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MAN HAR FUNDET ET SKILDPADDE-ÆG FRA DINOSAURERNES TID. ÆGGET INDEHOLDT ET FOSTER. DER VAR IKKE DEN STORE FORSKEL I FORHOLD TIL ÆGGENE AF NUTIDENS SKILDPADDER, BORTSET FRA TYKKELSEN AF ÆGGESKALLEN: A turtle egg from the dinosaur era was found in China. After the recent expedition they analyzed it and found an embryo inside it. To find an egg from that period is a rare thing, because the shells are very fragile, more rare is to find an embryo inside it. After examination they found out that basically the only difference between the turtles back then and turtles now are how thick the shell is.
A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China and Canada has identified a turtle egg fossil from the Cretaceous period that contains an embryo. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes where the egg was found and what they learned about it during their examination.
"Ah, vi äter ute idag". Sommar är för många förknippat med lata dagar med flödande spontanitet. Men för familjer med barn med ätsvårigheter består "ledigheten" ofta av strategier för att få i barnet näring. Föräldrar till barn med ätsvårigheter upplever sig ofta stå ensamma, utan hjälp från vården och med omgivningens ständiga ifrågasättande. Logopeden och doktoranden Kajsa Lamm, har intervjuat t
Biotech company Moderna — who maybe you've heard of lately? — is set to start human trials for the first-ever mRNA-based HIV vaccine as soon as this week, according to a new submission to the US National Institutes of Health Clinical Trial registry. In other words: We're now watching, in real time, the development of a game-changing technology used to arm humanity against other viruses, not just
Scientists have spotted a previously unrecognized feature of our Milky Way galaxy: A contingent of young stars and star-forming gas clouds is sticking out of one of the Milky Way's spiral arms like a splinter poking out from a plank of wood. Stretching some 3,000 light-years, this is the first major structure identified with an orientation so dramatically different than the arm's.
Cuttlefish can remember what, where, and when specific events happened—right up to their last few days of life, researchers have found. The results, published this week in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, are the first evidence of an animal whose memory of specific events does not deteriorate with age.
Although most patients recover from acute COVID-19, some experience postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (PASC). One subgroup of PASC is a syndrome called "long COVID-19," reminiscent of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). ME/CFS is a debilitating condition, often triggered by viral and bacterial infections, leading…
Squirting a jet of water through a drop of liquid may sound like idle fun, but if done precisely, and understood thoroughly, the splashy exercise could help scientists identify ways to inject fluids such as vaccines through skin without using needles.
Research published today in the peer-reviewed Journal of Systematic Palaeontology describes the discovery of three new species of ancient creatures from the dawn of modern mammals, and hints at rapid evolution immediately after the mass extinction of the dinosaurs.
Genebanks collect and preserve vast collections of plants and detailed passport information, with the aim of preserving genetic diversity for conservation and breeding. Genetic characterization of such collections has the potential to elucidate the genetic histories of important crops, use marker–trait associations to identify loci controlling traits of interest, search…
A team of researchers working at the University of Cambridge, has found that Eurasian jays are sensitive to cognitive illusions designed to fool humans. In their paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, the group describes experiments they conducted that involved exposing jays to magic tricks and what they learned from them.
In the 1980s, doctors at an English hospital deliberately tried to infect 15 volunteers with a coronavirus. COVID-19 did not yet exist—what interested those doctors was a coronavirus in the same family called 229E, which causes the common cold. 229E is both ubiquitous and obscure. Most of us have had it, probably first as children , but the resulting colds were so mild as to be unremarkable. And
On the first day of school last week, Kelly Carothers picked up her 5-year-old twins from the bus stop and noticed that the kids weren't wearing their masks. "It's hot on the bus," they explained, "and no one else was wearing one." She asked if they had worn them throughout the school day. "Well," they said, "sometimes." The incident confirmed Carothers's worst fears about this school year. Publi
When the Taliban first sacked Kabul 25 years ago, the group declared that it was not out for revenge, instead offering amnesty to anyone who had worked for the former government. "Taliban will not take revenge," a Taliban commander said then. "We have no personal rancor." At the time of that promise, the ousted president, Mohammad Najibullah, was unavailable for comment. The Taliban had castrated
Robot Parkour Robot maker Boston Dynamics has released the latest video of its two-legged humanoid robot, called Atlas, performing daring stunts. In the video, a pair of Atlas robots can be seen performing some impressive parkour, leaping over chasms, jumping over uneven terrain, and finishing up with a casual back flip. At one point, Atlas even vaults over a board using one of its arms to steady
Countless books have been written on the "power of gratitude" and the importance of counting your blessings, but that sentiment may feel like cold comfort during the coronavirus pandemic, when blessings have often seemed scant. Refusing to look at life's darkness and avoiding uncomfortable experiences can be detrimental to mental health . This " toxic positivity " is ultimately a denial of realit
A team of researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) have found a link between the rates of metal production and toxic lead exposure in humans over thousands of years. The team examined human remains from a burial ground in central Italy that had been in continuous use for about 12,000 years. As production of lead worldwide started spiking, the rate at which it was absorbed by the bod
The debate over extraterrestrial life has shifted from fringe to mainstream. The belief that humans eventually will encounter aliens is based on two assumptions: (a) life evolves easily, and (b) interstellar travel is possible and practical. Neither of these assumptions is likely to be true. When I was a kid, there was an older guy who frequented our local McDonald's and always carried around a b
