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Nyheder2020september01

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Genetics Steps In to Help Tell the Story of Human Origins
Africa's sparse fossil record alone cannot reveal our species' evolutionary history.
15h
Venom from honeybees found to kill aggressive breast cancer cells
Honeybee venom induces cancer cell death in hard to treat triple-negative breast cancer with minimal effect on healthy cells
5h
USA tager et skridt mod mini-atomkraftværker
Den amerikanske udvikler NuScale har fået endelige designgodkendelse fra de amerikanske myndigheder til et mini-atomkraftværk. Nu kan de sammen med kommende kunder gå i gang med at udvikle en modular 60 MW atomreaktor.
11h

LATEST

This Drug Makes Mice Live Longer and Healthier Lives
The common bodybuilding supplement alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) seems to have a pronounced anti-aging effect on mice. The supplement — which is also produced naturally in mouse and human bodies — not only made the mice who ate it live longer, but it also kept them healthy for longer as well, Science Magazine reports . The Buck Institute for Research on Aging scientists behind the research found that
10min
Differing diets of bonobo groups may offer insights into how culture is created
Besides humans, many other social animals are believed to exhibit forms of culture in various ways, too. According to primatologists, bonobos, one of our closest living relatives, could be the latest addition to the list.
18min
Severe COVID-19 despite or even due to the strong immunity
Critically ill patients present a similar or even stronger immunity against the virus than convalescent patients. This supports the theory that severe infections might be linked to an exaggerated immune reaction.
18min
First randomised trial backs safety of common heart drugs in COVID-19 patients
Heart patients hospitalized with COVID-19 can safely continue taking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), according to new research.
18min
Scientists unlock crops' power to resist floods
Foundational science has discovered the molecular structure of plant enzymes that could be manipulated to create flood-resistant crops, vital as weather events become more extreme due to global warming.
18min
Engineers Build Tweezers So Tiny They Can Pick Up Individual Molecules
Steady… For the first time, engineers built optical tweezers capable of grabbing individual biomolecules and proteins without damaging them — a vast improvement to the technology. Existing optical tweezers, which are devices that can trap and manipulate tiny objects using highly-focused lasers , couldn't grab anything smaller than a red blood cell. But the new nanotweezers can pick up individual
25min
The best ankle weights for a sculpted lower body
Add a little extra to your workout. (Amazon/) If you're looking to take your workouts to the next level, ankle weights will do the muscle blasting trick. Strap them on while you're doing strength training routines like leg lifts, donkey kicks and planks, and they'll put your lower body through the ringer (in a really, really good way). Burn more calories and firm up your glutes, quads, and hamstr
29min
Words matter: Revealing 'how' restaurateurs land investors online
Online crowdfunding is a multibillion dollar industry, but crafting a compelling pitch that stands out among thousands of projects and lands investors is challenging, especially in the restaurant industry. Researchers at the Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management have identified linguistic styles that could tip the scales for restaurateurs seeking financial backing online.
29min
Elon Musk: "Good Chance You'll Die" On Mars
Almost Inhabitable During Monday's virtual Humans to Mars summit, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk elaborated on his grand ambitions of building a self-sustaining city on Mars by the year 2050 — and the potential dangers settlers will face in the construction of such an extraplanetary civilization. "Getting to Mars, I think, is not the fundamental issue," he said during the event, as quoted by CNBC . "The fu
39min
Google and Apple Change Tactics on Contact Tracing Tech
The companies will handle more of the technology for notifying people who may have been exposed to the coronavirus. Privacy won't be affected, they say.
40min
An ancient whistle was crafted from a human thigh bone
Nature, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02509-9 Prehistoric people kept the bones of relatives and friends for generations as relicts.
43min
Differing diets of bonobo groups may offer insights into how culture is created
Besides humans, many other social animals are believed to exhibit forms of culture in various ways, too. According to a new study led by Harvard primatologists Liran Samuni and Martin Surbeck, bonobos, one of our closest living relatives, could be the latest addition to the list.
43min
NASA-NOAA satellite provides a nighttime view of new Atlantic tropical depression
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided a nighttime view of the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season's latest tropical cyclone off the coast of North Carolina. Ocean swells from the depression are affecting coastal North Carolina today, Sept. 1.
43min
Study tracks human milk nutrients in infant microbiome
A new study in mice helps explain why gut microbiomes of breastfed infants can differ greatly from those of formula-fed infants.
46min
Face shield or face mask to stop the spread of COVID-19?
If CDC guidelines aren't enough to convince you that face shields alone shouldn't be used to stop the spread of COVID-19, then maybe a new visualization study will. Researchers simulated coughing and sneezing from a mannequin's mouth using a laser light to visualize droplets expelled. They tested a plastic face shield and found that they block the initial forward motion of the exhaled jet, however
46min
No, the CDC Has Not "Quietly Updated" COVID-19 Death Estimates
An online conspiracy theory retweeted by President Donald Trump misconstrued data regarding the number of people who have died from the coronavirus.
49min
Amazon's new fitness tracker listens to your voice to figure out your mood
The $99 Halo wearable will track a variety of health and fitness variables. (Amazon /) Modern fitness trackers often try to set themselves apart by adding more advanced hardware and sensors inside. Now, many high-end trackers and smart watches include ECG devices for tracking heart rhythms—one company, Withings, even promises sleep apnea detection in its upcoming wearable. Amazon, however, has de
50min
Is Voting by Mail Bias, Returning to Work After Covid, Maple Trees Disappearing
A month's worth of cool science stories, summed up. Is Voting by Mail Bias, Returning to Work After Covid, Maple Trees Disappearing Video of Is Voting by Mail Bias, Returning to Work After Covid, Maple Trees Disappearing Culture Tuesday, September 1, 2020 – 14:15 Alistair Jennings, Contributor (Inside Science) — Here is this month's science research recap with Alistair Jennings. Keep up to date
59min
Study tracks human milk nutrients in infant microbiome
A new study in mice helps explain why gut microbiomes of breastfed infants can differ greatly from those of formula-fed infants.
1h
Research news tip sheet: Story ideas from Johns Hopkins Medicine
Research News Tip Sheet: Story Ideas from Johns Hopkins Medicine
1h
Elephant 'highways' pave the way to better conservation
Elephant trails may lead the way to better conservation approaches, researchers report. These massive creatures trample thick vegetation through dense forests in the Central African Republic's Congo Basin as they move from the forests' fruit trees to more open water sources where they hydrate, bathe, and socialize. "We're talking thousands of miles of trails." African forest elephants , highly so
1h
Generosity makes you seem hotter
More attractive people are more likely to be giving, and givers are rated as more attractive, according to a new study. "Poets and philosophers have suggested the link between moral and physical beauty for centuries," says coauthor Sara Konrath, an associate professor of philanthropic studies at the Lilly Family School of Philanthropy at Indiana University who's on sabbatical this year at Notre D
1h
Small fish populations accumulate harmful mutations that shorten lifespan
Population bottlenecks contribute to the accumulation of several harmful mutations that cause age-related illnesses in killifish – a finding that may help answer a key question about aging.
1h
Earliest fossil evidence of an insect lichen mimic
Scientists have uncovered the earliest known evidence of an insect mimicking a lichen as a survival strategy.
1h
A surprising opportunity for telehealth in shaping the future of medicine
Expanded telehealth services at UT Southwestern have proved effective at safely delivering patient care during the pandemic, leading to an increase in patients even in specialties such as plastic surgery, according to a new study.
1h
Resource sharing affects mortality worldwide
The act of giving and receiving increases well-being: the recipient benefits directly from the gift, and the giver benefits indirectly through emotional satisfaction. A new study now suggests that those who share more also live longer. In their analysis, researchers found a strong linear relationship between a society's generosity and the average life expectancy of its members. The researcher conc
1h
Scientists identify promising new ALS drug candidates
Scientists have taken a significant step forward in the search to find effective new drug candidates for the treatment of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease.
1h
Scientists shed new light on pollen tube growth in plants
New insight on how an enzyme ensures the correct growth of pollen tubes in flowering plants has just been published.
1h
Miniature antenna enables robotic teaming in complex environments
A new, miniature, low-frequency antenna with enhanced bandwidth will enable robust networking among compact, mobile robots in complex environments.
1h
Neglected for over a century, Black sea spider crab re-described
Even though recognized in the Mediterranean Sea, the Macropodia czernjawskii spider crab was ignored by scientists (even by its namesake, 19th-century biologist Vladimir Czernyavsky) in the regional faunal accounts of the Black Sea for more than a century. Now, scientists re-describe this, most likely, sole species of the genus to occur in the Black Sea.
1h
Scientists Create True, "Star Wars"-Style Hologram
They're Here! Finally, at long last, scientists have figured out how to make true hologram recordings like the iconic "Star Wars" moment where Princess Leia calls for help from Obi-Wan Kenobi. Using carefully-crafted nanomaterials, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology scientists were able to bend light in a way no natural material could accomplish, according to research published this m
1h
'Underwater' mortgages sap earnings and mobility
The higher a worker's outstanding mortgage relative to their home value, the worse their future income growth and job mobility, according to new research. This cautionary forecast comes from a big-data study of loan-to-value ratios in the wake of the 2007-08 recession. "This is one of the first studies to tie detailed credit histories to information on worker mobility and pay increases." Research
1h
3-D Printed Statues in Central Park Shine a Light on Women Scientists – Facts So Romantic
A new exhibit in Central Park features six statues of women scientists—the first statues of real women to be found in the park. Courtesy of Lyda Hill Philanthropies' IF/THEN Initiative Forged in metal or chiseled in stone, statues almost always depict dead men. A recent analysis of 12 major American cities turned up only six physical representations of women. Only one of 23 statues in New York's
1h
Finding links periods and some drug-resistant epilepsy
New research links more frequent seizures during the menstrual cycle of women with genetic generalized epilepsy with drug-resistant epilepsy, in which anti-seizure medications don't work. The finding may help lead to tailored treatments. Women with a form of genetic generalized epilepsy called catamenial epilepsy—when seizure frequency increases during their menstrual cycle—were nearly four times
1h
Covid-19 news: Millions of pupils return to schools after lockdown
The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic
1h
A multinational study overturns a 130-year old assumption about seawater chemistry
There's more to seawater than salt. Ocean chemistry is a complex mixture of particles, ions and nutrients. And for over a century, scientists believed that certain ion ratios held relatively constant over space and time.
1h
A small number of self-organizing autonomous vehicles significantly increases traffic flow
With the addition of just a small number of autonomous vehicles (AVs) on the road, traffic flow can become faster, greener, and safer in the near future. Researchers present a simple set of guidelines and regulations for achieving the self-organization of AVs into constellations that dynamically control the entire traffic flow even when fewer than 5 percent of the vehicles on the road are autonomo
1h
Monitoring and reporting framework to protect World Heritage Sites from invasive species
Scientists have devised a new monitoring and reporting framework to help protect World Heritage Sites from almost 300 different invasive alien species globally including rats, cats and Argentine ants.
1h
Parasitic worms found in medieval human remains hold secret for eradicating them today
Evidence suggests improvements to hygiene and sanitation helped Europe conquer roundworms
1h
What are T-cells and why have they become a political football?
T-cells are a key part of our immune system, but some say they have been overlooked during the coronavirus pandemic
1h
Global report: schools across Europe reopen as Covid cases grow
Parents and teachers fear face masks and other measures not enough to prevent second wave Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Tens of millions of pupils, most wearing face masks, have headed back to class in France , Belgium , Poland and Russia , as schools across Europe cautiously reopened amid spiralling numbers of new coronavirus cases in several countries. Parents an
1h
A Grim Reality of Reopening: More Mold
Unoccupied buildings, abandoned during the coronavirus shutdowns, give fungi a great opportunity to move in.
1h
University of South Carolina redefining aircraft production process
The University of South Carolina College of Engineering and Computing will transform the manufacturing and simulation processes used in aircraft production through a $5.7 million NASA grant. The research team's atom to airframe to spaceframe approach will make urban air mobility possible by dramatically increasing the production rate of aircraft.
2h
Small fish populations accumulate harmful mutations that shorten lifespan
Population bottlenecks contribute to the accumulation of several harmful mutations that cause age-related illnesses in killifish – a finding that may help answer a key question about aging.
2h
Scientists discover earliest fossil evidence of an insect lichen mimic
Scientists have uncovered the earliest known evidence of an insect mimicking a lichen as a survival strategy, according to new findings published today in eLife.
2h
A surprising opportunity for telehealth in shaping the future of medicine
Expanded telehealth services at UT Southwestern have proved effective at safely delivering patient care during the pandemic, leading to an increase in patients even in specialties such as plastic surgery, according to a new study.
2h
Effective cancer immunotherapy further linked to regulating a cell 'suicide' gene
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have added to evidence that a gene responsible for turning off a cell's natural "suicide" signals may also be the culprit in making breast cancer and melanoma cells resistant to therapies that use the immune system to fight cancer. A summary of the research, conducted with mice and human cells, appeared Aug. 25 in Cell Reports.
2h
Don't be a prig in peer review
Nature, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02512-0 Jeff C. Clements reckons with a recent set of reviewer comments that used 'being critical' as a justification to be mean.
2h
Nature conservation policy rarely changes people's behavior
Too rarely do nature conservation initiatives or strategies announced by politicians lead to people changing their everyday behaviour. A research team has investigated the reasons for this. According to them, the measures do not sufficiently exploit the range of possible behavioral interventions and too rarely specify the target groups.
2h
An embedded ethics approach for AI development
The increasing use of AI (artificial intelligence) in the development of new medical technologies demands greater attention to ethical aspects. An interdisciplinary team advocates the integration of ethics from the very beginning of the development process of new technologies.
2h
Leaked Memo: Trump's Chinese Drone Ban Made Wildfire Season Worse
Uncontrolled Burn Last year, the Trump Administration ordered the Interior Department to ground all its Chinese-made drones, which prevented the department from purchasing any more. Now, according to an Interior Department memo leaked to The Financial Times , grounding those drones and canceling plans to buy 17 new ones it would have used to start controlled burns in Interior Department-managed f
2h
Kenosha Could Cost Trump the Election
It's not hard to figure out what Donald Trump is up to at the moment: He's making every effort to stir up racial tension and provoke violence after the shooting of Jacob Blake in Kenosha, Wisconsin. What's harder to figure out is why. Today, Trump is traveling to Kenosha, over the objections and pleas of the governor and mayor (both Democrats), who say he will only make the situation worse, which
2h
Dark noise and retinal degeneration from D190N-rhodopsin [Neuroscience]
Numerous rhodopsin mutations have been implicated in night blindness and retinal degeneration, often with unclear etiology. D190N-rhodopsin (D190N-Rho) is a well-known inherited human mutation causing retinitis pigmentosa. Both higher-than-normal spontaneous-isomerization activity and misfolding/mistargeting of the mutant protein have been proposed as causes of the disease, but neither explanation
2h
Kinetic profiling of metabolic specialists demonstrates stability and consistency of in vivo enzyme turnover numbers [Systems Biology]
Enzyme turnover numbers (kcats) are essential for a quantitative understanding of cells. Because kcats are traditionally measured in low-throughput assays, they can be inconsistent, labor-intensive to obtain, and can miss in vivo effects. We use a data-driven approach to estimate in vivo kcats using metabolic specialist Escherichia coli strains that…
2h
Coregulation of dimorphism and symbiosis by cyclic AMP signaling in the lichenized fungus Umbilicaria muhlenbergii [Microbiology]
Umbilicaria muhlenbergii is the only known dimorphic lichenized fungus that grows in the hyphal form in lichen thalli but as yeast cells in axenic cultures. However, the regulation of yeast-to-hypha transition and its relationship to the establishment of symbiosis are not clear. In this study, we show that nutrient limitation…
2h
Human social preferences cluster and spread in the field [Evolution]
While it is undeniable that the ability of humans to cooperate in large-scale societies is unique in animal life, it remains open how such a degree of prosociality is possible despite the risks of exploitation. Recent evidence suggests that social networks play a crucial role in the development of prosociality…
2h
POLQ suppresses interhomolog recombination and loss of heterozygosity at targeted DNA breaks [Genetics]
Interhomolog recombination (IHR) occurs spontaneously in somatic human cells at frequencies that are low but sufficient to ameliorate some genetic diseases caused by heterozygous mutations or autosomal dominant mutations. Here we demonstrate that DNA nicks or double-strand breaks (DSBs) targeted by CRISPR-Cas9 to both homologs can stimulate IHR and associated…
2h
Engineering carboxylic acid reductase for selective synthesis of medium-chain fatty alcohols in yeast [Microbiology]
Medium-chain fatty alcohols (MCFOHs, C6 to C12) are potential substitutes for fossil fuels, such as diesel and jet fuels, and have wide applications in various manufacturing processes. While today MCFOHs are mainly sourced from petrochemicals or plant oils, microbial biosynthesis represents a scalable, reliable, and sustainable alternative. Here, we aim…
2h
Restoration of fragmentary Babylonian texts using recurrent neural networks [Computer Sciences]
The main sources of information regarding ancient Mesopotamian history and culture are clay cuneiform tablets. Many of these tablets are damaged, leading to missing information. Currently, the missing text is manually reconstructed by experts. We investigate the possibility of assisting scholars, by modeling the language using recurrent neural networks and…
2h
Understanding the role of individual units in a deep neural network [Computer Sciences]
Deep neural networks excel at finding hierarchical representations that solve complex tasks over large datasets. How can we humans understand these learned representations? In this work, we present network dissection, an analytic framework to systematically identify the semantics of individual hidden units within image classification and image generation networks. First,…
2h
The breakdown of antiracist norms: A natural experiment on hate speech after terrorist attacks [Social Sciences]
Terrorist attacks often fuel online hate and increase the expression of xenophobic and antiminority messages. Previous research has focused on the impact of terrorist attacks on prejudiced attitudes toward groups linked to the perpetrators as the cause of this increase. We argue that social norms can contain the expression of…
2h
Molecular insights into the genome dynamics and interactions between core and acquired genomes of Vibrio cholerae [Microbiology]
Bacterial species are hosts to horizontally acquired mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which encode virulence, toxin, antimicrobial resistance, and other metabolic functions. The bipartite genome of Vibrio cholerae harbors sporadic and conserved MGEs that contribute in the disease development and survival of the pathogens. For a comprehensive understanding of dynamics of…
2h
Dynamic PB2-E627K substitution of influenza H7N9 virus indicates the in vivo genetic tuning and rapid host adaptation [Microbiology]
Avian-origin influenza viruses overcome the bottleneck of the interspecies barrier and infect humans through the evolution of variants toward more efficient replication in mammals. The dynamic adaptation of the genetic substitutions and the correlation with the virulence of avian-origin influenza virus in patients remain largely elusive. Here, based on the…
2h
RubyACRs, nonalgal anion channelrhodopsins with highly red-shifted absorption [Biochemistry]
Channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels widely used to control neuronal firing with light (optogenetics). We report two previously unknown families of anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs), one from the heterotrophic protists labyrinthulea and the other from haptophyte algae. Four closely related labyrinthulea ACRs, named RubyACRs here, exhibit a unique retinal-binding pocket that…
2h
B cells expressing authentic naive human VRC01-class BCRs can be recruited to germinal centers and affinity mature in multiple independent mouse models [Immunology and Inflammation]
Animal models of human antigen-specific B cell receptors (BCRs) generally depend on "inferred germline" sequences, and thus their relationship to authentic naive human B cell BCR sequences and affinities is unclear. Here, BCR sequences from authentic naive human VRC01-class B cells from healthy human donors were selected for the generation…
2h
Active vision shapes and coordinates flight motor responses in flies [Neuroscience]
Animals use active sensing to respond to sensory inputs and guide future motor decisions. In flight, flies generate a pattern of head and body movements to stabilize gaze. How the brain relays visual information to control head and body movements and how active head movements influence downstream motor control remains…
2h
CRL5-dependent regulation of the small GTPases ARL4C and ARF6 controls hippocampal morphogenesis [Neuroscience]
The small GTPase ARL4C participates in the regulation of cell migration, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and vesicular trafficking in epithelial cells. The ARL4C signaling cascade starts by the recruitment of the ARF–GEF cytohesins to the plasma membrane, which, in turn, bind and activate the small GTPase ARF6. However, the role of ARL4C–cytohesin–ARF6…
2h
Are nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios of Chinese lakes actually increasing? [Biological Sciences]
Tong et al. (1) demonstrate an increased mass ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) and decreased TP concentration in many Chinese lakes in association with widespread construction of sewage collection and treatment plants during 2008 to 2017. We argue this conclusion is not true and likely leads to…
2h
Reply to Qin et al.: Consistency of monitoring data is key to explain the long-term nationwide trend of nutrients in lakes [Biological Sciences]
We appreciate the response to our recent publication in PNAS (1). Qin et al. (2) state that they found a different total nitrogen/total phosphorus (TN/TP) trend over time by using a different dataset and argue that this difference was mainly caused by a difference in field sample pretreatment and biogeochemical…
2h
QnAs with Sharad Goel and Allison Koenecke [QnAs]
Sharad Goel works at the interface of computer science, statistics, and the social sciences. An assistant professor of management science and engineering at Stanford University, Goel has applied computational and statistical techniques to study a variety of socially relevant, policy-related topics, including voter fraud and political polarization. Goel and a…
2h
Profile of Edward H. Egelman [Profiles]
Edward H. Egelman has had a long and distinguished career as a biophysicist, but he took a fairly circuitous path into science. Egelman graduated high school in 1968, a particularly tumultuous year for the United States. "This was the peak of the Vietnam war and my main interests at that…
2h
A panorama of transcription-coupled repair in yeast chromatin [Genetics]
Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are predominant ultraviolet (UV) light-induced DNA lesions that can result in mutations and lead to skin cancers (1). CPD lesions are primarily repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER), a highly conserved repair pathway (2). NER consists of two subpathways: transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and global genome NER…
