Search Posts

Nyheder2021april06

Tegn abonnement på BioNyt!

Vil du hjælpe med at finde nyheder? DO YOU WANT TO HELP FINDING SCIENCE NEWS? Email: bionyt@gmail.com Phone-sms: (45)21729908

LATEST

Hubble spots double quasars in merging galaxies
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is "seeing double." Peering back 10 billion years into the universe's past, Hubble astronomers found a pair of quasars that are so close to each other they look like a single object in ground-based telescopic photos, but not in Hubble's crisp view.
11h
Dark Energy Survey physicists open new window into dark energy
The universe is expanding at an ever-increasing rate, and while no one is sure why, researchers with the Dark Energy Survey (DES) at least had a strategy for figuring it out: They would combine measurements of the distribution of matter, galaxies and galaxy clusters to better understand what's going on.
8h
Structural biology opens new perspectives for treating psychiatric disorders
Glycine is the smallest amino acid—one of the building blocks of proteins. It acts also as a neurotransmitter in the brain, enabling neurons to communicate with each other and modulating neuronal activity. Many researchers have focused on increasing glycine levels in synapses to find an effective treatment for schizophrenia. This could be done using inhibitors targeting Glycine Transporter 1 (GlyT
8h
Impacts of biodiversity and biodiversity loss on zoonotic diseases [Ecology]
Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of humans caused by pathogens that are shared between humans and other vertebrate animals. Previously, pristine natural areas with high biodiversity were seen as likely sources of new zoonotic pathogens, suggesting that biodiversity could have negative impacts on human health. At the same time, biodiversity…
10h
Ranking the risk of animal-to-human spillover for newly discovered viruses [Applied Biological Sciences]
The death toll and economic loss resulting from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are stark reminders that we are vulnerable to zoonotic viral threats. Strategies are needed to identify and characterize animal viruses that pose the greatest risk of spillover and spread in humans and inform…
10h
4E-BP2-dependent translation in parvalbumin neurons controls epileptic seizure threshold [Neuroscience]
The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates multiple signals to regulate critical cellular processes such as mRNA translation, lipid biogenesis, and autophagy. Germline and somatic mutations in mTOR and genes upstream of mTORC1, such as PTEN, TSC1/2, AKT3, PIK3CA, and components of GATOR1 and KICSTOR complexes, are associated…
10h
Facebook Lets Chinese Government Run Genocide-Denying Ads
Misinformation Platform Facebook employees are raising concerns internally about the company's role in enabling the Chinese government to further persecute its Muslim Uyghur population. The Chinese government has been committing acts of genocide against Uyghurs, forcing them into camps in its Xinjiang region and forcibly sterilizing them — all while paying for ads on Facebook saying that people i
11h
Americanized Diets Linked to "Neurocognitive Dysfunction," Doctors Warn
In some unfortunate medical news, it turns out that eating lots of delicious calorie- or sugar-rich snacks and junk foods can likely lead to neurological and cognitive impairments later in life. A massive literature review by University of Southern California, Los Angeles scientists pulled the results from dozens of mouse studies found that a high-calorie, high-fat diet — dubbed the "Western diet
7h
Navy Official: Mysterious Drones Are Also Swarming Other Countries' Ships
Drone Swarms Reports of mysterious swarms of drones buzzing US Navy ships in July 2019 have top military officials puzzled. A series of lights appeared to "swarm" a fleet of American destroyers off the coast of Southern California, The Drive reported at the time. The Navy still has no idea what could be behind the lights, which were traveling far too fast to be consumer drones. "No, we have not,"
8h
Scientists About to Start Testing a Universal Coronavirus Vaccine in Humans
Imagine how differently the past year of our lives would have gone if we already had a vaccine that prevented SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. That's what scientists want to be the case next time a dangerous coronavirus rolls around. Multiple teams of researchers from various institutions are working on universal coronavirus vaccines, New Scientist reports , and clinical experime
9h
'Woke Capital' Doesn't Exist
Republicans are ready to take on "woke capital." After losing elections for president and U.S. Senate, Georgia Republicans passed a series of restrictions that specifically targets the voting methods used disproportionately by Democratic constituencies during the unusual circumstances of the pandemic. Whether those restrictions will have the desired effect of either placating the conservative bas
11h
Scientists Race To Develop Next Generation Of COVID Vaccines
The three vaccines available in the U.S. are safe and effective, but not ideal. Now, work is underway to create more convenient and potent vaccines, including a tablet and nasal spray. (Image credit: Government Pharmaceutical Organization of Thailand via Agence France-Presse/Getty Images)
10h
This High Tech COVID Mask Was Designed by SpaceX's Spacesuit Creator
William "Will.i.am" Adams, rapper and founder of the Black Eyed Peas, is back with another gadget that may or may not be way ahead of its time. His newest creation is a smart facemask. But it isn't just any mask. The " Xupermask ," a collaboration with N95 face mask manufacturer Honeywell, is a mask that arguably has more bells and whistles than sense. It costs $299 and is partly made of silicon
11h
Chronic pain sufferers should take exercise, not analgesics, says Nice
Medicines watchdog recommends physical and psychological therapies when treating pain with no known cause People suffering from chronic pain that has no known cause should not be prescribed painkillers, the medicines watchdog has announced, recommending such patients be offered exercise, talking therapies and acupuncture instead. In a major change of pain treatment policy, the National Institute
4h
NASA's first weather report from Jezero Crater on Mars
The weather often plays a role in our daily plans. You might put on a light jacket when the forecast calls for a cool breeze or delay your travel plans because of an impending storm. NASA engineers use weather data to inform their plans, too, which is why they're analyzing the conditions millions of miles away on Mars.