Hopes raised that drug could work well with immunotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer patients Aspirin is being trialled as part of a potential treatment for an aggressive form of breast cancer. Researchers hope the cheap and widely available drug could work well when combined with immunotherapy for patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Continue reading…
Experts recommend Britain should plant 40% more of these valuable barriers by 2050 Hedgerows are hugely important but often taken for granted. They are perhaps the largest semi-natural habitat in Britain, refuges for wild plants and corridors for wildlife to move through, often in barren farmland landscapes. Hedgerows help slow down the runoff of water, guarding against flooding and soil erosion,
Updated at 8:15 p.m. ET on August 17, 2021 At this point, COVID-19 booster shots seem all but guaranteed for Americans. Last night, The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal reported that the White House plans to recommend a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine to most Americans who have already gotten two shots from Pfizer or Moderna. The news comes just five days after the FDA authorized third d
The large-brained cephalopods can remember details of what, where and when even in their old age Cuttlefish have one of the largest brains among invertebrates and can remember what, where, and when specific things happened right up to their final days of life, according to new research. The cephalopods – which have three hearts, eight arms, blue-green blood, regenerating limbs, and the ability to
A new report warns that outdoor workers are at risk of lost wages and dire health consequences if greenhouse gas pollution continues. People of color are especially vulnerable to harm. (Image credit: Bloomberg/Bloomberg via Getty Images)
Dr Michelle Fiscus says muzzle was sent anonymously, perhaps as a warning, before she was fired over efforts to vaccinate teenagers A former Tennessee government official who was fired amid controversy over vaccine access for teenagers has denied sending herself a dog muzzle she told authorities was delivered anonymously, possibly as a warning to be quiet, after investigators determined it was or
On Saturday, we buried my grandmother. Meemaw died in April 2020 , during the first wave of COVID-19 casualties in America, at the age of 94. For months, her death had felt abstract; I was 900 miles away from my family, and I felt like I was holding my breath, unsure how to fathom the loss alone. Sixteen months later, I finally exhaled. We buried Meemaw's ashes next to my grandfather in a small c
Green Capital Prominent venture capitalist and founder of climate-focused fund Lowercarbon Capital Chris Sacca argued that "the climate is f'd" in a 12-page letter sent out to potential investors, as quoted by Axios . "Even worse than it seems." Sacca's CO2 tech fund just revealed that it's raised $800 million in outside capital "to keep unfucking the planet," according to the announcement , mone
"This is not Saigon," Secretary of State Antony Blinken said on CNN on Sunday—and he was right. By the time helicopters took off from Saigon rooftops in April 1975, the evacuation of endangered South Vietnamese had been going on for several weeks. The first stage was unofficial, and often illegal, as American diplomats, intelligence and military officers, veterans, and private citizens scrambled
Bird-Brained In an astounding scientific feat, a team of psychologists from the extremely prestigious University of Cambridge has proven that they're capable of fooling birds — with your run-of-the-mill, souvenir-magic-kit sleight of hand. That's right! Eurasian jays (part of the notoriously clever Corvidae family of birds, to be fair) get utterly bamboozled by the shell game, according to a real
Iran is the only country in the Muslim world with a milk bank network. In general, Islam makes the practice tricky. The opposition centers on a tenet called milk kinship, which states that a parent-child bond is formed when a woman gives milk to a baby who isn't biologically related to her.
A relatively new way of analyzing tree rings has allowed researchers to reconstruct temperatures in Mongolia since 1269 C.E. The new reconstruction confirms that since the 1990s, summer temperatures are the warmest the region has seen in the past eight centuries.
On paper, Cadenza Innovation is everything a modern American start-up is supposed to be. The Connecticut-based company was founded by an award-winning Swedish chemist who first came to the United States to work at MIT. It promised a major breakthrough: lithium-ion batteries that were far less likely to explode than conventional designs. It soon found R&D support from the federal government, eager
The sudden collapse of Afghanistan's government has led to a frantic attempt to accelerate online relief and evacuation efforts. These attempts, organized largely via Google Forms, WhatsApp and private social media groups, are trying to fill the void left by the US government's failure to protect vulnerable Afghans. It could be the only lifeline for many trying to flee the country—but at the same
When Apple announced new technology that will check its US iCloud service for known child sexual abuse material , it was met with fierce criticism over worries that the feature could be abused for broad government surveillance . Faced with public resistance, Apple insisted that its technology can be held accountable. "Security researchers are constantly able to introspect what's happening in Appl
Sean Gallup, a staff photographer with Getty Images, has spent much of the past week in Iceland, making images of its many glaciers, rivers, ice caps, mountains, and valleys. The landscape of Iceland is undergoing constant change, and the rate of that change is being accelerated by global warming. Gallup reports that the faster melting of Iceland's ice caps is affecting the flow and shape of rive
Annette, the fragile child at the heart of the director Leos Carax's new film, is a perfect avatar for a work that can drift from odd to distressing in just one scene. She's the daughter of the hulking comedian Henry McHenry (played by Adam Driver) and the winsome opera singer Ann Defrasnoux (Marion Cotillard), and is blessed with a singing voice that attracts the attention of millions. She's als
A team of scientists at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign developed a bioprocess using engineered yeast that completely and efficiently converted plant matter consisting of acetate and xylose into high-value bioproducts.
