hints at the importance of causality since a very long time ago. In PNAS, Bates et al. (2) start their contribution with the sentence "The…
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Placing language in an integrated understanding system: Next steps toward human-level performance in neural language models [Perspectives]
Language is crucial for human intelligence, but what exactly is its role? We take language to be a part of a system for understanding and communicating about situations. In humans, these abilities emerge gradually from experience and depend on domain-general principles of biological neural networks: connection-based learning, distributed representation, and…
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The scale dependency of spatial crop species diversity and its relation to temporal diversity [Agricultural Sciences]
Increasing crop species diversity can enhance agricultural sustainability, but the scale dependency of the processes that shape diversity and of the effects of diversity on agroecosystems is insufficiently understood. We used 30 m spatial resolution crop classification data for the conterminous United States to analyze spatial and temporal crop species…
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Neutral evolution of human enamel-dentine ȷunction morphology [Anthropology]
Teeth have been studied for decades and continue to reveal information relevant to human evolution. Studies have shown that many traits of the outer enamel surface evolve neutrally and can be used to infer human population structure. However, many of these traits are unavailable in archaeological and fossil individuals due…
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Extracellular matrix plasticity as a driver of cell spreading [Applied Biological Sciences]
Mammalian cell morphology has been linked to the viscoelastic properties of the adhesion substrate, which is particularly relevant in biological processes such as wound repair and embryonic development where cell spreading and migration are critical. Plastic deformation, degradation, and relaxation of stress are typically coupled in biomaterial systems used to…
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Heterologous microProtein expression identifies LITTLE NINJA, a dominant regulator of jasmonic acid signaling [Applied Biological Sciences]
MicroProteins are small, often single-domain proteins that are sequence-related to larger, often multidomain proteins. Here, we used a combination of comparative genomics and heterologous synthetic misexpression to isolate functional cereal microProtein regulators. Our approach identified LITTLE NINJA (LNJ), a microProtein that acts as a modulator of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling….
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The turning point and end of an expanding epidemic cannot be precisely forecast [Applied Mathematics]
Epidemic spread is characterized by exponentially growing dynamics, which are intrinsically unpredictable. The time at which the growth in the number of infected individuals halts and starts decreasing cannot be calculated with certainty before the turning point is actually attained; neither can the end of the epidemic after the turning…
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CO2-leakage-driven diffusiophoresis causes spontaneous accumulation of charged materials in channel flow [Applied Physical Sciences]
We identify a phenomenon where the onset of channel flow creates an unexpected, charge-dependent accumulation of colloidal particles, which occurs in a common-flow configuration with gas-permeable walls, but in the absence of any installed source of gas. An aqueous suspension of either positively charged (amine-modified polystyrene; a-PS) or negatively charged…
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Pushing the conductance and transparency limit of monolayer graphene electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting diodes [Applied Physical Sciences]
Graphene has emerged as an attractive candidate for flexible transparent electrode (FTE) for a new generation of flexible optoelectronics. Despite tremendous potential and broad earlier interest, the promise of graphene FTE has been plagued by the intrinsic trade-off between electrical conductance and transparency with a figure of merit (σDC/σOp) considerably…
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Inner Workings: Researchers race to develop in-home testing for COVID-19, a potential game changer [Biochemistry]
For most people, COVID-19 test entails a swab up the nose in a doctor's office or at a drive-in site. The sample then goes out to a lab. Results come back within a few days to a week—a waiting period that's simply too long to stop the spread of the…
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Phase separation by ssDNA binding protein controlled via protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions [Biochemistry]
Bacterial single-stranded (ss)DNA-binding proteins (SSB) are essential for the replication and maintenance of the genome. SSBs share a conserved ssDNA-binding domain, a less conserved intrinsically disordered linker (IDL), and a highly conserved C-terminal peptide (CTP) motif that mediates a wide array of protein−protein interactions with DNA-metabolizing proteins. Here we show…
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Real-time observation of ligand-induced allosteric transitions in a PDZ domain [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
While allostery is of paramount importance for protein regulation, the underlying dynamical process of ligand (un)binding at one site, resulting time evolution of the protein structure, and change of the binding affinity at a remote site are not well understood. Here the ligand-induced conformational transition in a widely studied model…
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Exploring the activation pathway and Gi-coupling specificity of the {mu}-opioid receptor [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Understanding the activation mechanism of the μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR) and its selective coupling to the inhibitory G protein (Gi) is vital for pharmaceutical research aimed at finding treatments for the opioid overdose crisis. Many attempts have been made to understand the mechanism of the μ-OR activation, following the elucidation of…
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An intrinsically disordered motif regulates the interaction between the p47 adaptor and the p97 AAA+ ATPase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
VCP/p97, an enzyme critical to proteostasis, is regulated through interactions with protein adaptors targeting it to specific cellular tasks. One such adaptor, p47, forms a complex with p97 to direct lipid membrane remodeling. Here, we use NMR and other biophysical methods to study the structural dynamics of p47 and p47–p97…
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Crystal structure of tomato spotted wilt virus GN reveals a dimer complex formation and evolutionary link to animal-infecting viruses [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Tospoviridae is a family of enveloped RNA plant viruses that infect many field crops, inflicting a heavy global economic burden. These tripartite, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses are transmitted from plant to plant by thrips as the insect vector. The medium (M) segment of the viral genome encodes two envelope glycoproteins,…
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Cryo-EM structures reveal distinct mechanisms of inhibition of the human multidrug transporter ABCB1 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
ABCB1 detoxifies cells by exporting diverse xenobiotic compounds, thereby limiting drug disposition and contributing to multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Multiple small-molecule inhibitors and inhibitory antibodies have been developed for therapeutic applications, but the structural basis of their activity is insufficiently understood. We determined cryo-EM structures of nanodisc-reconstituted
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Mechanoactivation of NOX2-generated ROS elicits persistent TRPM8 Ca2+ signals that are inhibited by oncogenic KRas [Cell Biology]
Changes in the mechanical microenvironment and mechanical signals are observed during tumor progression, malignant transformation, and metastasis. In this context, understanding the molecular details of mechanotransduction signaling may provide unique therapeutic targets. Here, we report that normal breast epithelial cells are mechanically sensitive, responding to transient mechanical stimuli thro
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Signatures of a liquid-liquid transition in an ab initio deep neural network model for water [Chemistry]
The possible existence of a metastable liquid–liquid transition (LLT) and a corresponding liquid–liquid critical point (LLCP) in supercooled liquid water remains a topic of much debate. An LLT has been rigorously proved in three empirically parametrized molecular models of water, and evidence consistent with an LLT has been reported for…
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Mapping the temperature-dependent and network site-specific onset of spectral diffusion at the surface of a water cluster cage [Chemistry]
We explore the kinetic processes that sustain equilibrium in a microscopic, finite system. This is accomplished by monitoring the spontaneous, time-dependent frequency evolution (the frequency autocorrelation) of a single OH oscillator, embedded in a water cluster held in a temperature-controlled ion trap. The measurements are carried out by applying two-color,…
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Designing electrolytes with polymerlike glass-forming properties and fast ion transport at low temperatures [Chemistry]
In the presence of Lewis acid salts, the cyclic ether, dioxolane (DOL), is known to undergo ring-opening polymerization inside electrochemical cells to form solid-state polymer batteries with good interfacial charge-transport properties. Here we report that LiNO3, which is unable to ring-open DOL, possesses a previously unknown ability to coordinate with…
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The magnitude and impact of the 431 CE Tierra Blanca Joven eruption of Ilopango, El Salvador [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) eruption from Ilopango volcano deposited thick ash over much of El Salvador when it was inhabited by the Maya, and rendered all areas within at least 80 km of the volcano uninhabitable for years to decades after the eruption. Nonetheless, the more widespread environmental and…
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Natural variability of the Arctic Ocean sea ice during the present interglacial [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The impact of the ongoing anthropogenic warming on the Arctic Ocean sea ice is ascertained and closely monitored. However, its long-term fate remains an open question as its natural variability on centennial to millennial timescales is not well documented. Here, we use marine sedimentary records to reconstruct Arctic sea-ice fluctuations….
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Revisiting particle dry deposition and its role in radiative effect estimates [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Wet and dry deposition remove aerosols from the atmosphere, and these processes control aerosol lifetime and thus impact climate and air quality. Dry deposition is a significant source of aerosol uncertainty in global chemical transport and climate models. Dry deposition parameterizations in most global models were developed when few particle…
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Comparative isotope ecology of western Amazonian rainforest mammals [Ecology]
Closed-canopy rainforests are important for climate (influencing atmospheric circulation, albedo, carbon storage, etc.) and ecology (harboring the highest biodiversity of continental regions). Of all rainforests, Amazonia is the world's most diverse, including the highest mammalian species richness. However, little is known about niche structure, ecological roles, and food resource partitioning…
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The demographic dividend is more than an education dividend [Economic Sciences]
The demographic dividend has long been viewed as an important factor for economic development and provided a rationale for policies aiming at a more balanced age structure through birth control and family planning. Assessing the relative importance of age structure and increases in human capital, recent work has argued that…
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Dynamic and reversible shape response of red blood cells in synthetic liquid crystals [Engineering]
Mammalian cells are soft, and correct functioning requires that cells undergo dynamic shape changes in vivo. Although a range of diseases are associated with stiffening of red blood cells (RBCs; e.g., sickle cell anemia or malaria), the mechanical properties and thus shape responses of cells to complex viscoelastic environments are…
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Reinforcement learning for bluff body active flow control in experiments and simulations [Engineering]
We have demonstrated the effectiveness of reinforcement learning (RL) in bluff body flow control problems both in experiments and simulations by automatically discovering active control strategies for drag reduction in turbulent flow. Specifically, we aimed to maximize the power gain efficiency by properly selecting the rotational speed of two small…
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Nonlocal elastic metasurfaces: Enabling broadband wave control via intentional nonlocality [Engineering]
While elastic metasurfaces offer a remarkable and very effective approach to the subwavelength control of stress waves, their use in practical applications is severely hindered by intrinsically narrow band performance. In applications to electromagnetic and photonic metamaterials, some success in extending the operating dynamic range was obtained by using nonlocality….