2h
An endosymbiont's ȷourney through metamorphosis of its insect host [Evolution]
Symbiotic microorganisms are essential for the lives of many multicellular eukaryotes (1). In insects, decades of symbiosis and—more recently—microbiome research have shown that microbial symbionts can supplement limiting nutrients, aid in digestion or detoxification, and defend their host against antagonists, thereby expanding the ecological and evolutionary potential of their hosts…
2h
Ediacaran sponges, animal biomineralization, and skeletal reefs [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
With an estimated 15,000 living species (1), the animal phylum Porifera (colloquially known as sponges) is not a biodiversity heavyweight as are arthropods, mollusks, and chordates. Unassuming in character, sponges barely move in their adult lifetime of up to several thousand years, and they passively strain food particles from water…
2h
Root angle modifications by the DRO1 homolog improve rice yields in saline paddy fields [Agricultural Sciences]
The root system architecture (RSA) of crops can affect their production, particularly in abiotic stress conditions, such as with drought, waterlogging, and salinity. Salinity is a growing problem worldwide that negatively impacts on crop productivity, and it is believed that yields could be improved if RSAs that enabled plants to…
2h
Extended dilation of the radiocarbon time scale between 40,000 and 48,000 y BP and the overlap between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens [Anthropology]
The new radiocarbon calibration curve (IntCal20) allows us to calculate the gradient of the relationship between 14C age and calendar age over the past 55 millennia before the present (55 ka BP). The new gradient curve exhibits a prolonged and prominent maximum between 48 and 40 ka BP during which…
2h
Covariation of fetal skull and maternal pelvis during the perinatal period in rhesus macaques and evolution of childbirth in primates [Anthropology]
A large brain combined with an upright posture in humans has resulted in a high cephalopelvic proportion and frequently obstructed labor. Fischer and Mitteroecker [B. Fischer, P. Mitteroecker, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 5655−5660 (2015)] proposed that the morphological covariations between the skull and pelvis could have evolved to…
2h
Ultraflexible organic light-emitting diodes for optogenetic nerve stimulation [Applied Biological Sciences]
Organic electronic devices implemented on flexible thin films are attracting increased attention for biomedical applications because they possess extraordinary conformity to curved surfaces. A neuronal device equipped with an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), used in combination with animals that are genetically engineered to include a light-gated ion channel, would enable…
2h
Massively parallel classical logic via coherent dynamics of an ensemble of quantum systems with dispersion in size [Applied Physical Sciences]
Quantum parallelism can be implemented on a classical ensemble of discrete level quantum systems. The nanosystems are not quite identical, and the ensemble represents their individual variability. An underlying Lie algebraic theory is developed using the closure of the algebra to demonstrate the parallel information processing at the level of…
2h
Supernova triggers for end-Devonian extinctions [Astronomy]
The Late Devonian was a protracted period of low speciation resulting in biodiversity decline, culminating in extinction events near the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary. Recent evidence indicates that the final extinction event may have coincided with a dramatic drop in stratospheric ozone, possibly due to a global temperature rise. Here we study…
2h
Quantifying the information impact of future searches for exoplanetary biosignatures [Astronomy]
One of the major goals for astronomy in the next decades is the remote search for biosignatures (i.e., the spectroscopic evidence of biological activity) in exoplanets. Here we adopt a Bayesian statistical framework to discuss the implications of such future searches, both in the case when life is detected and…
2h
How a B family DNA polymerase has been evolved to copy RNA [Biochemistry]
We report here crystal structures of a reverse transcriptase RTX, which was evolved in vitro from the B family polymerase KOD, in complex with either a DNA duplex or an RNA–DNA hybrid. Compared with the apo, binary, and ternary complex structures of the original KOD polymerase, the 16 substitutions that…
2h
Structural basis for amino acid exchange by a human heteromeric amino acid transporter [Biochemistry]
Heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) comprise a group of membrane proteins that belong to the solute carrier (SLC) superfamily. They are formed by two different protein components: a light chain subunit from an SLC7 family member and a heavy chain subunit from the SLC3 family. The light chain constitutes the…
2h
Selenoprotein N is an endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor that links luminal calcium levels to a redox activity [Biochemistry]
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the reservoir for calcium in cells. Luminal calcium levels are determined by calcium-sensing proteins that trigger calcium dynamics in response to calcium fluctuations. Here we report that Selenoprotein N (SEPN1) is a type II transmembrane protein that senses ER calcium fluctuations by binding this ion…
2h
An enzymatic toolkit for selective proteolysis, detection, and visualization of mucin-domain glycoproteins [Biochemistry]
Densely O-glycosylated mucin domains are found in a broad range of cell surface and secreted proteins, where they play key physiological roles. In addition, alterations in mucin expression and glycosylation are common in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, and inflammatory bowel diseases. These correlations have…
2h
A cryptic tubulin-binding domain links MEKK1 to curved tubulin protomers [Biochemistry]
The MEKK1 protein is a pivotal kinase activator of responses to cellular stress. Activation of MEKK1 can trigger various responses, including mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, NF-κB signaling, or cell migration. Notably, MEKK1 activity is triggered by microtubule-targeting chemotherapies, among other stressors. Here we show that MEKK1 contains a previously unidentified…
2h
Cdc48 cofactor Shp1 regulates signal-induced SCFMet30 disassembly [Biochemistry]
Organisms can adapt to a broad spectrum of sudden and dramatic changes in their environment. These abrupt changes are often perceived as stress and trigger responses that facilitate survival and eventual adaptation. The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is involved in most cellular processes. Unsurprisingly, components of the UPS also play crucial…
2h
A {beta}-barrel for oil transport through lipid membranes: Dynamic NMR structures of AlkL [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The protein AlkL is known to increase permeability of the outer membrane of bacteria for hydrophobic molecules, yet the mechanism of transport has not been determined. Differing crystal and NMR structures of homologous proteins resulted in a controversy regarding the degree of structure and the role of long extracellular loops….
2h
Compression stiffening of fibrous networks with stiff inclusions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Tissues commonly consist of cells embedded within a fibrous biopolymer network. Whereas cell-free reconstituted biopolymer networks typically soften under applied uniaxial compression, various tissues, including liver, brain, and fat, have been observed to instead stiffen when compressed. The mechanism for this compression-stiffening effect is not yet clear. Here, we demonstrate…
2h
Universal free-energy landscape produces efficient and reversible electron bifurcation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
For decades, it was unknown how electron-bifurcating systems in nature prevented energy-wasting short-circuiting reactions that have large driving forces, so synthetic electron-bifurcating molecular machines could not be designed and built. The underpinning free-energy landscapes for electron bifurcation were also enigmatic. We predict that a simple and universal free-energy landscape enables…
2h
Single-molecule diffusometry reveals no catalysis-induced diffusion enhancement of alkaline phosphatase as proposed by FCS experiments [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Theoretical and experimental observations that catalysis enhances the diffusion of enzymes have generated exciting implications about nanoscale energy flow, molecular chemotaxis, and self-powered nanomachines. However, contradictory claims on the origin, magnitude, and consequence of this phenomenon continue to arise. To date, experimental observations of catalysis-enhanced enzyme diffusion have r
2h
The {alpha}{beta}TCR mechanosensor exploits dynamic ectodomain allostery to optimize its ligand recognition site [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Each αβT cell receptor (TCR) functions as a mechanosensor. The TCR is comprised of a clonotypic TCRαβ ligand-binding heterodimer and the noncovalently associated CD3 signaling subunits. When bound by ligand, an antigenic peptide arrayed by a major histocompatibility complex molecule (pMHC), the TCRαβ has a longer bond lifetime under piconewton-level…
2h
Talin folding as the tuning fork of cellular mechanotransduction [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Cells continually sample their mechanical environment using exquisite force sensors such as talin, whose folding status triggers mechanotransduction pathways by recruiting binding partners. Mechanical signals in biology change quickly over time and are often embedded in noise; however, the mechanics of force-sensing proteins have only been tested using simple force…
2h
Yeast ATM and ATR kinases use different mechanisms to spread histone H2A phosphorylation around a DNA double-strand break [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
One of the hallmarks of DNA damage is the rapid spreading of phosphorylated histone H2A (γ-H2AX) around a DNA double-strand break (DSB). In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nearly all H2A isoforms can be phosphorylated, either by Mec1ATR or Tel1ATM checkpoint kinases. We induced a site-specific DSB with HO endonuclease…
2h
A method for scoring the cell type-specific impacts of noncoding variants in personal genomes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
A person's genome typically contains millions of variants which represent the differences between this personal genome and the reference human genome. The interpretation of these variants, i.e., the assessment of their potential impact on a person's phenotype, is currently of great interest in human genetics and medicine. We have developed…
2h
A robust and interpretable end-to-end deep learning model for cytometry data [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Cytometry technologies are essential tools for immunology research, providing high-throughput measurements of the immune cells at the single-cell level. Existing approaches in interpreting and using cytometry measurements include manual or automated gating to identify cell subsets from the cytometry data, providing highly intuitive results but may lead to significant information…
2h
Objective assessment of stored blood quality by deep learning [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Stored red blood cells (RBCs) are needed for life-saving blood transfusions, but they undergo continuous degradation. RBC storage lesions are often assessed by microscopic examination or biochemical and biophysical assays, which are complex, time-consuming, and destructive to fragile cells. Here we demonstrate the use of label-free imaging flow cytometry and…
2h
Decoding three distinct states of the Syntaxin17 SNARE motif in mediating autophagosome-lysosome fusion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Syntaxin17, a key autophagosomal N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, can associate with ATG8 family proteins SNAP29 and VAMP8 to facilitate the membrane fusion process between the double-membraned autophagosome and single-membraned lysosome in mammalian macroautophagy. However, the inherent properties of Syntaxin17 and the mechanistic basis underlying the
2h
Phosphorylated CtIP bridges DNA to promote annealing of broken ends [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The early steps of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in human cells involve the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex and its cofactor, phosphorylated CtIP. The roles of these proteins in nucleolytic DSB resection are well characterized, but their role in bridging the DNA ends for efficient and correct repair is much less…
2h
Intrinsically disordered linkers control tethered kinases via effective concentration [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Kinase specificity is crucial to the fidelity of signaling pathways, yet many pathways use the same kinases to achieve widely different effects. Specificity arises in part from the enzymatic domain but also from the physical tethering of kinases to their substrates. Such tethering can occur via protein interaction domains in…
2h
The glutathione peroxidase 8 (GPX8)/IL-6/STAT3 axis is essential in maintaining an aggressive breast cancer phenotype [Cell Biology]
One of the emerging hallmarks of cancer illustrates the importance of metabolic reprogramming, necessary to synthesize the building blocks required to fulfill the high demands of rapidly proliferating cells. However, the proliferation-independent instructive role of metabolic enzymes in tumor plasticity is still unclear. Here, we provide evidence that glutathione peroxidase…
2h
Uncovering targeting priority to yeast peroxisomes using an in-cell competition assay [Cell Biology]
Approximately half of eukaryotic proteins reside in organelles. To reach their correct destination, such proteins harbor targeting signals recognized by dedicated targeting pathways. It has been shown that differences in targeting signals alter the efficiency in which proteins are recognized and targeted. Since multiple proteins compete for any single pathway,…
2h
The m6A RNA demethylase FTO is a HIF-independent synthetic lethal partner with the VHL tumor suppressor [Cell Biology]
Loss of the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor is a hallmark feature of renal clear cell carcinoma. VHL inactivation results in the constitutive activation of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) HIF-1 and HIF-2 and their downstream targets, including the proangiogenic factors VEGF and PDGF. However, antiangiogenic agents and HIF-2 inhibitors have…
2h
Device-quality, reconfigurable metamaterials from shape-directed nanocrystal assembly [Chemistry]
Anchoring nanoscale building blocks, regardless of their shape, into specific arrangements on surfaces presents a significant challenge for the fabrication of next-generation chip-based nanophotonic devices. Current methods to prepare nanocrystal arrays lack the precision, generalizability, and postsynthetic robustness required for the fabrication of device-quality, nanocrystal-based metamaterials
2h
HARC as an open-shell strategy to bypass oxidative addition in Ullmann-Goldberg couplings [Chemistry]
The copper-catalyzed arylation of unsaturated nitrogen heterocycles, known as the Ullmann–Goldberg coupling, is a valuable transformation for medicinal chemists, providing a modular disconnection for the rapid diversification of heteroaromatic cores. The utility of the coupling, however, has established limitations arising from a high-barrier copper oxidative addition step, which often necessitate
2h
Origin of the "odd" behavior in the ultraviolet photochemistry of ozone [Chemistry]
The origin of the even–odd rotational state population alternation in the 16O2(a1Δg) fragments resulting from the ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation of 16O3, a phenomenon first observed over 30 years ago, has been elucidated using full quantum theory. The calculated 16O2(a1Δg) rotational state distribution following the 266-nm photolysis of 60 K ozone…
2h
Self-template-assisted micro-phase segregation in blended liquid-crystalline block copolymers films toward three-dimensional structures [Chemistry]
In-plane mesopatterns derived from block-copolymer (BCP) micro-phase segregation in thin films have attracted much interest in practical applications as well as fundamental research programs. However, phase segregation along the film-normal direction has been less studied. Here, we describe a strategy to concurrently, yet independently, control in-plane micro-phase and out-of-plane macro-phase…
2h
Enhancer dependence of cell-type-specific gene expression increases with developmental age [Developmental Biology]
How overall principles of cell-type–specific gene regulation (the "logic") may change during ontogeny is largely unexplored. We compared transcriptomic, epigenomic, and three-dimensional (3D) genomic profiles in embryonic (EryP) and adult (EryD) erythroblasts. Despite reduced chromatin accessibility compared to EryP, distal chromatin of EryD is enriched in H3K27ac, Gata1, and Myb…
2h
Bacteria- and temperature-regulated peptides modulate {beta}-catenin signaling in Hydra [Developmental Biology]
Animal development has traditionally been viewed as an autonomous process directed by the host genome. But, in many animals, biotic and abiotic cues, like temperature and bacterial colonizers, provide signals for multiple developmental steps. Hydra offers unique features to encode these complex interactions of developmental processes with biotic and abiotic…
2h
A specialized population of Periostin-expressing cardiac fibroblasts contributes to postnatal cardiomyocyte maturation and innervation [Developmental Biology]
During the postnatal period in mammals, the cardiac muscle transitions from hyperplasic to hypertrophic growth, the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergoes remodeling, and the heart loses regenerative capacity. While ECM maturation and crosstalk between cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and cardiomyocytes (CMs) have been implicated in neonatal heart development, not much is known…
2h
Evidence for complex iron oxides in the deep mantle from FeNi(Cu) inclusions in superdeep diamond [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The recent discovery in high-pressure experiments of compounds stable to 24–26 GPa with Fe4O5, Fe5O6, Fe7O9, and Fe9O11 stoichiometry has raised questions about their existence within the Earth's mantle. Incorporating both ferric and ferrous iron in their structures, these oxides if present within the Earth could also provide insight into…
2h
Illuminating the physics of dynamic friction through laboratory earthquakes on thrust faults [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Large, destructive earthquakes often propagate along thrust faults including megathrusts. The asymmetric interaction of thrust earthquake ruptures with the free surface leads to sudden variations in fault-normal stress, which affect fault friction. Here, we present full-field experimental measurements of displacements, particle velocities, and stresses that characterize the rupture interaction wit
2h
Constraining crustal silica on ancient Earth [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Accurately quantifying the composition of continental crust on Hadean and Archean Earth is critical to our understanding of the physiography, tectonics, and climate of our planet at the dawn of life. One longstanding paradigm involves the growth of a relatively mafic planetary crust over the first 1 to 2 billion…
2h
The motley drivers of heat and cold exposure in 21st century US cities [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
We use a suite of decadal-length regional climate simulations to quantify potential changes in population-weighted heat and cold exposure in 47 US metropolitan regions during the 21st century. Our results show that population-weighted exposure to locally defined extreme heat (i.e., "population heat exposure") would increase by a factor of 12.7–29.5…
2h
Volcanic controls on seawater sulfate over the past 120 million years [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Changes in the geological sulfur cycle are inferred from the sulfur isotopic composition of marine barite. The structure of the 34S/32S record from the Mesozoic to present, which includes ∼50- and 100-Ma stepwise increases, has been interpreted as the result of microbial isotope effects or abrupt changes to tectonics and…
2h
Significant Zr isotope variations in single zircon grains recording magma evolution history [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Zircons widely occur in magmatic rocks and often display internal zonation finely recording the magmatic history. Here, we presented in situ high-precision (2SD <0.15‰ for δ94Zr) and high–spatial-resolution (20 µm) stable Zr isotope compositions of magmatic zircons in a suite of calc-alkaline plutonic rocks from the juvenile part of the…
2h
Dry soils can intensify mesoscale convective systems [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Soil moisture can feed back on rainfall through the impact of surface fluxes on the environment in which convection develops. The vast majority of previous research has focused on the initiation of convection, but in many regions of the world, the majority of rain comes from remotely triggered mesoscale convective…
2h
Decreasing snow cover alters functional composition and diversity of Arctic tundra [Ecology]
The Arctic is one of the least human-impacted parts of the world, but, in turn, tundra biome is facing the most rapid climate change on Earth. These perturbations may cause major reshuffling of Arctic species compositions and functional trait profiles and diversity, thereby affecting ecosystem processes of the whole tundra…
2h
Deconstructing bias in social preferences reveals groupy and not-groupy behavior [Economic Sciences]
Group divisions are a continual feature of human history, with biases toward people's own groups shown in both experimental and natural settings. Using a within-subject design, this paper deconstructs group biases to find significant and robust individual differences; some individuals consistently respond to group divisions, while others do not. We…
2h
Physician-patient racial concordance and disparities in birthing mortality for newborns [Economic Sciences]
Recent work has emphasized the benefits of patient–physician concordance on clinical care outcomes for underrepresented minorities, arguing it can ameliorate outgroup biases, boost communication, and increase trust. We explore concordance in a setting where racial disparities are particularly severe: childbirth. In the United States, Black newborns die at three times…
2h
Color-neutral, semitransparent organic photovoltaics for power window applications [Engineering]
Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells (ST-OPVs) are emerging as a solution for solar energy harvesting on building facades, rooftops, and windows. However, the trade-off between power-conversion efficiency (PCE) and the average photopic transmission (APT) in color-neutral devices limits their utility as attractive, power-generating windows. A color-neutral ST-OPV is demonstrated by using…
2h
Bicontinuous phase separation of lithium-ion battery electrodes for ultrahigh areal loading [Engineering]
Ultrathick battery electrodes are appealing as they reduce the fraction of inactive battery parts such as current collectors and separators. However, thick electrodes are difficult to dry and tend to crack or flake during production. Moreover, the electrochemical performance of thick electrodes is constrained by ion and electron transport as…
2h
Membrane-assisted radiant cooling for expanding thermal comfort zones globally without air conditioning [Engineering]
We present results of a radiant cooling system that made the hot and humid tropical climate of Singapore feel cool and comfortable. Thermal radiation exchange between occupants and surfaces in the built environment can augment thermal comfort. The lack of widespread commercial adoption of radiant-cooling technologies is due to two…
2h
Nuclear mechanosensing controls MSC osteogenic potential through HDAC epigenetic remodeling [Engineering]
Cells sense mechanical cues from the extracellular matrix to regulate cellular behavior and maintain tissue homeostasis. The nucleus has been implicated as a key mechanosensor and can directly influence chromatin organization, epigenetic modifications, and gene expression. Dysregulation of nuclear mechanosensing has been implicated in several diseases, including bone degeneration. Here,…
2h
Efficient and nontoxic biomolecule delivery to primary human hematopoietic stem cells using nanostraws [Engineering]
Introduction of exogenous genetic material into primary stem cells is essential for studying biological function and for clinical applications. Traditional delivery methods for nucleic acids, such as electroporation, have advanced the field, but have negative effects on stem cell function and viability. We introduce nanostraw-assisted transfection as an alternative method…
2h
Siberian and temperate ecosystems shape Northern Hemisphere atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplification [Environmental Sciences]
The amplitude of the atmospheric CO2 seasonal cycle has increased by 30 to 50% in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) since the 1960s, suggesting widespread ecological changes in the northern extratropics. However, substantial uncertainty remains in the continental and regional drivers of this prominent amplitude increase. Here we present a quantitative…
2h
Diel variability of methane emissions from lakes [Environmental Sciences]
Lakes are considered the second largest natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). However, current estimates are still uncertain and do not account for diel variability of CH4 emissions. In this study, we performed high-resolution measurements of CH4 flux from several lakes, using an automated and sensor-based flux measurement approach (in…
2h
The macroevolutionary dynamics of symbiotic and phenotypic diversification in lichens [Evolution]
Symbioses are evolutionarily pervasive and play fundamental roles in structuring ecosystems, yet our understanding of their macroevolutionary origins, persistence, and consequences is incomplete. We traced the macroevolutionary history of symbiotic and phenotypic diversification in an iconic symbiosis, lichens. By inferring the most comprehensive time-scaled phylogeny of lichen-forming fungi (LFF)
2h