Cuttlefish, with their blimp-shaped bodies and eight squiggly arms, don't age like people do. Sexual maturity tends to come late for them—about three-quarters of the way through their two-year lives, the rough equivalent of a human hitting puberty in their 60s. The geriatric cephalopods will then spend several weeks on an absolute bender, coupling up with as many partners as they can. Only after
Scientists have successfully grown brain organoids — tiny, three-dimensional tissue cultures that mimic the real thing — each with their own set of 'eyes,' Live Science reports . According to a study published this week in the journal Cell Stem Cell , researchers created their mini brains using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) — cells that propagate indefinitely, making them a particu
A new study led by scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and the Ben Gurion University of the Negev has identified specialized immune cells in the cauliflower coral and starlet sea anemone that can help fight infection. The findings are important to better understand how reef-building corals and other reef animals protect themselves from for
Alexa used to be a name primarily given to human babies. Now it's mainly for robots. Seven years ago, Amazon released Alexa, its voice assistant, and as the number of devices answering to that name has skyrocketed, its popularity with American parents has plummeted. In fact, it has suffered one of the sharpest declines of any popular name in recent years. "Alexa stands alone as a name that was st
Nuclear scientists using lasers the size of three football fields said Tuesday they had generated a huge amount of energy from fusion, possibly offering hope for the development of a new clean energy source.
A new long-term study led by Sahas Barve, a Peter Buck Fellow at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, finds that male acorn woodpeckers breeding polygamously in duos or trios of males actually fathered more offspring than males breeding alone with a single female, contrary to conventional thinking among biologists that monogamous males necessarily produce more offspring than those
Imagine you're having friends over for lunch and plan to order a pepperoni pizza. You recall Amy mentioning that Susie had stopped eating meat. You try calling Susie, but when she doesn't pick up, you decide to play it safe and just order a margherita pizza instead. People take for granted the ability to deal with situations like these on a regular basis. In reality, in accomplishing these feats,
Time-restricted eating (TRE), a dietary regimen that restricts eating to specific hours, has garnered increased attention in weight-loss circles. A new study further shows that TRE confers multiple health benefits besides weight loss. The study also shows that these benefits may depend on sex and age.
It's a mere speck of matter — a piece of silica crystal no bigger than a virus, levitated in a light beam. But it is almost as motionless as the laws of physics permit. Two teams of researchers, in Austria and Switzerland, have independently succeeded in freezing such minuscule nanoparticles, just 100 to 140 nanometers across, almost entirely into their lowest-energy quantum state… Source
Giving a Hand SpaceX's upcoming resupply mission to the International Space Station includes a whole trove of scientific experiments , from a small camera tracking astronauts' health by scanning their retinas, to mitigating the stress of microgravity on plants using chemical compounds. But especially notable among them? A robotic arm that could give astronauts working on board the orbital outpost
Using the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS), an international team of astronomers has conducted long-term observations of a gamma-ray blazar known as TXS 0506+056. Results of the observational campaign, published August 11 on arXiv.org, deliver essential information regarding the emission from this source.
The world has already banded together to enact an international treaty that prevented significant global warming this century—even though that wasn't the driving goal. In 1987, dozens of nations adopted the Montreal Protocol, agreeing to phase out the use of chlorofluorocarbons and other chemicals used in refrigerants, solvents, and other industrial products that were breaking down Earth's protec
Researchers have found that the delta variant of the virus that causes COVID-19 is largely unable to evade antibodies elicited by vaccination. The findings help explain why vaccinated people have been at low risk of getting seriously ill with COVID-19 despite a surge in cases caused by the delta variant.
Move likened to handing out lifejackets to those who already have them while letting others drown Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The World Health Organization has condemned the rush by wealthy countries to provide Covid-19 vaccine booster shots while millions of people around the world have yet to receive a single dose. Speaking before US authorities announced all v
For decades, there has been an accepted definition of dieting in academia, and in society as a whole. Researchers recently reevaluated the decades of dieting research to redefine the way researchers and the public define — and therefore understand – dieting and the culture of weight loss.
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. Prepare your deltoid. The Biden administration is gearing up to recommend booster shots for most Americans eight months out from vaccination. Below, we're processing the news—and weighing whether
The regular and predictable ebbing and flooding of the tides may appear to not change, but new research carried out by Bangor University (UK) and Oregon State University (US) and published in the journal Communications Earth and Environment has demonstrated that the tides and tidal processes may have been very different during the ice ages.