7h
An international study reveals how the 'guardian' of the genome works
Scientists from the Genomic Integrity and Structural Biology Group led by Rafael Fernández-Leiro at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have discovered how certain proteins ensure the repair of errors introduced into the DNA during its replication. Using cryo-electron microscopy, they made the MutS protein, also known as the guardian of our genome, visible. That enabled them to desc
12h
Iceland's Eruptions Reveal the Hot History of Mars
After 15 months of increasingly intense and disruptive earthquakes on Iceland's Reykjanes Peninsula, the region finally let off some pressure. On March 19, lava roared out of the ground in the uninhabited valley of Geldingadalur, marking the first time in 800 years that this southwesterly strip of land has been rocked by an eruption. Volcanologists are thrilled, but this spectacle isn't just an o
11h
The future of work is uniquely human
The disruptive shifts of 2020, including covid-19 shutdowns that led to millions of workers working remotely, forced organizations to radically rethink everything from worker well-being, business models and operations to investments in cloud-based collaboration and communication tools. Across every industry, last year's best-laid plans were turned upside down. So it's not surprising that technolo
11h
First US trachea transplant offers hope to Covid patients with windpipe damage
Social worker, 56, treated at Mt Sinai hospital in New York Some patients left with serious damage from ventilators Surgeons in New York City have performed the first windpipe transplant in the US, giving a woman who suffered severe asthma a new trachea, the tube that transports air from the mouth to the lungs. Doctors say such operations could help Covid-19 patients left with serious windpipe da
12h
AstraZeneca Covid vaccine: weighing up the risks and rewards
Despite scientific advice to continue getting the jab, answers about fatal blood clots are urgently needed Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Vaccines have side-effects, as do all medicines. Most often, jabs cause sore arms, a headache or a bit of nausea – none of which would be very significant when weighed against the toll of a serious virus such as Covid-19. But some
5h
Check Out This Deadly Robot Arm With an Actual Chainsaw
Stay Back It's like something straight out of a sci-fi horror movie. YouTube tinkerer Shane Wighton, behind the channel Stuff Made Here, built a giant chainsaw-wielding robotic arm that can chisel a dog shape out of bits of foam board. Wighton's original plan was to use his invention to create a bear cut out of a piece of wood, like the ones you see at the entrances to state parks. But several it
6h
Great tits change their traditions for the better
Researchers at the University of Konstanz and Max Planck Institute for Animal Behavior in Germany have found that birds are able to change their culture to become more efficient. Populations of great tits were able to switch from one behavior to a better alternative when their group members were slowly replaced with new birds. Published today as open access in the journal Current Biology, this res
7h
Starship Exploding in the Fog Looks Amazing in Slow Motion
Now in Slow Motion On March 30, SpaceX's Starship SN11 prototype blew up in a massive cloud of orange light — a side effect of the space company having launched the full-scale spacecraft inside a thick layer of dense fog. Livestreams of the event didn't catch much of the explosion, except for massive pieces of debris raining down from the skies, wreaking havoc with the remotely controlled cameras
7h
A novel form of cellular logistics
Biophysicists from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have shown that a phenomenon known as diffusiophoresis, which can lead to a directed particle transport, can occur in biological systems.
8h
The Guardian view on the pandemic: a universal crisis is revealing our divisions | Editorial
The UK must tread carefully. While some countries seem to be emerging from the shadows, no one is safe when Covid spreads so freely The pandemic has transformed the lives of billions around the globe, but beyond that common experience, it has highlighted and deepened divides rather than closed them. On Tuesday, the International Monetary Fund warned that inequality both within and between countri
9h
Americans are super-spreaders of COVID-19 misinformation: study
Misinformation about COVID-19 is spreading from the United States into Canada, undermining efforts to mitigate the pandemic. A study led by McGill University shows that Canadians who use social media are more likely to consume this misinformation, embrace false beliefs about COVID-19, and subsequently spread them.