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Global COVID-19 pandemic demands joint interventions for the suppression of future waves [Environmental Sciences]
Emerging evidence suggests a resurgence of COVID-19 in the coming years. It is thus critical to optimize emergency response planning from a broad, integrated perspective. We developed a mathematical model incorporating climate-driven variation in community transmissions and movement-modulated spatial diffusions of COVID-19 into various intervention scenarios. We find that an…
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Dynamic evolution of great ape Y chromosomes [Evolution]
The mammalian male-specific Y chromosome plays a critical role in sex determination and male fertility. However, because of its repetitive and haploid nature, it is frequently absent from genome assemblies and remains enigmatic. The Y chromosomes of great apes represent a particular puzzle: their gene content is more similar between…
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Disproportionate extinction of South American mammals drove the asymmetry of the Great American Biotic Interchange [Evolution]
The interchange between the previously disconnected faunas of North and South America was a massive experiment in biological invasion. A major gap in our understanding of this invasion is why there was a drastic increase in the proportion of mammals of North American origin found in South America. Four nonmutually…
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Genomic diversity generated by a transposable element burst in a rice recombinant inbred population [Genetics]
Genomes of all characterized higher eukaryotes harbor examples of transposable element (TE) bursts—the rapid amplification of TE copies throughout a genome. Despite their prevalence, understanding how bursts diversify genomes requires the characterization of actively transposing TEs before insertion sites and structural rearrangements have been obscured by selection acting over evolutionary…
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Normal levels of ribosome-associated chaperones cure two groups of [PSI+] prion variants [Genetics]
The yeast prion [PSI+] is a self-propagating amyloid of the translation termination factor, Sup35p. For known pathogenic prions, such as [PSI+], a single protein can form an array of different amyloid structures (prion variants) each stably inherited and with differing biological properties. The ribosome-associated chaperones, Ssb1/2p (Hsp70s), and RAC (Zuo1p…
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Genome mapping of a LYST mutation in corn snakes indicates that vertebrate chromatophore vesicles are lysosome-related organelles [Genetics]
Reptiles exhibit a spectacular diversity of skin colors and patterns brought about by the interactions among three chromatophore types: black melanophores with melanin-packed melanosomes, red and yellow xanthophores with pteridine- and/or carotenoid-containing vesicles, and iridophores filled with light-reflecting platelets generating structural colors. Whereas the melanosome, the only color-produ
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How the T cell signaling network processes information to discriminate between self and agonist ligands [Immunology and Inflammation]
T cells exhibit remarkable sensitivity and selectivity in detecting and responding to agonist peptides (p) bound to MHC molecules in a sea of self pMHC molecules. Despite much work, understanding of the underlying mechanisms of distinguishing such ligands remains incomplete. Here, we quantify T cell discriminatory capacity using channel capacity,…
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Rewiring of B cell receptor signaling by Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A [Immunology and Inflammation]
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects human B cells and reprograms them to allow virus replication and persistence. One key viral factor in this process is latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A), which has been described as a B cell receptor (BCR) mimic promoting malignant transformation. However, how LMP2A signaling contributes to tumorigenesis…
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The transcription factor C/EBP{beta} orchestrates dendritic cell maturation and functionality under homeostatic and malignant conditions [Immunology and Inflammation]
Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is a prerequisite for the induction of adaptive immune responses against pathogens and cancer. Transcription factor (TF) networks control differential aspects of early DC progenitor versus late-stage DC cell fate decisions. Here, we identified the TF C/EBPβ as a key regulator for DC maturation and immunogenic…
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Mutational landscape and clinical outcome of patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia and rearrangements involving 11q23/KMT2A [Medical Sciences]
Balanced rearrangements involving the KMT2A gene, located at 11q23, are among the most frequent chromosome aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Because of numerous fusion partners, the mutational landscape and prognostic impact of specific 11q23/KMT2A rearrangements are not fully understood. We analyzed clinical features of 172 adults with AML and…
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Estrogen receptor {beta} regulates AKT activity through up-regulation of INPP4B and inhibits migration of prostate cancer cell line PC-3 [Medical Sciences]
Loss of the tumor suppressor, PTEN, is one of the most common findings in prostate cancer (PCa). This loss leads to overactive Akt signaling, which is correlated with increased metastasis and androgen independence. However, another tumor suppressor, inositol-polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B), can partially compensate for the loss of PTEN….
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Rational combination therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with PARP1 and DNA-PK inhibitors [Medical Sciences]
Understanding differences in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair between tumor and normal tissues would provide a rationale for developing DNA repair-targeted cancer therapy. Here, using knock-in mouse models for measuring the efficiency of two DSB repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), we demonstrated that both pathways are…
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Reduced volume and reflection for bright optical tweezers with radial Laguerre-Gauss beams [Physics]
Spatially structured light has opened a wide range of opportunities for enhanced imaging as well as optical manipulation and particle confinement. Here, we show that phase-coherent illumination with superpositions of radial Laguerre–Gauss (LG) beams provides improved localization for bright optical tweezer traps, with narrowed radial and axial intensity distributions. Further,…
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Path identity as a source of high-dimensional entanglement [Physics]
We present an experimental demonstration of a general entanglement-generation framework, where the form of the entangled state is independent of the physical process used to produce the particles. It is the indistinguishability of multiple generation processes and the geometry of the setup that give rise to the entanglement. Such a…
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Dynamical structure factors of dynamical quantum simulators [Physics]
The dynamical structure factor is one of the experimental quantities crucial in scrutinizing the validity of the microscopic description of strongly correlated systems. However, despite its long-standing importance, it is exceedingly difficult in generic cases to numerically calculate it, ensuring that the necessary approximations involved yield a correct result. Acknowledging…
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Layer-dependent topological phase in a two-dimensional quasicrystal and approximant [Physics]
The electronic and topological properties of materials are derived from the interplay between crystalline symmetry and dimensionality. Simultaneously introducing "forbidden" symmetries via quasiperiodic ordering with low dimensionality into a material system promises the emergence of new physical phenomena. Here, we isolate a two-dimensional (2D) chalcogenide quasicrystal and approximant, and inve
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Imaging the Holon string of the Hubbard model [Physics]
It has been a long-sought goal of quantum simulation to find answers to outstanding questions in condensed-matter physics. A famous example is finding the ground state and the excitations of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model with strong repulsion below half-filling. This system is a doped antiferromagnet and is of great…
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The logic of universalization guides moral judgment [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
To explain why an action is wrong, we sometimes say, "What if everybody did that?" In other words, even if a single person's behavior is harmless, that behavior may be wrong if it would be harmful once universalized. We formalize the process of universalization in a computational model, test its…
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Cross-level sociodemographic homogeneity alters individual risk for completed suicide [Social Sciences]
Among deaths of despair, the individual and community correlates of US suicides have been consistently identified and are well known. However, the suicide rate has been stubbornly unyielding to reduction efforts, promoting calls for novel research directions. Linking levels of influence has been proposed in theory but blocked by data…
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Peak grain forecasts for the US High Plains amid withering waters [Sustainability Science]
Irrigated agriculture contributes 40% of total global food production. In the US High Plains, which produces more than 50 million tons per year of grain, as much as 90% of irrigation originates from groundwater resources, including the Ogallala aquifer. In parts of the High Plains, groundwater resources are being depleted…
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Maximizing the value of forest restoration for tropical mammals by detecting three-dimensional habitat associations [Sustainability Science]
Tropical forest ecosystems are facing unprecedented levels of degradation, severely compromising habitat suitability for wildlife. Despite the fundamental role biodiversity plays in forest regeneration, identifying and prioritizing degraded forests for restoration or conservation, based on their wildlife value, remains a significant challenge. Efforts to characterize habitat selection are also wea
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Opinion: Envisioning a biodiversity science for sustaining human well-being [Sustainability Science]
Contemporary losses of biodiversity, sometimes referred to as the sixth mass extinction, continue to mount (1, 2). A recent assessment by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) estimates that one million of approximately 10 million species that exist now are threatened with extinction along with the…
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CRISPR meets Pac-Man: New DNA cut-and-paste tool enables bigger gene edits
Gene editing for the development of new treatments, and for studying disease as well as normal function in humans and other organisms, may advance more quickly with a new tool for cutting larger pieces of DNA out of a cell's genome, according to a new study.
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Watch live as the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft snags a chunk of asteroid
Four years ago, NASA launched its OSIRIS-REx spacecraft from Cape Canaveral. Two years ago, the spacecraft finally reached its target of the carbon-rich, Earth-adjacent asteroid Bennu. Today, OSIRIS-REx (the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer) will fulfill its original mission and collect a rock and dust sample of at least two ounces from the ast
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UArizona Health Sciences researchers find biomarker that can appear before stomach cancer
A microRNA that can be found in a blood sample may make it easier to detect gastric cancer and could lead to improved treatment for the disease and others like it that are resistant to common immunotherapies.
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Efficacy, politics influence public trust in COVID-19 vaccine
If an initial COVID-19 vaccine is about as effective as a flu shot, uptake by the American public may fall far short of the 70% level needed to achieve herd immunity, new Cornell research suggests.
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Predicting tornadoes on UK cold fronts for the first time
Weather forecasters can more accurately predict when a tornado is likely to hit the UK thanks to a new tool devised in a partnership between the University of Leeds and the Met Office.
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Mechanism linking gum disease to heart disease, other inflammatory conditions discovered
The link between periodontal (gum) disease and other inflammatory conditions such as heart disease and diabetes has long been established, but the mechanism behind that association has, until now, remained a mystery. This month, a team of scientists and clinicians led by the University of Toronto's Faculty of Dentistry say they've found the reason why — and it's related to the body's own hyperact
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Lost and found: UH geologists 'resurrect' missing tectonic plate
A team of geologists at the University of Houston College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics believes they have found the lost plate known as Resurrection in northern Canada by using existing mantle tomography images.
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Wacky tube men could keep dingoes away from livestock in Australia
Strategy shows promise, but has some drawbacks
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Hundreds of thousands of English schoolchildren self-isolating
Snapshot shows up to 5% of state pupils absent as a result of coronavirus
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NASA probe Osiris-Rex set to 'kiss' asteroid Bennu in historic mission
After a four-year journey, NASA's robotic spacecraft Osiris-Rex will descend to asteroid Bennu's boulder-strewn surface on Tuesday, touching down for a few seconds to collect rock and dust samples in a precision operation 200 million miles (330 million kilometers) from Earth.
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Warning labels can keep people from buying sugary drinks
Warning labels can keep consumers from choosing sugary drinks like soda, with graphics having the greatest impact, according a new study. However, the United States has yet to pass legislation that would require such warning labels. "The influence of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) warning labels tends to be in line with the efficacy of warning labels on tobacco packages," says Ruopeng An, assista
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New theory sheds light on how the environment influences human health
Researchers at Mount Sinai have proposed a groundbreaking new way to study the interaction between complex biological systems in the body and the environment. Their theory suggests the existence of 'biodynamic interfaces,' an intermediate entity between the two realms, as opposed to conventional approaches that analyze individual aspects of the interaction between the environment and humans in iso
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The road to uncovering a novel mechanism for disposing of misfolded proteins
The discovery of the cause of a rare liver disease in babies led to uncovering a novel cellular mechanism for disposing of misfolded proteins that has implications for neurodegenerative conditions of older age
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Childlessness by circumstance
In birds and other species alike, pairs can face considerable difficulties with reproduction. Scientists have now shown in an extensive analysis of 23,000 zebra finch eggs that infertility is mainly due to males, while high embryo mortality is more a problem of the females. Inbreeding, age of the parents and conditions experienced when growing up had surprisingly little influence on reproductive f
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Impact of wastewater systems on Edwards Aquifer evaluated
Researchers developed an integrated hydrologic computer model to evaluate the impact of different types of wastewater disposal facilities on the Edwards Aquifer, the primary water source for San Antonio and its surrounding communities. The research results will guide authorities on what actions to take to protect the quality and quantity of water entering the aquifer.
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New tool pulls elusive COVID-19 marker from human blood
Researchers have created a surface that repels every other element of human blood except an elusive cytokine critical to understanding the progress of COVID-19 in individual patients.
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Coronavirus: Study finds further door opener into the cell
The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is known to infect cells via the receptor ACE2. Researchers have now identified neuropilin-1 as a factor that can facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cells' interior. Neuropilin-1 is localized in the respiratory and olfactory epithelia.
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Neuropilin-1 drives SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, finds breakthrough study
Researchers have potentially identified what makes SARS-CoV-2 highly infectious and able to spread rapidly in human cells. The findings describe how the virus's ability to infect human cells can be reduced by inhibitors that block a newly discovered interaction between virus and host, demonstrating a potential anti-viral treatment.
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Scientists Claim to Discover New Organ in Human Skull
A team of doctors from the Netherlands was studying high-resolution brain scans when they stumbled upon a set of previously-undiscovered organs hiding inside the base of the human skull: a fourth pair of salivary glands. The glands are tucked away up where the top of the throat meets the nasal cavity, The New York Times reports , where they've eluded doctors and scientists for centuries. If the d
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New tool pulls elusive COVID-19 marker from human blood
Researchers have created a surface that repels every other element of human blood except an elusive cytokine critical to understanding the progress of COVID-19 in individual patients.
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Coronavirus vaccines stir doubts among many people worldwide, new study shows
New Nature Medicine study highlights potential global hesitancy to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Based on data collected with the previously validated COVID-SCORE survey of a sample of over 13,400 individuals from 19 countries that have been hard-hit by the virus, the investigators found that 72 % of participants would likely take the vaccine. Of the remaining 28 %, 14% would refuse, while 14% would
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Cutting-edge, whole-heart imaging provides new details on heart defects
A cutting-edge technique that allows scientists to zoom into tiny details in a 3D image of a whole animal heart may lead to new insights on congenital heart disease.
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UC studies tobacco use, cancer connection
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati have identified new clues into ways tobacco use impacts patients with kidney cancer.
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Anti-inflammatory therapy shows promise in slowing progression of multiple sclerosis
Intranasal administration of an anti-inflammatory drug helped reduce disease progression in a preclinical model of multiple sclerosis, according to recent research out of the University of Alberta.