In Baltimore, Maryland, leaky sewage infrastructure delivers tens of thousands of human doses of pharmaceuticals to the Chesapeake Bay every year. So reports a new study in Environmental Science & Technology that monitored an urban stream network over a yearlong period. Drug concentrations detected were persistent, variable, and occurred at ecologically relevant levels.
Health experts, medics and charities warn £1.1bn tobacco firm deal could cost inhaler maker access to government grants Shareholders in the asthma inhaler maker Vectura have been urged to reject a £1.1bn takeover by the tobacco company Philip Morris International (PMI), in an open letter signed by 35 health charities, public health experts and doctors from around the world. Investors in the Wilts
Boosters will initially be given to healthcare workers, nursing home residents and older people, starting 20 September The US government said on Wednesday it plans to make Covid-19 vaccine booster shots widely available to all Americans starting on 20 September as infections rise from the Delta variant of the coronavirus. The White House is prepared to offer a third booster shot starting on that
How do magnetic waves behave in antiferromagnets and how do they spread? What role do "domain walls" play in the process? And what could this mean for the future of data storage? These questions are the focus of a recent publication in the journal Physical Review Letters from an international research team led by Konstanz physicist Dr. Davide Bossini. The team reports on magnetic phenomena in anti
Engineers at Duke University have devised a new approach to using sound waves to manipulate tiny particles suspended in liquid in complex ways. Dubbed a "shadow waveguide," the technique uses only two sound sources to create a tightly confined, spatially complex acoustic field inside a chamber without requiring any interior structure. The technology offers a new suite of features to the fast-devel
Scientists used an unconventional method of creating nuclear fusion to yield a record-breaking burst of energy of more than 10 quadrillion watts, by firing intense beams of light from the world's largest lasers at a tiny pellet of hydrogen.
Bitcoin was created to advance democracy and economic freedom. However, just a handful of people control the lion's share of the token, meaning that it is also somewhat centralized. The cryptocurrency has yet to bypass or replace the banking system. Bitcoin led decentralized finance to emerge as a global, open alternative to our traditional financial system — and while the concept is appealing to
Violent activity on our Sun leads to some of the most extreme space weather events on Earth, impacting systems such as satellites, communications systems, power distribution and aviation. The roughly 11 year cycle of solar activity has three 'seasons', each of which affects the space weather felt at Earth differently: (i) solar maximum, the sun is active and disordered, when space weather is storm
For the past year and a half, humans around the world have been asked to do something we're pretty bad at, even in the best of circumstances: figure out what constitutes safety, and act accordingly. A well-understood risk doesn't necessarily improve our thought processes, thanks to a host of cognitive biases and external pressures that pull some people away from the lowest-level danger and push o
Incretins are hormones secreted by intestinal cells that regulate pancreatic insulin and glucagon to control sugar metabolism in mammals. Although counterparts of insulin and glucagon have been identified in invertebrates, no hormone equivalent to incretin has been described. Now, researchers at the University of Tsukuba demonstrate that Neuropeptide F (NPF), a hormone produced by the midgut, perf
Quantum matter can be solid and fluid at the same time—a situation known as supersolidity. Researchers led by Francesca Ferlaino have now created for the first time this fascinating property along two dimensions. They now report in the journal Nature on the realization of supersolidity along two axes of an ultracold quantum gas. The experiment offers many possibilities for further investigation of
There are more than 57 million people living with amputations worldwide, yet only a small fraction of them have access to prosthetic care and technology. Unlimited Tomorrow uses 3D printing to lower the cost of prosthetics. Customers only need to scan their residual limb at home and send the images to receive a prosthetic via mail. 3D printing is poised to continue lowering the cost of prosthetic
Recent research has found that changes in the gut microbiota — the trillions of bacteria and other microbes that live in the intestines — can alter the brain and behavior. A new study could elucidate how and why that phenomenon occurs.
Climate change has been accumulating slowly but relentlessly for decades. The changes might sound small when you hear about them—another tenth of a degree warmer, another centimeter of sea level rise—but seemingly small changes can have big effects on the world around us, especially regionally.
Rates of physical and psychological aggression among couples increased significantly after the implementation of shelter-in-place restrictions at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a new study. The findings indicate that stress related to the pandemic was strongly associated with perpetration of intimate partner aggression, even among individuals considered at low risk.
The field of archaeogenetics has substantially contributed to a better understanding of how the movement and admixture of people across Europe during the Neolithic and Bronze Ages shaped genetic ancestries. However, not all regions are equally well represented in the archaeogenetic record. To fill this gap, researchers of the Max Planck Institutes for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig) and the Sc
A new study has identified specialized immune cells in the cauliflower coral and starlet sea anemone that can help fight infection. The findings are important to better understand how reef-building corals and other reef animals protect themselves from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses found in and around coral reefs.