Integrity of a heterochromatic domain ensured by its boundary elements [Genetics]
In fission yeast, the inverted repeats IR-L and IR-R function as boundary elements at the edges of a 20-kb silent heterochromatic domain where nucleosomes are methylated at histone H3K9. Each repeat contains a series of B-box motifs physically associated with the architectural TFIIIC complex and with other factors including the…
2h
Overweight, obesity, and risk of hospitalization for COVID-19: A community-based cohort study of adults in the United Kingdom [Immunology and Inflammation]
The role of obesity and overweight in occurrence of COVID-19 is unknown. We conducted a large-scale general population study using data from a community-dwelling sample in England (n = 334,329; 56.4 ±8.1 y; 54.5% women) with prospective linkage to national registry on hospitalization for COVID-19. Body mass index (BMI, from…
2h
Autoantibodies against central nervous system antigens in a subset of B cell-dominant multiple sclerosis patients [Immunology and Inflammation]
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), with characteristic inflammatory lesions and demyelination. The clinical benefit of cell-depleting therapies targeting CD20 has emphasized the role of B cells and autoantibodies in MS pathogenesis. We previously introduced an enzyme-linked immunospot spot (ELISpot)-based assay to…
2h
Indoles from the commensal microbiota act via the AHR and IL-10 to tune the cellular composition of the colonic epithelium during aging [Immunology and Inflammation]
The intestinal epithelium is a highly dynamic structure that rejuvenates in response to acute stressors and can undergo alterations in cellular composition as animals age. The microbiota, acting via secreted factors related to indole, appear to regulate the sensitivity of the epithelium to stressors and promote epithelial repair via IL-22…
2h
Anacardic acid induces IL-33 and promotes remyelination in CNS [Immunology and Inflammation]
Given the known neuroreparative actions of IL-33 in experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) injury, we predicted that compounds which induce IL-33 are likely to promote remyelination. We found anacardic acid as a candidate molecule to serve as a therapeutic agent to promote remyelination. Addition of anacardic acid to…
2h
Defined microbiota transplant restores Th17/ROR{gamma}t+ regulatory T cell balance in mice colonized with inflammatory bowel disease microbiotas [Immunology and Inflammation]
The building evidence for the contribution of microbiota to human disease has spurred an effort to develop therapies that target the gut microbiota. This is particularly evident in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), where clinical trials of fecal microbiota transplantation have shown some efficacy. To aid the development of novel microbiota-targeted…
2h
Immune signatures of prodromal multiple sclerosis in monozygotic twins [Immunology and Inflammation]
The tremendous heterogeneity of the human population presents a major obstacle in understanding how autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) contribute to variations in human peripheral immune signatures. To minimize heterogeneity, we made use of a unique cohort of 43 monozygotic twin pairs clinically discordant for MS and searched for…
2h
IL-12 p40 monomer is different from other IL-12 family members to selectively inhibit IL-12R{beta}1 internalization and suppress EAE [Immunology and Inflammation]
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common human demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The IL-12 family of cytokines has four members, which are IL-12 (p40:p35), IL-23 (p40:p19), the p40 monomer (p40), and the p40 homodimer (p402). Since all four members contain p40 in different forms, it is important…
2h
KAT5 acetylates cGAS to promote innate immune response to DNA virus [Immunology and Inflammation]
The DNA sensor cGMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic microbial or self DNA to initiate a MITA/STING-dependent innate immune response. cGAS is regulated by various posttranslational modifications at its C-terminal catalytic domain. Whether and how its N-terminal unstructured domain is regulated by posttranslational modifications remain unknown. We identified the acetyltransferase KAT5…
2h
Resolution of eicosanoid/cytokine storm prevents carcinogen and inflammation-initiated hepatocellular cancer progression [Medical Sciences]
Toxic environmental carcinogens promote cancer via genotoxic and nongenotoxic pathways, but nongenetic mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Carcinogen-induced apoptosis may trigger escape from dormancy of microtumors by interfering with inflammation resolution and triggering an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. While eicosanoid and cytokine storms are well-characterized in infection a
2h
Multiple myeloma cells are exceptionally sensitive to heat shock, which overwhelms their proteostasis network and induces apoptosis [Medical Sciences]
Proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib (BTZ), are highly effective and widely used treatments for multiple myeloma. One proposed reason for myeloma cells' exceptional sensitivity to proteasome inhibition is that they produce and continually degrade unusually large amounts of abnormal immunoglobulins. We, therefore, hypothesized that, heat shock may also be especially…
2h
Suppressing neutrophil-dependent angiogenesis abrogates resistance to anti-VEGF antibody in a genetic model of colorectal cancer [Medical Sciences]
We tested cis-ApcΔ716/Smad4+/− and cis-ApcΔ716/Smad4+/− KrasG12D mice, which recapitulate key genetic abnormalities accumulating during colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis in humans, for responsiveness to anti-VEGF therapy. We found that even tumors in cis-ApcΔ716/Smad4+/− KrasG12D mice, although highly aggressive, were suppressed by anti-VEGF treatment. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatio
2h
Circadian regulation of c-MYC in mice [Medical Sciences]
The circadian clock is a global regulatory mechanism that controls the expression of 50 to 80% of transcripts in mammals. Some of the genes controlled by the circadian clock are oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Among these Myc has been the focus of several studies which have investigated the effect of…
2h
Global epigenomic analysis of KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma identifies functional MYC superenhancers and enhancer RNAs [Microbiology]
Enhancers play indispensable roles in cell proliferation and survival through spatiotemporally regulating gene transcription. Active enhancers and superenhancers often produce noncoding enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) that precisely control RNA polymerase II activity. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human oncogenic gamma-2 herpesvirus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lym
2h
NusG controls transcription pausing and RNA polymerase translocation throughout the Bacillus subtilis genome [Microbiology]
Transcription is punctuated by RNA polymerase (RNAP) pausing. These pauses provide time for diverse regulatory events that can modulate gene expression. Transcription elongation factors dramatically affect RNAP pausing in vitro, but the genome-wide role of such factors on pausing has not been examined. Using native elongating transcript sequencing followed by…
2h
Rapid formation of human immunodeficiency virus-like particles [Microbiology]
Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of viruses is essential for discerning how viruses transmit from cell to cell and host to host. Although molecular aspects of assembly have been studied for many viruses, we still have little information about these events in real time. Enveloped viruses such…
2h
One gene, multiple ecological strategies: A biofilm regulator is a capacitor for sustainable diversity [Microbiology]
Many bacteria cycle between sessile and motile forms in which they must sense and respond to internal and external signals to coordinate appropriate physiology. Maintaining fitness requires genetic networks that have been honed in variable environments to integrate these signals. The identity of the major regulators and how their control…
2h
Molecular causes of an evolutionary shift along the parasitism-mutualism continuum in a bacterial symbiont [Microbiology]
Symbiosis with microbes is a ubiquitous phenomenon with a massive impact on all living organisms, shaping the world around us today. Theoretical and experimental studies show that vertical transmission of symbionts leads to the evolution of mutualistic traits, whereas horizontal transmission facilitates the emergence of parasitic features. However, these studies…
2h
A supergene-linked estrogen receptor drives alternative phenotypes in a polymorphic songbird [Neuroscience]
Behavioral evolution relies on genetic changes, yet few behaviors can be traced to specific genetic sequences in vertebrates. Here we provide experimental evidence showing that differentiation of a single gene has contributed to the evolution of divergent behavioral phenotypes in the white-throated sparrow, a common backyard songbird. In this species,…
2h
Divergence of rodent and primate medial frontal cortex functional connectivity [Neuroscience]
With the medial frontal cortex (MFC) centrally implicated in several major neuropsychiatric disorders, it is critical to understand the extent to which MFC organization is comparable between humans and animals commonly used in preclinical research (namely rodents and nonhuman primates). Although the cytoarchitectonic structure of the rodent MFC has mostly…
2h
The Atoh7 remote enhancer provides transcriptional robustness during retinal ganglion cell development [Neuroscience]
The retinal ganglion cell (RGC) competence factor ATOH7 is dynamically expressed during retinal histogenesis. ATOH7 transcription is controlled by a promoter-adjacent primary enhancer and a remote shadow enhancer (SE). Deletion of the ATOH7 human SE causes nonsyndromic congenital retinal nonattachment (NCRNA) disease, characterized by optic nerve aplasia and total blindness….
2h
Calcium flares and compartmentalization in rod photoreceptors [Neuroscience]
Rod photoreceptors are composed of a soma and an inner segment (IS) connected to an outer segment (OS) by a thin cilium. OSs are composed of a stack of ∼800 lipid discs surrounded by the plasma membrane where phototransduction takes place. Intracellular calcium plays a major role in phototransduction and…
2h
Illuminating the allosteric modulation of the calcium-sensing receptor [Pharmacology]
Many membrane receptors are regulated by nutrients. However, how these nutrients control a single receptor remains unknown, even in the case of the well-studied calcium-sensing receptor CaSR, which is regulated by multiple factors, including ions and amino acids. Here, we developed an innovative cell-free Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based conformational…
2h
Agonist-induced formation of unproductive receptor-G12 complexes [Pharmacology]
G proteins are activated when they associate with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), often in response to agonist-mediated receptor activation. It is generally thought that agonist-induced receptor-G protein association necessarily promotes G protein activation and, conversely, that activated GPCRs do not interact with G proteins that they do not activate. Here…
2h
Superconductivity in undoped BaFe2As2 by tetrahedral geometry design [Physics]
Fe-based superconductors exhibit a diverse interplay between charge, orbital, and magnetic ordering. Variations in atomic geometry affect electron hopping between Fe atoms and the Fermi surface topology, influencing magnetic frustration and the pairing strength through changes of orbital overlap and occupancies. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a systematic approach to realize…
2h
Coupled transmembrane mechanisms control MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake [Physiology]
Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria regulates bioenergetics, apoptosis, and Ca2+ signaling. The primary pathway for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), a Ca2+-selective ion channel in the inner mitochondrial membrane. MCU-mediated Ca2+ uptake is driven by the sizable inner-membrane potential generated by the electron-transport chain. Despite the large…
2h
Simple binding of protein kinase A prior to phosphorylation allows CFTR anion channels to be opened by nucleotides [Physiology]
The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) anion channel is essential for epithelial salt–water balance. CFTR mutations cause cystic fibrosis, a lethal incurable disease. In cells CFTR is activated through the cAMP signaling pathway, overstimulation of which during cholera leads to CFTR-mediated intestinal salt–water loss. Channel activation is achieved by…
2h
Maize ANT1 modulates vascular development, chloroplast development, photosynthesis, and plant growth [Plant Biology]
Arabidopsis AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), an AP2 transcription factor, is known to control plant growth and floral organogenesis. In this study, our transcriptome analysis and in situ hybridization assays of maize embryonic leaves suggested that maize ANT1 (ZmANT1) regulates vascular development. To better understand ANT1 functions, we determined the binding motif of…
2h
The karrikin signaling regulator SMAX1 controls Lotus japonicus root and root hair development by suppressing ethylene biosynthesis [Plant Biology]
An evolutionarily ancient plant hormone receptor complex comprising the α/β-fold hydrolase receptor KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) and the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2) mediates a range of developmental responses to smoke-derived butenolides called karrikins (KARs) and to yet elusive endogenous KAI2 ligands (KLs). Degradation of SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2…
2h
DROOPY LEAF1 controls leaf architecture by orchestrating early brassinosteroid signaling [Plant Biology]
Leaf architecture directly determines canopy structure, and thus, grain yield in crops. Leaf droopiness is an agronomic trait primarily affecting the cereal leaf architecture but the genetic basis and underlying molecular mechanism of this trait remain unclear. Here, we report that DROOPY LEAF1 (DPY1), an LRR receptor-like kinase, plays a…
2h
Light-induced psbA translation in plants is triggered by photosystem II damage via an assembly-linked autoregulatory circuit [Plant Biology]
The D1 reaction center protein of photosystem II (PSII) is subject to light-induced damage. Degradation of damaged D1 and its replacement by nascent D1 are at the heart of a PSII repair cycle, without which photosynthesis is inhibited. In mature plant chloroplasts, light stimulates the recruitment of ribosomes specifically to…
2h
mRNA adenosine methylase (MTA) deposits m6A on pri-miRNAs to modulate miRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the METTL3 homolog, mRNA adenosine methylase (MTA) introduces N6-methyladenosine (m6A) into various coding and noncoding RNAs of the plant transcriptome. Here, we show that an MTA-deficient mutant (mta) has decreased levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) but accumulates primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). Moreover, pri-miRNAs are methylated by MTA, and…
2h
Synthetic conversion of leaf chloroplasts into carotenoid-rich plastids reveals mechanistic basis of natural chromoplast development [Plant Biology]
Plastids, the defining organelles of plant cells, undergo physiological and morphological changes to fulfill distinct biological functions. In particular, the differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts results in an enhanced storage capacity for carotenoids with industrial and nutritional value such as beta-carotene (provitamin A). Here, we show that synthetically inducing a…
2h
Explaining the homogeneous diffusion of COVID-19 nonpharmaceutical interventions across heterogeneous countries [Political Sciences]
We analyze the adoption of nonpharmaceutical interventions in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the complexity associated with pandemic decisions, governments are faced with the dilemma of how to act quickly when their core decision-making…
2h
Sleepiness, sleep duration, and human social activity: An investigation into bidirectionality using longitudinal time-use data [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Daytime sleepiness impairs cognitive ability, but recent evidence suggests it is also an important driver of human motivation and behavior. We aimed to investigate the relationship between sleepiness and a behavior strongly associated with better health: social activity. We additionally aimed to investigate whether a key driver of sleepiness, sleep…
2h
The objectivity illusion and voter polarization in the 2016 presidential election [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Two studies conducted during the 2016 presidential campaign examined the dynamics of the objectivity illusion, the belief that the views of "my side" are objective while the views of the opposing side are the product of bias. In the first, a three-stage longitudinal study spanning the presidential debates, supporters of…
2h
Naming guides how 12-month-old infants encode and remember objects [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
A foundation of human cognition is the flexibility with which we can represent any object as either a unique individual (my dog Fred) or a member of an object category (dog, animal). This conceptual flexibility is supported by language; the way we name an object is instrumental to our construal…
2h
Psychological foundations of human status allocation [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Competing theories of status allocation posit divergent conceptual foundations upon which human status hierarchies are built. We argue that the three prominent theories of status allocation—competence-based models, conflict-based models, and dual-pathway models—can be distinguished by the importance that they place on four key affordance dimensions: benefit-generation ability, benefit-generation w
2h
NTRK2 methylation is related to reduced PTSD risk in two African cohorts of trauma survivors [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Extensive pharmacologic, genetic, and epigenetic research has linked the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to memory processes, and to risk and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study we investigated the epigenetic pattern of 12 genes involved in the regulation of GR signaling in two African populations of heavily…
2h
Science and Culture: Universities move science labs to the kitchen [Social Sciences]
Coronavirus school closures left many science professors scrambling for new ways to teach concepts traditionally explored in the lab. Not so for Pia Sörensen, a senior preceptor in chemical engineering and applied materials at Harvard University in Cambridge, MA. She breathed easy, knowing that even without advanced scientific instruments, her…
2h
Contrast trees and distribution boosting [Statistics]
A method for decision tree induction is presented. Given a set of predictor variables x=(x1,x2,⋅⋅⋅,xp) and two outcome variables y and z associated with each x, the goal is to identify those values of x for which the respective distributions of y | x and z | x, or selected…
2h
Proteome reallocation from amino acid biosynthesis to ribosomes enables yeast to grow faster in rich media [Systems Biology]
Several recent studies have shown that the concept of proteome constraint, i.e., the need for the cell to balance allocation of its proteome between different cellular processes, is essential for ensuring proper cell function. However, there have been no attempts to elucidate how cells' maximum capacity to grow depends on…
2h
Multiomic blood correlates of genetic risk identify presymptomatic disease alterations [Systems Biology]
Transitions from health to disease are characterized by dysregulation of biological networks under the influence of genetic and environmental factors, often over the course of years to decades before clinical symptoms appear. Understanding these dynamics has important implications for preventive medicine. However, progress has been hindered both by the difficulty…
2h
Correction for Bhattacharya et al., Lipid sponge droplets as programmable synthetic organelles [Correction]
CHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for "Lipid sponge droplets as programmable synthetic organelles," by Ahanjit Bhattacharya, Henrike Niederholtmeyer, Kira A. Podolsky, Rupak Bhattacharya, Jing-Jin Song, Roberto J. Brea, Chu-Hsien Tsai, Sunil K. Sinha, and Neal K. Devaraj, which was first published July 21, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2004408117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 18206–18215)….
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Correction for Greenway et al., Convergent evolution of conserved mitochondrial pathways underlies repeated adaptation to extreme environments [Correction]
EVOLUTION Correction for "Convergent evolution of conserved mitochondrial pathways underlies repeated adaptation to extreme environments," by Ryan Greenway, Nick Barts, Chathurika Henpita, Anthony P. Brown, Lenin Arias Rodriguez, Carlos M. Rodríguez Peña, Sabine Arndt, Gigi Y. Lau, Michael P. Murphy, Lei Wu, Dingbo Lin, Michael Tobler, Joanna L. Kelley, and…
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Correction for Lim et al., Inhibition of DUX4 expression with antisense LNA gapmers as a therapy for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy [Correction]
MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for "Inhibition of DUX4 expression with antisense LNA gapmers as a therapy for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy," by Kenji Rowel Q. Lim, Rika Maruyama, Yusuke Echigoya, Quynh Nguyen, Aiping Zhang, Hunain Khawaja, Sreetama Sen Chandra, Takako Jones, Peter Jones, Yi-Wen Chen, and Toshifumi Yokota, which was first published…
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Correction for Latoscha et al., c-di-AMP hydrolysis by the phosphodiesterase AtaC promotes differentiation of multicellular bacteria [Correction]
MICROBIOLOGY Correction for "c-di-AMP hydrolysis by the phosphodiesterase AtaC promotes differentiation of multicellular bacteria," by Andreas Latoscha, David Jan Drexler, Mahmoud M. Al-Bassam, Adrian M. Bandera, Volkhard Kaever, Kim C. Findlay, Gregor Witte, and Natalia Tschowri, which was first published March 18, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1917080117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117,…
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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Arctic plants and snow cover Snow buttercup in a meadow. Arctic tundra faces some of the most rapid climate change, with corresponding consequences for ecosystems. Climate change alters the diversity and distribution of functional traits in ecosystems, but the role of snow cover in functional trait diversity has not been…
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Opinion: Science policy for scientists: A simple task for great effect [Political Sciences]
Many scientists have become increasingly concerned with the course and status of science-related policies in recent years, and these concerns have only grown in the past months as governments have had to face a global pandemic. As experts in our respective fields, scientists have an obligation and an opportunity to…
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Scientists shed new light on pollen tube growth in plants
New insight on how an enzyme ensures the correct growth of pollen tubes in flowering plants has been published today in the open-access journal eLife.
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Was our planet always wet?
Water on Earth may have come from materials already present in the inner solar system at the time the planet formed, not from far-reaching comets or asteroids, a new study shows. Researchers determined that a type of meteorite called an enstatite chondrite contains sufficient hydrogen to deliver at least three times the amount of water contained in the Earth's oceans, and probably much more. Enst
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Jerks don't actually get ahead at work
Being a selfish jerk doesn't get you ahead, according to new research. Researchers tracked disagreeable people from college or graduate school to where they landed in their careers about 14 years later. Even though jerks tend to engage in dominant behavior, their lack of communal behavior cancels out any advantage their aggressiveness gives them. "I was surprised by the consistency of the finding
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Managing data flow boosts cyber-physical system performance
Researchers have developed a suite of algorithms to improve the performance of cyber-physical systems – from autonomous vehicles to smart power grids – by balancing each component's need for data with how fast that data can be sent and received.
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Researchers predict location of novel candidate for mysterious dark energy
Astronomers have known for two decades that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, but the physics of this expansion remains a mystery. Now, a team of researchers at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa have made a novel prediction—the dark energy responsible for this accelerating growth comes from a vast sea of compact objects spread throughout the voids between galaxies. This conclusion is
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New research provides solution for the 'Dust Bowl paradox'
Almost 100 years ago, there was a strange, slow-motion takeover of the Great Plains. During the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, as a historic heatwave and drought swept the middle of the United States, there was a dramatic shift in the types of plants occupying the region.
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Memory in a metal, enabled by quantum geometry
The emergence of artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques is changing the world dramatically with novel applications such as internet of things, autonomous vehicles, real-time imaging processing and big data analytics in healthcare. In 2020, the global data volume is estimated to reach 44 Zettabytes, and it will continue to grow beyond the current capacity of computing and storage d
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Henrietta Lacks: science must right a historical wrong
Nature, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02494-z In Henrietta Lacks's centennial year, researchers must do more to ensure that human cells cannot be taken without consent.