10h
Stimulation of tiny areas on cellular surfaces with free radicals using a microfluidic probe
Could there be a way to chemically manipulate small, confined areas on cellular surfaces? Scientists have developed a microfluidic probe to send a flow of free radicals on live cells and track the outcome using fluorescence imaging. As outlined in the journal Angewandte Chemie, this approach makes it possible for the first time to generate a reaction zone of free radicals with controlled size and
10h
Researchers reveal elusive inner workings of antioxidant enzyme with therapeutic potential
Mitochondria, known as the powerhouses within human cells, generate the energy needed for cell survival. However, as a byproduct of this process, mitochondria also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). At high enough concentrations, ROS cause oxidative damage and can even kill cells. An overabundance of ROS has been connected to various health issues, including cancers, neurological disorders, an
10h
Simulation Shows This Fusion Reactor Doing Something Amazing
Simulation Theory A team of scientists may have cracked the code for self-sustaining nuclear fusion reactors that actually produce more electricity than they consume — an amazing accomplishment, at least in theory. In a series of simulations, the team from the Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories and the private company General Atomics demonstrated how a tiny tokamak reactor cou
10h
How preprints accelerated science communication during the pandemic
During the early phase of the pandemic, approximately 40% of the COVID-19 literature was shared as preprints—freely available manuscripts that are shared prior to peer-review. In a new study publishing in the open access journal PLOS Biology, researchers led by Dr. Jonathon Coates (Queen Mary University of London), Dr. Nicholas Fraser (Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, Germany) and Dr. Lia
8h
Potential ecological impacts of climate intervention by reflecting sunlight to cool Earth [Environmental Sciences]
As the effects of anthropogenic climate change become more severe, several approaches for deliberate climate intervention to reduce or stabilize Earth's surface temperature have been proposed. Solar radiation modification (SRM) is one potential approach to partially counteract anthropogenic warming by reflecting a small proportion of the incoming solar radiation to…
10h
Global warming is causing a more pronounced dip in marine species richness around the equator [Ecology]
The latitudinal gradient in species richness, with more species in the tropics and richness declining with latitude, is widely known and has been assumed to be stable over recent centuries. We analyzed data on 48,661 marine animal species since 1955, accounting for sampling variation, to assess whether the global latitudinal…
10h
Key brain molecule may play role in many brain disorders
Scientists have identified a molecule called microRNA-29 as a powerful controller of brain maturation in mammals. Deleting microRNA-29 in mice caused problems very similar to those seen in autism, epilepsy, and other neurodevelopmental conditions. The results, published in Cell Reports, illuminate an important process in the normal maturation of the brain and point to the possibility that disrupti
6h
Womens' pain not taken as seriously as mens' pain
Researchers found that when male and female patients expressed the same amount of pain, observers viewed female patients' pain as less intense and more likely to benefit from psychotherapy versus medication as compared to men's pain, exposing a significant patient gender bias that could lead to disparities in treatments.
6h
Deep learning networks prefer the human voice — just like us
A study proves that AI systems might reach higher levels of performance if they are programmed with sound files of human language rather than with numerical data labels. The researchers discovered that in a side-by-side comparison, a neural network whose 'training labels' consisted of sound files reached higher levels of performance in identifying objects in images, compared to another network tha
6h
Impact of prenatal maternal cytokine exposure on sex differences in brain circuitry regulating stress in offspring 45 years later [Neuroscience]
Stress is associated with numerous chronic diseases, beginning in fetal development with in utero exposures (prenatal stress) impacting offspring's risk for disorders later in life. In previous studies, we demonstrated adverse maternal in utero immune activity on sex differences in offspring neurodevelopment at age seven and adult risk for major…
10h
Maddening itch of liver disease comes from a surprising source
A devastating itching of the skin driven by severe liver disease turns out to have a surprising cause. Its discovery points toward possible new therapies for itching, and shows that the outer layer of the skin is so much more than insulation. The finding indicates that the keratinocyte cells of the skin surface are acting as 'pre-neurons.'
4h
Screening for skin disease on your laptop
A biomedical engineer is reporting a new deep neural network architecture – to be used on a standard laptop – that provides early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a rare autoimmune disease marked by hardened or fibrous skin and internal organs.