"I'm getting sick and tired of hearing about morality, our moral obligation," Joe Biden said in 1975. "There's a point where you are incapable of meeting moral obligations that exist worldwide." At the time, he was arguing against U.S. aid to Cambodia. But he could just as easily have said the same about his decision this year to end the American presence in Afghanistan, a catastrophic mistake th
Digital badges used as emblems to indicate an accomplishment or skill is a concept familiar to online learners seeking advanced knowledge in their profession. For many learners, digital badges have been used as a motivation to continue along a prescribed path—often through workshop attendance or completion of required online learning modules.
An experimental study has revealed that the Alzheimer's protein amyloid-beta accumulates inside nerve cells, and that the misfolded protein may then spread from cell to cell via nerve fibers. This happens at an earlier stage than the formation of amyloid-beta plaques in the brain, something that is associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
Researchers began publishing annual reports and bi-annual updates examining the health and safety policies for secondary schools for each individual state and Washington, D.C. The evaluations are based on safety measures states can implement, including emergency action plans, having automatic external defibrillators on site, training coaches to look for signs of concussion, treatment of exertional
Combining a histone deacetylase inhibitor drug with immunotherapy agents has been deemed safe, and may benefit some patients with advanced cancers that have not responded to traditional therapy, according to results of a phase 1 clinical trial.
If you need a reminder of how slowly the wheels of justice grind, here's one. Earlier this month, Sam W. Lee agreed to pay the U.S. government $215,000 to settle allegations that the former Harvard researcher had made false claims in a grant application. It turns out that at least one skeptical researcher had notified … Continue reading
A new imaging technique uses light, sound, and nanoparticles to detect plaques that cause strokes and heart attacks. If heart attacks blared a warning signal, patients would have a better chance of avoiding them. That's the idea behind the new imaging technique. "We shine light into an artery where we've delivered certain types of particles that can absorb that light," says Bryan Smith, an associ
Threatening or obscene messaging includes repeated, unwanted texts, emails, letters or cards experienced by the recipient as threatening or obscene, and causing fear, alarm or distress. It is a rarely examined aspect of intimate partner violence.
Small commercial satellites have a role in atmospheric particulates investigations, according to recently published thesis research by a research associate with the Earth System Science Center at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), a part of the University of Alabama System.
Two Johns Hopkins University researchers who study classroom stress and the emotional well-being of students and teachers have released an app that allows teachers to get daily reports about how their students are feeling.
An international study led by the University of Bonn has found evidence of a long-sought effect in accelerator data. The so-called "triangle singularity" describes how particles can change their identities by exchanging quarks, thereby mimicking a new particle. The mechanism also provides new insights into a mystery that has long puzzled particle physicists: Protons, neutrons and many other partic
As wildfire fronts advance through landscapes or communities on the ground, they also attack from above, launching volleys of glowing embers into the air. Also known as firebrands, these specks of burning debris can glide for up to 40 kilometers (approximately 24 miles) before landing and can cause up to 90% of home and business fires during wildfires.
Over the past few weeks, the Taliban has quickly taken control of major cities throughout Afghanistan, unraveling 20 years of efforts under United States occupation. Fear and uncertainty only intensified after the Taliban installed themselves in the presidential palace in Kabul on August 15. William Nomikos , assistant professor of political science at Washington University in St. Louis, is an ex
Amazing Foresight Back in 1987, world leaders came together to ban chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are the chemicals associated with the gigantic, gaping hole in the ozone layer that persisted for decades. And it's a good thing that they did. Research published in the journal Nature on Wednesday found that a world in which the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer tr
The arachnids, also known as harvestmen, can use their legs like a curling marsupial tail — or as a sensor, or for courtship. They can also simply detach one, in case of emergency. (Image credit: Caitlin M. Baker)
Researchers showed that impedance flow cytometry can be used to quickly and accurately determine the shape of individual cells. The system was able to operate on both living cells as well as polystyrene beads. This work may lead to increased automation in biotechnology research and industrial monitoring applications.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02218-x Many words common to science have never been written in African languages. Now, researchers from across Africa are changing that.
Five days after a 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti, the country's Civil Protection Agency reports that 1,941 people were killed, and almost 10,000 were injured. Rescue crews are still working to find people trapped inside collapsed buildings, having endured harsh conditions as Tropical Storm Grace brought heavy rainfall on Monday. The Associated Press reports that hospitals are overwhelmed,
Genomic structural variants (SVs) can play important roles in adaptation and speciation. Yet the overall fitness effects of SVs are poorly understood, partly because accurate population-level identification of SVs requires multiple high-quality genome assemblies. Here, we use 31 chromosome-scale, haplotype-resolved genome assemblies of Theobroma cacao—an outcrossing, long-lived tree species that..