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Scientists identify promising new ALS drug candidates
Scientists have taken a significant step forward in the search to find effective new drug candidates for the treatment of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease.
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Be generous, live longer
Resource sharing affects mortality worldwide.
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Misfiring brain cells may cause swallowing woes in children with developmental disorders
Misfiring brain cells that control key parts of the mouth and tongue may be creating swallowing difficulties in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, according to neuroscientists with Virginia Tech and George Washington University. Problems ingesting, chewing, or swallowing food occur in up to 80 percent of children with developmental disorders and can lead to food aspiration, choking, or li
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New Research Provides Solution for the 'Dust Bowl Paradox'
During the historic drought and heatwave of the Dust Bowl, grasses better adapted to cool, wet climates moved in. After conducting a four-year field experiment, scientists think they might know why.
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UH Mānoa researchers predict location of novel candidate for mysterious dark energy
UH researchers explain what may be the cause of the universe's accelerating growth.
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Managing data flow boosts cyber-physical system performance
Researchers have developed a suite of algorithms to improve the performance of cyber-physical systems – from autonomous vehicles to smart power grids – by balancing each component's need for data with how fast that data can be sent and received.
3h
Notice me! Neglected for over a century, Black Sea spider crab re-described
Even though recognised in the Mediterranean Sea, the Macropodia czernjawskii spider crab was ignored by scientists (even by its namesake Vladimir Czernyavsky) in the regional faunal accounts of the Black Sea for more than a century. At the same time, although other species of the genus have been listed as Black Sea fauna, those listings are mostly wrong and occurred either due to historical circum
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Monitoring and reporting framework to protect World Heritage Sites from invasive species
A team of international scientists have devised a new monitoring and reporting framework to help protect World Heritage Sites from almost 300 different invasive alien species globally including, rats (Rattus spp.), cats (Felis catus), lantana (Lantana camara) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile).
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Amazing Footage Shows Ancient NASA Satellite Burning Up During Reentry
Burning Up A NASA satellite that launched in 1964 — over half a century ago — just burned up as it reentered the Earth's atmosphere. The dramatic event over the skies of Tahiti and the Cook Islands was caught in a visually striking video by a member of a Facebook community of airplane spotters, as reported by CNET . OGO-1 The satellite, dubbed OGO-1, was part of NASA's Orbiting Geophysical Observ
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Notice me! Neglected for over a century, Black Sea spider crab re-described
Even though recognised in the Mediterranean Sea, the Macropodia czernjawskii spider crab was ignored by scientists (even by its namesake Vladimir Czernyavsky) in the regional faunal accounts of the Black Sea for more than a century. At the same time, although other species of the genus have been listed as Black Sea fauna, those listings are mostly wrong and occurred either due to historical circum
3h
Monitoring and reporting framework to protect World Heritage Sites from invasive species
A team of international scientists have devised a new monitoring and reporting framework to help protect World Heritage Sites from almost 300 different invasive alien species globally including, rats (Rattus spp.), cats (Felis catus), lantana (Lantana camara) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile).
3h
Study finds gene targets to combat microorganisms binding to underwater surfaces
A group of synthetic biologists at NYU Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) have identified new genetic targets that could lead to safe, biologically-based approaches to combat marine biofouling—the process of sea-based microorganisms, plants, or algae binding to underwater surfaces. Biofouling continues to present significant challenges for aquaculture and sea-based commercial activities, with one of the most commo
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Loggerhead turtles record a passing hurricane
In early June 2011, NOAA Fisheries researchers and colleagues placed satellite tags on 26 loggerhead sea turtles in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The tagging was part of ongoing studies of loggerhead movements and behavior. The Mid-Atlantic Bight, off the U.S. East Coast, is the coastal region from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to southern Massachusetts. A little more than 2 months later, on August 28,
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How dangerous are burning electric cars?
What happens if an electric car burns in a road tunnel or an underground car park? In the Hagerbach test tunnel in Switzerland, researchers and tunnel safety experts set fire to battery cells of electric cars, analyzed the distribution of soot and smoke gases and the chemical residues in the extinguishing water.
3h
How to weigh a dinosaur
A new study looks at dinosaur body mass estimation techniques revealing different approaches still yield strikingly similar results.
3h
Europe's largest Solar Telescope GREGOR unveils magnetic details of the Sun
GREGOR, the largest solar telescope in Europe, has obtained unprecedented images of the fine-structure of the Sun. Following a major redesign of GREGOR's optics the Sun can be observed at a higher resolution than before from Europe.
3h
Loggerhead turtles record a passing hurricane
Caught in an Atlantic hurricane, satellite-tagged loggerhead turtles changed their dive behavior and movement patterns as the storm passed. The tags also recorded changes in the environment.
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Blood pressure-lowering is even more beneficial than previously thought
Blood pressure medication can prevent heart attacks and strokes – even in people with normal blood pressure.
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Giant leap for molecular measurements
Spectroscopy is an important tool of observation in many areas of science and industry. Infrared spectroscopy is especially important in the world of chemistry where it is used to analyze and identify different molecules. The current state-of-the-art method can make approximately 1 million observations per second. Researchers have greatly surpassed this figure with a new method about 100 times fas
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First treatment identified for fainting
Fainting affects one in two people during their lifetime. Those with recurrent episodes are often afraid to socialize or go to work. Today researchers report the first effective therapy.
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Study finds gene targets to combat microorganisms binding to underwater surfaces
A group of synthetic biologists at NYU Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) have identified new genetic targets that could lead to safe, biologically-based approaches to combat marine biofouling—the process of sea-based microorganisms, plants, or algae binding to underwater surfaces. Biofouling continues to present significant challenges for aquaculture and sea-based commercial activities, with one of the most commo
3h
Loggerhead turtles record a passing hurricane
In early June 2011, NOAA Fisheries researchers and colleagues placed satellite tags on 26 loggerhead sea turtles in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The tagging was part of ongoing studies of loggerhead movements and behavior. The Mid-Atlantic Bight, off the U.S. East Coast, is the coastal region from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to southern Massachusetts. A little more than 2 months later, on August 28,
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Solar telescope GREGOR unveils magnetic details of the sun
The Sun is our star and has a profound influence on our planet, life, and civilization. By studying the magnetism on the Sun, we can understand its influence on Earth and minimize damage of satellites and technological infrastructure. The GREGOR telescope allows scientists to resolve details as small as 50 km on the Sun, which is a tiny fraction of the solar diameter of 1.4 million km. This is as
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Swedish workers among Europe's best-paid in late 1800s
In 19th-century Sweden, workers' wages rose faster than in other European countries. By 1900, they were among the highest in Europe, and the steepest rise of all had been for those who earned least. This is shown by new research at Uppsala University: a study published in he Journal of Economic History.
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A small number of self-organizing autonomous vehicles significantly increases traffic flow
With the addition of just a small number of autonomous vehicles (AVs) on the road, traffic flow can become faster, greener, and safer in the near future, a new study suggests.
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Indigenous custody reporting made more effective
The Aboriginal Legal Service (NSW/ACT) Limited ('ALS') is collaborating with Rapido Social at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) to improve its Custody Notification Service (CNS), following project funding from the National Indigenous Advancement Agency (NIAA).
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Eight ways that taking a real lunch break can improve your work (and life)
Can you really use up all 60 minutes? Experts say yes. (Photo: iStock/) This story originally featured on Working Mother . Whether you're at the office or working from home , the lunch "hour" is hardly a real reprieve. Most of us quickly scarf down a salad to maximize our daily output . In fact, a study by OfficeTeam , an administrative staffing company, found that 56 ­percent of employees who ca
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Miniature antenna enables robotic teaming in complex environments
A new, miniature, low-frequency antenna with enhanced bandwidth will enable robust networking among compact, mobile robots in complex environments.
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Notice me! Neglected for over a century, Black sea spider crab re-described
Even though recognised in the Mediterranean Sea, the Macropodia czernjawskii spider crab was ignored by scientists (even by its namesake, 19th-century biologist Vladimir Czernyavsky) in the regional faunal accounts of the Black Sea for more than a century. Now, scientists re-describe this, most likely, sole species of the genus to occur in the Black Sea. The finding was published in the open-acces
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How Those Bogus Reports on 'Ineffective' Neck Gaiters Got Started
The study they were based on was misrepresented by the press—but the scientists were partly at fault as well — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Massive fraud investigation targets prominent Brazilian health researcher
Guilherme Franco Netto denies allegations as colleagues rally to his defense
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Why the Coronavirus More Often Strikes Children of Color
Children in minority communities are much more likely to become infected and severely ill. Many have parents who are frontline workers, experts say.
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Roanoke's 'Lost Colony' Was Never Lost, New Book Says
A new book aims to settle a centuries-old question of what happened to a group of English colonists. Archaeologists said that its theory was plausible but that more evidence was needed.
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Scientists Create 3D Map of Entire Coronavirus Genetic Structure
A team of scientists just mapped in unprecedented detail the entire 3D structure of the coronavirus' genetic code — a tangled mess of what they call a "long, noodle-like molecule" that folds in on itself like "molecular origami." With the new atlas in hand, the Yale University researchers behind the research think that they or others may be able to identify new ways to fight, prevent, or treat CO
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By Losing Genes, Life Often Evolved More Complexity
When Cristian Cañestro set out in the early 2000s to study how animals with brains and backbones evolved, he picked a sea squirt called Oikopleura as a useful subject. Like all sea squirts, it has a tiny brain and nerve cord, but unlike the others, Oikopleura doesn't undergo a metamorphosis on its way to maturity. Cañestro thought that Oikopleura had perhaps retained simpler, more ancestral featu
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Surgical backlog in Ontario from COVID-19 will take 84 weeks to clear
The estimated time to clear surgeries postponed in Ontario because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is 84 weeks, with a target of 717 surgeries per week, according to a new modelling study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
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Estrogen replacement may protect against Alzheimer's disease in women
Amsterdam, September 1, 2020-Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of dementia. It affects more women than men. A new study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease indicates that factors such as age, reproductive stage, hormone levels, and the interplay with other risk factors should be considered in women and proposes a role for early
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Revisiting ratios
There's more to seawater than salt. Ocean chemistry is a complex mixture of particles, ions and nutrients. And for over a century, scientists believed that certain ion ratios held relatively constant over space and time.
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Yale trial addresses health disparities in alcohol treatment
Yale researchers are completing a first-of-its-kind clinical trial to test the efficacy of an automated bilingual alcohol screening and intervention tool for use in emergency departments (EDs). The computerized tool, administered to English- and Spanish-speaking Latino patient volunteers, is designed to address health disparities in the treatment of alcohol use disorders.
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AGA recommends bidirectional endoscopy for most patients with iron deficiency anemia
The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) published new clinical guidelines outlining an evidence-based approach for the initial gastrointestinal evaluation of chronic iron deficiency anemia in asymptomatic patients. Iron deficiency anemia is extremely common worldwide, and a gastrointestinal cause should be considered in all patients without an obvious cause for their anemia.
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NYUAD study finds gene targets to combat microorganisms binding to underwater surfaces
A group of synthetic biologists at NYU Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) have identified new genetic targets that could lead to safe, biologically-based approaches to combat marine biofouling – the process of sea-based microorganisms, plants, or algae binding to underwater surfaces.
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Your paper notebook could become your next tablet
Engineers developed a simple printing process that renders any paper or cardboard packaging into a keyboard, keypad or other easy-to-use human-machine interfaces.
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New research finds playfulness is a skill anyone can learn
Researchers in Germany discovered that even serious adults can become playful with training. Developing a playful attitude leads to better overall well-being. Play is a deeply embedded ancestral brain system, according to neuroscientist Jaak Panksepp. The heaviness of this moment is impossible to overstate. Anxiety and depression are rising due to COVID-19. A severe economic downturn is having a
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Cancer cells take over blood vessels to spread
In laboratory studies, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and Johns Hopkins University researchers observed a key step in how cancer cells may spread from a primary tumor to a distant site within the body, a process known as metastasis.
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New in the Hastings Center Report: Ethical challenges of the opioid crisis
The nationwide surge in drug abuse predates the Covid-19 pandemic but has risen to new highs during it. Causes of the crisis–physician prescribing habits and societal problems like poverty and joblessness–and the implications solutions may have for pain treatment, are explored in three essays.
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Narcolepsy drug did not increase risk of fetal malformation
Modafinil is used to treat conditions such as narcolepsy. Reports have associated the drug with an increased risk of malformation in babies born to mothers who had taken it while pregnant. Now, a large registry study involving over two million pregnant women in Sweden and Norway shows that there is no such association. The study, which is published in JAMA, was conducted by researchers at Sweden's
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Loggerhead turtles record a passing hurricane
Caught in an Atlantic hurricane, satellite-tagged loggerhead turtles changed their dive behavior and movement patterns as the storm passed. The tags also recorded changes in the environment.
4h
Europe's largest Solar Telescope GREGOR unveils magnetic details of the Sun
GREGOR, the largest solar telescope in Europe, which is operated by a German consortium and located on Teide Observatory, Spain, has obtained unprecedented images of the fine-structure of the Sun. Following a major redesign of GREGOR's optics, carried out by a team of scientists and engineers from the Leibniz Institute for Solar Physics (KIS) and the University of Freiburg, the Sun can be observed
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How to weigh a dinosaur
A new study looks at dinosaur body mass estimation techniques revealing different approaches still yield strikingly similar results.
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Scientists discover key regulator of neuron function and survival
Scientists studying neuronal energy metabolism found evidence the loss of an important energy regulator called AMPK in neural stem cells or glial cells called astrocytes causes neuronal death in laboratory rodents. Publishing their findings in Cell Reports, researchers also discovered AMPK loss in neural stem cells or neurons causes spontaneous brain seizures in the animals. The study provides evi
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Opportunities for research on treatment of substance use disorders context of COVID-19
The different ways treatment and research on psychiatric disorders have shifted because of COVID-19 are assessed in this Viewpoint, which suggests what changes should remain after the pandemic.
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Community outbreak investigation of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among bus riders in Eastern China
This observational study examined the potential for airborne spread of COVID-19 through investigation of an outbreak among bus riders in Eastern China.
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Mastodons took frequent trips north when climate changed
New research suggests that American mastodons were avid travelers, migrating vast distances across North America in response to dramatic climate change during the ice ages of the Pleistocene. The study also reveals that mastodon populations that headed northward to the Arctic during warm periods were less genetically diverse, making them vulnerable to extinction. The findings could be useful for m
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Mastodons traveled vast distances across North America due to climate change: Research
New research from an international team of evolutionary geneticists, bioinformaticians and paleontologists suggests that dramatic environmental changes accompanying the shift or melting of continental glaciers played a key role as American mastodons moved north from their southern ranges.
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Face shield or face mask to stop the spread of COVID-19?
If CDC guidelines aren't enough to convince you that face shields alone shouldn't be used to stop the spread of COVID-19, then maybe a new visualization study will. Researchers simulated coughing and sneezing from a mannequin's mouth using a laser light to visualize droplets expelled. They tested a plastic face shield and found that they block the initial forward motion of the exhaled jet, however
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Decorating windows for optimal sound transmission
Glass windows typically offer some amount of sound proofing, sometimes unintentionally. In general, ventilation is required to achieve large sound transmission. But some applications — like gas explosion studies — require a transparent partition that allows for acoustic propagation without the presence of airflow. In those cases, ventilation is not allowed. In Applied Physics Letters, researcher
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Detecting small amounts of virus in early infections
Diagnostic devices that are used at home or in doctors' offices are often not sensitive enough to detect small amounts of a virus that might be present in samples from asymptomatic patients, which can occur in early stage COVID-19. In Biomicrofluidics, scientists report a membrane-based invention that can concentrate the virus content of a sample of urine or saliva, allowing it to be detected.
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Scent-sensing cells have a better way to fight influenza
Smell receptors that line the nose get hit by Influenza B just like other cells, but they are able to clear the infection without dying. A new Duke University paper in Cell Reports reveals not only the cells' successful strategy against viral infection, but also the diversity of immune responses from one kind of cell to another.
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Different responses in individual cells give muscles more control
Minute differences in individual muscle cell contractions allow the entire muscle to flex with greater control and accuracy. Long dismissed as "noise" or error, experts now suspect that biological systems may have evolved to include unavoidable variation as a form of information in their communication channels. A team of experts from the University of Tokyo published these findings in the scientif
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Face shields, masks with valves ineffective against COVID-19 spread
As countries experience a steep surge in COVID-19 infections, face masks have become increasingly accepted as an effective means for combating the spread of the disease when combined with social distancing and frequent hand-washing. Increasingly people are using clear plastic face shields and masks with exhalation valves instead of regular cloth or surgical masks, since they can be more comfortabl
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A naturally-occurring metabolite ups lifespan and compresses late-life morbidity in mice
Middle-aged mice that had the naturally-occurring metabolite alpha-ketaglutarate (AKG) added to their chow had a better 'old age.' They were healthier as they aged and experienced a dramatically shorter time of disease and disability before they died, a first for research involving mammals. Results from the double-blinded study, done at the Buck Institute and published in Cell Metabolism, were bas
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Bodybuilding supplement promotes healthy aging and extends life span, at least in mice
Alpha-ketoglutarate could be safer than other potential anti-aging treatments
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Why specializing early doesn't always mean career success | David Epstein
A head start doesn't always … well, help you get ahead. With examples from sports, technology and economics, journalist David Epstein shares how specializing in a particular skill too early in life may undermine your long-term development — and explains the benefits of a "sampling period" where you try new things and focus on building a range of skills. Learn how this broader, counterintuitive
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Silicon Valley billionaires want to geoengineer the world's oceans
A New Scientist investigation has found that some of the world's richest people are funding geoengineering plans that would transform the world's oceans to combat climate change
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Elderly people protected against respiratory infections by BCG vaccine
The BCG vaccine has a broad, stimulating effect on the immune system. BCG is frequently given to children, but a new study shows that elderly people also benefit from it.
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Spørg Fagfolket: Hvorfor hænger regnbuen helt nede ved Jorden?
En læser vil gerne vide, hvad der bestemmer højden på en regnbue, mens en anden har funderet over, hvorfor der er lysere under end over en regnbue.
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Global heating motivated American mastodons to trek north
Shift led to local extinctions and could have important implications for species today Genetic diversity could shrink as animals venture into new territories because of global heating leaving them vulnerable to extinction, scientists have warned after tracking the impact of climate change on the American mastodon . Huge, hairy and with a pair of fearsome tusks, mastodons resembled stocky, hirsute
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Different responses in individual cells give muscles more control
Minute differences in individual muscle cell contractions allow the entire muscle to flex with greater control and accuracy. Long dismissed as "noise" or error, experts now suspect that biological systems may have evolved to include unavoidable variation as a form of information in their communication channels. A team of experts from the University of Tokyo published these findings in the scientif
4h
Decorating windows for optimal sound transmission
Glass windows typically offer some amount of soundproofing, sometimes unintentionally. In general, ventilation is required to achieve large sound transmission.
4h
Face shields, masks with valves ineffective against COVID-19 spread: study
If the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines aren't enough to convince you that face shields alone shouldn't be used to stop the spread of COVID-19, then maybe a new visualization study will.
4h
Detecting small amounts of virus in early infections
Diagnostic devices that are used at home or in doctors' offices are often not sensitive enough to detect small amounts of a virus that might be present in samples from asymptomatic patients, which can occur in early stage COVID-19. In Biomicrofluidics,, scientists report a membrane-based invention that can concentrate the virus content of a sample of urine or saliva, allowing it to be detected.
4h
Mastodons took frequent trips north when climate changed
New research suggests that American mastodons were avid travelers, migrating vast distances across North America in response to dramatic climate change during the ice ages of the Pleistocene. The study, conducted by an international team of scientists and published today in the journal Nature Communications, also reveals that mastodon populations that headed northward to the Arctic during warm per
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Pilots: Man With Jetpack Was Flying Near Planes at LAX
Guy in a Jetpack An American Airlines pilot says that a man wearing a jetpack flew past him as he prepared to land at Los Angeles International Airport on Sunday evening, the local station ABC 7 News reports . "Tower, American 1997, we just passed a guy in a jetpack," the bewildered pilot told LA's tower, noting they were at about 3,000 feet at the time of the sighting. "Off the left side, maybe
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Different responses in individual cells give muscles more control
Minute differences in individual muscle cell contractions allow the entire muscle to flex with greater control and accuracy. Long dismissed as "noise" or error, experts now suspect that biological systems may have evolved to include unavoidable variation as a form of information in their communication channels. A team of experts from the University of Tokyo published these findings in the scientif
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Därför läcker vissa ansiktsskydd
Forskare har undersökt hur bra visir respektive munskydd med andningsventil skyddar andra mot coronasmitta. I laserljus syns hur partiklar sprids och stannar länge i luften.
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Educational mailing fails to improve medication use in patients with atrial fibrillation
Prevention drugs, according to results of the IMPACT-AFib trial presented in a Hot Line session today at ESC Congress 2020. Patients with atrial fibrillation are at increased risk of stroke. Studies have shown that most of these strokes can be prevented with oral anticoagulation. However, oral anticoagulant medication is underused by patients with atrial fibrillation.