9h
Watch as NASA Drops a Spacecraft Into a Huge Dunk Tank
Dunk Tank On Tuesday afternoon, NASA Dropped a 14,000-pound model of its Orion spacecraft into a gigantic swimming pool. The test, which looked like a scaled-up version of a carnival dunk tank — minus the stuffed animal prize — seems silly at first glance. In video footage , the mock Orion fell a few feet before floating to the side while various NASA techs murmured their approval. But as Gizmodo
7h
Musk Blames Starship SN11 Failure on Methane Fuel Leak
We've been treated to a series of spectacular rocket tests lately, courtesy of SpaceX and the Starship development process. Of course, most of these rockets are exploding, but that only makes the tests more dramatic for outside observers. The most recent Starship rocket blew up in mid-air while beginning its landing burn. Now, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk has announced a cause: a leaky pipe. We've all be
7h
Aquatic biodiversity enhances multiple nutritional benefits to humans [Sustainability Science]
Humanity depends on biodiversity for health, well-being, and a stable environment. As biodiversity change accelerates, we are still discovering the full range of consequences for human health and well-being. Here, we test the hypothesis—derived from biodiversity–ecosystem functioning theory—that species richness and ecological functional diversity allow seafood diets to fulfill multiple…
10h
Microbial production of a natural red colorant carminic acid
A research group at KAIST has engineered a bacterium capable of producing a natural red colorant, carminic acid, which is widely used for food and cosmetics. The research team reported the complete biosynthesis of carminic acid from glucose in engineered Escherichia coli. The strategies will be useful for the design and construction of biosynthetic pathways involving unknown enzymes and consequent
12h
Combat stress in a small-scale society suggests divergent evolutionary roots for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms [Anthropology]
Military personnel in industrialized societies often develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during combat. It is unclear whether combat-related PTSD is a universal evolutionary response to danger or a culture-specific syndrome of industrialized societies. We interviewed 218 Turkana pastoralist warriors in Kenya, who engage in lethal cattle raids, about their combat…
10h
New report shows high levels of arsenic and uranium in some wells
A new U.S. Geological Survey study provides an updated, statewide estimate of high levels of naturally occurring arsenic and uranium in private well water across Connecticut. This research builds on a USGS report published in 2017, with the new study including additional groundwater samples and focusing on previously underrepresented areas.
8h
'Brain glue' helps repair circuitry in severe TBI
In a new study, researchers have demonstrated the long-term benefits of a hydrogel, which they call 'brain glue,' for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. The gel protects against loss of brain tissue after a severe injury and might aid in functional neural repair.
9h
COVID-19: Tsunami of chronic health conditions expected, research and health care disrupted
Cardiometabolic diseases including heart disease, obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes, are at the crest of an impending tsunami of chronic health conditions as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic that will affect society for decades. Interventions and universal health care are recommended to focus on prevention of cardiometabolic diseases, including programs that support healthy lifestyle be
11h
Being top baboon costs males their longevity
A male baboon's social dominance requires constant physical defense and leaves its mark on his genes. Tracing the activity of 500 methylation sites on the baboon genome, a team of researchers working with the famous Amboseli baboon troop has found that the dominant males trade longevity for fecundity. The dominant males get more babies, but they have fewer years. If a male drops in social status,
10h
Fossil discovery deepens snakefly mystery
The recent discovery of four new species of ancient insects are leading scientists to question the evolutionary history of the snakefly. The fossils, discovered in British Columbia and Washington State, are estimated to be 52 million years old and were unearthed in a region once thought uninhabitable.
6h
Leptin puts the brakes on eating via novel neurocircuit
A new study in mice describes novel neurocircuitry between midbrain structures that control feeding behaviors that are under modulatory control by leptin, a hormone made by body fat. Since the discovery of leptin in the 1990s, researchers have wondered how leptin can suppress appetite.
9h
Scientists reveal elusive inner workings of antioxidant enzyme with therapeutic potential
The enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plays a critical role in maintaining human health by keeping the amount of harmful reactive oxygen molecules in cells under control. By using neutron scattering, researchers have now obtained a complete atomic portrait of the enzyme, revealing key information about its catalytic mechanism. The work could help experts develop MnSOD-based treatments
9h
Ammonia decomposition for hydrogen economy, improvement in hydrogen extraction efficiency
For the implementation of an effective hydrogen economy in the forthcoming years, hydrogen produced from sources like coal and petroleum must be transported from its production sites to the end user, often over long distances and to achieve successful hydrogen trade between countries. Drs. Hyuntae Sohn and Changwon Yoon and their team at the Center for Hydrogen-fuel Cell Research of the Korea Inst
10h
Understanding fruit fly behavior may be next step toward autonomous vehicles
With over 70% of respondents to a AAA annual survey on autonomous driving reporting they would fear being in a fully self-driving car, makers like Tesla may be back to the drawing board before rolling out fully autonomous self-driving systems. But new research shows us we may be better off putting fruit flies behind the wheel instead of robots.
9h
Radical attack on live cells
Is there a way to chemically manipulate small, confined areas on cellular surfaces? Scientists have developed a microfluidic probe to send a flow of free radicals on live cells and track the outcome using fluorescence imaging. This approach makes it possible for the first time to generate a reaction zone of free radicals with controlled size and concentration for subcellular research.