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Slinging ink, raising temperatures
You've heard that they can sag with age, perpetuate the name of a regrettable ex, or reveal an embarrassing inability to spell. But tattoos may also impair the way we sweat, potentially causing the body to overheat if the tattoos cover a large area of the body.
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How some sea slugs keep their ability to carry out plant-like photosynthesis
Scientists have shed new light on a relationship between a sea slug and tiny structures called chloroplasts from their food algae that allow the animals to photosynthesise in a similar way to plants.
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The biological 'record' of extremely preterm birth differs in men and women
Researchers at McMaster University have found distinct effects of adversity early in life in the genomes of men compared to women who were born extremely preterm.
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COVID-19: Distancing and masks — good but not enough
Decades-old data is being used to describe the propagation of tiny droplets. Now a fluid dynamics team has developed new models: Masks and distancing are good, but not enough. Even with a mask, infectious droplets can be transmitted over several meters and remain in the air longer than previously thought.
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Radiative cooler that cools down even under sunlight
Now that autumn is upon us, there is a large temperature gap between day and night. This is due to the temperature inversion caused by radiative cooling on the Earth's surface. Heat from the sun during the day causes its temperature to rise and when the sun sets during the night, its temperature cools down. Recently, a research team has demonstrated a daytime radiative cooling effect which exhibit
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Depths of the Weddell Sea are warming five times faster than elsewhere
Over the past three decades, the depths of the Antarctic Weddell Sea have warmed five times faster than the rest of the ocean at depths exceeding 2,000 meters.
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Plants communicate at a molecular level
Biologists have discovered how tomato plants identify Cuscuta as a parasite. The plant has a protein in its cell walls that is identified as 'foreign' by a receptor in the tomato.
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Focal epilepsy often overlooked
Having subtler symptoms, a form of epilepsy that affects only one part of the brain often goes undiagnosed long enough to cause unexpected seizures that contribute to car crashes, a new study finds.
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Study shows active older adults have better physical and mental health
Older adults with higher physical activity and lower sitting time have better overall physical and mental health, according to a new study.
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Declines in shellfish species on rocky seashores match climate-driven changes
Mussels, barnacles, and snails are declining in the Gulf of Maine, according to a new article by biologists. Their 20-year dataset reveals that the populations' steady dwindling matches up with the effects of climate change on the region.
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Highly selective membranes
Membranes with microscopic pores are useful for water filtration. The effect of pore size on water filtration is well-understood, as is the role of ions, charged atoms, that interact with the membrane. For the first time, researchers have successfully described the impact water molecules have on other water molecules and on ions as part of the filtration mechanism. The researchers detail a feedbac
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Cannabis reduces OCD symptoms by half in the short-term
People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) report that the severity of symptoms was reduced by about half within four hours of smoking cannabis. After smoking cannabis, users with OCD reported it reduced their compulsions by 60%, intrusions, or unwanted thoughts, by 49% and anxiety by 52%. The study also found that higher doses and cannabis with higher concentrations of CBD were associated wi
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Highly selective membranes
Membranes with microscopic pores are useful for water filtration. The effect of pore size on water filtration is well-understood, as is the role of ions, charged atoms, that interact with the membrane. For the first time, researchers have successfully described the impact water molecules have on other water molecules and on ions as part of the filtration mechanism. The researchers detail a feedbac
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Mortality rate higher for US rural residents
A recent study by Syracuse University sociology professor Shannon Monnat shows that mortality rates are higher for U.S. working-age residents who live in rural areas instead of metro areas, and the gap is getting wider.
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Colorful Perovskites: NREL advances thermochromic window technologies
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) report a breakthrough in developing a next-generation thermochromic window that not only reduces the need for air conditioning but simultaneously generates electricity.
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Newly discovered gene may give 'sea pickles' their glow
A new study describes a bioluminescent gene that could be the reason that so-called 'sea pickles,' or pyrosomes, an underwater free-floating colony of thousands of tiny animals, reverberate in blue-green light. If confirmed, the finding would be the first bioluminescent gene identified from a chordate–the group that includes all vertebrates as well as a couple types of invertebrates: sea squirts
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Mammography screening saves lives also in older age
Mammography, which is an x-ray picture of the breast, is efficient also for women over the age of 70. For women invited to regular mammography screening over the age of 70, the reduction in mortality rate was significant. This according to a vast new study from Sweden.
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National laboratories point to sugars as a key factor in ideal feedstock for biofuels
Popular wisdom holds that tall, fast-growing trees are best for biomass, but new research by two US Department of Energy National Laboratories reveals the size of trees is only part of the equation. Of equal economic importance, according to scientists from the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is the amount of sugars th
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Does the new heart transplant allocation policy encourage gaming by providers?
A new national policy was created to make determining who receives a heart transplant more fair. But new data shows it changed some practice patterns, too.
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The Weekly Planet: The Question That Haunts Climate Advocates
Every Tuesday morning, our lead climate reporter brings you the big ideas, expert analysis, and vital guidance that will help you flourish on a changing planet. Sign up to get T he Weekly Planet , our guide to living through climate change, in your inbox . Every so often, a moment comes along when progress suddenly feels inevitable. A popular presidential candidate says that few crises "are more
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China Says It'll Fly Astronauts to Orbit in New Spaceplane
Reusable Spaceplane The China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC), a massive state-owned company, just laid our its five year plan to commercialize space, SpaceNews reports . "In the next five years CASIC will improve the capability of the commercial aerospace system, shorten the preparation time for and enhance the frequency of commercial rocket launches, and conduct further resea
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Cognitive behavioral therapy reduces insomnia symptoms among young drinkers
More than half of young adults at risk for alcohol-related harm report symptoms of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the first-line treatments for insomnia, but it's never been tested on young adults who are actively drinking. Researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine evaluated CBT's effect on young adult binge drinkers with insomnia to determine if this t
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Nanodevices show how living cells change with time, by tracking from the inside
For the first time, scientists have introduced minuscule tracking devices directly into the interior of mammalian cells, giving an unprecedented peek into the processes that govern the beginning of development.
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Boron nitride nanofilms for protection from bacterial and fungal infections
NUST MISIS material scientists have presented antibacterial nano-coatings based on boron nitride, which are highly effective against microbial pathogens (up to 99.99%). They can become a safe alternative to the usual antibiotics in implantology since they do not have typical negative side effects. The results of the work are published in the international scientific journal ACS Applied Materials &
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Fewer monsoons may make fighting wildfires harder
The North American monsoon has dictated the length of wildfire season for centuries in the US-Mexico border region, according to new research. But this year was anything but normal. The 2020 monsoon season was the second-driest on record, and many high-profile wildfires swept across the Sonoran Desert and surrounding sky islands. Putting an end to severe fires may only become harder as climate ch
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Ultraviolet shines light on origins of the solar system
In the search to discover the origins of our solar system, an international team including planetary scientists has compared the composition of the sun to the composition of the most ancient materials that formed in our solar system: refractory inclusions in unmetamorphosed meteorites.
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Evidence of broadside collision with dwarf galaxy discovered in Milky Way
Astrophysicists have discovered a series of telltale shell-like formations of stars in the vicinity of the Virgo constellation, evidence of a radial merger between a dwarf galaxy and the Milky Way, and the first such 'shell structures' to be found in the Milky Way.
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Justice Department Nails Google with Massive Antitrust Case
The Big One On Tuesday morning, the U.S. Department of Justice filed a massive antitrust case against Google, which is rapidly shaping up to be the largest the company has ever faced. The case argues that Google pays smartphone manufacturers to unfairly promote its own apps and products over ones made by its competitors, according to Business Insider . The legal battle is expected to play out in
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Everyone should have a social life, especially older adults
In a new study, researchers found a visit with one person, once a week was enough to make a notable difference in preserving brain health in older adults. (Unsplash/) For older adults, social engagement may help strengthen brain areas associated with dementia, a new study published in the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences finds. The investigation's conclusions have led researchers to
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This red light means 'go' for medical discoveries
With a little tweak of the color palette, University of Virginia School of Medicine researchers have made it easier for scientists to understand biological processes, track happenings inside individual cells, unravel the mysteries of disease and develop new treatments.
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Projecting favorable perceptions of space
For anthropologists and other social scientists, the space race in the 1950s served as a period of cultural and technological transformation as well as an opportunity to advance the public good. Space exploration marked a distinct point in history—a time where humanity knew change was imminent and it could record societal impacts as they occurred. Recognizing the moment's anthropological significa
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Population currently sees coronavirus as the greatest health risk
The coronavirus is currently the population's main concern. More than a quarter of consumers perceive the virus as the greatest health risk. This is a finding of the most recent edition of the Consumer Monitor, a representative population survey by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).
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Study reveals role of sleep deprivation in unwanted thoughts
A new study from the University of York offers an important insight into the impact of sleep on mental health
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Scientists discover unusual materials properties at ultrahigh pressure
An international team of scientists from NUST MISIS (Russia), Linköping University (Sweden) and University of Bayreuth (Germany) found that, contrary to the usual physical and chemical laws, the structure of some materials does not condense at ultrahigh pressures. Actually, it forms a porous framework filled with gas molecules. This happened with samples of Os, Hf, and W put together with N in a d
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Food allergy caused by insects?
Can edible insects trigger allergies? In September 2020, the BfR launched a new joint research project to protect consumers from potential allergic reactions: Allergen-Pro. The aim: to establish methods for the in-depth analysis of allergens in food and to describe their im-pact on those with allergies. Seven partners from Switzerland and Germany are involved in developing suitable and reproducibl
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Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)
are industrial chemicals that have been used for decades in several industrial processes and consumer products due to their special technical properties. They are not easily degradable and are now detectable everywhere: in the envi-ronment, in the food chain and in humans. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published an opinion on health risks related to the presence of PFAS in food: h
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Childlessness by circumstance
Why zebra finches have problems with reproduction.
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Study: Free-college programs have led to large enrollment increases at two-year institutions
A study of 33 public community college promise programs, or free-college programs, across the United States found that they are associated with large enrollment increases of first-time, full-time students–with the biggest boost in enrollment among Black, Hispanic, and female students.
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Researchers at the forefront of developing machine learning methods for chemical discovery
Prof. Alexandre Tkatchenko and his research team at the University of Luxembourg have been awarded grants totalling 500,000 euros to conduct research in the emerging field of machine learning methods for chemical discoveries.
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Ban on accommodation meets with mixed acceptance among the population
The majority of the population considers the measures introduced by the Federal Government and the Länder to stem the spread of the coronavirus to be appropriate. Only the recently introduced ban on accommodating people from risk areas within Germany is met with much less acceptance: Only 45% regard the regulation as appropriate. This is the result of the current issue of the BfR-Corona-Monitor, a
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Most psoriasis patients taking immunosuppressants survive COVID-19
Patients with psoriasis who are taking drugs that affect their immune system have high rates of survival from COVID-19. According to the first findings from a global registry of psoriasis and COVID-19 patients, led by Guy's and St Thomas' clinicians, over 90% survive.
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Researchers use gold nanorod scattering to identify immune system's 'killer and savior'
Researchers have utilized the scattering of gold nanorods to identify M1 and M2 macrophages. Further development of this technique will lead to a new point of care or a biopsy tool which can predict the stages of manifestation of diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, and fibrosis just from the simple tissue fluids or blood samples.
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Interactions within larger social groups can cause tipping points in contagion flow
Contagion processes, such as opinion formation or disease spread, can reach a tipping point, where the contagion either rapidly spreads or dies out. When modeling these processes, it is difficult to capture this complex transition. In the journal Chaos , researchers studied the parameters of these transitions by including three-person group interactions in a contagion model called the susceptible-
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Study finds lowering nicotine decreases addictiveness of smoking in vulnerable populations
A study in JAMA Network Open provides evidence that, even in smokers from vulnerable populations, reducing nicotine content to low levels decreases addictiveness – a timely finding as the Food and Drug Administration considers a policy to lower nicotine content in all cigarettes sold in the U.S.