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An embedded ethics approach for AI development
The increasing use of AI (artificial intelligence) in the development of new medical technologies demands greater attention to ethical aspects. An interdisciplinary team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) advocates the integration of ethics from the very beginning of the development process of new technologies. Alena Buyx, Professor of Ethics in Medicine and Health Technologies, explains
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Managing data flow boosts cyber-physical system performance
Researchers have developed a suite of algorithms to improve the performance of cyber-physical systems – from autonomous vehicles to smart power grids – by balancing each component's need for data with how fast that data can be sent and received.
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Hope for 500 000 insomniacs in Norway
Digital sleep therapy could offer help to people with sleep problems and enable many of them to reduce their sleep medication after treatment.
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Relatives in deep grief can be helped earlier
Many relatives who experience severe long-term grief reactions after bereavement have more frequent contact with their general practitioner already prior to bereavement, as well as a higher consumption of antidepressants and sedatives than those who have fewer critical symptoms of grief over time. This suggests that it may be possible to prevent this by catching this group earlier. This is shown b
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Awareness raising alone is not enough
Too rarely do nature conservation initiatives or strategies announced by politicians lead to people changing their everyday behaviour. A German-Israeli research team led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) has investigated the reasons for this. According to them, the measures do not sufficiently exploit the ran
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What Lincoln Knew
Donald Trump has a fondness for bringing up Abraham Lincoln. "Most people don't even know he was a Republican," the president declared at a Republican dinner in 2017. Critics mocked this—the GOP is often called "the party of Lincoln," after all—but he might not have been wrong. Most Americans don't study history in detail. Trump's point was that he could use Lincoln's partisan affiliation to trol
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What Incarcerated Rappers Can Teach America
The week before Drakeo the Ruler released his latest album, the rapper's hometown of Los Angeles was swept up in protests, like many other cities around the country . Following the police killings of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, these demonstrations brought new public scrutiny to the U.S. criminal-justice system's racist practices. In Hollywood, where an estimated 100,000 people gathered that
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Detecting small amounts of virus in early infections
Diagnostic devices that are used at home or in doctors' offices are often not sensitive enough to detect small amounts of a virus that might be present in samples from asymptomatic patients, which can occur in early stage COVID-19. In Biomicrofluidics,, scientists report a membrane-based invention that can concentrate the virus content of a sample of urine or saliva, allowing it to be detected.
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Ny frontmand for gynæ­kologien på Rigshospitalet
Kasper Aaboe glæder sig til at gøre en forskel for patienter og personale som ny ledende overlæge på Gynækologisk Afdeling på Rigshospitalet.
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Direct observation of desorption of a melt of long polymer chains
In our everyday life it's not uncommon to see the same material in different states. Take for example water: it's a liquid at ambient temperature, we can convert into ice when cooled below 0°C and it becomes a gas when heated above 100°C. The passages between these different states of matter are called phase transitions.
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Additive manufacturing of multi-functional parts
Additive manufacturing is currently one of the most significant trends in industry. Now a team from the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS has developed a Multi Material Jetting system that allows different materials to be combined into a single additively manufactured part. This makes it possible to create products with combined properties or functions. The new system
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A small number of self-organizing autonomous vehicles significantly increases traffic flow
With the addition of just a small number of autonomous vehicles (AVs) on the road, traffic flow can become faster, greener, and safer in the near future. Researchers from Bar-Ilan University present a simple set of guidelines and regulations for achieving the self-organization of AVs into constellations that dynamically control the entire traffic flow even when fewer than 5% of the vehicles on the
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How dangerous are burning electric cars?
What happens if an electric car burns in a road tunnel or an underground car park? In the Hagerbach test tunnel in Switzerland, Empa researchers and tunnel safety expert Lars Derek Mellert set fire to battery cells of electric cars, analyzed the distribution of soot and smoke gases and the chemical residues in the extinguishing water.
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NAMS releases the 2020 Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause Position Statement
The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) announces publication of its 2020 Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (GSM) Position Statement. The new recommendations reflect the healthcare community's most recent and proven safe and effective therapies for treating women with GSM, including intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oral ospemifene, and a low-dose estradiol vaginal insert. The posi
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Understanding the link between hearing loss and dementia
Scientists have developed a new theory as to how hearing loss may cause dementia and believe that tackling this sensory impairment early may help to prevent the disease.
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First randomised trial backs safety of common heart drugs in COVID-19 patients
Heart patients hospitalised with COVID-19 can safely continue taking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), according to the BRACE CORONA trial presented in a Hot Line session today at ESC Congress 2020.ACE inhibitors and ARBs are commonly taken by heart patients to reduce blood pressure and to treat heart failure. There is conflicting observationa
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Vanity organizers that will keep all your products tidy
Your products, in plain sight. (Jamie Street via Unsplash/) It's easy to accumulate a bunch of products—from nail polish to fragrances—and even easier for them to turn into a messy jumble. Vanity organizers are the ultimate declutter tool, creating a tidy system for all your personal items. They're lightweight so you can transport them from room to room, and are built with helpful dividers for or
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The best of both worlds for economic predictions
Danish physicist Neils Bohr once quipped that prediction is hard, especially when it is about the future. But this is precisely what financial regulators need to do—forecasting the likely state of the economy in the future is crucial when deciding on policy levers like whether to slash or raise interest rates.
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Britisk politi overvåger private fester med drone og termisk kamera
VIDEO: Politiet i Manchester har derfor taget alternative metoder i brug for at sikre, at de festglade mennesker med danseabstinenser overholder pandemiens reglementer.
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Q&A: Researchers set out to clear the seabed of plastic
Eighty-six million metric tons of plastics end up in the oceans every year, with devastating consequences for marine life, nature and, ultimately, for us humans. The vast floating patches of plastic carpeting the water's surface, some as large as entire countries, are only the tip of the iceberg. Around 90 percent of this garbage ends up on the seabed. The Fraunhofer Center for Maritime Logistics
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How tadpoles provide insight into pandemics
A virus affecting wood frog tadpoles throughout the eastern United States is offering scientists a rare opportunity to investigate the role of environmental factors in the spread of infectious disease.
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Stable supply of electrochromic metallo-supramolecular polymer
National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) and Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) have jointly developed a synthetic process capable of stably supplying a metallo-supramolecular polymer electrochromic (EC) material. Popularization of this material may stimulate growth in the market for dimming windows capable of electrically changing tint from transparent to dark.
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New bacteria and algae process could help decarbonize UK military
A new biological engineering process that could help to decarbonise the UK military is set to be developed by researchers at the University of Sheffield.
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New feline vaccination guidelines
The American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) convened a panel of experts to update the 2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel Report. The release of the 2020 AAHA/AAFP Feline Vaccination Guidelines provides updated recommendations and the most current information for feline vaccinations.
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How tadpoles provide insight into pandemics
A virus affecting wood frog tadpoles throughout the eastern United States is offering scientists a rare opportunity to investigate the role of environmental factors in the spread of infectious disease.
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New feline vaccination guidelines
The American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) convened a panel of experts to update the 2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel Report. The release of the 2020 AAHA/AAFP Feline Vaccination Guidelines provides updated recommendations and the most current information for feline vaccinations.
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Vätgas i tanken kan rädda miljön
Som en elbil, men utan räckviddsångest och med vatten som enda avgas. Bränslecellsbilen kan bli en vinnare när fossilbränslebilarna måste fasas ut. Japan har kommit längst, men även i Sverige rullar bränslecellsbilar på vägarna. En bil som tankas full på några minuter, går att köra minst 50 mil på en tank och bara ger vattenånga som avgas. Det låter kanske för bra för att vara sant, men bränslece
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Story tips: Cool smart walls, magnetism twist, fuel cost savings and polymers' impact
ORNL Story Tips: Cool smart walls, magnetism twist, fuel cost savings and polymers' impact, September 2020
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Severe Covid-19 despite or even due to the strong immunity
A weak immune response isn't the cause of dangerous lung failure in severe Covid-19 infections. Such infections seem, on the contrary, to be caused by an overreaction of the immune system. This is the conclusion made by a research team from Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) and the university hospital of Duisburg-Essen led by Professor Nina Babel, Head of the Centre for Translational Medicine at the R
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American Animal Hospital Association and American Association of Feline Practitioners release new Feline Vaccination Guidelines
The American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) convened a panel of experts to update the 2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel Report. The release of the 2020 AAHA/AAFP Feline Vaccination Guidelines provides updated recommendations and the most current information for feline vaccinations.
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New bacteria and algae process could help decarbonize UK military
A new biological engineering process that could help to decarbonise the UK military is set to be developed by researchers at the University of Sheffield.
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Vanessa Redgrave calls on businesses to help UK's Covid-hit arts sector
Actor appeals for funds to save jobs in industry that is one of worst affected by pandemic Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Vanessa Redgrave has urged businesses and entrepreneurs to give money to help restore Britain's coronavirus-threatened arts infrastructure. The actor is expected to be joined by Sir Lenny Henry, Maxine Peake and Sir Trevor Nunn on Tuesday evening
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Elon Musk: SpaceX Is Starting Work on Starship Super Heavy Booster
Super Heavy As soon as "this week," according to CEO Elon Musk, SpaceX is planning to start the assembly of a prototype of the massive Super Heavy rocket booster that's meant to carry its Starship into orbit. Musk revealed the plan on Monday at the virtual Humans to Mars summit. "That's gonna be pretty cool," he said, as quoted by CNET . The company's gigantic Starship spacecraft is designed to b
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Regioner vil gøre op med ulighed i adgang til lindrende behandling
Flere døende patienter skal have adgang til lindrende behandling af høj kvalitet, mener Danske Regioner i et nyt udspil om udvikling af den palliative indsats, hvor det også fremgår, at regionerne ikke ønsker et selvstændigt lægeligt speciale i palliation.
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Ingen koppling mellan autism och vaccin mot svininfluensa
I samband med svininfluensan (H1N1) år 2009 erbjöds alla svenskar vaccinet Pandemrix. Särskilt uppmuntrades personer i riskgrupper att vaccinera sig, bland annat gravida.
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It's Weird Down There
It's not easy – especially when you're a mere chemist – to picture what's really going on inside a cell. The sorts of pictures that most of us tend to use (two blobs to represent a ribosome, little snakey line curving out from it to represent a new protein) are helpful memory devices, but have very little to do with reality. Just to pick one example, I've had to update my thinking the last few ye
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Uncovering the hidden life of 'dead' coral reefs
'Dead' coral rubble can support more animals than live coral, according to researchers trialing a high-tech sampling method. A researcher said that reef rubble habitat was often overlooked as desolate, unattractive and 'dead', however reef rubble was very much alive.
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Neuralink's Wildly Anticipated New Brain Implant: the Hype vs. the Science
Neuralink's wildly anticipated demo last Friday left me with more questions than answers. With a presentation teeming with promises and vision but scant on data, the event nevertheless lived up to its main goal as a memorable recruitment session to further the growth of the mysterious brain implant company. Launched four years ago with the backing of Elon Musk, Neuralink has been working on futur
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Researchers manipulate two bits in one atom
Researchers at Delft University of Technology have succeeded in independently manipulating two different types of magnetism within a single atom. The results are relevant for the development of extremely small forms of data storage. In time, this new discovery could make it possible to store two bits of information in one atom.
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Queen of the Dolomites glacier could vanish within 15 years
Italian scientists warn Marmolada has shrunk 80% in 70 years due to global heating The largest and most symbolic glacier in the Dolomites could vanish within 15 years because of global heating, Italian scientists have warned. The 3,343m Marmolada, located on the border of the Trentino and Veneto regions and known as the Queen of the Dolomites, has already lost more than 80% of its volume over the
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Ultraviolet B exposure expands proenkephalin+ regulatory T cells with a healing function
Skin exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) induces expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells with immunosuppressive activity. Here researchers found that UVB-expanded skin Treg (UVB-skin Treg) cells had a tissue repair function. UVB-skin Treg cells expressed proenkephalin (PENK) and amphiregulin (AREG), which promoted keratinocyte outgrowth and skin wound healing. Their results provide a new implication in
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Direct observation of desorption of a melt of long polymer chains
Publication in Nature Communication: Simone Napolitano -Laboratory of Polymer and Soft Matter Dynamics, Université libre de Bruxelles – and his collaborators, Xavier Monnier and Daniele Cangialosi, from the International Center of Physics of Donostia and the Centro de Física de Materiales of San Sebastián (Spain) were able to experimentally access the adsorption/desorption transition.
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From virtual to reality! Virtual training improves physical and cognitive functions
Researchers at the Smart-Aging Research Center (IDAC) at Tohoku University have developed an innovative training protocol that, utilizing immersive virtual reality (IVR), leads to real physical and cognitive benefits.
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The effect of military training on the sense of agency and outcome processing
A collaborative study between researchers from the Université libre de Bruxelles (Belgium), the Royal Military Academy of Belgium , found that working in a highly hierarchical environment such as the military is detrimental for the sense of agency and for the neural processing of outcomes of one's own actions. Yet, groups undergoing specific training targeting responsibility and accountability, su
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Blood marker may reduce cancer burden
Researchers at Flinders University are expanding work on a promising blood test model to help predict or diagnose head and neck cancer, a difficult cancer to pick up early and treat.With cancer accounting for almost 10 million a year, the Global Burden of Disease report (2017) attributed more than 380,000 deaths to head and neck cancer.
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Red fox displaces Arctic fox thanks to littering
Animal species that are at home in the high mountains are finding their habitats reduced and fragmented by roads. In addition, they face competition from scavengers from lower boreal areas that find their way to the mountains.
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Giant leap for molecular measurements
Spectroscopy is an important tool of observation in many areas of science and industry. Infrared spectroscopy is especially important in the world of chemistry, where it is used to analyze and identify molecules. The current state-of-the-art method can make approximately 1 million observations per second. UTokyo researchers have greatly surpassed this figure with a new method about 100 times faste
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Pandemic accelerated remote work, a trend likely to remain
As with the previous pandemics and other major events, such as the Great Depression and World War II, the coronavirus pandemic will profoundly change workplaces and the nature of work itself.
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Red fox displaces Arctic fox thanks to littering
Animal species that are at home in the high mountains are finding their habitats reduced and fragmented by roads. In addition, they face competition from scavengers from lower boreal areas that find their way to the mountains.
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Researchers track groundwater discharges into salt ponds
The movement of groundwater in aquifers deep beneath the surface often carries with it a variety of contaminants that can be traced to leaking septic systems, damaged underground infrastructure, excessive fertilizer use and other land uses. But where that groundwater and those contaminants end up is often unknown.
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The science of healthy eating: Why are we still getting it wrong? – podcast
According to a recent study , obesity increases the risk of dying of Covid-19 by nearly 50%. Governments around the world are now hoping to encourage their citizens to lose weight. But with so much complex and often contradictory dietary advice, as well as endless fads, it can be hard to know what healthy eating actually looks like. How many pieces of fruit and vegetables should you eat a day? Wi
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Fitness trackers, environmental sensors prototyped to improve survival in the lobster supply chain
Miniature fitness trackers for lobsters and devices to monitor the quality of their shipping conditions are being prototyped as part of an initiative to reduce stress points and improve survival in the lobster supply chain for the Maine lobster industry.
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The science of healthy eating: Why are we still getting it wrong?
According to a recent study, obesity increases the risk of dying of Covid-19 by nearly 50%. Governments around the world are now hoping to encourage their citizens to lose weight. But with so much complex and often contradictory dietary advice, as well as endless fads, it can be hard to know what healthy eating actually looks like. How many pieces of fruit and vegetables should you eat a day? Will
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Fitness trackers, environmental sensors prototyped to improve survival in the lobster supply chain
Miniature fitness trackers for lobsters and devices to monitor the quality of their shipping conditions are being prototyped as part of an initiative to reduce stress points and improve survival in the lobster supply chain for the Maine lobster industry.
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Probing the origin of the mantle's chemically distinct 'scars'
The composition of Earth's mantle was more shaped by interactions with the oceanic crust than previously thought, according to work from Carnegie's Jonathan Tucker and Peter van Keken along with colleagues from Oxford that was recently published in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.
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How regulations meant to increase poor, minority lending ultimately backfire
Over the years, policymakers have enacted consumer protection laws and regulations to ensure better access to credit for low-income and minority consumers at fair lending rates. While these regulations make it illegal for financial institutions to discriminate against borrowers when making loan approval decisions, they do not guarantee equitable outcomes.
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Hög social status i skolan ger bättre mående
Det finns ett samband mellan god hälsa och hög status i skolan. Därför behövs tidiga insatser för att stärka ungas självskattade hälsa. Det visas i en ny avhandling vid Umeå universitet som bygger på studier av unga i Dalarna och Umeå. – Det är viktigt att fånga upp signalerna tidigt för att kunna sätta in åtgärder. Låg självskattad hälsa har stor betydelse för individens framtid och kan, om inge
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Blood pressure-lowering is even more beneficial than previously thought
Blood pressure medication can prevent heart attacks and strokes – even in people with normal blood pressure. That's the finding of late breaking research presented in a Hot Line session today at ESC Congress 2020.1 "Greater drops in blood pressure with medication lead to greater reductions in the risk of heart attacks and strokes," said principal investigator Professor Kazem Rahimi of the Universi
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Elderly people protected against respiratory infections by BCG vaccine
The BCG vaccine has a broad, stimulating effect on the immune system. This gives it an effective preventive action against various infections – possibly also against COVID-19. New studies are investigating that. BCG is frequently given to children, but a double-blind randomized clinical study, a collaboration between Radboud university medical center and the National and Kapodistrian University of
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Swedish workers among Europe's best-paid in late 1800s
In 19th-century Sweden, workers' wages rose faster than in other European countries. By 1900, they were among the highest in Europe, and the steepest rise of all had been for those who earned least. This is shown by new research at Uppsala University: a study published in The Journal of Economic History.
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Red fox displaces Arctic fox thanks to littering
Red foxes are moving to the mountains to feed on trash along roadsides. This is bad news for the endangered Arctic fox.
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Understanding the psychological aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic
Research at SMU to understand the psychological aspects of COVID-19 points to two main areas: message framing and emotion-regulation.
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Growth hormone plays key role in early puberty, breast cancer risk
Girls who enter puberty early in life–as measured by early breast development and age of first menstrual period–have a longer window of susceptibility to breast cancer. This window stays propped open for too long because their bodies have higher concentrations of growth hormone and they experience a slower progression ('tempo') during puberty.
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Radiocarbon dating and CT scans reveal Bronze Age tradition of keeping human remains
Using radiocarbon dating and CT scanning to study ancient bones, researchers have uncovered for the first time a Bronze Age tradition of retaining and curating human remains as relics over several generations.
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How Astronomers Revolutionized Our View of the Cosmos
The universe turns out to be much bigger and weirder than anyone thought — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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RethiNKing which immune cells are the best weapon against lung cancer
Immune cells called 'natural killer' (NK) cells could be a powerful weapon for fighting lung cancer, according to Melbourne researchers.Studying preclinical and patient samples of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute team revealed that NK cells – but not T cells – are essential for slowing the aggressive spread of the cancer. 'Supercharging' the NK cells further boost
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Memory in a metal, enabled by quantum geometry
Berkeley researchers led by Professor Xiang Zhang in collaboration with a Stanford University team invented a new data storage method by making odd numbered layers slide relative to even-number layers in tungsten ditelluride, which is only 3nm thick. The arrangement of these atomic layers represents 0 and 1 for data storage. The researchers make use of quantum geometry to read information out. Thi
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Monitoring and reporting framework to protect World Heritage Sites from invasive species
A team of international scientists have devised a new monitoring and reporting framework to help protect World Heritage Sites from almost 300 different invasive alien species globally including, rats (Rattus spp.), cats (Felis catus), lantana (Lantana camara) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile).
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Uncovering the hidden life of 'dead' coral reefs
'Dead' coral rubble can support more animals than live coral, according to University of Queensland researchers trialling a high-tech sampling method.UQ's Dr Kenny Wolfe said that reef rubble habitat was often overlooked as desolate, unattractive and 'dead', however reef rubble was very much alive.
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More testing alone will not get us out of this pandemic
Nature, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02495-y Inequities and other social realities must be factored into diagnoses and tracing of COVID-19.
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Should I Send My Kids Back to School? A Parent's Toughest Call
Parents are wrestling with difficult choices over sending their children to school. Here's how one science reporter made the decision.
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Mapping the 3-D geometry of SARS-CoV-2's genome
The novel coronavirus uses structures within its RNA to infect cells. Scientists have now identified these configurations, generating the most comprehensive atlas to date of SARS-CoV-2's genome.
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Mapping the 3-D geometry of SARS-CoV-2's genome
The novel coronavirus uses structures within its RNA to infect cells. Scientists have now identified these configurations, generating the most comprehensive atlas to date of SARS-CoV-2's genome.
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Measuring adhesion and friction of polymer nanofibers
Using a device small enough to fit on the head of a pin, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign gained new knowledge about the properties of polymer fibers at the nanoscale—knowledge that can inform the design and manufacturing of products made up of random networks of filaments, such as robust filters designed to block foreign particles from entering our lungs.
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Brain estrogen is key to brain protection when oxygen is low
When the brain isn't getting enough oxygen, estrogen produced by neurons in both males and females hyperactivates another brain cell type called astrocytes to step up their usual support and protect brain function.