10h
First air quality profile of two sub-Saharan African cities finds troubling news
Ambient air pollution is a global public health crisis, causing more than 4.9 million premature deaths per year around the world. In Africa, it has surpassed AIDS as the leading cause of premature death. According to one study, air pollution—specifically, fine particulate matter (PM2.5)—may cause at least as many as 780,000 premature deaths annually in Africa and worsen a significant number of dis
10h
Tibetan Plateau will warm faster than expected
The Tibetan Plateau, known as 'the roof of the world,' has warmed more rapidly than global average in the past decades. The observed warming of the Tibetan Plateau since 1960s can be attributed to human activities, particularly greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the Plateau may warm faster in the future than climate models projected, according to a study recently published in Environmental Resear
10h
Mapping North Carolina's ghost forests from 430 miles up
Throughout the U.S. East Coast, trees are dying off as rising seas and higher storm surges push saltwater farther inland. While these 'ghost forests' are becoming more common in North Carolina's coastal plain, scientists had only a rough idea of their extent. A new study mining 35 years of satellite images of a 245,000-acre area in the state's Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula shows that, between 1985 a
10h
The Lancet Psychiatry: Largest study to date suggests link between COVID-19 infection and subsequent mental health and neurological conditions
One in three COVID-19 survivors received a neurological or psychiatric diagnosis within six months of infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, an observational study of more than 230,000 patient health records published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal estimates. The study looked at 14 neurological and mental health disorders [1].
4h
Secure type: Consumers say compact logos signal product safety
Compact logos can encourage favorable brand evaluations by signaling product safety, according to a new study by researchers at Boston College's Carroll School of Management and Indian Institute of Management Udaipur, who reviewed the opinions of 17,000 consumers and conducted additional experiments with a variety of logos.
7h
REPORT | Future Flood Risk: Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway
Climate Central used its public and proprietary tools to assess the current and future coastal flood risk to the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway. The Byway is a 125-mile, self-guided, scenic tour, originating along Maryland's Eastern Shore and ending in Philadelphia. The 45 sites along the Byway include the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Visitor Center, historic sites connected to
7h
Gained in translation: Subgenome fractionation determines hybrid vigor in maize
The adage goes, "Two is better than one." Well, that might be true for endeavors involving human heads, but when it comes to ears, hybrid maize tends to have a superior advantage over the parental stocks in most cases. This phenomenon, called hybrid vigor or "heterosis," has been used by agriculturalists across ages to create higher-yielding, more resistant varieties of maize all over the world.
7h
This Ultra High Tech Head and Eye Tracker Is the Future of Gaming
A lot of the predictions about the future depicted in Back to the Future Part II never came true. We never got flying cars, or hoverboards, or those tiny freeze-dried pizzas that can be rehydrated and ready to eat in just five seconds. However, there were some predictions in that movie that did come true. The Cubs really did win the World Series, for example, albeit one year late. We also have fl
7h
New firefly species turns up in Singapore swamp forest
Researchers have discovered a new species of firefly in Singapore's last remaining freshwater swamp forest. It's the first time since 1909 that anyone has discovered a new species of luminous firefly in the city-state. The research on the newly identified Singapore firefly ( Luciola singapura ) appears in the journal Animals . "When we first encountered this species, we knew it was interesting be
8h
No pain, no gain in exercise for peripheral artery disease
No pain means no gain when it comes to reaping exercise benefits for people with peripheral artery disease, reports a new study. In people with peripheral artery disease, walking for exercise at an intensity that induces ischemic leg pain (caused by restricted blood flow) improves walking performance — distance and length of time walking — the study found. Walking at a slow pace that does not in
8h
Higher income makes people feel more confident
Earning a higher income makes people feel more contented, confident, and have a greater sense of self-pride, researchers report. The new study also found that current income can predict the types of emotions people may feel over the long-term. Financial wealth predicts better psychological health, with past studies revealing that income shapes the way people think about their lives. However, it w
8h
Researchers find a connection between Trump's tweets and the exchange rate of the rouble
Tweets about Russia by Donald Trump during his presidency caused short but noticeable depreciations of the rouble. Meanwhile, the introduction of new sanctions, upon which the president did not comment, had no such effect. This was the finding of a group of researchers, which included Elena Fedorova, Professor of the Faculty of Economic Sciences of HSE University. The group published their finding
9h
Opioid prescribing for analgesia after common otolaryngology operations
The American Academy of Otolaryngology?Head and Neck Surgery Foundation published the Clinical Practice Guideline: Opioid Prescribing for Analgesia After Common Otolaryngology Operations today in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. This specialty-specific guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on postoperative management for pain in common otolaryngologic procedures, with a focus on o
9h
40K kids in the US may have lost a parent to COVID-19
Approximately 40,000 children in the United States may have lost a parent to COVID-19 since February 2020, according to a statistical model. The researchers anticipate that without immediate interventions, the trauma from losing a parent could cast a shadow of mental health and economic problems well into the future for this vulnerable population. In the researchers' model, for approximately ever
9h
The sea urchin microbiome
Sea urchins receive a lot of attention in California. Red urchins support a thriving fishery, while their purple cousins are often blamed for mowing down kelp forests to create urchin barrens. Yet for all the notice we pay them, we know surprisingly little about the microbiomes that support these spiny species.