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COVID-19 cough clouds in closed spaces
As the pandemic continues, researchers have increasingly focused on how respiratory droplets carrying the coronavirus travel and contaminate the air after an infected person coughs. While scientists have studied the properties of air at the mouth, less is known about how they change as the cough cloud travels. In Physics of Fluids, researchers estimate the evolving volume of the cough cloud and qu
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US adults' likelihood of accepting COVID-19 vaccination
In this survey study of U.S. adults, vaccine-related attributes and political characteristics were associated with self-reported preferences for choosing a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine and self- reported willingness to receive vaccination. These results may help inform public health campaigns to address vaccine hesitancy when a COVID-19 vaccine becomes available.
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Computational study reveals how Ebola nucleocapsid stabilizes
Scientists at the University of Delaware report a computational study of the Ebola virus nucleocapsid and show that the binding of the ssRNA allows the nucleocapsid to maintain its shape and structural integrity.
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Keeping COVID-19 out of classrooms: Open windows, use glass screens in front of desks
Flow velocity distribution and particle size are key in aerosol transport, which is one of the main ways COVID-19 spreads, when aerosol particles are released during exhalation, talking, coughing, or sneezing. In Physics of Fluids, researchers used computational fluid-particle dynamics to explore aerosol transport within an air-conditioned classroom model. They discovered opening windows increases
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This red light means 'go' for medical discoveries
With a little tweak of the color palette, University of Virginia School of Medicine researchers have made it easier for scientists to understand biological processes, track happenings inside individual cells, unravel the mysteries of disease and develop new treatments.
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Depths of the Weddell Sea are warming five times faster than elsewhere
Over the past three decades, the depths of the Antarctic Weddell Sea have warmed five times faster than the rest of the ocean at depths exceeding 2,000 meters. This was the main finding of an article just published by oceanographers from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). In the article, they analyze an unprecedented oceanographic time series from t
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Citizens themselves contribute to political mistrust
The study by the Department of Political Science at Aarhus BSS shows that the growing trust crisis observed in many Western democracies in recent decades cannot merely be attributed to news criteria from the media and prioritization of personal-interest stories. Citizens play a significant role in the rapid spread of these types of articles at the expense of positive stories.
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No stain? No sweat: Terahertz waves can image early-stage breast cancer without staining
A team of researchers at Osaka University, in collaboration with the University of Bordeaux and the Bergonié Institute in France, has succeeded in terahertz imaging of early-stage breast cancer less than 0.5 mm without staining, which is difficult to identify even by pathological diagnosis. Their work provides a breakthrough towards rapid and precise on-site diagnosis of various types of cancer an
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NASA's OSIRIS-REX Mission Completes Quick Touch of Bennu Asteroid
The spacecraft attempted to suck up rocks and dirt from the asteroid, which could aid humanity's ability to divert one that might slam into Earth.
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Researchers Are Starting to Infect People With COVID on Purpose
UK researchers are preparing for a controversial experiment in which they will inject healthy human test subjects with the coronavirus — risky research that they say could speed up vaccine development, NPR reports . The trial will be carried out by researchers at Imperial College London. The initial phase is aimed at finding the minimum amount of the virus necessary to cause COVID-19, which could
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Computational study reveals how Ebola nucleocapsid stabilizes
The Ebola virus causes a serious infection with a mortality rate between 50% and 90%. Nucleoproteins in the virus assemble into a helical arrangement and encapsulate a single stranded RNA genome, ssRNA, to form a rodlike complex known as a nucleocapsid, which is critical to the function of the virus. Rodlike nucleocapsids are also found in other viruses, like SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.
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Interactions within larger social groups can cause tipping points in contagion flow
Contagion processes, such as opinion formation or disease spread, can reach a tipping point, where the contagion either rapidly spreads or dies out. When modeling these processes, it is difficult to capture this complex transition, making the conditions that affect the tipping point a challenge to uncover.
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How COVID-19 cough clouds travel in the presence and absence of face masks: study
As the coronavirus has affected more than 30 million people globally, researchers have increasingly focused on the extent to which airborne respiratory droplets carrying the virus travel and contaminate the air after an infected person coughs.
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Keeping COVID-19 out of classrooms: Open windows, use glass screens in front of desks
As the COVID-19 virus continues to spread around the globe, studying aerosol and droplet transport within different environments can help establish effective, physics-informed measures for virus mitigation. One of the most important environments to gain a rapid understanding about COVID-19's spread is inside the school classroom.
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COVID-19: Distancing and masks are not enough
Decades-old data is being used to describe the propagation of tiny droplets. Now a fluid dynamics team has developed new models: Masks and distancing are good, but not enough. Even with a mask, infectious droplets can be transmitted over several meters and remain in the air longer than previously thought.
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Artificial intelligence reveals hundreds of millions of trees in the Sahara
There are far more trees in the West African Sahara and Sahel than most would expect. A combination of artificial intelligence and detailed satellite imagery allowed a team from the University of Copenhagen and international collaborators to count all trees across a 1.3 million km2 area of West Africa.
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Vitamin D: Consumption of high-dose food supplements is unnecessary
The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) has prepared a health risk assessment for products sold on the market as food supplements containing a daily dose of chole-calciferol — the precursor to active vitamin D — of 50 or 100 micrograms. These products are representative of certain high-dose preparations used by some consumers to increase their intake of vitamin D.
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Computational study reveals how Ebola nucleocapsid stabilizes
The Ebola virus causes a serious infection with a mortality rate between 50% and 90%. Nucleoproteins in the virus assemble into a helical arrangement and encapsulate a single stranded RNA genome, ssRNA, to form a rodlike complex known as a nucleocapsid, which is critical to the function of the virus. Rodlike nucleocapsids are also found in other viruses, like SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.
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How businesses can serve everyone, not just shareholders | Dame Vivian Hunt
Companies worldwide are pledging to play a more meaningful role in the well-being of their employees, customers and the environment. How can they turn their promises into action? From creating a representative boardroom to committing to measurable sustainability goals, business leader Dame Vivian Hunt discusses the necessary changes companies can make to embrace stakeholder capitalism — and share
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Dust Bowl 2.0? Rising Great Plains dust levels stir concerns
Researchers find that drought and expanded croplands are driving more frequent dust storms
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The autumn surge in UK coronavirus cases may be slowing
As tighter Covid restrictions spread across the country, latest figures offer some grounds for optimism
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What's behind evangelical support for Trump?
Modern evangelical voters, especially white evangelicals, have long supported political candidates for myriad reasons, not all of which are in line with traditional Christian values, according to Lerone A. Martin. While evangelical support for Donald Trump remains strong in 2020, evidence exists that their support is waning. Most notably, more than 1,600 US faith leaders have publicly endorsed Tr
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How teachers can avoid pandemic burnout
Several months after schools re-opened nationwide, many teachers are experiencing burnout from having to adapt to new methods of instructing students while managing anxiety about their health. Ann Murphy , director of the Northeast and Caribbean Mental Health Technology Transfer Center at the Rutgers School of Health Professions, who has been providing training for school personnel, says burnout
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Quantum Tunnels Show How Particles Can Break the Speed of Light
No sooner had the radical equations of quantum mechanics been discovered than physicists identified one of the strangest phenomena the theory allows. "Quantum tunneling" shows how profoundly particles such as electrons differ from bigger things. Throw a ball at the wall and it bounces backward; let it roll to the bottom of a valley and it stays there. But a particle will occasionally hop through
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U.S. climate report moves ahead after complaints about delays
Government starts recruiting authors for National Climate Assessment
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Plants communicate at a molecular level
Working together with researchers from the University of Tübingen, the University of Tromsø, the UC Davis and the Sainsbury Laboratory in Norwich, biologists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have discovered how tomato plants identify Cuscuta as a parasite. The plant has a protein in its cell walls that is identified as 'foreign' by a receptor in the tomato.
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Asymmetric optical camouflage: Tuneable reflective color accompanied by optical Janus effect
Deliverying viewing-direction sensitive information display across single sheet of transreflective window is introduced. Based on the experimental verification of theoretical modelling, scientists in Republic of Korea invented colour tuneable optical device that displays different colours and messages depending on viewing direction which is completely new and exotic optical phenomenon. A step furt
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Effective ventilation may be a key factor in preventing the spread of COVID-19
During the first wave of COVID-19, which paralyzed the world in spring, it was initially thought that effective hand washing and 2-meter social distancing would help prevent the highly contagious virus. Scientists, however, have now come to the conclusion that proper indoor ventilation is even more effective.
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A deepfake bot is being used to "undress" underage girls
In June of 2019, Vice uncovered the existence of a disturbing app that used AI to "undress" women. Called DeepNude, it allowed users to upload a photo of a clothed woman for $50 and get back a photo of her seemingly naked. In actuality, the software was using generative adversarial networks, the algorithm behind deepfakes, to swap the women's clothes for highly realistic nude bodies. The more sca
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Spørg Fagfolket: Hvordan kan helikoptere flyve på Mars?
En læser har funderet over, hvordan helikoptere kan flyve på Mars med lavt lufttryk og tyngdekraft. Det svarer professor fra DTU Space på.
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Live: Osiris-fartøj bliver nu drejet i position (868 meter fra landingssted)
Kulminationen på fire års rejse går nu i gang, når Nasas OSIRIS-REx fartøj lander på asteroiden Bennu i forsøg på at samle sten til en rejse hjem til Jorden.
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Hidden-symmetry-enforced nexus points of nodal lines in layer-stacked dielectric photonic crystals
The paper reveals that Maxwell's equations can have hidden symmetries induced by the fractional periodicity of the material tensor components and paves the way to finding novel topological degeneracies unique in photonics. The idea is exemplified by an AB-layer-stacked dielectric photonic crystal, where the unique photonic band connectivity leads to a new kind of symmetry-enforced triply degenerat
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D3Targets-2019-nCoV: a webserver for predicting drug targets and for target and multi-site based virtual screening against COVID-19
A highly effective drug therapy is urgently required to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The authors of this article have developed a molecular docking based webserver, namely D3Targets-2019-nCoV, with two functions, one is for predicting drug targets for drugs or active compounds observed from clinic or in vitro/in vivo studies, the other is for identifying lead compounds against poten
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New approach to fighting cancer could reduce costs and side effects
CAR-T biotherapeutics company Carina Biotech and researchers at the University of South Australia have developed a novel approach based on microfluidic technology to "purify" the immune cells of patients in the fight against cancer.
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No stain? No sweat: Terahertz waves can image early-stage breast cancer without staining
A team of researchers at Osaka University, in collaboration with the University of Bordeaux and the Bergonié Institute in France, has succeeded in terahertz imaging of early-stage breast cancer less than 0.5 mm without staining. Differences in terahertz intensity distributions also suggest the possibility of quantitative determination of cancer malignancy. Their work provides a breakthrough toward
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Two studies point to an unrecognized avenue for anti-viral therapies against COVID-19
Helping to explain what makes SARS-CoV-2 so capable of infecting human cells, researchers in two independent studies discovered that the virus's spike protein recognizes and binds a protein on the human cell surface called neuropilin-1.
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Neuropilin-1 drives SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, finds breakthrough study
In a major breakthrough an international team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, has potentially identified what makes SARS-CoV-2 highly infectious and able to spread rapidly in human cells. The findings, published in Science today [20 October] describe how the virus's ability to infect human cells can be reduced by inhibitors that block a newly discovered interaction between virus a
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Coronavirus: Study finds further door opener into the cell
The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is known to infect cells via the receptor ACE2. An international research team under German-Finnish coordination has now identified neuropilin-1 as a factor that can facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cells' interior. Neuropilin-1 is localized in the respiratory and olfactory epithelia. Experts from the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Technical Uni
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SwRI researchers evaluate impact of wastewater systems on Edwards Aquifer
Southwest Research Institute developed an integrated hydrologic computer model to evaluate the impact of different types of wastewater disposal facilities on the Edwards Aquifer, the primary water source for San Antonio and its surrounding communities. The research results will guide authorities on what actions to take to protect the quality and quantity of water entering the aquifer.
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Citizens themselves contribute to political mistrust
People have a special ability to detect and disseminate information about egotistic and selfish leaders. In this way, citizens themselves contribute greatly to the proliferation of voter apathy and mistrust of politicians, according to a new study from Aarhus BSS at Aarhus University.