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How States Can Join Forces to Expand Covid Testing
Through quadratic funding, big and small states can be rewarded to form compacts that expand testing capacity—and enable states to finally control the pandemic.
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One Free Press Coalition Spotlights Journalists Under Attack – September 2020
This month brings attention to the cases of missing reporters worldwide—including Sri Lankan writer Prageeth Eknelygoda, who was abducted over 10 years ago.
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Six seated exercises to keep you limber at your desk
Put your hamstrings to work with a steady calf raise. (Rudy Gehrman/) Even with gyms reopening at limited capacity, it's still safer to exercise at home or outdoors. So, we're dubbing this September Muscle Month to help you keep up your fitness, power, and health in socially distant times. Now that summer is almost over, it's time to double down on work and school. But hours spent glued to a desk
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Don't be brainwashed – Elon Musk's 'bionic pig' is just a publicity stunt | Arwa Mahdawi
The billionaire entrepreneur loves to make headline-grabbing claims, but behind the hype his innovations are often underwhelming Here is a philosophical conundrum: if no one is talking about Elon Musk , does he really exist? The entrepreneur needs attention the way mortals need oxygen. If the 49-year-old is not in the news for a couple of days, he finds a way to shoehorn himself back into the hea
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Nanomaterials— short polymers, big impact
Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists have discovered a cost-effective way to significantly improve the mechanical performance of common polymer nanocomposite materials. The discovery could lead to stronger, more durable materials for applications ranging from biomedical devices to automobile tires.
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Record-setting rain and heat? This is the new normal
I'm the director of the North Carolina Climate Office, which is the go-to source for expertise in North Carolina's climate. But if you call me to ask if there's a downpour on the way, I probably won't know the answer off the top of my head. That may seem odd, but it's because I'm mostly thinking about the climate—and weather is something a little different.
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Graphene additives show a new way to control the structure of organic crystals
A team of researchers at The University of Manchester has demonstrated that the surface properties of graphene can be used to control the structure of organic crystals obtained from solution.
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The Peculiar 100-Plus-Year History of Convalescent Plasma
Blood has been considered a viable treatment for infectious disease for over a century, but it has rarely proven to be the best solution.
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Welcome to 175 Years of Discovery
An orientation to our special issue — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Quantum Computing May Be Closer Than You Think
Five new quantum information science centers will marry the R&D strengths of academia, industry and U.S. national laboratories — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Astronomers identify 18 metal-poor stars in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) astronomers have detected 18 very metal-poor stars in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. They found that one of the stars from the sample has an extremely low metallicity, slightly below -3.0. The study was reported in a paper published August 22 on the arXiv preprint repository.
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Mexico Citys historia visar hur vi kan bevara stadsnatur
Xochimilco, våtmarksområdet i utkanten av södra Mexico City, har genom tiderna varit ett av världshistoriens mest hållbara och produktiva jordbruk. Områdets kanaler och öar anlades för över 1000 år sedan, innan spanjorerna kom till Mexiko. – Att förstå historien, hur människorna har anpassat våtmarksområdet för att det ska kunna överleva, är viktig kunskap för att skydda naturliga områden i städe
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Simpler ultrasound tech also costs way less
A new technique for creating ultrasound images is substantially simpler than existing techniques and could significantly drive down technology costs, researchers report. "This is really a completely new field for ultrasound…" "Conventional ultrasound devices have a receiver that detects ultrasonic waves and converts them into an electrical signal, which is then sent to a computer that processes t
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One in two Americans fear a major health event could lead to bankruptcy
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to put lives and livelihoods at risk, 1 in 2 Americans say they fear a major health event could lead them to file for bankruptcy, marking a 5% increase since 2019. The new research comes from the West Health-Gallup US Healthcare Study, an ongoing series of surveys on the impact of high healthcare costs on American lives.
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Satellite Images Before And After Australia's Bushfires Reveal a Devastating Contrast
It's like you're looking at two different countries.
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The recent rise in Asian American hate crimes could have impacts beyond the pandemic
Chinatowns across the country and the world have faced the brunt of xenophobia, brought on in part by the coronavirus. (Annie Spratt/Unsplash/) "Go back to China." These words, whether shouted in front of a busy Home Depot in broad daylight or at a restaurant with dozens of patrons , have reverberated throughout the US since news of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, reached Americans' radar
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Review of Keto and Intermittent Fasting
A new review of the published literature regarding the ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting has, from my perspective, entirely predictable results. By this I mean they are consistent with previous dieting research and there are no surprises. They are also consistent with one of the major themes of this blog – you cannot get away from fundamental realities by making cosmetic changes. You cannot
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A Saudi Prince's Attempt to Silence Critics on Twitter
An ongoing investigation reveals how Mohammed bin Salman's team allegedly infiltrated the platform—and got away with it.
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Brain protein linked to seizures, abnormal social behaviors
A team has found a new mechanism responsible for the abnormal development of neuronal connections in the mouse brain that leads to seizures and abnormal social behaviors.
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Shedding light on split-second decision making
A little understood region of the cerebellum plays a critical role in making split-second 'go — no go' decisions, according to a new study.
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Scientists show how brain flexibility emerges in infants
Cognitive flexibility, which refers to the brain's ability to switch between mental processes in response to external stimuli and different task demands, seems to begin developing during the first two years of life, which is much earlier than previously thought. Researchers used magnetic resonance imaging techniques to show the emergence of a functional flexible brain during early infancy.
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Brainstem protein mediates exercise-based stress relief
Exercise fights off stress by increasing levels of the brain protein galanin.
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Warmer, acidifying ocean brings extinction for reef-building corals, renewal for relatives
A new study finds that reef-building corals emerged only when ocean conditions supported the construction of these creatures' stony skeletons, whereas diverse softer corals and sea anemones flourished at other times. Without a significant change to anthropogenic carbon emissions, the new findings present stark implications for the present and future of hard-bodied corals while suggesting a silver
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1 in 5 tenants in L.A. County has struggled with rent during the pandemic
Twenty-two percent of Los Angeles County tenants paid rent late at least once from April to July and about 7% did not pay any rent at least once between May and July, according to a joint UCLA-USC report released Monday as a statewide eviction moratorium is set to expire.
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A bit rich: Business groups want urgent climate action after resisting it for 30 years
Australia has seen the latest extraordinary twist in its climate soap opera. An alliance of business and environment groups declared the nation is "woefully unprepared" for climate change and urgent action is needed.
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Ethnic diversity on campus helps break down stereotypes
When students attend ethnically diverse colleges, their enriched experience transforms how they view different ethnic groups and better prepares them for life and work in 21st century America.
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Svarta rotorblad räddar fågelliv
I orten Smøla på Norges västkust finns en av Europas största vindkraftparker. Sedan 2006 genomsöks området regelbundet med specialtränade hundar som letar upp fåglar som har dött i kollisioner med vindkraftverken. Hundarna har hittat närmare 500 fåglar varav ett hundratal rovfåglar, framför allt havsörnar.
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Tala är silver, tiga är guld – och sjunga är värst
Sången behöver inte tystna, men just nu är det klokast att sjunga med distans. Rådet kommer från aerosolforskare vid LTH, Lunds universitet. De har studerat hur mycket partiklar vi egentligen avger när vi sjunger – och i förlängningen – om vi bidrar till ökad smittspridning av covid-19 genom att sjunga.
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Nitrogen fertilizers are not effective in reducing nitrous oxide emissions from drip-irrigated cotton fields
Agriculture is the major source of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Application of polymer-coated urea and urease and/or nitrification inhibitor has the potential in reducing soil N2O emissions.
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Nitrogen fertilizers are not effective in reducing nitrous oxide emissions from drip-irrigated cotton fields
Agriculture is the major source of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Application of polymer-coated urea and urease and/or nitrification inhibitor has the potential in reducing soil N2O emissions.
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Nature conservation policy rarely succeeds in changing people's behaviour
It is a well-known problem: too rarely do nature conservation initiatives, recommendations, or strategies announced by politicians lead to people really changing their everyday behavior. A German-Israeli research team led by the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ) and the German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) has investigated the reasons for this. According to th
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Svenska arbetare bland de högst betalda vid 1800-talet slut
Arbetarlönerna utvecklades snabbare i Sverige än i andra europeiska länder under 1800-talet. I slutet av seklet var de bland de högsta i Europa och allra mest ökade lönerna för de sämst betalda, visar forskning från Uppsala universitet. – I historieskrivningen beskrivs ofta det sena 1800-talets Sverige som ett fattigt land. Våra resultat visar att den synen behöver nyanseras. Även om det så klart
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The quality of Nigerian home-grown rice is poor: Here's why
Processing agricultural products—adding value by transforming them from basic commodities—increases their worth, appeal and market value. In the case of rice, processing is an important and distinct feature in its production. It involves changing harvested paddy into edible rice.
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The quality of Nigerian home-grown rice is poor: Here's why
Processing agricultural products—adding value by transforming them from basic commodities—increases their worth, appeal and market value. In the case of rice, processing is an important and distinct feature in its production. It involves changing harvested paddy into edible rice.
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Uncovering the hidden life of 'dead' coral reefs
"Dead" coral rubble can support more animals than live coral, according to University of Queensland researchers trialing a high-tech sampling method.
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Uncovering the hidden life of 'dead' coral reefs
"Dead" coral rubble can support more animals than live coral, according to University of Queensland researchers trialing a high-tech sampling method.
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New advancement in nanophotonics has the potential to improve light-based biosensors
As COVID-19 swept across the world this year, claiming hundreds of thousands of lives, it quickly became clear that one essential factor for controlling its spread is the ability to rapidly and accurately test for the virus causing it, SARS-CoV-2, as well as the antibodies it produces.
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Research finds deep listening could help fight climate change
Curtin University research has found deep listening or Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) could be used as an effective tool to encourage pro-environmental behavior and create social bonding among young people.
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'Attack helicopters' an online subculture to watch out for
While trolls have been around almost as long as the Internet, "incels" are a more recent and distinctly different cyber sub-culture which warrants more study says a QUT researcher.
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Researchers develop new chip design for analyzing plant-microbe interactions
Plants interact with certain microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, in mutually beneficial ways that scientists are only beginning to fully understand. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a way to gain new insights about these interactions using a newly designed microfluidic device, a chip etched with tiny channels. This device can help s
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Why different measurements of material properties sometimes give different results
It is very hard to take a photo of a hummingbird flapping its wings 50 times per second. The exposure time has to be much shorter than the characteristic time scale of the wing beat, otherwise you will only see a colorful blur. A similar problem is encountered in solid-state physics, where the aim is to determine the magnetic properties of a material. The magnetic moment at a certain location can
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New York and California may have already achieved herd immunity — Ben-Gurion U. researcher
Prof. Last of the BGU Department of Software and Information Systems Engineering, presented these finding virtually at the Artificial Intelligence and the Coronavirus workshop at the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (AIME) on August 26. He has been analyzing health data for the past 20 years.
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New electronic skin can react to pain like human skin
New pain-sensing prototype mimics the body's near-instant feedback response and reacts to painful sensations with the same lighting speed that nerve signals travel to the brain. It's a significant advance towards next-generation biomedical technologies, smart prosthetics and intelligent robotics.
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Researchers develop new chip design for analyzing plant-microbe interactions
Plants interact with certain microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, in mutually beneficial ways that scientists are only beginning to fully understand. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a way to gain new insights about these interactions using a newly designed microfluidic device, a chip etched with tiny channels. This device can help s
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Shrinkage rate of Aral Sea is slowing, study finds
Located on the border of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, the Aral Sea was once the fourth largest lake in the world. With sharp retreat of Aral Sea since 1960s, the river bed dried up and the ecosystem seriously degraded.
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Curiosity: Summer approaches in Gale crater
Mars is often a very dynamic place due to its atmosphere and how it interacts with the surface. At present, we're in the "windy season" in Gale crater. This means that we're seeing increased aeolian (meaning "related to the wind") activity at the surface. In recent sols, we've taken Mastcam images of the same surface ripples on multiple sols. We've been able to see the ripples moving from sol to s
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Coupling of Southern Ocean and Antarctica during a past greenhouse
A new study published in Nature Geoscience shows that temperature in the Southern Ocean was more tightly linked to the extent of Antarctic glaciation during past greenhouse climates than previously thought. This affects how we see the complex mechanisms driving climate change around Antarctica, a region that is considered especially vulnerable to future changes.
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Researchers investigate applications of magnetic sensors in the automotive and medical sectors
In his Christian Doppler Laboratory, Dieter Süss and his partners from the field of practice investigate the possible applications of magnetic sensors in the automotive and medical sector. Süss's technology achieved its first successes in ABS systems of vehicles and in magnetic resonance imaging.
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Engineers create micron-scale optical tweezers
In 2018, one-half of the Nobel Prize was awarded to Arthur Ashkin, the physicist who developed optical tweezers, the use of a tightly focused laser beam to isolate and move micron-scale objects (the size of red blood cells). Now Justus Ndukaife, assistant professor of electrical engineering at Vanderbilt University, has developed the first-ever opto-thermo-electrohydrodynamic tweezers, optical nan
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Brazilian researchers complete sequencing of native stingless bee genome
A consortium of researchers funded by Brazil's National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and FAPESP has sequenced the genome of Frieseomelitta varia, a native stingless bee (common name: marmelada). The feat extends scientists' understanding of the evolution of stingless bees (Meliponini) and paves the way for the breeding of commercially useful species.
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Brazilian researchers complete sequencing of native stingless bee genome
A consortium of researchers funded by Brazil's National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and FAPESP has sequenced the genome of Frieseomelitta varia, a native stingless bee (common name: marmelada). The feat extends scientists' understanding of the evolution of stingless bees (Meliponini) and paves the way for the breeding of commercially useful species.
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German minister spat at and verbally abused at Covid protest
Jens Spahn subjected to shouts of 'shame' and 'gay pig' as he confronts crowd Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Germany's health minister was jeered, spat at and targeted by homophobic abuse as the countrywide protests of a vocal minority of people against coronavirus restrictions has taken on an increasingly aggressive tone. The Conservative politician Jens Spahn, a k
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How Pop Music's Teenage Dream Ended
"I am a walking cartoon most days," Katy Perry told Billboard in 2010 , and anyone who lived through the reign of Teenage Dream —Perry's smash album that turned 10 years old on August 24—knows what she meant. Everywhere you looked or clicked back then, there was Perry, wrapped in candy-cane stripes, firing whipped cream from her breasts, wearing a toothpaste-blue wig, and grinning like an emoji.
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How to Listen to More Podcasts
Struggling with a backlog of episodes from your favorite shows? These tips will help you listen not just to more, but the best episodes.
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The Oysters That Knew What Time It Was
Scientists long believed that biological clocks were predominantly driven by internal rhythms. Then came a fraught discovery—about mollusks and the moon.
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Can a Bubble Net Stop a Hurricane? Some Norwegians Think So
An idea to use underwater bubbles to cool oceans and deflate oncoming storms is the latest in a series of far-out schemes for controlling the weather.
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A cheap, simple way to control this pandemic exists
It is not a 'moonshot' — RT-LAMP mass tests could curb the global spread of viruses
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Doctors Chase Treatment for Kids Threatened by Dangerous COVID-19 Syndrome
Physicians are comparing ad hoc solutions for reducing massive inflammation that can cripple organs — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Doctors Chase Treatment for Kids Threatened by Dangerous COVID-19 Syndrome
Physicians are comparing ad hoc solutions for reducing massive inflammation that can cripple organs — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Academics Are Really, Really Worried About Their Freedom
O ur national reckoning on race has brought to the fore a loose but committed assemblage of people given to the idea that social justice must be pursued via attempts to banish from the public sphere, as much as possible, all opinions that they interpret as insufficiently opposed to power differentials. Valid intellectual and artistic endeavor must hold the battle against white supremacy front and
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Ny uddannelse vil ruste modne medarbejdere til at starte for sig selv
En ny efteruddannelse på DTU vil give folk med mindst ti års erfaring en mulighed for at »gå til iværksætteri« og få et helt nyt netværk.
9h
Tilsyn kritiserer bankers it-leverandør på grund af »væsentlige« digitale svagheder
It-leverendøren SDC kritiseres af Finanstilsynet for ikke at have godt nok styr på sin organisering af it-sikkerhedsarbejdet og på it-risikostyring.
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Brain estrogen is key to brain protection when oxygen is low
When the brain isn't getting enough oxygen, estrogen produced by neurons in both males and females hyperactivates another brain cell type called astrocytes to step up their usual support and protect brain function.
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Teaching Black Teens to Write the Books They Read
Editor's Note: In the next five years, most of America's most experienced teachers will retire. The Baby Boomers are leaving behind a nation of more novice educators. In 1988, a teacher most commonly had 15 years of experience. Less than three decades later, that number had fallen to just three years leading a classroom . The Atlantic 's "On Teaching" project is crisscrossing the country to talk
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Gun Laws Are the Key to Addressing America's Suicide Crisis
T he lion's share of American violence is inflicted by an individual on himself. That violence takes many forms. Suicide is its lethal incarnation, but every day, millions of Americans cut themselves, starve themselves, drink themselves into unconsciousness, or knowingly inject potentially deadly foreign substances into their body. For all the deserved media attention on the times an individual e
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How did content from a hijacked journal end up in one of the world's most-used databases?
Scopus is the world's largest database of abstracts and citations, and calls itself "comprehensive," "curated," and "enriched." But my recent experience with it suggests its curation could use some work. In October 2019, I discovered that the Scopus profile of the journal Transylvanian Review contained numerous faked articles. How did I know? A few years … Continue reading
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Targeted by ZIP Code, Native Mothers Separated From Newborns
A policy that Native American mothers say pressured them to take a Covid-19 test once admitted to a New Mexico hospital for childbirth did not seek adequate consent, a federal investigation found. Based on ZIP code, the practice has been described by clinicians and health care ethicists as racial profiling.
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Insights into the neural roots of bias suggest ways to fix the problem
All of us harbour biases resulting from the associations we learn implicitly from the societies we live in and how our brains work, but there are ways to overcome them
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Vejdirektoratet kulegraver beslutningsproces op til fatal autoværnsulykke
Vejdirektoratet vil efter fatal ulykke til bunds i, hvorfor det blev besluttet at bruge et utestet design på nogle af Danmarks mest trafikerede motorveje.
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Climate change fuels sharp increase in glacier lakes
The volume of lakes formed as glaciers worldwide melt due to climate change has jumped by 50 percent in 30 years, according to a new study based on satellite data.
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An orphan protein of Fusarium graminearum modulates host immunity by mediating proteasomal degradation of TaSnRK1α
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18240-y Fusarium graminearum is a major fungal pathogen of cereals. Here the authors show that F. graminearum secretes an effector, Osp24, that induces degradation of the wheat TaSnRK1α kinase to promote disease while an orphan wheat protein, TaFROG1, can compete with Osp24 for binding to TaSnRK1α and protect it fr
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Rational design of DNA nanostructures for single molecule biosensing
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18132-1 A key attribute for modern healthcare is the ability to detect low concentrations of biomarkers. Here, the authors use nanopores and DNA origami with target-specific aptamers for detection of CRP.
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Atomically-precise dopant-controlled single cluster catalysis for electrochemical nitrogen reduction
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18080-w The fabrication of singly dispersed metal cluster catalysts with atomic-level control of dopants is a long-standing challenge. Here, the authors report a strategy for the synthesis of a precisely doped single cluster catalyst which shows exceptional activity for electrochemical dinitrogen reduction.
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Dearomative 1,4-difunctionalization of naphthalenes via palladium-catalyzed tandem Heck/Suzuki coupling reaction
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18137-w Naphthalene is a challenging arene towards transition-metal-catalyzed dearomative difunctionalization. Here, the authors show that naphthalene may act as a masked conjugated diene in palladium-catalyzed dearomative 1,4-diarylation or 1,4-vinylarylation via a tandem Heck/Suzuki sequence.
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Transforming machine translation: a deep learning system reaches news translation quality comparable to human professionals
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18073-9 The quality of human language translation has been thought to be unattainable by computer translation systems. Here the authors present CUBBITT, a deep learning system that outperforms professional human translators in retaining text meaning in English-to-Czech news translation, and validate the system on E
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Author Correction: Mapping histone modifications in low cell number and single cells using antibody-guided chromatin tagmentation (ACT-seq)
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18309-8
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Hunting strategies to increase detection of chronic wasting disease in cervids
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18229-7 Rarely are the outcomes of mathematical (probability) models of wildlife disease detection used to inform policy or management changes. Here the authors develop a proactive hunting surveillance program that shortened the time required to establish freedom from chronic wasting disease at the population level
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Amplified seasonal cycle in hydroclimate over the Amazon river basin and its plume region
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18187-0 The hydroclimatic variations of the Amazon River basin can exert profound impacts on the marine ecosystem in the Amazon plume region. Here the authors show that an amplified seasonal cycle of Amazonia precipitation during 1979–2018 leads to enhanced seasonality in both Amazon river discharge and ocean salin
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Vejdirektoratet kulegraver beslutningsproces op til fatal autoværnsulykke
Vejdirektoratet vil efter fatal ulykke til bunds i, hvorfor det blev besluttet at bruge et utestet design på nogle af Danmarks mest trafikerede motorveje.