9h
Team maps effects of human activity on marine species over time
Researchers have created the first global assessment of cumulative human impacts to at-risk marine species over time. Despite the fact that our planet is mostly ocean and human maritime activity is more intense than ever, we know remarkably little about the state of the ocean's biodiversity—the variety and balance of species that support healthy and productive ecosystems. And it's no surprise—mar
10h
Measuring voluntary and policy-induced social distancing behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic [Environmental Sciences]
Staying home and avoiding unnecessary contact is an important part of the effort to contain COVID-19 and limit deaths. Every state in the United States enacted policies to encourage distancing and some mandated staying home. Understanding how these policies interact with individuals' voluntary responses to the COVID-19 epidemic is a…
10h
(Mis)informed about what? What it means to be a science-literate citizen in a digital world [Colloquium Paper]
Science literacy is often held up as crucial for avoiding science-related misinformation and enabling more informed individual and collective decision-making. But research has not yet examined whether science literacy actually enables this, nor what skills it would need to encompass to do so. In this report, we address three questions…
10h
Identification of a micropeptide and multiple secondary cell genes that modulate Drosophila male reproductive success [Genetics]
Even in well-characterized genomes, many transcripts are considered noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) simply due to the absence of large open reading frames (ORFs). However, it is now becoming clear that many small ORFs (smORFs) produce peptides with important biological functions. In the process of characterizing the ribosome-bound transcriptome of an important…
10h
Integrins protect sensory neurons in models of paclitaxel-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy [Neuroscience]
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major side effect from cancer treatment with no known method for prevention or cure in clinics. CIPN often affects unmyelinated nociceptive sensory terminals. Despite the high prevalence, molecular and cellular mechanisms that lead to CIPN are still poorly understood. Here, we used a genetically…
10h
The pentatricopeptide repeat protein Rmd9 recognizes the dodecameric element in the 3'-UTRs of yeast mitochondrial mRNAs [Cell Biology]
Stabilization of messenger RNA is an important step in posttranscriptional gene regulation. In the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells it is generally achieved by 5′ capping and 3′ polyadenylation, whereas additional mechanisms exist in bacteria and organelles. The mitochondrial mRNAs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprise a dodecamer sequence…
10h
A neural circuit for competing approach and defense underlying prey capture [Neuroscience]
Predators must frequently balance competing approach and defensive behaviors elicited by a moving and potentially dangerous prey. Several brain circuits supporting predation have recently been localized. However, the mechanisms by which these circuits balance the conflict between approach and defense responses remain unknown. Laboratory mice initially show alternating approach and…
10h
Primate phageomes are structured by superhost phylogeny and environment [Evolution]
Humans harbor diverse communities of microorganisms, the majority of which are bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. These gut bacterial communities in turn host diverse bacteriophage (hereafter phage) communities that have a major impact on their structure, function, and, ultimately, human health. However, the evolutionary and ecological origins of these human-associated…
10h
Confidence intervals for policy evaluation in adaptive experiments [Economic Sciences]
Adaptive experimental designs can dramatically improve efficiency in randomized trials. But with adaptively collected data, common estimators based on sample means and inverse propensity-weighted means can be biased or heavy-tailed. This poses statistical challenges, in particular when the experimenter would like to test hypotheses about parameters that were not targeted…
10h
Alternative splicing redefines landscape of commonly mutated genes in acute myeloid leukemia [Genetics]
Most genes associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are mutated in less than 10% of patients, suggesting that alternative mechanisms of gene disruption contribute to this disease. Here, we find a set of splicing events that alter the expression of a subset of AML-associated genes independent of known somatic mutations….