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New tool pulls elusive COVID-19 marker from human blood
Researchers at McMaster University and SQI Diagnostics in Canada have created a surface that repels every other element of human blood except an elusive cytokine critical to understanding the progress of COVID-19 in individual patients.
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More research needed to determine safety of hip and knee steroid injections
Although frequently used to treat painful osteoarthritis of the hip and knee, intra-articular corticosteroid (IACS) injections remain controversial. Questions about whether damage to joints occurs as a result of these injections, which are performed thousands a time each day, persist.
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Salt-based mosquito-control products are ineffective, study shows
A new study by a bevy of expert mosquito researchers offers an important warning to consumers: Products claiming to reduce mosquito populations with salt-water solutions are ineffective. In a series of lab tests using nine mosquito species, researchers found no evidence that adult mosquitoes are killed by salt ingested at concentrations used in several popular mosquito-control products. The findin
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Radiative cooler that cools down even under sunlight
POSTECH-Korea University joint research team develops a non-energy consuming radiative cooling material.
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They Found the Space Station Leak… Using Tea Leaves
Astronaut Trelawney In what sounds like a strange act of divination, the current crew of the International Space Station just used a tea bag to identity a pesky leak that's been allowing air to escape from the station. Here's how we got here. In August, NASA announced it was investigating a small leak on the station that was allowing air to escape, saying that the crew was not currently in danger
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Ultraviolet shines light on origins of the solar system
In the search to discover the origins of our solar system, an international team of researchers, including planetary scientist and cosmochemist James Lyons of Arizona State University, has compared the composition of the Sun to the composition of the most ancient materials that formed in our solar system: refractory inclusions in unmetamorphosed meteorites.
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CRISPR meets Pac-Man: New DNA cut-and-paste tool enables bigger gene edits
Gene editing for the development of new treatments, and for studying disease as well as normal function in humans and other organisms, may advance more quickly with a new tool for cutting larger pieces of DNA out of a cell's genome, according to a new study by UC San Francisco scientists.
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CRISPR meets Pac-Man: New DNA cut-and-paste tool enables bigger gene edits
Gene editing for the development of new treatments, and for studying disease as well as normal function in humans and other organisms, may advance more quickly with a new tool for cutting larger pieces of DNA out of a cell's genome, according to a new study by UC San Francisco scientists.
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NASA's Birthday Month
Learn what NASA has been doing for more than 60 years. NASA's Birthday Month Video of NASA's Birthday Month Space Tuesday, October 20, 2020 – 09:45 Inside Science Contributor (Inside Science) — For more than 60 years NASA has helped Americans and the world reach for the stars. On Oct. 1, 1958, NASA was officially formed, in response to the Soviets launching the Sputnik satellite, which caught A
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Chris Hoy: 'I had no natural ability as a cyclist!'
The Olympic hero has written Be Amazing, an inspirational book for children that reveals how they too can be champions, with help from Stoic philosophy, sports psychology – and Beyoncé It was Steven Spielberg's fault. "I was six when I saw ET," says Sir Chris Hoy. "It changed my life. I wasn't interested in cycling at all before. The bikes I'd seen in Edinburgh just seemed functional things for g
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New evidence found of the ritual significance of a classic Maya sweat bath in Guatemala
Sweat baths have a long history of use in Mesoamerica. Commonly used by midwives in postpartum and perinatal care in contemporary Maya communities, these structures are viewed as grandmother figures, a pattern that can also be traced to earlier periods of history. At the site of Xultun, Guatemala, a Classic Maya sweat bath with an unusual collection of artifacts led archaeologists from the Smithso
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A Medical Revolution Too Late for the Man Who Started It
Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging / Getty / Katie Martin / The Atlantic When I finally met Sanjiv "Sam" Gambhir in person—last November, after months of planning—I knew he was dying. Gambhir knew it, too. Seated in his small, bland office at the end of a warren of hospital hallways in Palo Alto, he was visibly depleted from the cocktail of treatments, some highly experimental, tha
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More precise nitrogen recommendations for corn to help farmers, cut pollution
Researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences have developed an important component of a new system that corn growers can use to adjust nitrogen fertilizer applications based on site-specific measurements of cover crops and soil organic matter.
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N.Y. Accuses Religious Health Cost-Sharing Group of Misleading Consumers
Regulators say a major group is misrepresenting cost-sharing plans, saddling people with unpaid medical bills.
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Hospitalsenhed Midt sender redegørelse for brug af lavdosis CT til Styrelsen for Patientsikkerhed
132 patienter fra Regionshospitalet Silkeborg burde være visiteret til højdosis fremfor til lavdosis CT-scanning, konkluderer hospitalsledelsen fra Hospitalsenhed Midt.
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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B Volume 10, Issue 8 publishes
The Journal of the Institute of Materia Medica, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B (APSB) is a monthly journal, in English, which publishes significant original research articles, rapid communications and high quality reviews of recent advances in all areas of pharmaceutical sciences — including pharmacology, pharmaceuti
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Cross-party agreement on decarbonization but no master plan for electricity system
Which political parties have the most ambitious climate and energy policies? The answer, according to a new study, is surprising. In Germany, France, Spain and Italy, parties across the political spectrum, from the Greens to the Liberals, show a similar level of ambition on this score. However, researchers have also identified a major impediment to the energy transition: none of the investigated p
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New method allows more targeted measurement of thyroid hormone action in tissue
A team led by Michael Krebs from MedUni Vienna's Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism has now conducted a study to test the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS) to measure the effect in body tissue as well. They were able to identify certain phosphorus-containing compounds that are visible in NMRS as markers for thyroid hormone action in tissue. The study has been published in the pre
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Depths of the Weddell Sea are warming five times faster than elsewhere
Over the past three decades, the depths of the Antarctic Weddell Sea have warmed five times faster than the rest of the ocean at depths exceeding 2,000 metres. This was the main finding of an article just published by oceanographers from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI).
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The gravity of play: Quantifying what we enjoy about games
Scientists from the Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology have created a mathematical model combining aspects from psychology and the physics of motion to objectively analyze the appeal of games and its evolution throughout history. Their findings show that changes in certain game-related measures are in line with cultural trends from various eras, demonstrating that their model is a
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Ultraviolet shines light on origins of the solar system
In the search to discover the origins of our solar system, an international team of researchers, including planetary scientist and cosmochemist James Lyons of Arizona State University, has compared the composition of the sun to the composition of the most ancient materials that formed in our solar system: refractory inclusions in unmetamorphosed meteorites.
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How rain can move mountains
Scientists have long thought that rainfall has a dramatic effect on the evolution of mountainous landscapes, but the reasons for how and why have been elusive. This seemingly logical concept has never been quantitatively demonstrated until now, thanks to a new technique that captures precisely how even the mightiest of mountain ranges — the Himalaya — bends to the will of raindrops.
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CRISPR meets Pac-Man: New DNA cut-and-paste tool enables bigger gene edits
Gene editing for the development of new treatments, and for studying disease as well as normal function in humans and other organisms, may advance more quickly with a new tool for cutting larger pieces of DNA out of a cell's genome, according to a new study by UC San Francisco scientists.
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New tool pulls elusive COVID-19 marker from human blood
When COVID-19 attacks, the immune system produces a cytokine, or protein, called Interleukin-6 (IL-6), whose concentrations can offer vital information about a patient's level and stage of infection.
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Pinning down the ampere with a supersensitive particle detector
From light bulbs to cell phones, all electronic devices in everyday life rely on the flow of electrons to function. Just as scientists use meters to describe the length of an object or seconds to measure the passage of time, they use amperes, or amps, to quantify electric current—the rate at which electric charge moves through a circuit.
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Can We Trust AI Doctors? Google Health and Academics Battle It Out
Machine learning is taking medical diagnosis by storm. From eye disease, breast and other cancers, to more amorphous neurological disorders , AI is routinely matching physician performance, if not beating them outright. Yet how much can we take those results at face value? When it comes to life and death decisions, when can we put our full trust in enigmatic algorithms—" black boxes " that even t
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New tool pulls elusive COVID-19 marker from human blood
When COVID-19 attacks, the immune system produces a cytokine, or protein, called Interleukin-6 (IL-6), whose concentrations can offer vital information about a patient's level and stage of infection.
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We Must Mobilize to Avert a Lonely Earth
The U.S. needs to repair the environmental damage that the Trump administration has wrought, both within the country and across the world — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Seagulls, penguins and pigeons all found carrying drug resistant superbug
New research has revealed more bird populations—including penguins and pigeons—that live in close proximity to the urban environment are carrying drug resistant bacteria that can cause serious infections in humans.
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Discovering beetles abroad to protect trees at home
Not every child gets a bark beetle named after them. Then again, not every kid has Michigan State University entomologists Sarah Smith and Anthony Cognato as parents.
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Insights into a tiny insect that causes big damage
The western flower thrips—an invasive insect that's not much bigger than a pinhead—takes a huge bite out of agriculture around the world, racking up billions of dollars' worth of damage on a wide range of food, fiber and ornamental crops each year. Scientists now have a complete genetic blueprint to help them better understand the pest and to find ways to control it.
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Seagulls, penguins and pigeons all found carrying drug resistant superbug
New research has revealed more bird populations—including penguins and pigeons—that live in close proximity to the urban environment are carrying drug resistant bacteria that can cause serious infections in humans.
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Discovering beetles abroad to protect trees at home
Not every child gets a bark beetle named after them. Then again, not every kid has Michigan State University entomologists Sarah Smith and Anthony Cognato as parents.
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This is how universities can lead climate action
Universities are vital hubs of research and teaching on climate change. As large organizations, they also have significant emissions, which contribute to our climate crisis. Universities should therefore lead global action to limit climate change. How best can they do this?
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Insights into a tiny insect that causes big damage
The western flower thrips—an invasive insect that's not much bigger than a pinhead—takes a huge bite out of agriculture around the world, racking up billions of dollars' worth of damage on a wide range of food, fiber and ornamental crops each year. Scientists now have a complete genetic blueprint to help them better understand the pest and to find ways to control it.
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Scientists reveal novel regulation mechanism of abscisic acid co-receptor ABI1 by E2-E3 complex UBC27-AIRP3
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator in plant abiotic stress adaptation. The control of the co-receptor PP2C proteins like ABI1 is the central hub of ABA signaling transduction. Under standard conditions, ABI1 binds to the protein kinase SnRK2s and inhibits their activities. ABA binding to receptor proteins PYR1/PYLs competes with SnRK2s in ABI1 targeting, and thus releas
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Styrning med motsägelsefulla mål – i Region Stockholm
Region Stockholm styr sin hälso- och sjukvård med hjälp av uppsatta mål och ekonomistyrning. Men vad och vem styr styrningen? Detta är i mångt och mycket ganska oklart, visar forskning Linnéuniversitetet. I en nyligen publicerad rapport redovisar forskaren Pia Nylinder hur Region Stockholm styr sin hälso- och sjukvård med hjälp av uppsatta mål och ekonomistyrning. Hennes genomgång visar att det i
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Researchers develop method for earlier detection of Alzheimer's Disease
Washington State University scientists have developed a method to detect the biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease that is 10 times more sensitive than current blood testing technology.
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New evidence found of the ritual significance of a classic Maya sweat bath in Guatemala
An unusual offering in an abandoned and unique-looking Maya sweat bath revealed new evidence of the role it played in the community
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Gender inequalities accelerate during early adolescence, study finds
Early adolescence is where gender inequalities most markedly emerge, according to new research from across 40 low- and middle-income countries in Asia and the Pacific.
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ACP and Annals of Internal Medicine hold virtual COVID-19 vaccine forum
The American College of Physicians (ACP) and Annals of Internal Medicine hosted a virtual forum on October 16 assembling some of the country's leading health experts to discuss timely, evidence-based information related to what physicians and other health care professionals need to know about a COVID-19 vaccine. During the forum, experts discussed the progress of the science and the challenges rel
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Projecting favorable perceptions of space
For anthropologists and other social scientists, the space race in the 1950s served as a period of cultural and technological transformation as well as an opportunity to advance the public good.