Slower than anticipated, COVID-19 vaccine production and distribution have impaired efforts to curtail the current pandemic. The standard administration schedule for most COVID-19 vaccines currently approved is two doses administered 3 to 4 wk apart. To increase the number of individuals with partial protection, some governments are considering delaying the…
During malignant progression, epithelial cancer cells dissolve their cell–cell adhesion and gain invasive features. By virtue of its dual function, β-catenin contributes to cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion, and it determines the transcriptional output of Wnt signaling: via its N terminus, it recruits the signaling coactivators Bcl9 and Pygopus, and via the…
Epigenetic regulators play key roles in cancer and are increasingly being targeted for treatment. However, for many, little is known about mechanisms of resistance to the inhibition of these regulators. We have generated a model of resistance to inhibitors of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). This study was conducted in…
Inflammatory arthritis (IA) is a common disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Proinflammatory events during IA pathogenesis are well studied; however, loss of protective immunity remains underexplored. Earlier, we reported that 14-3-3zeta (ζ) has a role in T-cell polarization and interleukin (IL)-17A signal transduction. Here, we demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ…
Understanding how populations' daily behaviors change during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical to evaluating and adapting public health interventions. Here, we use residential electricity-consumption data to unravel behavioral changes within peoples' homes in this period. Based on smart energy-meter data from 10,246 households in Singapore, we find strong positive correlations…
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are often amplified from transcripts cleaved by RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) containing a small RNA (sRNA) and an Argonaute protein. Amplified siRNAs, termed secondary siRNAs, are important for reinforcement of target repression. In plants, target cleavage by RISCs containing 22-nucleotide (nt) sRNA and Argonaute 1 (AGO1)…
Energy-coupling factor (ECF)–type transporters are small, asymmetric membrane protein complexes (∼115 kDa) that consist of a membrane-embedded, substrate-binding protein (S component) and a tripartite ATP-hydrolyzing module (ECF module). They import micronutrients into bacterial cells and have been proposed to use a highly unusual transport mechanism, in which the substrate is…
Originally, Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) describes the growth of perturbations at the interface separating counterpropagating streams of Newtonian fluids of different densities with heavier fluid at the bottom. Generalized KHI is also used to describe instability of free shear layers with continuous variations of velocity and density. KHI is one of…
Coefficients for translational and rotational diffusion characterize the Brownian motion of particles. Emerging X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments probe a broad range of length scales and time scales and are well-suited for investigation of Brownian motion. While methods for estimating the translational diffusion coefficients from XPCS are well-developed, there…
On a pleasant evening in October 2017, winemaker Alisa Jacobson and her friends picked the last of the Cabernet grapes at her friends' winery in southern Napa. They were taking advantage of the cool evening temperatures, which help reduce damage to the fruit. Later that night, the pleasant evening air…
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02242-x Small study hints that interference from bodies funding research into public-health issues such as nutrition and exercise may be more common than realized.
New research sheds light on the effect urbanization has on the flesh fly species Sarcophaga similis. Through a series of laboratory and in-field experiments, scientists show that an increase in nighttime illumination and temperature, two of the major characteristics of urbanization, can postpone S. similis hibernation anywhere from 3 weeks to a month.
Inside cells, organelles called mitochondria carry out a medley of vital tasks. These structures generate energy and help to keep the cells' interior environment in a state of healthy equilibrium, among other functions. Now, scientists show in detail how alpha-synuclein, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, can damage these cellular powerhouses.
After years of research, neuroscientists have discovered a new pathway in the human brain that processes the sounds of language. The findings suggest that auditory and speech processing occur in parallel, contradicting a long-held theory that the brain processed acoustic information then transformed it into linguistic information.
Giant anteaters living in less forested habitats make use of larger home ranges, according to a study by Aline Giroux at the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul and colleagues, publishing August 18 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE. This behavior may allow them to incorporate forest patches into their territory, the authors say.
Humans have been always on the move, creating a complex history of languages and cultural traditions dispersed over the globe. An international team under UZH's lead has now traced families of related languages over more than 10,000 years by combining data from genetics, linguistics and musicology using novel digital methods. Their findings: grammar reflects best the common prehistory of a populat
Seadragons (Phyllopetryx taeniolatus) live off the coast in western and southern Australia. An international team involving evolutionary biologist Axel Meyer from the University of Konstanz has now found the genetic basis for some external characteristics of the seadragon, like its lack of teeth and its distinct leaf-like appendages. The team also localized the sex-determination gene in the seadra
The 21st century has undoubtedly been the era of quantum science. Quantum mechanics was born in the early 20th century and has been used to develop unprecedented technologies which include quantum information, quantum communication, quantum metrology, quantum imaging, and quantum sensing. However, in quantum science, there are still unresolved and even inapprehensible issues like wave-particle dua
Recreational fishing in the U.S. is largely a personal hobby that scales up to a multibillion-dollar economic activity. More than 44 million people in the U.S. identify as recreational anglers making this hobby second only to jogging in terms of popular outdoor activities.
New modelling by the international team of scientists paints a dramatic vision of a scorched planet Earth without the Montreal Protocol, what they call the 'World Avoided'. This study draws a new stark link between two major environmental concerns — the hole in the ozone layer and global warming. The research team reveals that if ozone-destroying chemicals, which most notoriously include CFCs, ha
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02231-0 Atmospheric levels of two powerful heat-trapping gases are rising quickly — and are higher than official emissions records suggest.