10h
Biological structure and function emerge from scaling unsupervised learning to 250 million protein sequences [Computer Sciences]
In the field of artificial intelligence, a combination of scale in data and model capacity enabled by unsupervised learning has led to major advances in representation learning and statistical generation. In the life sciences, the anticipated growth of sequencing promises unprecedented data on natural sequence diversity. Protein language modeling at…
10h
The contributions of individual countries and regions to the global radiative forcing [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Knowing the historical relative contribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) to global radiative forcing (RF) at the regional level can help understand how future GHGs emission reductions and associated or independent reductions in SLCFs will affect the ultimate purpose of the Paris Agreement. In this study,…
10h
Modular complement assemblies for mitigating inflammatory conditions [Applied Biological Sciences]
Complement protein C3dg, a key linkage between innate and adaptive immunity, is capable of stimulating both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, leading to considerable interest in its use as a molecular adjuvant. However, the potential of C3dg as an adjuvant is limited without ways of controllably assembling multiple copies of…
10h
Immune cells fold and damage fungal hyphae [Immunology and Inflammation]
Innate immunity provides essential protection against life-threatening fungal infections. However, the outcomes of individual skirmishes between immune cells and fungal pathogens are not a foregone conclusion because some pathogens have evolved mechanisms to evade phagocytic recognition, engulfment, and killing. For example, Candida albicans can escape phagocytosis by activating cellular morphogen
10h
Heritable variation in telomere length predicts mortality in Soay sheep [Evolution]
Telomere length (TL) is considered an important biomarker of whole-organism health and aging. Across humans and other vertebrates, short telomeres are associated with increased subsequent mortality risk, but the processes responsible for this correlation remain uncertain. A key unanswered question is whether TL–mortality associations arise due to positive effects of…
10h
Human hand as a powerless and multiplexed infrared light source for information decryption and complex signal generation [Engineering]
With the increasing pursuit of intelligent systems, the integration of human components into functional systems provides a promising route to the ultimate human-compatible intelligent systems. In this work, we explored the integration of the human hand as the powerless and multiplexed infrared (IR) light source in different functional systems. With…
10h
Accurate modeling of DNA conformational flexibility by a multivariate Ising model [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The sequence-dependent structure and deformability of DNA play a major role for binding of proteins and regulation of gene expression. So far, most efforts to model DNA flexibility are based on unimodal harmonic stiffness models at base-pair resolution. However, multimodal behavior due to distinct conformational substates also contributes significantly to…
10h
Myristoylation alone is sufficient for PKA catalytic subunits to associate with the plasma membrane to regulate neuronal functions [Cell Biology]
Myristoylation is a posttranslational modification that plays diverse functional roles in many protein species. The myristate moiety is considered insufficient for protein–membrane associations unless additional membrane-affinity motifs, such as a stretch of positively charged residues, are present. Here, we report that the electrically neutral N-terminal fragment of the protein kinase…
10h
Mechanics of two filaments in tight orthogonal contact [Engineering]
Networks of flexible filaments often involve regions of tight contact. Predictively understanding the equilibrium configurations of these systems is challenging due to intricate couplings between topology, geometry, large nonlinear deformations, and friction. Here, we perform an in-depth study of a simple, yet canonical, problem that captures the essence of contact…
10h
Structural basis for GTP-induced dimerization and antiviral function of guanylate-binding proteins [Microbiology]
Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) form a family of dynamin-related large GTPases which mediate important innate immune functions. They were proposed to form oligomers upon GTP binding/hydrolysis, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we present crystal structures of C-terminally truncated human GBP5 (hGBP51–486), comprising the large GTPase (LG) and middle (MD)…
10h
Architecture of the mycobacterial succinate dehydrogenase with a membrane-embedded Rieske FeS cluster [Biochemistry]
Complex II, also known as succinate dehydrogenase (SQR) or fumarate reductase (QFR), is an enzyme involved in both the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Mycobacterial Sdh1 has recently been identified as a new class of respiratory complex II (type F) but with an unknown electron transfer mechanism. Here, using cryoelectron…
10h
Direct coordination of pterin to FeII enables neurotransmitter biosynthesis in the pterin-dependent hydroxylases [Biochemistry]
The pterin-dependent nonheme iron enzymes hydroxylate aromatic amino acids to perform the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters to maintain proper brain function. These enzymes activate oxygen using a pterin cofactor and an aromatic amino acid substrate bound to the FeII active site to form a highly reactive FeIV = O species that…
10h
Conditional destabilization of the TPLATE complex impairs endocytic internalization [Plant Biology]
In plants, endocytosis is essential for many developmental and physiological processes, including regulation of growth and development, hormone perception, nutrient uptake, and defense against pathogens. Our toolbox to modulate this process is, however, rather limited. Here, we report a conditional tool to impair endocytosis. We generated a partially functional TPLATE…
10h
Size dependence of hydrophobic hydration at electrified gold/water interfaces [Chemistry]
Hydrophobic hydration at metal/water interfaces actively contributes to the energetics of electrochemical reactions, e.g. CO2 and N2 reduction, where small hydrophobic molecules are involved. In this work, constant applied potential molecular dynamics is employed to study hydrophobic hydration at a gold/water interface. We propose an adaptation of the Lum–Chandler–Weeks (LCW)…
10h
Topological defects produce kinks in biopolymer filament bundles [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Bundles of stiff filaments are ubiquitous in the living world, found both in the cytoskeleton and in the extracellular medium. These bundles are typically held together by smaller cross-linking molecules. We demonstrate, analytically, numerically, and experimentally, that such bundles can be kinked, that is, have localized regions of high curvature…