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Scientists reveal novel regulation mechanism of abscisic acid co-receptor ABI1 by E2-E3 complex UBC27-AIRP3
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator in plant abiotic stress adaptation. The control of the co-receptor PP2C proteins like ABI1 is the central hub of ABA signaling transduction. Under standard conditions, ABI1 binds to the protein kinase SnRK2s and inhibits their activities. ABA binding to receptor proteins PYR1/PYLs competes with SnRK2s in ABI1 targeting, and thus releas
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Turning wastewater nutrients into fertilizer
Wastewater contains large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, which are valuable nutrients. NPHarvest is a process developed by Aalto University researchers that allows for the recovery of these nutrients in a way that produces a clean ammonium sulfate solution, which can be used as fertilizer, and a slurry rich in phosphorus and calcium. Using the NPHarvest process to produce recycled fertilizer
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Universal vote-by-mail doesn't favor any party, at least in normal times: study
Despite frequently shouted concerns by both Democrats and Republicans, voting by mail doesn't lend either political party an advantage on Election Day, though it might account for a slight uptick in overall voter participation, according to research led by UCLA professor of political science Daniel Thompson.
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Studies investigate need for and impact of culturally aware mentorship training
Higher education institutions frequently offer mentored research experiences to increase undergraduate student interest, motivation and preparedness for research careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematic and Medicine (STEMM) fields.
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New CubeSat will observe the remnants of massive supernovas
Scientists at CU Boulder are developing a satellite about the size of a toaster oven to explore one of the cosmos' most fundamental mysteries: How did radiation from stars punch its way out of the first galaxies to fundamentally alter the make-up of the universe as it we know it today.
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Biobased products can produce luminescent textiles
Luminescent textiles can be created by using a bioluminescent reaction system. This is something that Sweta Iyer, with her newly-minted doctorate, has established. Her doctoral thesis in the field of Textile Technology at the University of Borås can now be useful in a number of different areas in society.
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Clear communication is key when disaster strikes
Social media channels like Twitter and Facebook can hammer people with unreliable information in the wake of a disaster, a University of Canterbury (UC) Ph.D. student has found.
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Karma doesn't work how most people think it does
Karma is not simple retribution for bad deeds. Eastern traditions view karma as part of a cycle of birth and rebirth. Actions and intentions can influence karma, which can be both positive and negative. The news that Donald Trump got sick with COVID-19 prompted " karma" to trend on social media. The President downplayed the virus, openly mocked the practice of wearing masks, shared misinformation
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Hard to spot, but worth looking out for: 8 surprising tawny frogmouth facts
The tawny frogmouth is one of Australia's most-loved birds. In fact, it was first runner-up in the Guardian/BirdLife Australia bird of the year poll (behind the endangered black-throated finch).
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Humans experience 200 times more radiation standing on the moon than standing on the Earth
January 31, 2021, will mark 50 years since the launch of Apollo 14. This historic mission was the first to broadcast a color television signal from the surface of the moon and marked the heroic return to space of America's first astronaut, Alan Shepard, who famously hit two golf balls off of the lunar regolith. While the significance of Apollo 14 and the Apollo program in general can't be overstat
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Hard to spot, but worth looking out for: 8 surprising tawny frogmouth facts
The tawny frogmouth is one of Australia's most-loved birds. In fact, it was first runner-up in the Guardian/BirdLife Australia bird of the year poll (behind the endangered black-throated finch).
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Microscopy with undetected photons in the mid-infrared region
Microscopy techniques that incorporate mid-infrared (IR) illumination holds tremendous promise across a range of biomedical and industrial applications due to its unique biochemical specificity. However, the method is primarily limited by the detection range, where existing mid-infrared (mid-IR) detection techniques often combine inferior methods that are also costly. In a new report now published
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How obesity could create problems for a COVID vaccine
Nature, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02946-6 Researchers fear that vaccines might not be as effective in people who are obese, a population already highly vulnerable to COVID-19.
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This red light means 'go' for medical discoveries
With a little tweak of the color palette, University of Virginia researchers have made it easier for scientists to unravel the mysteries of disease and develop new treatments.
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Dementia prevention strategies could save £1.9 billion annually
Programmes to reduce dementia risk by targeting smoking, high blood pressure and hearing loss are likely to be cost-effective and cost saving by reducing dementia rates by 8.5%, finds a new study by UCL and LSE researchers, published in The Lancet Healthy Longevity.
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Evidence of broadside collision with dwarf galaxy discovered in Milky Way
Astrophysicists have discovered a series of telltale shell-like formations of stars in the vicinity of the Virgo constellation, evidence of a radial merger between a dwarf galaxy and the Milky Way, and the first such 'shell structures' to be found in the Milky Way.
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COVID-19 pandemic drives innovation in diabetes care
The COVID-19 pandemic has jumpstarted innovation in health care delivery and allowed for real-world testing of diabetes care models in unprecedented ways, according to a manuscript published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
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The evolutionary advantage of being friendly
We've all heard the term "survival of the fittest," which scientist Charles Darwin famously coined to explain how organisms with heritable traits that give them an advantage—such as avoiding predators or beating out others for the chance to mate—are able to survive and pass on these advantageous traits to their offspring.
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The consequences of mating at the molecular level
While it is known that stem cells have the ability to develop into all tissues in a precisely regulated process, the way environmental cues affect stem cell behavior has remained poorly understood. In a new study, researchers from the University of Tsukuba discovered that neurons producing the neurotransmitter octopamine regulate the behavior of germline stem cells (GSCs) in response to environmen
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To grow or not to grow: How do plants know when the environment is suitable for growth and when it is not?
Plants use photosynthesis to convert sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to the sugars they need to grow and that ultimately feed our planet. Water is also essential for transporting nutrients from the soil and for providing rigidity to the tissues (turgor) so the plant can remain upright. Lack of water leads to drought and ultimately to plant death. Being such an essential factor, plants have deve
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Artistic enigma decoded by cosmic Czech start-up
A Madonna and Child painting with a history almost as enigmatic as the Mona Lisa's smile has been identified as an authentic Raphael canvas by Czech company InsightART, which used a robotic X-ray scanner to investigate the artwork.
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Cooling: The hidden threat for climate change and sustainable goals
Past research suggests growing international demand for cooling has the potential to drive one of the most substantial increases in greenhouse gas emissions in recent history. A new study, led by the University of Oxford and published today in Nature Sustainability, sets out a framework for delivering sustainable cooling. It also examines cooling needs in the context of sustainable development, an
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A novel, low-cost method detects nanoscale contaminants during manufacture of semiconductor devices
As computer chips and other electronic devices continue to shrink in size, they become ever more sensitive to contamination. However, detecting the nanoscale equivalent of a water spot on a window is incredibly challenging. It is essential, though, since these nearly invisible defects of these components may interfere with proper functioning.
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The evolutionary advantage of being friendly
We've all heard the term "survival of the fittest," which scientist Charles Darwin famously coined to explain how organisms with heritable traits that give them an advantage—such as avoiding predators or beating out others for the chance to mate—are able to survive and pass on these advantageous traits to their offspring.
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The consequences of mating at the molecular level
While it is known that stem cells have the ability to develop into all tissues in a precisely regulated process, the way environmental cues affect stem cell behavior has remained poorly understood. In a new study, researchers from the University of Tsukuba discovered that neurons producing the neurotransmitter octopamine regulate the behavior of germline stem cells (GSCs) in response to environmen
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To grow or not to grow: How do plants know when the environment is suitable for growth and when it is not?
Plants use photosynthesis to convert sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to the sugars they need to grow and that ultimately feed our planet. Water is also essential for transporting nutrients from the soil and for providing rigidity to the tissues (turgor) so the plant can remain upright. Lack of water leads to drought and ultimately to plant death. Being such an essential factor, plants have deve
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Resist Misinformation, Watch Birds and Remember Plagues
Our November issue features space wars, a mysterious disorder of mind and brain, and past pandemics — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Early adolescence central to gender inequality in Asia-Pacific
Early adolescence is where gender inequalities most markedly emerge according to new research led by Burnet Institute and funded by UNICEF.
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Energy scavenging nanogenerator finds power all around us
Imagine a mobile phone charger that doesn't need a wireless or mains power source. Or a pacemaker with inbuilt organic energy sources within the human body.
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Upgrades yield increased cryogenic power at Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the coldest places on Earth. The 1.9 K (-271.3 °C) operating temperature of its main magnets is even lower than the 2.7 K (-270.5 °C) of outer space. To get the LHC to this temperature, 120 tons of liquid helium flow around a closed circuit in the veins of the accelerator.
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Q&A: What touching an asteroid can teach us
The University of Arizona-led OSIRIS-REx mission will make NASA's first attempt at collecting a sample from an asteroid on Oct. 20. The sample, which will be returned to Earth in 2023, has the potential to shed light on the origins of life and the solar system.
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New method can help industry choose the best location for production
Despite the recent trend toward increased sustainability and the development of new sustainable ways of working, there is more to do when it comes to decisions about manufacturing and location. Today's fragmented supply chains, with suppliers at several levels and different production sites, have led to reduced traceability and difficulties in ensuring the supply chain's economic, environmental, a
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How Video Games Are Saving Those Who Served
Veterans with PTSD, anxiety, and other mental health challenges often find solace in gaming. Research shows it's helpful—and could be used more broadly.
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Scientific Journals Are Denouncing Trump. That's Normal
The notion that a split between science and politics must exist is largely a fiction—and one of relatively recent vintage.
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Apple iPhone 12 Pro Review: Apple's Awkward Middle Child
Apple's $1,000 phone sits in the awkward spot of not quite being the best phone. Nevertheless, it offers compelling upgrades.
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Apple iPhone 12 Review: Solid, but Don't Buy It Just for 5G
Apple's new iPhone makes a good upgrade if you're ready for your next phone.
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Asian Americans more affected by pandemic-related unemployment than any other racial group
While the lockdown associated with COVID-19 has negatively affected people from all walks of life, one U.S. minority group is bearing the brunt of unemployment.
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Novel medical imaging approach unlocks potential for improved diagnoses and interventions
Researchers from Helmholtz Zentrum München and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), jointly developed new imaging tools to allow non-invasive imaging of distinct structures, like blood vessels, in multicolor and in real-time. The new imaging system is based on an approach widely used in other industries and allows the monitoring of multiple parameters (multiplexing)—a technical challe
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Researchers create a single-molecule switch
A team of researchers has demonstrated for the first time a single-molecule electret—a device that could be one of the keys to molecular computers.
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Stem cell research, clinical use of 'magic mushrooms' among issues on state ballots this year
Voters will weigh in on more than 100 state initiatives and referenda
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Evidence of broadside collision with dwarf galaxy discovered in Milky Way
Nearly 3 billion years ago, a dwarf galaxy plunged into the center of the Milky Way and was ripped apart by the gravitational forces of the collision. Astrophysicists announced today that the merger produced a series of telltale shell-like formations of stars in the vicinity of the Virgo constellation, the first such "shell structures" to be found in the Milky Way. The finding offers further evide
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Djorgovski 2 hosts multiple stellar populations, study suggests
Astronomers have performed spectroscopic observations of a globular cluster (GC) known as Djorgovski 2 and obtained chemical abundances of the cluster's seven stars. The results suggest that Djorgovski 2 contains multiple stellar populations. The finding was detailed in a paper published October 8 on the arXiv pre-print repository.
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Microbial diversity below seafloor is as rich as on Earth's surface
For the first time, researchers have mapped the biological diversity of marine sediment, one of Earth's largest global biomes. Although marine sediment covers 70% of the Earth's surface, little was known about its global patterns of microbial diversity.
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Ingeniører vil stoppe sort skibsfart med ny ammoniak-motor
PLUS. Det høje tryk og de høje temperaturer, som store skibsmotorer giver mulighed for, kombineret med relativt lang tid i forbrændingstakten, giver mulighed for forbrænding af et "besværligt" brændstof som ammoniak, der til gengæld ikke udleder CO2.