9h
Svininfluensavaccin till gravida ökade inte risken för autism hos barnen
Två färska studier har inte kunnat utesluta risken för autism hos barn vars mamma vaccinerats mot svin- respektive säsongsinfluensa under graviditeten. Nu visar forskare vid Karolinska Institutet att det inte finns något sådant samband. – Våra nollfynd är viktiga eftersom man tidigare inte har kunnat utesluta ett samband mellan vissa vaccinationer hos gravida och autism, och antivaccinrörelsen ha
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Coronavirus News: The Latest Updates
From Wuhan to Paris and many places in between, students are back after months out of school. In Hawaii, new arrivals will be strictly monitored. Berlin is requiring masks at large protests.
9h
Trump administration finalizes coal plant pollution rollback
The Trump administration on Monday finalized its weakening of an Obama-era rule aimed at reducing polluted wastewater from coal-burning power plants that has contaminated streams, lakes and underground aquifers
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Drones can be a source of disturbance to wintering waterbird flocks
Newly published research, in Bird Study, carried out by the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) in Scotland, shows that wintering waterbirds, such as ducks, geese, swans and wading birds can easily be scared into flight by drones.
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Drones can be a source of disturbance to wintering waterbird flocks
Newly published research, in Bird Study, carried out by the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) in Scotland, shows that wintering waterbirds, such as ducks, geese, swans and wading birds can easily be scared into flight by drones.
9h
Giant leap for molecular measurements
Spectroscopy is an important tool of observation in many areas of science and industry. Infrared spectroscopy is especially important in the world of chemistry where it is used to analyze and identify different molecules. The current state-of-the-art method can make approximately 1 million observations per second. UTokyo researchers have greatly surpassed this figure with a new method about 100 ti
10h
California's air conditioner-driven blackouts are only the start
As record-breaking heat waves baked Californians last month, the collective strain of millions of air conditioners forced the state's grid operators to plunge hundreds of thousands of households into darkness. The rolling blackouts offered just a small hint of what's likely to come in California and far beyond. Growing populations, rising incomes, increasing urbanization, and climbing summer temp
10h
Read Hillary Rodham Clinton's 'Women's Rights' Speech From 1995
Former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton delivered the following address to the United Nations' Fourth World Conference on Women, in Beijing, 25 years ago. Then the first lady of the United States, Clinton famously declared that "women's rights are human rights," while criticizing the Chinese government's coercive family-planning policy and the hardships faced by women around the world. Y
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Power Shortage
Arsh Raziuddin G iving speeches was not usually a problem for me, but a lot was riding on this one, and I had a genuine case of nerves as I took the stage. Before me were 1,500 delegates, mainly women, of every race and ethnicity, who had traveled to Beijing for the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women. What they all had in common in that moment was a daunting impassivity. It was Septe
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Diurnal T2-changes of the intervertebral discs of the entire spine and the influence of weightlifting
Scientific Reports, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-71003-z
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Spatial tracking of individual fluid dispersed particles via Raman spectroscopy
Scientific Reports, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-71253-x
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A clinical prediction nomogram to assess risk of colorectal cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes
Scientific Reports, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-71456-2
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Conservation recommendations for Oryza rufipogon Griff. in China based on genetic diversity analysis
Scientific Reports, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70989-w
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Basal and cold-induced fatty acid uptake of human brown adipose tissue is impaired in obesity
Scientific Reports, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-71197-2
10h
What It Took to Free a Whale Entangled in 4,000 Pounds of Fishing Gear
The influx of whales to cleaner waters off New York City has meant that the number of them injured or killed there is on the rise.
10h
A New Covid Documentary Explores Who Is To Blame For The Pandemic
"How to Stop the Next Pandemic," a Times documentary, reveals how your choices make future pandemics more likely.
10h
Britain needs to do its homework on school openings
The return to classrooms will only work if parents have confidence in ministers' plans
10h
Cheminovas gamle gift skal varmes eller vaskes væk
PLUS. Giftdepotet på Harboøre Tange blev for næsten fire årtier siden nævnt i en Shu-bi-dua-sang, og dengang havde det allerede været et problem i 25 år. Nu er der endelig udsigt – og penge – til en løsning: efter alt at dømme med opvarmning eller jordvask.
10h
Kvinnor på tjänsteresa äter oftare på rummet
Måltiderna på tjänsteresan skiljer sig från våra vardagsmåltider, både i betydelse och upplevelse. Men det är stor skillnad om vi äter ensamma eller tillsammans med kolleger eller kunder. När vi äter med kolleger blir det sociala avgörande. – Vi kan ge avkall på våra egna matpreferenser för att blidka gruppen. Om jag är vegetarian och alla vill gå på Texas Longhorn, kan jag välja att gå dit ändå o
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How many people has the coronavirus killed?
Nature, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02497-w Researchers are struggling to tally mortality statistics as the pandemic rages. Here's how they gauge the true toll of the coronavirus outbreak.
10h
Drones can be a source of disturbance to wintering waterbird flocks
Newly published research, carried out by the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) in Scotland, shows that wintering waterbirds, such as ducks, geese, swans and wading birds can easily be scared into flight by drones.
10h
Researchers study how weather news impacts public transit ridership
If the words in a weather forecast, such as "cool," "sunny" or "windy," can influence the way you dress for the day—can they also influence whether or not you take public transit?
10h
Hong Kong mass testing sows distrust among activists
Pro-democracy campaigners stoke fears DNA samples will be sent to Beijing
11h
Streamline your writing — and collaborations — with these reference managers
Nature, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02491-2 A suite of tools can help researchers to manage citations for grants and papers, and share those references with colleagues.
11h
Skatteregler bremser solcelleparker på klimaskadelig landbrugsjord
PLUS. Landbruget ønsker at konvertere klimaskadelige lavbundsjorder til solcelleparker, men bliver ramt af et skattesmæk, når jorden ændres fra opdyrket til energiproducerende. Lunkne ministersvar tyder ikke politisk vilje til at ændre det.
11h
Climate change: Power companies 'hindering' move to green energy
New research suggests utilities are dragging their feet when it comes to embracing wind and solar.
11h
First treatment identified for fainting
Fainting affects one in two people during their lifetime. Those with recurrent episodes are often afraid to socialise or go to work. Today researchers report the first effective therapy. The late breaking research is presented at ESC Congress 2020.
11h
Bronze Age tradition of keeping human remains uncovered
Experts say the tradition of commemorating the dead is "inconceivably macabre" by today's standards.
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Coronavirus: Pandemic 'causing new wave' of plastic pollution
Charity Surfers Against Sewage says it has seen a wave of discarded masks and plastics on beaches.
11h
Wildlife Photographer of the Year: How many crocodiles can you see?
Gharial crocodiles may number less than 1,000 individuals in the wild – but there is always hope.
11h
Rival powers jockey for the lead in hypersonic aircraft
The US, China and Russia are pouring money into aircraft that can fly at five times the speed of sound.
11h
These Scientists Are Giving Themselves D.I.Y. Coronavirus Vaccines
Impatient for a coronavirus vaccine, dozens of scientists around the world are giving themselves — and sometimes, friends and family — their own unproven versions.
12h
Taopatch Offers Everything… Except Science
Taopatch promises all kinds of vague benefits, but the mechanism of action is implausible and what they call scientific proof is no such thing.
12h
The Mundane Spectacle of the Three Little Pigs
"This Neuralink is implanted in the region of the brain that uh where where the snout the snout is located which is actually quite a large part of the pig's brain." 1 Elon Musk held a press event (product demo) to make grandiose claims about the Neuralink 1024 channel brain implant currently under development by his start-up. Three pigs were unveiled, all healthy and happy: Joyce (the one without
12h
From the Seabed, Figures of an Ancient Cult
A trove of Phoenician artifacts was long ascribed to a single shipwreck. More likely they were tossed overboard, and over centuries, a new study suggests.
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Var femte lärare saknar lärarexamen
En femtedel av alla grundskollärare saknar lärarexamen. Det visar ny statistik från SCB, som konstaterar att andelen är den lägsta som uppmätts sedan toppnoteringen 1993, då 93 procent av lärarna hade en examen. Dessutom har könsgapet ökat – i dag är andelen män med lärarexamen betydligt färre än i början av 1990-talet.
13h
Quiz: Test din viden om danske dyrs vilde sexliv
Hvis du synes, der er gang i den under dynerne derhjemme, så vent til du finder ud af, hvordan dyr i Danmark parrer sig.
14h
Legal performance-enhancing substances associated with future problematic alcohol use
A new study published in the journal Pediatrics found that young adults aged 18-26 who used legal performance-enhancing substances were significantly more likely to report several problematic alcohol use and drinking-related risk behaviors seven years later. This relationship was especially strong among men.
15h
Your paper notebook could become your next tablet
Purdue engineers developed a simple printing process that renders any paper or cardboard packaging into a keyboard, keypad or other easy-to-use human-machine interfaces.
15h
There's a shortage of info on drugs for children in Canada
The research team manually reviewed monographs of all new drugs approved by Health Canada between 2007 and 2016. During this time, Health Canada approved 281 drugs, 270 of which had clear benefit for children. However, only 75 (28 per cent) of the drug monographs were approved for children and there were only 10 (4 per cent) drugs approved for use in newborns.
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One quarter of prescription drugs in Canada may be in short supply
Research from the Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences (CHÉOS) sheds new light on the factors behind drug shortages in Canada, a common problem across the country.
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Unravelling mother to baby transmission of Zika virus
Researchers have discovered that when a pregnant mother is infected by Zika virus, it can remain in the placenta for months, causing damage that can be dangerous to the fetus. These findings advance our understanding of mother to baby transmission and provide the groundwork for the future development of drugs and vaccines.
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The Morphogenetic Code
Hear Michael Levin of Tufts University talk about his study of morphogenetics at the Paul G. Allen Frontiers Symposium in late 2019.
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Shaping Up
See Reading Frames author David Bainbridge of the University of Cambridge discuss how and why women have physiological features different than those of other female animals.
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Amazonian Secrets
Watch researchers travel to a cave deep in the Amazon to search for clues about the first humans to populate the Americas.
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September 2020 Interactive Crossword Puzzle
Try your hand at a sciency brainteaser.
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Book Excerpt from How Zoologists Organize Things
In Chapter 1, "An ABC of Early Classification," author David Bainbridge explores the theological roots of zoology.
15h
Science Briefs from around the World
Here are some brief reports about science and technology from all over, including one from Antarctica about how there's something funny about penguin poop.
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Europe's fractured contact tracing linked to post-holiday Covid-19 surge
Experts forecast another virus peak due to holidaymakers' 'return contagion'
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Long-Lasting Wound Infections Linked to Microbes and Genetics
Two gene variations might help explain why some people experience chronic wounds.
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Back to School
Many US educational institutions, from preschools to universities, are opening this fall in the midst of a global pandemic that threatens much more than our health.
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Infographic: Anatomical Construction by Cell Collectives
Understanding this complex and still largely enigmatic process will pave the way for researchers to control the development of new morphologies.
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Science and Policy Collide During the Pandemic
COVID-19 has laid bare some of the pitfalls of the relationship between scientific experts and policymakers—but some researchers say there are ways to make it better.
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How Groups of Cells Cooperate to Build Organs and Organisms
Understanding biology's software—the rules that enable great plasticity in how cell collectives generate reliable anatomies—is key to advancing tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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Infographic: Dialing Down the Glitz
The gene BCO2 enables male and female members of some bird species to display dramatically different color patterns.
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The Peopling of South America
While questions still outnumber answers, new findings from archaeology, genetics, and other disciplines are revealing surprising insights into the early cultures of the most recently populated continent.
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The Gene that Makes Female Birds Drab
In some finch species, the difference between colorful males and muted females comes down to one gene, BCO2, which encodes an enzyme that degrades carotenoids.
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New RNA-Based Tool Could Assess Preeclampsia Risk
Transcripts circulating in the blood provide real-time information about maternal, fetal, and placental health.
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Study Tracks Geographical Gene Flow and Ancestry in the US
The analysis adds new details to the picture of migration and mixing in a diverse country.
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Infographic: Meet Your Ancient Ancestors and Relatives in Africa
Modern human genomes and bones left behind from ancient hominins in Africa tell a complex story about the origins of our species.
15h
Coronavirus Closeup, 1964
Electron microscopy revealed that a deadly disease of birds was not a form of flu, but a different type of virus entirely.
15h
Ancient Grains Hint at Prehistoric Beer Brewing
Microscopic analysis of charred, shapeless lumps from archaeological sites revealed ancient cereal grains that may have undergone malting to make beer.
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Contributors
Meet some of the people featured in the September 2020 issue of The Scientist.
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Infographic: South America's Early Prehistory
Genetics and archaeology yield clues as to when humans first arrived on the continent and how these early settlers lived.
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Ten Minute Sabbatical
Take a break from the bench to puzzle and peruse.
15h
Opinion: Zoology's Racism Problem
A new book explores the history of scientists' efforts to classify living things.
15h
Science Briefs from around the World
Here are some brief reports about science and technology from all over, including one from Antarctica about how there's something funny about penguin poop. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
16h
Three thinkers on when we should call out harmful speech
Modern debates over free speech rage on the internet, but what do experts say? Some think it is easy to go too far in limiting public debate by offending parties, others argue limits are part of normal discourse. While the debate isn't settled, these thinkers can give you some starting points for your next discussion. If you've been online in the past few weeks, you've probably come across at lea
16h
Watch Out: Things in the Universe are Bigger than They Appear
Some of the nearest objects appear smallest in the sky, while some of the most distant ones loom largest.
16h
Et år og fire stikprøver senere: Nu er sim swapping-hullerne lukket
Omfattende svigt hos danske telebutikker lader til at være rettet op et år efter Version2's første afsløring af problemet. Et af teleselskaberne 'takker for at presseomtalen holder dem skarpe'.
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Ice Sheet Melting Is Perfectly in Line With Our Worst-Case Scenario, Scientists Warn
We need a new worst-case scenario, because we're already in our old one.
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Social position påvirker patienternes chancer gennem hele kræftforløbet
Patienternes sociale forhold, egne ressourcer og køn slår igennem i forhold til chancerne for at komme godt igennem et kræftforløb. Ulighed og livsstil påvirker kræftforløb i alle stadier fra opsporing til overlevelse, og socialt dårligt stillede har større dødelighed som følge af kræft.
19h
Myelomatose: De lærde patienter kræver og får bedre behandling
Oplysning er et af nøgleordene i behandling af myelomatose. Det gælder for praktiserende læger, patienter og pårørende, siger klinisk professor Torben Plesner.
19h
Prostatakræft: Ressourcestærke mænd stiller selv diagnosen
Der er ulighed inden for prostatakræft både geografisk og socioøkonomisk, siger overlæge Michael Borre. Han mener, at der skal mere politisk fokus til for at ændre uligheden.
19h
Æggestokkræft: Danmark ligger langt efter nordiske lande og USA
Dødelighed ved kræft i æggestokkene er markant højere i Danmark end i de omkringliggende lande og USA. Det skyldes, at vi ikke tilbyder alle patienter samme behandling, siger overlæge Mansoor Raza Mirza.
19h
Lungekræft: Vi kommer ikke udenom at øge tobaksafgifterne
Hvis politikerne satte prisen yderligere på på tobak, ville de i sidste ende kunne redde mange menneskeliv. Men der mangler vilje fra politisk hold, siger overlæge Jon Alexander Lykkegaard Andersen.
19h
Modermærkekræft: Ressourcesvage patienter kan gå glip af den mest intensive behandling
På Herlev Hospital dækker klinisk professor Inge Marie Svane både Region Hovedstaden og Sjælland. Det giver en meget blandet patientgruppe, hvilket betyder, at uligheden i behandlingen er stor.
19h
Nyrekræft: To ud af tre patienter er mænd – og vi aner ikke hvorfor
Historisk har fokus været på at optimere behandlingen af nyrekræft og ikke uligheden inden for sygdommen. Det betyder, at lægerne i dag ikke ved, hvorfor der er en stor kønsmæssig forskel i, hvem der får kræftformen, siger overlæge Frede Donskov.
19h
Kronisk Lymfatisk Leukæmi: Overskud og stærkt netværk kan have betydning for overlevelse
Et godt overskud eller et stærkt netværk kan være afgørende, når patienter har Kronisk Lymfatisk Leukæmi, siger overlæge Carsten Utoft Niemann. Han bruger derfor meget energi på at forberede patienter på forestående kræftforløb og dermed forhåbentligt udligne ulighed blandt patienter.
19h
The Atlantic Daily: What Portland Foretells About the State of Democracy
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox . A pro-Trump caravan clashed with counterprotesters in Portland, Oregon. One man, purportedly affiliated with a far-right group, died. One of our writers warns that such violence speaks to somethi
19h
Brystkræft: Sårbare patienter fravælger forsøgsbehandling
Overlæge Ann Søegaard Knop oplever, at patienter med dårlig socioøkonomisk ballast eller svær familiebaggrund har sværere kræftforløb. Hun foreslår, at vi bliver bedre til at uddanne patienterne i at være kræftpatienter
19h
Portable, point-of-care COVID-19 test could bypass the lab, study finds
Researchers have demonstrated a prototype of a rapid COVID-19 molecular test and a simple-to-use, portable instrument for reading the results with a smartphone in 30 minutes, which could enable point-of-care diagnosis without needing to send samples to a lab.
20h
Bronze age Britons made keepsakes from parts of dead relatives, archaeologists say
Pieces of bone were turned into ornaments, and may have been placed on display Bronze age Britons remembered the dead by keeping and curating bits of their bodies, and even turning them into instruments and ornaments, according to new research on the remains. Archaeologists found that pieces of bone buried with the dead were often from people who had died decades earlier, suggesting their remains
20h
Pharma industry calls on UK to support medical research charities
Letter from groups working on Covid-19 treatment urges government to plug £310m financing gap
20h
Portable, point-of-care COVID-19 test could bypass the lab, study finds
Researchers have demonstrated a prototype of a rapid COVID-19 molecular test and a simple-to-use, portable instrument for reading the results with a smartphone in 30 minutes, which could enable point-of-care diagnosis without needing to send samples to a lab.
20h
People with less body response to stress task had more PTSD signs after COVID-19 began
People who did not have a large heart rate response to a stress task surprised researchers later — after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic — when they showed more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder related to the crisis than others who also did the stress task and COVID-19 stress ratings.
20h
Improving FDA's COVID-19 vaccine authorization and approval process: Lessons from hydroxychloroquine
In a new article, researchers propose reforms that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) could implement to improve the emergency use authorization process and drug approvals during public health crises, which could increase the FDA's credibility and the public's trust in it.
20h
Radiocarbon dating and CT scans reveal Bronze Age tradition of keeping human remains
Using radiocarbon dating and CT scanning to study ancient bones, researchers have uncovered for the first time a Bronze Age tradition of retaining and curating human remains as relics over several generations.
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Data clearly show the more serious trajectory of COVID-19 disease in people with obesity
Data presented at one of the opening sessions at this year's European and International Congress on Obesity (ECOICO 2020) held online this year (1-4 September) will show the clear relationship between obesity and the severity of COVID-19 disease.
21h
New EU rules could make total diet replacement products unviable from 2022, study warns
From October 2022, the European Union (EU) will impose new nutritional requirements for total diet replacement (TDR) products which could make them unviable to produce and sell, according to new research being presented at The European and International Congress on Obesity (ECOICO 2020), held online this year from 1-4 September.
21h
Evening eating is associated with higher total calorie intake and lower diet quality
A study of nearly 1200 UK adults, being presented at this year's European and International Conference on Obesity (ECOICO 2020), held online this year (Sept. 1-4 ), suggests that there is a link between eating a larger proportion of one's daily energy intake during the evening, and having a higher total energy intake and lower quality of diet.
21h
Ultra-processed food consumption is associated with chromosomal changes linked to biological ageing
A new study has shed light on the link between the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and the shortening of telomeres; sections of chromosomes that can be used as a marker of biological age. The research is being presented at this year's European and International Conference on Obesity (ECOICO 2020), held online this year (1-4 September).
21h
Obesity — the deadly disease that nobody dies of
New research presented at the European and International Conference on Obesity (ECO ICO 2020), held online this year (Sept. 1-4), reveals that obesity and the illnesses it causes rarely appear as an official cause of death on the UK Medical Certificate of Cause of Death (MCCD).
21h
Obesity prevalence varies widely among Latino populations, NYC study finds
A new study of obesity among the largest Latino populations living in New York City (NYC) finds that the prevalence of obesity varies widely–with Mexicans and Puerto Ricans much more likely to have obesity than Dominicans, Ecuadorians, and Colombians. The study is presented at The European and International Congress on Obesity (ECOICO 2020),
21h
E.P.A. Relaxes Rules Limiting Toxic Waste From Coal Plants
The agency weakened Obama-era rules meant to keep metals and other pollution out of rivers and streams, saving industry tens of millions of dollars.
21h
21h
Author Correction: Nonequilibrium Magnetic Oscillation with Cylindrical Vector Beams
Scientific Reports, Published online: 01 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-71839-5
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Colon cancer rates among young people are on the rise, and doctors don't know why
Chadwick Boseman, who passed away from colon cancer recently, is part of a growing cohort of people in their 20s, 30s, and early 40s who are diagnosed with the disease. (Pexels/) Chadwick Boseman, the film actor who brought cinematic life to fictional and historical characters like the Black Panther, Jackie Robinson, James Brown, and Thurgood Marshall, died last week at the age of 43. Boseman was
21h
Lockdown generation: Covid-19 upends Asian students' plans
With university experience on hold, traditional path to success gets a rethink
21h
How to weigh a dinosaur
How do you weigh a long-extinct dinosaur? There are a couple of ways, as it turns out, neither of which involve actual weighing—but according to a new study, different approaches still yield strikingly similar results.