10h
Mechanosensitive remodeling of the bacterial flagellar motor is independent of direction of rotation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Motility is important for the survival and dispersal of many bacteria, and it often plays a role during infections. Regulation of bacterial motility by chemical stimuli is well studied, but recent work has added a new dimension to the problem of motility control. The bidirectional flagellar motor of the bacterium…
10h
Structural basis for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin targeting of claudins at tight junctions in mammalian gut [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The bacterium Clostridium perfringens causes severe, sometimes lethal gastrointestinal disorders in humans, including enteritis and enterotoxemia. Type F strains produce an enterotoxin (CpE) that causes the third most common foodborne illness in the United States. CpE induces gut breakdown by disrupting barriers at cell–cell contacts called tight junctions (TJs), which…
10h
An incorrect wetness-based correction method for deuterium offset [Biological Sciences]
Isotope-based plant–soil water tracing assumes that the isotope signal in the plant xylem does not fractionate (1). However, this assumption has been questioned increasingly in recent years with numerous reports for different plants of deuterium depletion in xylem water, particularly for halophyte and xerophytes (2). Chen et al. (3) go…
10h
Capture and metabolomic analysis of the human endometrial epithelial organoid secretome [Cell Biology]
Suboptimal uterine fluid (UF) composition can lead to pregnancy loss and likely contributes to offspring susceptibility to chronic adult-onset disorders. However, our understanding of the biochemical composition and mechanisms underpinning UF formation and regulation remain elusive, particularly in humans. To address this challenge, we developed a high-throughput method for intraorganoid…
10h
Reply to Zhao: The demonstrated magnitude of artifact during stem water extraction signals a clear need for deuterium correction [Biological Sciences]
Zhao (1) considers our examination (2) of the relationship between deuterium offset (hereafter "Δ") and stem gravimetric water content (hereafter "W") across all the study species to be misleading, and instead suggest that data should be analyzed by individual habitat type based on a vague argument that "different habitats/species will…
10h
Inherited deficiency of stress granule ZNFX1 in patients with monocytosis and mycobacterial disease [Genetics]
Human inborn errors of IFN-γ underlie mycobacterial disease, due to insufficient IFN-γ production by lymphoid cells, impaired myeloid cell responses to this cytokine, or both. We report four patients from two unrelated kindreds with intermittent monocytosis and mycobacterial disease, including bacillus Calmette–Guérin-osis and disseminated tuberculosis, and without any known inborn…
10h
Exploring comet thermal history: Burnt-out comet covered with talcum powder
The world's first ground-based observations of the bare nucleus of a comet nearing the end of its active life revealed that the nucleus has a diameter of 800 meters and is covered with large grains of phyllosilicate; on Earth large grains of phyllosilicate are commonly available as talcum powder. This discovery provides clues to piece together the history of how this comet evolved into its current
10h
How the fly selects its reproductive male
A team has discovered an RNA coding for a micro-peptide – a very small protein – that plays a crucial role in the competition between spermatozoa from different males of the Drosophila with which the female mates. In addition to shedding new light on this biological mechanism, this work highlights the importance of small peptides, a class of proteins that is now emerging as a key player in complex
10h
Rising Sika deer populations linked to bovine TB infections
New research suggests Ireland's increasing populations of Sika deer may be linked to local outbreaks of TB infection in cattle. Although TB infection rates have decreased in general in recent decades, county-level data shows a correlation between higher Sika numbers and higher local TB infections – with County Wicklow a particular hotspot.
10h
Aquatic invasive species cause billions of dollars in damage
The global movement of goods and people, in its modern form, has many unwanted side effects. One of these is that animal and plant species travel around the world with it. Often they fail to establish themselves in the ecosystems of the destination areas. Sometimes, however, due to a lack of effective management, they multiply to such an extent in the new environment that they become a threat to t
10h
AGA recommends intragastric balloons as an additional weight loss strategy for obese patients
After a detailed review of available literature, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) has released new clinical guidelines recommending the use of intragastric balloons (IGB) for patients with obesity who have not been able to lose weight with traditional weight-loss strategies. This treatment is most successful with accompanying therapy, such as lifestyle modifications and pharmacol
10h
People with HIV at high risk for intimate partner violence
New CDC data show that people with HIV who experienced IPV in the past 12 months were more likely to engage in behaviors associated with elevated HIV transmission risk, were less likely to be engaged in routine HIV care and more likely to seek emergency care services and have poor HIV clinical outcomes. The findings are reported in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier
10h
New wasp species discovered in Norway
Cuckoo wasps—also called emerald wasps—are some of the most beautiful insects we have, with colorful exteriors that shine like jewels. However, these beauties have also created a lot of headaches.
10h
Study analyzes the effect of sexual orientation on wages in Spain
Spain is among the five countries in the world with the highest levels of social acceptance of LGBTIQ+ people and rights, and was the third country in the world to legalize same-sex marriages, in 2005. In 2019, 3.1% of marriages were between same-sex couples (INE 2020). In this context, it would seem consistent that sexual orientation should not determine wage inequalities. But is this really so?
10h
How do lakes affect energy, heat, and carbon exchange processes in mountainous areas?
Lakes act as an important part of the Earth system. They have special functions in regulating regional climate and maintaining regional ecological balance. More than 39.2% of the lakes in China are distributed in the plateau. The topography around the plateau lake area is complex and diverse. It leads to a complex and unique local circulation characterized by the superposition of lake-land breeze
10h

Leave a Reply