Space Jam The US Army recently unveiled plans to develop, test, and deploy high-altitude systems that can fly over other countries to surveil them — and jam enemy communications from up on high. The system doesn't quite reach space (unless you adhere to the same definition of space as Jeff Bezos or Richard Branson). Instead, the High-Altitude Extended-Range Long Endurance Intelligence Observation
After World War II, the U.S. developed an "informal empire" through a global network of military bases and alliances. Freedom is central to American identity, which is why the U.S. is uncomfortable with the notion that it has become an empire. The U.S. finds that it is damned if it does, and damned if it doesn't, get involved in the world's problems. The following is an adapted excerpt from the b
'Levelling up' | Boris Johnson | Clothkits | Flatulence On the idea of "levelling up" ( Letters, 16 August ), I was reminded of Lord Grade when he was told about the high costs of making his film, Raise the Titanic. Apparently he mused that it could possibly be cheaper to lower the Atlantic. John Rathbone Cheltenham, Gloucestershire • You could lace a billion pairs of shoes with the irony of the
A gap remains between white parents and Black and Hispanic parents in their preferences for in-person schooling, but it has narrowed since May. The RAND Corporation survey, funded by The Rockefeller Foundation, details parents' responses concerning school hesitancy and preferences for COVID-19 safety practices in U.S. schools in fall 2021.
The delta variant of the virus that causes COVID-19 is not particularly good at evading the antibodies that vaccination generates, according to a new study. The researchers analyzed a panel of antibodies generated by people in response to the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine and found that delta was unable to evade all but one of the antibodies they tested. Other variants of concern, such as beta, avoided
Hydrogen and helium behave very strangely when under high pressure. Metallic hydrogen and helium rain may exist on gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn. We can recreate these extreme conditions in a laboratory using giant lasers! The universe is full of giant planets. Like Jupiter and Saturn in our own solar system, these giant worlds may be central to the formation of life in a planetary system be
When NASA's James Webb Space Telescope begins science operations in 2022, one of its first tasks will be an ambitious program to map the earliest structures in the universe. Called COSMOS-Webb, this wide and deep survey of half a million galaxies is the largest project Webb will undertake during its first year.
Fusion energy — to many, the holy grail of sustainable energy — is on the edge of its next breakthrough. Using a powerful laser at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in California, researchers managed to heat up a peppercorn-sized sample of two hydrogen isotopes well past the temperature of the Sun's core, a process known as inertial confinement fusion (ICF). ICF is one of two major branches of
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have explored high-pressure behavior of shock-compressed tantalum at the Omega Laser Facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The work showed tantalum did not follow the predicted phase changes at high pressure and instead maintained the body-centered cubic (BCC) phase until melt.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03733-7 Surface enhancements in glass mobility are complicated in polymers by the interplay of the surface mobile layer thickness with a second length scale (the size of the polymer chains), giving rise to a transient rubbery surface even in polymers with short chains.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03830-7 Signals from the sympathetic nervous system act via mesenchymal stromal cells to regulate the function of group 2 innate lymphoid cells and control adipocyte metabolism.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03737-3 Modelling suggests that the Montreal Protocol may be mitigating climate change by protecting the land carbon sink, as well as by protecting the ozone layer and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03824-5 A protein chaperone system is identified that consists of proteins with poly-Asp/Glu sequence, and may have an important role in diseases characterized by protein aggregation.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03827-2 A high-fructose diet in mice improves the survival of intestinal epithelial cells, which leads to an increase in gut surface area, enhanced absorption of lipids and the promotion of tumour growth and obesity.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03711-z The results of site testing at a local summit near Lenghu Town in Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau indicate that the site is suitable as an astronomical observing site.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03837-0 Behavioural and transcriptomic analyses show that chronic social isolation of Drosophila causes perturbed sleep and increased feeding, and induces a starvation-like brain state.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03825-4 Structural and mechanistic data of the ADP-ribosyltransferase DarT demonstrate the role of ADP-ribosylation of DNA by this enzyme in generating toxicity and regulating cellular signalling processes in bacteria.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03700-2 Model patchy colloids with directional bonding are designed that assemble into icosahedral quasicrystals through the propagation of an icosahedral network of bonds and may be realized using DNA origami particles.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03851-2 A proteomics-based strategy is used to examine how three different RNA viruses (polio, Zika and dengue) remodel translation in the host to recruit host machineries necessary for the production of viral proteins.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03755-1 Hyperbolic phonon polaritons that exhibit long-distance, ray-like propagation and oblique wavefronts are described at the surface of an anisotropic bulk crystal.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02195-1 Feeding mice high-fructose corn syrup, a widely used sweetener in human diets, has been found to drive an increase in the surface area of the gut that is associated with enhanced absorption of dietary nutrients and weight gain.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02191-5 Supersolids are exotic materials whose constituent particles can simultaneously form a crystal and flow without friction. The first 2D supersolid has been produced using ultracold gases of highly magnetic atoms.