21h
The homogeneity of the news media can now be quantified
When ownership of news sources is concentrated into the hands of just a handful of corporations, the kind of reporting that audiences get to see is limited and all the more likely to be slanted by corporate interests. Newsroom employment has declined dramatically over the past decade, and this has only been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of a new University of Illinois study s
21h
The homogeneity of the news media can now be quantified
When ownership of news sources is concentrated into the hands of just a handful of corporations, the kind of reporting that audiences get to see is limited and all the more likely to be slanted by corporate interests. Newsroom employment has declined dramatically over the past decade, and this has only been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of a new University of Illinois study s
21h
Blood Replacement Rescues Mice from Stroke Damage
When mice that had suffered a stroke were given blood from a healthy donor, they experienced less tissue and neurological damage.
21h
Over halvdelen søger lægekontakt i uger op til pludseligt hjertestop
Pludseligt hjertestop er måske ikke så pludseligt endda. Ny dansk forskning viser, at 58 pct. af de personer, der får pludseligt hjertestop, har talt med en læge, inden for to uger af at deres hjerte stopper med at slå, viser ny dansk forskning.
21h
How weather news impacts public transit ridership
Researchers found a correlation between words used in media coverage related to weather or air quality, and transit ridership. It's not enough yet to say that media coverage causes changes in ridership. But it's enough to explore what factors in to a person's decision to ride transit and whether that decision can be nudged.
21h
Unique antibody profile sets gluten sensitivity apart from Celiac disease
People with gluten sensitivity have an antibody profile that differs from that of people with celiac disease, which could help doctors diagnose gluten sensitivity.
21h
Dodder uses the flowering signal of its host plant to flower
Researchers have investigated how the parasitic dodder Cuscuta australis controls flower formation. They showed that the parasite eavesdrops on the flowering signals of its host plants in order to activate its own flowering machinery. By synchronizing flowering with its host plant, the parasite makes sure that it can grow on its host long enough to produce the optimal amount of seeds.
21h
Oops: FBI Says Criminals Are Using Ring Cameras to Spy on Cops
Hunter Becoming the Hunted According to a leaked FBI bulletin obtained by The Intercept , cops are worried that criminals are using internet-connected smart doorbells, such as Amazon's Ring doorbells, to spy on law enforcement. "Subjects likely use [internet of things] devices to hinder [law enforcement] investigations and possibly monitor [law enforcement] activity," read the bulletin. Neighborh
21h
Brain protein linked to seizures, abnormal social behaviors
A team led by a biomedical scientist at the University of California, Riverside has found a new mechanism responsible for the abnormal development of neuronal connections in the mouse brain that leads to seizures and abnormal social behaviors.
22h
Swine flu vaccination in pregnant women did not increase risk of autism in offspring
Two recent studies were unable to rule out that H1N1 ('swine flu') vaccination ('Pandemrix') and seasonal influenza vaccination given to pregnant women might be associated with autism-spectrum disorder in the offspring. Now, a large study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine, refutes any such association.
22h
Hyper-Realistic VR Sex Is Now Within Anyone's Reach
Ever since man's earliest ancestors emerged from the primordial muck, the human race has basically been killing time between innovations in self-pleasure . And now, the next epoch driving all human progress has arrived in the form of Titan VR by KIIROO , the world's first interactive vibrating VR stroker. By using the Titan in conjunction with its VR headset and a huge library of compatible adult
22h
Computer Scientist: We Can't Ignore How Our Work Hurts Marginalized Groups
Wake Up Call Speaking at the prestigious International Association for Cryptologic Research's Crypto conference, Brown University cryptographer Seny Kamara issued an urgent message: Computer scientists need to stop ignoring the ways that their work harms or oppresses already-marginalized communities. Kamara's speech stood out from the conference's usual keynote addresses, which tend to focus on e
22h
The Science Is Clear. It's Time to Take Control of Your Cellular Aging.
Like it or not, there's nothing we can do to stop the aging process. However, armed with the right knowledge and the right tools, we can age better . In recent years, scientists have made some pretty major discoveries about how we age at the cellular level. Now a team of scientists and Nobel Prize winners at Elysium Health have created two incredibly advanced products specifically designed to sup
22h
Semaglutid reducerer vaskulær inflammation ved åreforkalkning
Ved hjælp af et sporstof brugt i kræftdiagnostik har forskere været i stand til at identificere åreforkalkninger i hovedpulsåren i en kaninmodel. Forskerne har også set, at GLP-1 receptor-agonisten semaglutid kan reducere forekomsten af inflammation.
22h
To the choir: Forward-thinking faculty sharing innovations mostly among themselves
Surveys and network analyses of 192 STEM faculty at three universities revealed that frequent users of evidence-based instructional practices are far more likely to engage one another than colleagues less familiar with the practices. The finding suggests that faculty networks alone are not enough to disseminate and drive the adoption of evidence-based practices that could improve undergraduate ins
22h
Scientists show how brain flexibility emerges in infants
Cognitive flexibility, which refers to the brain's ability to switch between mental processes in response to external stimuli and different task demands, seems to begin developing during the first two years of life, which is much earlier than previously thought. UNC BRIC researchers led by Weili Lin, PhD, used magnetic resonance imaging techniques to show the emergence of a functional flexible bra
22h
People with less body response to stress task had more PTSD signs after COVID-19 began
People who did not have a large heart rate response to a stress task surprised researchers later — after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic — when they showed more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder related to the crisis than others who also did the stress task and COVID-19 stress ratings.
22h
Study: Portable, point-of-care COVID-19 test could bypass the lab
As COVID-19 continues to spread, bottlenecks in supplies and laboratory personnel have led to long waiting times for results in some areas. In a new study, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign researchers have demonstrated a prototype of a rapid COVID-19 molecular test and a simple-to-use, portable instrument for reading the results with a smartphone in 30 minutes, which could enable point-of-
22h
A Stormy Summer in the Northern Hemisphere
Touring the world through storm watchers 3_Mexico_Hurricane-Genevieve.jpg Hurricane Genevieve viewed from the ISS. Image credits: NASA Earth Monday, August 31, 2020 – 17:00 Abigail Malate, Staff Illustrator (Inside Science) — Hurricane season is upon us. Storm after storm, some of unusual intensity , have made landfall across the world. This month, we examine five storms that have affected peop
22h
Depression efter ballonudvidelse varsler om øget risiko for at dø
Personer, der efter en ballonudvidelse har symptomer på depression, har en højere risiko for at dø inden for et år efter operationen, viser ny dansk forskning.
22h
Empagliflozin reducerer risikoen for dødsfald og hjertesvigt
Det ventede EMPEROR-studie viser, at lægemidlet empagliflozin reducerer risikoen for kardiovaskulær død eller hospitalsindlæggelse på grund af hjertesvigt hos patienter med hjertesvigt og reduceret ejektionsfraktion.
22h
CU Anschutz researchers shed light on split-second decision making
A little understood region of the cerebellum plays a critical role in making split-second 'go-no go' decisions, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
22h
Patienter med stabil koronararteriesygdom klarer sig bedre
Dansk forskning viser, at stabile patienter med åreforkalkninger i kranspulsåren klarer sig langt bedre i dag, end de gjorde for 15 år siden. Forekomst af blodprop og dødsfald er faldet markant.
22h
Being a selfish jerk doesn't get you ahead: Study
Two studies provide empirical evidence to settle the question of whether being aggressively Machiavellian helps people get ahead. The studies concluded that being a jerk provides no advantage in career advancement. Any power boost disagreeable people get from being intimidating is offset by their poor interpersonal relationships, the studies concluded.
22h
Secret weapon to stop invasive honeysuckle: Satellites
Researchers found that satellite imagery can identify non-native and invasive Amur honeysuckle, an ornamental shrub introduced from Asia that has spread in forests across much of the United States.
22h
Scientists develop first drug-like compounds to inhibit elusive cancer-linked enzymes
Structural biology techniques helped researchers target the nuclear receptor-binding SET domain family for the first time; its malfunction is associated with several types of cancer.
22h
Genetic mutations may be linked to infertility, early menopause
A new study identifies a specific gene's previously unknown role in fertility. When the gene is missing in fruit flies, roundworms, zebrafish and mice, the animals are infertile or lose their fertility unusually early but appear otherwise healthy. Analyzing genetic data in people, the researchers found an association between mutations in this gene and early menopause.
22h
New X-ray detection technology developed
Researchers have developed a new material that could be used to make flexible X-ray detectors that are less harmful to the environment and cost less than existing technologies.
22h
Novel Dual CAR T cell immunotherapy holds promise for targeting the HIV reservoir
A recent study describes a new Dual CAR T cell immunotherapy that can help fight HIV infection.
22h
Researchers discover a specific brain circuit damaged by social isolation during childhood
Researchers have identified specific sub-populations of brain cells in the prefrontal cortex, a key part of the brain that regulates social behavior, that are required for normal sociability in adulthood and are profoundly vulnerable to juvenile social isolation in mice.
22h
New X-ray detection technology developed
Researchers have developed a new material that could be used to make flexible X-ray detectors that are less harmful to the environment and cost less than existing technologies.
22h
Grain-Free Diets Have Been Linked to Serious Heart Problems in Dogs
The FDA and other researchers are investigating the link between grain-free dog food and a heart condition called dilated cardiomyopathy.
23h
Researchers develop new X-ray detection technology
Florida State University researchers have developed a new material that could be used to make flexible X-ray detectors that are less harmful to the environment and cost less than existing technologies.
23h
Unique antibody profile sets gluten sensitivity apart from celiac disease
People with gluten sensitivity have an antibody profile that differs from that of people with celiac disease, which could help doctors diagnose gluten sensitivity.
23h
How's the transit weather?
U researchers found a correlation between words used in media coverage related to weather or air quality, and transit ridership. It's not enough yet to say that media coverage causes changes in ridership. But it's enough to explore what factors in to a person's decision to ride transit and whether that decision can be nudged.
23h
In risky times, parasitic birds lay eggs in more baskets
Faced with uncertainty, birds called brood parasites literally put their eggs in more baskets, researchers report. Brood parasites are birds that are known to lay their eggs in other birds' nests. Cowbirds and cuckoos are among the most famous examples of this group. "When brood parasites face increased ecological risks—for example, greater climatic uncertainty in their environment, or greater un
23h
How hurricanes like Laura get so strong
Hurricane Laura intensified quickly over the Gulf of Mexico before making landfall on August 27, 2020. (CSU/CIRA and NOAA/NESDIS/) Chris Slocum is a physical scientist at NOAA and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University. This story originally featured on The Conversation . Hurricane Laura blew up quickly as it headed for the Louisiana coast, intensifyin
23h
Bats Use Baby Talk To Teach Their Pups, Researchers Say
Researchers say mother bats use baby talk to communicate with their pups. Experts say that it helps bats learn the language.
23h
The Blurred Lines and Closed Loops of Google Search
Seemingly small design tweaks to the search results interface may change how and where people find information online.
23h
NASA Shows Off GIF of a Dust Devil on Mars
Windy Season The team behind NASA's Curiosity Mars rover have uploaded a fascinating GIF of a dust devil rolling over the surface of the Red Planet's Gale crater, a massive meteor impact site and suspected dried up lake . We're in the crater's "windy season" right now, according to a NASA blog post — and that means plenty of swirling gusts of sand for the rover to observe. Curiosity has taken the
23h
Improving FDA's COVID-19 vaccine authorization and approval process
On March 28, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) exercised its Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) authority to allow the use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19, and on June 15, the agency revoked this authorization. In JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, a research team proposes reforms that the FDA could implement to improve the EUA process and drug approvals
23h
Consortium of Brazilian researchers completes sequencing of native stingless bee's genome
Frieseomelitta varia is a docile species of economic interest as a pollinator. Its workers are sterile, and some of its genetic sequences are identical to those found in other eusocial bees, pointing to the conservation of ancestral traits.
23h
A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate would likely match all currently circulating variants [Evolution]
The magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic underscores the urgency for a safe and effective vaccine. Many vaccine candidates focus on the Spike protein, as it is targeted by neutralizing antibodies and plays a key role in viral entry. Here we investigate the diversity seen in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus…
23h
Plant expression of NifD protein variants resistant to mitochondrial degradation [Plant Biology]
To engineer Mo-dependent nitrogenase function in plants, expression of the structural proteins NifD and NifK will be an absolute requirement. Although mitochondria have been established as a suitable eukaryotic environment for biosynthesis of oxygen-sensitive enzymes such as NifH, expression of NifD in this organelle has proven difficult due to cryptic…
23h
Stochastic reaction networks in dynamic compartment populations [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Compartmentalization of biochemical processes underlies all biological systems, from the organelle to the tissue scale. Theoretical models to study the interplay between noisy reaction dynamics and compartmentalization are sparse, and typically very challenging to analyze computationally. Recent studies have made progress toward addressing this problem in the context of specific…
23h
Site-specific covalent labeling of large RNAs with nanoparticles empowered by expanded genetic alphabet transcription [Chemistry]
Conjugation of RNAs with nanoparticles (NPs) is of significant importance because of numerous applications in biology and medicine, which, however, remains challenging especially for large ones. So far, the majority of RNA labeling relies on solid-phase chemical synthesis, which is generally limited to RNAs smaller than 100 nucleotides (nts). We,…
23h
The genetic basis for PRC1 complex diversity emerged early in animal evolution [Evolution]
Polycomb group proteins are essential regulators of developmental processes across animals. Despite their importance, studies on Polycomb are often restricted to classical model systems and, as such, little is known about the evolution of these important chromatin regulators. Here we focus on Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and trace the…
23h
Human {gamma}{delta} T cells recognize CD1b by two distinct mechanisms [Immunology and Inflammation]
γδ T cells form an abundant part of the human cellular immune system, where they respond to tissue damage, infection, and cancer. The spectrum of known molecular targets recognized by Vδ1-expressing γδ T cells is becoming increasingly diverse. Here we describe human γδ T cells that recognize CD1b, a lipid…
23h
Supergene evolution via stepwise duplications and neofunctionalization of a floral-organ identity gene [Plant Biology]
Heterostyly represents a fascinating adaptation to promote outbreeding in plants that evolved multiple times independently. While l-morph individuals form flowers with long styles, short anthers, and small pollen grains, S-morph individuals have flowers with short styles, long anthers, and large pollen grains. The difference between the morphs is controlled by…
23h
DNA-PKcs phosphorylation at the T2609 cluster alters the repair pathway choice during immunoglobulin class switch recombination [Immunology and Inflammation]
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), which is composed of the KU heterodimer and the large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), is a classical nonhomologous end-joining (cNHEJ) factor. Naïve B cells undergo class switch recombination (CSR) to generate antibodies with different isotypes by joining two DNA double-strand breaks at different switching regions via…
23h
Correction for Cauchois et al., Early IL-1 receptor blockade in severe inflammatory respiratory failure complicating COVID-19 [Corrections]
IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for "Early IL-1 receptor blockade in severe inflammatory respiratory failure complicating COVID-19," by Raphaël Cauchois, Marie Koubi, David Delarbre, Cécile Manet, Julien Carvelli, Valery Benjamin Blasco, Rodolphe Jean, Louis Fouche, Charleric Bornet, Vanessa Pauly, Karin Mazodier, Vincent Pestre, Pierre-André Jarrot, Charles A. Dinarello, and Gilles Kaplans
23h
Early evolutionary loss of the lipid A modifying enzyme PagP resulting in innate immune evasion in Yersinia pestis [Microbiology]
Immune evasion through membrane remodeling is a hallmark of Yersinia pestis pathogenesis. Yersinia remodels its membrane during its life cycle as it alternates between mammalian hosts (37 °C) and ambient (21 °C to 26 °C) temperatures of the arthropod transmission vector or external environment. This shift in growth temperature induces…
23h
Innovative teaching knowledge stays with users [Social Sciences]
Programs seeking to transform undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses often strive for participating faculty to share their knowledge of innovative teaching practices with other faculty in their home departments. Here, we provide interview, survey, and social network analyses revealing that faculty who use innovative teaching practices preferentially talk…
23h
Latitudinal gradient in the respiration quotient and the implications for ocean oxygen availability [Environmental Sciences]
Climate-driven depletion of ocean oxygen strongly impacts the global cycles of carbon and nutrients as well as the survival of many animal species. One of the main uncertainties in predicting changes to marine oxygen levels is the regulation of the biological respiration demand associated with the biological pump. Derived from…
23h
Analysis of {beta}2AR-Gs and {beta}2AR-Gi complex formation by NMR spectroscopy [Pharmacology]
The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that preferentially couples to the stimulatory G protein Gs and stimulates cAMP formation. Functional studies have shown that the β2AR also couples to inhibitory G protein Gi, activation of which inhibits cAMP formation [R. P. Xiao, Sci. STKE 2001,…
23h
The emergence of a functionally flexible brain during early infancy [Neuroscience]
Adult brains are functionally flexible, a unique characteristic that is thought to contribute to cognitive flexibility. While tools to assess cognitive flexibility during early infancy are lacking, we aimed to assess the spatiotemporal developmental features of "neural flexibility" during the first 2 y of life. Fifty-two typically developing children 0…
23h
Fine-scale heterogeneity in Schistosoma mansoni force of infection measured through antibody response [Population Biology]
Schistosomiasis is among the most common parasitic diseases in the world, with over 142 million people infected in low- and middle-income countries. Measuring population-level transmission is centrally important in guiding schistosomiasis control programs. Traditionally, human Schistosoma mansoni infections have been detected using stool microscopy, which is logistically difficult at program…
23h
Correction for Bhattacharya et al., Lipid sponge droplets as programmable synthetic organelles [Corrections]
CHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for "Lipid sponge droplets as programmable synthetic organelles," by Ahanjit Bhattacharya, Henrike Niederholtmeyer, Kira A. Podolsky, Rupak Bhattacharya, Jing-Jin Song, Roberto J. Brea, Chu-Hsien Tsai, Sunil K. Sinha, and Neal K. Devaraj, which was first published July 21, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2004408117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 18206–18215)….
23h
Correction for Terhorst et al., The environmental stress response causes ribosome loss in aneuploid yeast cells [Corrections]
CELL BIOLOGY Correction for "The environmental stress response causes ribosome loss in aneuploid yeast cells," by Allegra Terhorst, Arzu Sandikci, Abigail Keller, Charles A. Whittaker, Maitreya J. Dunham, and Angelika Amon, which was first published July 6, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2005648117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 17031–17040). The editors wish to…
23h
Protecting memory from misinformation: Warnings modulate cortical reinstatement during memory retrieval [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Exposure to even subtle forms of misleading information can significantly alter memory for past events. Memory distortion due to misinformation has been linked to faulty reconstructive processes during memory retrieval and the reactivation of brain regions involved in the initial encoding of misleading details (cortical reinstatement). The current study investigated…
23h
Public perceptions of federal science advisory boards depend on their composition [Sustainability Science]
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) provides expert advice to inform agency decision-making. Recent regulations have decreased the representation of academic scientists on the EPA SAB and increased the representation of industry scientists. In an experiment, we asked how the US public views the goals…
23h
Biotic rescaling reveals importance of species interactions for variation in biodiversity responses to climate change [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Generality in understanding biodiversity responses to climate change has been hampered by substantial variation in the rates and even directions of response to a given change in climate. We propose that such context dependencies can be clarified by rescaling climate gradients in terms of the underlying biological processes, with biotic…
23h
The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein DTH1 mediates degradation of lipid droplets in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [Plant Biology]
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles found in a wide range of organisms and play important roles in stress tolerance. During nitrogen (N) starvation, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii stores large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAGs) inside LDs. When N is resupplied, the LDs disappear and the TAGs are degraded, presumably providing carbon and…
23h
Anoxic photogeochemical oxidation of manganese carbonate yields manganese oxide [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The oxidation states of manganese minerals in the geological record have been interpreted as proxies for the evolution of molecular oxygen in the Archean eon. Here we report that an Archean manganese mineral, rhodochrosite (MnCO3), can be photochemically oxidized by light under anoxic, abiotic conditions. Rhodochrosite has a calculated bandgap…
23h
Helper bacteria halt and disarm mushroom pathogens by linearizing structurally diverse cyclolipopeptides [Microbiology]
The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas tolaasii severely damages white button mushrooms by secretion of the pore-forming toxin tolaasin, the main virulence factor of brown blotch disease. Yet, fungus-associated helper bacteria of the genus Mycetocola (Mycetocola tolaasinivorans and Mycetocola lacteus) may protect their host by an unknown detoxification mechanism. By a combination…
23h
Cuscuta australis (dodder) parasite eavesdrops on the host plants' FT signals to flower [Plant Biology]
Many plants use environmental cues, including seasonal changes of day length (photoperiod), to control their flowering time. Under inductive conditions, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is synthesized in leaves, and FT protein is a mobile signal, which is able to travel to the shoot apex to induce flowering. Dodders (Cuscuta,…
23h