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Researchers find bovid and rhinocerous species in Tibetan Plateau about 5,200 years ago
A research team led by Prof. Su Bing from Kunming Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, collaborating with the researchers from Lanzhou University and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, performed a DNA investigation on approximately 5,200-year-old bovid and rhinoceros specimens from the Shannashuzha (SNSZ) site, and revealed that the tropical Bos gaurus and Dicerorhi
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Microbial diversity below seafloor is as rich as on Earth's surface
For the first time, researchers have mapped the biological diversity of marine sediment, one of Earth's largest global biomes. Although marine sediment covers 70% of the Earth's surface, little was known about its global patterns of microbial diversity.
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Is Your PCR Reaction Healthy?
In this webinar brought to you by MilliporeSigma, explore how improving nucleic acid extraction is vital for PCR robustness.
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Storsäljande romaner saknas i svensk litteraturhistoria
Det internationella genombrottet för svensk litteratur skedde mycket tidigare än man hittills trott och det var de kvinnliga- och inte manliga författarna som gjorde Sverige känt redan i mitten av 1800-talet. Genom att undersöka hur svenska romaner spreds och recenserades i Europa under 1800-talet kan forskare vid Göteborgs universitet konstatera att kvinnliga populära författare har om- och nedv
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Region klar til at fjerne gift fra Grindstedværket – men pengene mangler
PLUS. Formanden for miljøudvalget i Region Syddanmark frygter, at generationsforureningerne bliver glemt under finanslovsforhandlingerne.
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COVID-19 vaccines: time to talk about the uncertainties
Nature, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02944-8 Plan now for decisions on which vaccines should go to whom, when and how often.
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Study reveals why some blame Asian Americans for COVID-19
A blend of racial prejudice, poor coping and partisan media viewing were found in Americans who stigmatized people of Asian descent during the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a new study.But it was prejudice against Asian Americans that was most strongly linked to beliefs that Asians were responsible for the pandemic and most at risk for spreading it, results showed.
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Highly selective membranes
Membranes with microscopic pores are useful for water filtration. The effect of pore size on water filtration is well-understood, as is the role of ions, charged atoms, that interact with the membrane. For the first time, researchers have successfully described the impact water molecules have on other water molecules and on ions as part of the filtration mechanism. The researchers detail a feedbac
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Macchiarini victim to Swedish prosecutor: "Claudia is alive and must be called to testify"
Macchiarini's victim Paloma Cabeza speaks out again, fearing she doesn't have much time left. She appeals to the Swedish prosecutor for justice in the deadly trachea transplant scandal.
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Hunt on for future Covid mutations that cause treatments to lose potency
UK genetics consortium to monitor changes in virus to spot resistance to antibodies Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Scientists are to increase surveillance for new coronavirus mutations amid concerns that future strains of the virus could develop at least partial resistance to antibody treatments and Covid-19 vaccines. There is no evidence that the mutations seen so
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America Will Sacrifice Anything for the College Experience
A merican colleges botched the pandemic from the very start. Caught off guard in the spring, most of them sent everyone home in a panic, in some cases evicting students who had nowhere else to go. School leaders hemmed and hawed all summer about what to do next and how to do it. In the end, most schools reopened their campuses for the fall, and when students returned, they brought the coronavirus
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Become a better writer with these online tools
Everyone can type, but can you write? (Glenn Carstens-Peters / Unsplash/) Writing good, clear sentences is harder than it sounds. When you've absolutely got to hit a word count, it's just so easy to elongate your work by adding in superfluous, unnecessary words so that an idea that should be a brief 10-word sentence ends up being an entire paragraph—like this one. People also do this in an effort
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Lika säkert med bröstbevarande kirurgi som traditionell
Bröstbevarande kirurgi förbättrar behandlingen av bröstcancer, både funktionellt och estetiskt. Nu visar forskning att så kallad onkoplastik också är lika säker som konventionell bröstbevarande kirurgi. Och att patienternas livskvalitet ökar på lång sikt. – Att rekonstruera bröstet med onkoplastik i samband med canceroperationen är en lika säker metod som att ta bort hela bröstet, förutsatt att b
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PC Gaming Doesn't Have to Be More Expensive Than Consoles
Don't buy into the myth: If you consider your options carefully, upgrading your desktop doesn't have to empty your wallet.
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Can Placebos Work—Even When Patients Know They're Fake?
Researchers showed that a saline spray "treatment" reduced people's emotional distress, even though the study subjects knew the spray wouldn't do anything.
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Would you like "milk" with that Impossible burger?
Impossible Foods has continued to expand throughout the pandemic, bringing its bleeding, sizzling plant-based burgers and sausages to more than 10,000 additional US stores this year . Now the company, which has raised $700 million in 2020, is preparing to move into new markets and product lines. On Tuesday, it will announce plans to double its research and development team in the next 12 months,
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Daryl Bem, Psi Research, and Fixing Science
In 2011 Daryl Bem published a series of ten studies which he claimed demonstrated psi phenomena – that people could "feel the future". He took standard psychological study methods and simply reversed the order of events, so that the effect was measured prior to the stimulus. Bem claimed to find significant results – therefore psi is real. Skeptics and psychologists were not impressed, for various
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Highly selective membranes: Researchers discover how water can affect its own filtration
Membranes with microscopic pores are useful for water filtration. The effect of pore size on water filtration is well-understood, as is the role of ions, charged atoms that interact with the membrane. For the first time, researchers have successfully described the impact water molecules have on other water molecules and on ions as part of the filtration mechanism. The researchers detail a feedback
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How the Best Forecasters Predict Events Such as Election Outcomes
Research reveals techniques that boost accuracy — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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How the Best Forecasters Predict Events Such as Election Outcomes
Research reveals techniques that boost accuracy — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Vild rumrejse kulminerer i aften: Fartøj besøger 'potentielt farlig' asteroide
Nasa-rumsonde skal hente materiale fra asteroiden, som kan give os indblik i solsystemets fødsel.
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Presidential Debates Have Shockingly Little Effect on Election Outcomes
The upcoming debate between Joe Biden and Donald Trump may be one of the least consequential in decades, experts say — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Presidential Debates Have Shockingly Little Effect on Election Outcomes
The upcoming debate between Joe Biden and Donald Trump may be one of the least consequential in decades, experts say — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Dozens of volunteers will be deliberately infected with covid-19 in the UK
The news: Young, healthy people will be deliberately infected with covid-19 in the first ever human challenge trial, set to begin at a London hospital in January. The study, announced today, will recruit up to 50 healthy volunteers between 18 and 30. The UK government has pledged to invest £33.6 million ($44 million) in the trial, which will be carried out in partnership with hVIVO, a company wit
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What if Friendship, Not Marriage, Was at the Center of Life?
Kami West had been dating her current boyfriend for a few weeks when she told him that he was outranked by her best friend. West knew her boyfriend had caught snatches of her daily calls with Kate Tillotson, which she often placed on speaker mode. But she figured that he, like the men she'd dated before, didn't quite grasp the nature of their friendship. West explained to him, "I need you to know
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Presidential Debates Have Shockingly Little Effect on Election Outcomes
The upcoming debate between Joe Biden and Donald Trump may be one of the least consequential in decades, experts say — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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InSight Mars Lander's 'Mole' Probe Now Completely Underground
NASA's InSight Lander made history when it became the first mission to take seismic readings on another planet, but the lander's other major experiment hasn't been as successful. The mission's burrowing heat probe, sometimes called the "Mole," has struggled to even make it underground, but NASA has finally reported success getting it to stay there. The instrument managed to drag itself below the
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Study shows active older adults have better physical and mental health
Older adults with higher physical activity and lower sitting time have better overall physical and mental health, according to a new study from the American Cancer Society (ACS).
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For Celebrities, Apathy Can Be a Form of Political Credibility
Tyler, the Creator's phone camera appeared to be smudged. He had aimed his lens up his nostrils. He seemed to be sweating. "I know I'm the last person y'all should ever take advice from," the 29-year-old rapper told his fans in a video posted to Instagram and Twitter. "But I'm reiterating what everyone else is saying. Please, please, if you're young, and your fucking back don't hurt, go to the po
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Kyle Rittenhouse Deserves the Kind of Mercy My Son Did Not Receive
Kyle Rittenhouse, the 17-year-old who was charged with shooting and killing two people during protests in Kenosha, Wisconsin, is just a year older than my son was when he was convicted of murder and sentenced to life without the possibility of parole. To a great many people in this country, my son deserves to die in prison. To another great many, Rittenhouse deserves the same fate. Neither outcom
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It's Time to Talk About Covid-19 and Surfaces Again
In the early days, we furiously scrubbed, afraid we could get sick from the virus lingering on objects and surfaces. What do we know now?
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The Fate of Gig Workers Is in the Hands of California Voters
A ballot measure would create a new classification for people who have been contractors. Uber and Lyft threaten to leave the state if it fails.
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Is 5G Available for You? Here's How to Find Out
Before you jump on that new iPhone or Samsung Galaxy device, maybe make sure 5G is even available or worthwhile where you live.
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How Online Extremists Could Interfere With the Election
Far-right factions say they're willing to take action to keep President Trump in the White House. The question is whether those actions are viable—or dangerous.
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Mental träning i skolan motar psykisk ohälsa
Gymnasieelever i Lund ska på skoltid träna upp förmågan att hantera stress och motgångar – och diskutera alternativa sätt att tänka om sig själva och andra. – Liknande försök i andra länder visar på goda resultat, säger Eva Hoff, en av forskarna bakom den metod eleverna ska använda. I flera år har en forskargrupp vid Lunds universitet undersökt både psykisk hälsa och ohälsa bland unga och hur de
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The 2020 election could permanently change how America votes
More than 29 million voters have already cast their ballots in the 2020 US elections, and we're still more than two weeks from Election Day itself. At the same point in 2016, the number of early votes was about 6 million. But while a great deal of this is the result of the ongoing ( and worsening ) covid-19 crisis, America's top election official says that the shift to early and mail-in voting co
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AI has exacerbated racial bias in housing. Could it help eliminate it instead?
Our upcoming magazine issue is devoted to long-term problems. Few problems are longer-term or more intractable than America's systemic racial inequality. And a particularly entrenched form of it is housing discrimination. A long history of policies by banks, insurance companies, and real estate brokers has denied people of color a fair shot at homeownership, concentrated wealth and property in th
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Searching for the Atoms of Life
Any extraterrestrial organisms we find will be made of the same atoms we are—yet their existence will be profoundly important to us nonetheless — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Vismænd: Ensartet CO2-afgift bør drive omstilling
I vismandsrapporten for efteråret anbefales også, at en undersøgelse af forskellige modeller for road-pricing igangsættes.
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The world's on fire, our nerves on edge: the merchants of Calm have just the fix | Jessa Crispin
Religion is no longer the opiate of the masses. It's ASMR videos, low-stakes nature documentaries and 'mindfulness' apps California is still on fire. I take half a tranquilizer with two glasses of a sparkling rosé, pull the weighted blanket over my cashmere pajama-clad body, and cue up the next episode of HBO Max's new series A World of Calm. It's the one that has Keanu Reeves telling me the stor
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Debunking the False Claim That COVID Death Counts Are Inflated
President Trump, a congressman and conspiracy fantasists have repeated the myth. But three kinds of evidence point to more than 218,000 U.S. deaths — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Debunking the False Claim That COVID Death Counts Are Inflated
President Trump, a congressman and conspiracy fantasists have repeated the myth. But three kinds of evidence point to more than 218,000 U.S. deaths — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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USA: Seks russiske officerer har i årevis udført destruktive hackerangreb
Seks russiske efterretningsofficerer er blevet anklaget af USA for at stå bag nogle af verdens mest omfattende hackerangreb, der både har ramt valgkampe, elforsyninger og de olympiske lege.
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Sabeltandad katt var långdistanslöpare
Den sabeltandade katten i fråga kallas Homotherium latidens. Forskarna bakom studien som har publicerats i Current biology, har analyserat dna från ett mer än 47 000 år gammalt överarmsben från H. latidens som hittades i Yukon i Kanada.
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NATO to set up new space center amid China, Russia concerns
To a few of the locals, the top-secret, fenced-off installation on the hill is known as "the radar station." Some folks claim to have seen mysterious Russians in the area. Over the years, rumors have swirled that it might be a base for U.S. nuclear warheads.
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Forskere: Cigaretskod kan gøre byggematerialer mere bæredygtige
PLUS. Australske forskere har påvist, at cigaretskod kan bruges som tilsætning til produktionen af ler til teglsten, hvilket både sænker klimapåvirkningen og løser et affaldsproblem.
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We May Never Know the Full Story of COVID-19
J ournalism, even practiced at its highest levels, has an element of chance. Reporters spend hours riding in taxis or trains or airplanes, or on the telephone or online, hoping to land that meeting that might yield a quote or secreted document resulting in a story. And if the story is particularly noteworthy, that's a scoop. A big scoop for a reporter is like hitting your number at a roulette tab
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The code-breakers who led the rise of computing
Nature, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02937-7 World wars, cold wars, cyberwars — marking a century of state surveillance at GCHQ.
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Daily briefing: A giant cat was hiding among the Nazca lines
Nature, Published online: 19 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02961-7 A 37-metre-long figure of a cat has reappeared among the iconic Peruvian geoglyphs known as the Nazca lines. Plus, how China could be carbon neutral by 2060 and migraine headaches.
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How the Greater Manchester Covid lockdown standoff unfolded
There has been no resolution despite talks starting 11 days ago as Westminster's noon deadline approaches Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The UK government has presented Greater Manchester leaders with a deadline of 12pm on Tuesday to agree to take their region into tier 3 coronavirus restrictions. This is how events have unfolded over the past 11 days. Continue read
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The World Order That Donald Trump Revealed
T o Donald Trump's critics , four years of posturing has left him exposed for all the world to see. The president hasn't made America great again, they argue; he has made it weaker than it's ever been: disrespected, ridiculed, and now even pitied, as it struggles to grapple with the coronavirus pandemic. He has failed to rebalance relations with China, failed to deal with North Korea, failed to e
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The Right's Disinformation Machine Is Getting Ready for Trump to Lose
Whether President Donald Trump wins or loses, some version of QAnon is going to survive the election. On the day of the vice-presidential debate between Mike Pence and Kamala Harris, the individual or group known as "Q" sent out a flurry of posts. "ONLY THE ILLUSION OF DEMOCRACY," began one. "Joe 30330—Arbitrary?—What is 2020 [current year] divided by 30330? Symbolism will be their downfall," rea
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Trump's Troop
Illustrations by Jonathan Twingley Bill Barr Cleared President Donald Trump of all obstruction-of-justice allegations in a letter summarizing the findings of Special Counsel Robert Mueller's Russia investigation. Was accused by investigators on Mueller's team of inaccurately portraying the inquiry's findings. This year, a Republican-appointed federal judge questioned "whether Attorney General Bar
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The Midnight Message
Yoav Horesh I n the January 1861 issue of this magazine, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, one of The Atlantic 's founders, published what would become perhaps his most popular poem, the opening stanza of which is immortal: "Listen, my children, and you shall hear / Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere." But the past century or so has not been overly kind to "Paul Revere's Ride," or to the rest of the L
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Hands up! Carpal tunnel expert loses 12th paper for misconduct
You can no longer count on two hands the number of retractions tallied by Young Hak Roh, an orthopedic surgeon at Ewha Womans University in Korea found guilty of "intentional, repetitive, and serious misconduct." The hand specialist has notched his 12th retraction in the wake of the institutional investigation, which, as we reported in July, … Continue reading
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Six-Word Sci-Fi: A Story About the Next Big Security Leak
Each month we publish a six-word story—and it could be written by you.
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3 Great Gaming Chairs for Any Budget (2020)
With high backrests and generous adjustability, these thrones ease the physical strain of epic Doom Eternal sessions while also improving your WFH setup.
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What AI College Exam Proctors Are Really Teaching Our Kids
Universities are digitally spying on students to make sure they don't cheat on online tests. A whole generation could be learning to tolerate surveillance.
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My Roomba Has Achieved Enlightenment
To my robovac, hitting a doorjamb and cleaning with dispatch are one and the same. There is no success or failure—these concepts have merged.
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Panic's Playdate Is a Retro-Modern Handheld-Gaming Delight
Don't be fooled by the old-school design, with springy buttons and a black-and-white screen. It's the Game Boy for the wireless, open-source era.
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Angry Nerd: Stop Turning My Favorite Antiheroes Into Heroes
Attention Disney and Netflix: Leave Maleficent and Carmen Sandiego alone. My soul needs villains, those perpetrators of change.
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It's Time to Pick Classes for the 2073-74 School Year!
Welcome back! Among the many courses offered this semester, students may elect to study essential climate-mitigation skills like underwater basket weaving.
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Black Doctors Work to Make Coronavirus Testing More Equitable
Spurred by disproportionately high rates of Covid-19 in Black communities and inequities in health care, a surgeon in Philadelphia began offering free tests out of a minivan. Now, more than 10,000 people have been tested by the volunteer doctors and nurses of the Black Doctors Covid-19 Consortium.
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Meet the disease detectives fighting to understand COVID-19
Eric Pevzner heads up the Centers for Disease and Control's Epidemic Intelligence Service. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic he tackled the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and H1N1 outbreak in Mexico. (Amanda Ringstad/) In 1995, Eric Pevzner took a temporary gig at his alma mater, Michigan State University, while he applied to med school. But this project—investigating how a sense of community influen
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Crew in no danger after ISS issues resolved: Russia
The International Space Station is now working normally with no danger to its occupants after the crew managed to resolve a series of technical issues overnight, Russia's space agency said Tuesday.
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Vanligt blekmedel kan skräddarsy nanomaterial
Väteperoxid som används för att bleka hår eller göra våra tänder vitare kan också användas för att skräddarsy egenskaperna i ultratunna tvådimensionella material. Upptäckten är intressant för utvecklingen av nya lösningar inom nanoteknik och kvantelektronik. Material som är så tunna att de bara består av ett lager av atomer kallas för tvådimensionella (2D) material och det mest kända är grafen so
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How an Ill-Fated Fishing Voyage Helped Us Understand Covid-19
The threat posed by the virus makes randomized controlled trials extremely difficult. That means "real-life experiments" are especially important.
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Klart idag: Kinesisk 5G förbjuds i Sverige
Världens största tillverkare av nätutrustning Huawei stängs nu ute från den svenska 5G-utbyggnaden, efter krav från Säkerhetspolisen och Försvarsmakten.
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Siah2 integrates mitogenic and extracellular matrix signals linking neuronal progenitor ciliogenesis with germinal zone occupancy
Nature Communications, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19063-7 In neural development, progenitors transition from a proliferative to a differentiated state. Here, the authors show that cerebellar granule neurons retract primary cilia as they exit their proliferative niche upon decreased ECM engagement, enabling radial migration due to loss of Shh sensitivity.
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Mechanisms of telomerase inhibition by oxidized and therapeutic dNTPs
Nature Communications, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19115-y Telomerase enzymes add telomeric repeats to the end of linear chromosomes. Here the authors reveal mechanisms by which oxidized dNTPs and therapeutic dNTPs inhibit telomerase-mediated telomere elongation.
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Prosociality predicts labor market success around the world
Nature Communications, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19007-1 Previous research on the importance of prosociality is based on observations from WEIRD societies, questioning the generalizability of these findings. Here the authors present a global investigation of the relation between prosociality and labor market success and generalize the positive relation to a wide ge
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Telomere damage induces internal loops that generate telomeric circles
Nature Communications, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19139-4 Extrachromosomal circular DNA made of telomeric repeats have been found to have an effect on telomere maintenance. By combining electron microscopy with a telomere purification procedure the authors identify damage-induced i-loops as a key intermediate in telomere circle formation.
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CHIP phosphorylation by protein kinase G enhances protein quality control and attenuates cardiac ischemic injury
Nature Communications, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18980-x Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is proteostasis regulator. Here the authors show that CHIP-mediated protein turnover is enhanced by PKG-mediated phosphorylation, which results in attenuated cardiac ischemic proteotoxicity.
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Altered G1 signaling order and commitment point in cells proliferating without CDK4/6 activity
Nature Communications, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18966-9 How normal cells proliferate without CDK4 and CDK6, two cancer-driving kinases, remains unclear. Here, the authors show that without CDK4/6 activity, cells start the cell cycle with a different signaling order and commitment point, revealing unexpected flexibility in cell-cycle entry mechanisms.
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Nkx2-5 defines distinct scaffold and recruitment phases during formation of the murine cardiac Purkinje fiber network
Nature Communications, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19150-9 Here, the authors apply genetic fate mapping and temporal clonal analysis to study progenitor recruitment and network morphogenesis of murine cardiac Purkinje fibers. Additionally, they characterize how transcription factor dosage regulates cell fate divergence during distinct phases of this process.
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Electrification at water–hydrophobe interfaces
Nature Communications, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19054-8 Electrification of water upon contact with hydrophobic surfaces is a ubiquitous but poorly understood phenomenon. Here, the authors pinpoint the factors responsible for the excess positive charge carried by water droplets dispensed from hydrophobic capillaries, thereby answering some outstanding questions and
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Why Biden Needs Black Men
A merican-flag bunting frames Headliners Barbershop in Detroit. Out front, four barber's chairs, spaced six feet apart, form a straight line. In one of them, Garlin Gilchrist, the lieutenant governor of Michigan, sits up, then leans on the right armrest, turning to Senator Kamala Harris, who occupies the seat next to him. "All of us know somebody who has been affected or who has died," he tells t
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Aggressive melanoma cells at edge of tumours are key to cancer spread
Research led by Queen Mary University of London has revealed novel insights into the mechanisms employed by melanoma cells to form tumours at secondary sites around the body.
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Declines in shellfish species on rocky seashores match climate-driven changes
Mussels, barnacles, and snails are declining in the Gulf of Maine, according to a new paper by biologists Peter Petraitis of the University of Pennsylvania and Steve Dudgeon of California State University, Northridge. Their 20-year dataset reveals that the populations' steady dwindling matches up with the effects of climate change on the region.
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US colleges that welcomed students back likely led to a surge in Covid cases
The CDC has said that young adults saw a 55% increase nationally in coronavirus cases in August From late July through September, students from more than 2,400 colleges and universities went back to campus to participate in what has ultimately become an American experiment in how institutions of higher education can operate during a pandemic. It has been a few weeks since the most dramatic effect
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Anders Kühnau: Jeg melder pas til dit forsøg på at gøre en faglig strid til en politisk strid
Debatten om lavdosis CT er resultatet af en årelang faglig strid, som rækker langt ud over Region Midtjylland – og som kun kan afgøres af Sundhedsstyrelsen skriver Anders Kühnau (S), formand for Region Midtjylland, i et svar til Ulrich Fredberg.
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Extreme E invites scientist bids for ship research
Extreme E are inviting applications from scientists to conduct ocean based research aboard their 'floating paddock', the St Helena.
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Commercial antibodies: alternative grading for research
Nature, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02929-7
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Question hubris in nations' COVID-19 responses
Nature, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02930-0
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Non-animal-derived antibodies: pharma companies respond
Nature, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02923-z
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Hunger in Africa: get the costing right
Nature, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02928-8
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Predicting 3D moisture sorption behavior of materials from 1D investigations
Scientific Reports, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74898-w
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Influence of low back pain and its remission on motor abundance in a low-load lifting task
Scientific Reports, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74707-4
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Occurrence of multiclass endocrine disrupting compounds in a drinking water supply system and associated risks
Scientific Reports, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74061-5
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Author Correction: Helicobacter pylori eradication affects platelet count recovery in immune thrombocytopenia
Scientific Reports, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74316-1
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Satellite radar observation of large surface collapses induced by the 2017 North Korea nuclear test
Scientific Reports, Published online: 20 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74957-2
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Declines in shellfish species on rocky seashores match climate-driven changes
The waters of the Gulf of Maine are warming faster than oceans almost anywhere on Earth. And as the level of carbon dioxide rises in the atmosphere, it's absorbed by the oceans, causing pH levels to fall. Ocean acidification makes it difficult for shellfish to thicken their shells—their primary defense against predators.
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What stops people from changing their minds?
When you want someone to see things differently and to abandon their previous stance, sometimes persistence is not key. "Too often we think change is about pushing," says Jonah Berger, author of the book The Catalyst: How to Change Anyone's Mind , and a marketing professor at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. "We think if we just come up with one more way people will eventuall
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