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02194-2 The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a social animal. Flies kept in chronic social isolation have now been found to show dysregulated sleep and feeding patterns, casting light on how prolonged absence of social contact affects health.
Neutrinos are tricky beasts. Alone among known fundamental particles, they suffer from an identity crisis—if it were possible to put them on a weighing scale, you would unpredictably measure one of three possible masses. As a result, the three neutrino "flavors" merge into each other as they race through space and matter, opening up the potential for matter-antimatter asymmetries relevant to open
Marjan Minnesma cheered along with her fellow climate activists in May when a judge ordered Royal Dutch Shell Plc to drastically slash its carbon dioxide emissions. It was the first time a company had been held legally accountable for its planet-warming pollution.
Conventional experiments in chemistry and biology study the behavior of the two, but it has been an abiding scientific challenge for scientists to observe, manipulate and measure the chemical reactions of individual molecules.
The geological record of the movement of Earth's "tectonic plates" is preserved in the magnetic orientation of old rocks found in the interior of these tectonic plates. As these rocks form, the magnetic orientation of their magnetic minerals aligns in a direction that depends on their position with the Earth's magnetic field. As the tectonic plates move and their position with the Earth's magnetic
Pharmaceutical compounds can harm the environment. However, in waterways that don't receive treated wastewater, these pollutants aren't expected to be present. Now, researchers have found that amounts of some medications carried by a stream in Baltimore were substantial, despite generally low concentrations over the course of a year. Because wastewater plants don't impact this stream, the high loa
New research from the University of South Australia shows a significant gender pay gap across most Australian firms, with 80 percent of them paying female executives 30-35 percent less than their male counterparts, despite being of equal caliber, education, and achievement.
The internet of things (IoT) enables the interconnection and data transmission among a plethora of physical objects such as terminal devices, vehicles, and buildings that are embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity. In 5G and 6G optical networks, high-speed and low-latency communications enable interconnection among a wide variety of endpoints through the
That's Gotta Hurt In unfortunate news, astronomers checking up on the overall status of our Milky Way galaxy discovered that at some point in ancient history, the galaxy broke one of its arms, and uh never quite healed. Kind of. If you think of the galaxy's structure like a skeleton, the break in a spiral NASA scientists found and described in research published last month in the journal Astronom
The field of Archaeogenetics has substantially contributed to a better understanding of how the movement and admixture of people across Europe during the Neolithic and Bronze Ages shaped genetic ancestries. However, not all regions are equally well represented in the archaeogenetic record. To fill this gap, researchers have now sequenced whole genomes of 28 individuals from two sites in present-da
Ice losses from Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica are currently responsible for roughly four percent of the global sea-level rise. This figure could increase, since virtually no another ice stream in the Antarctic is changing as dramatically as the massive Thwaites Glacier. Until recently, experts attributed these changes to climate change and the fact that the glacier rests on the seafloor in m
A breakthrough by researchers at the University of South Florida (USF) and collaborating institutions around the world could pave the way for better products, such as improved batteries, automobile paint and cellphone screens.
For decades, scientists suspected that bacteria known as Geobacter could clean up radioactive uranium waste, but it wasn't clear how the microbes did it. "The biological mechanism of how they were doing this remained elusive for 20 years," says Gemma Reguera, a microbiologist whose team solved that mystery 10 years ago. Well, three-quarters of the mystery. She's now cracked the rest of the case.
Zoom fumbled access for their disabled users, argues psychology doctoral student Courtney Wade. Wade , whose work at North Carolina State University focuses on cultural strategy, community engagement, and digital design justice, explains the situation below. Wade is also founder of the Disability, Autistic, Mad, & Neuroqueer (DAMN) Solidarity Project . In late June, Zoom unveiled a number of upda
Nutrient imbalances can adversely impact crop health and agricultural productivity. The trace elements zinc and iron are taken up by the same 'transporters' in plants; so, zinc deficiency can result in excess uptake of iron. How does the plant cope with this imbalance? Researchers reveal that autophagy, the process of intracellular self-degradation, may have an unexpected role in restoring zinc-ir
The U.S. Department of the Interior and the Bureau of Reclamation declared a water shortage in the Colorado River Basin, announcing historic water cuts for portions of the western United States. The damning headlines are startling, but water researchers say they shouldn't be—this is all part of a water conservation plan nearly two decades in the making.
Scientists from Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) measured changes in electrical conductivity caused by cells passing through a tiny channel to determine if they were spherical or elongated. They found that the asymmetry of objects could be measured rapidly and accurately, which may lead to faster and more reliable cell differentiation.
Studying DNA repair is key to future space exploration, which could expose humans to risk of DNA damage caused by radiation. Conditions in space also could affect the way the body repairs such damage, potentially compounding that risk.
Att dela klassrum med sin förövare. Att inte klara av att vara i skolan och halka efter i undervisningen. Det finns många anledningar att undersöka skolans roll för ungdomar som blivit utsatta för brott, menar Örebroforskaren Sara Thunberg. – Skolan är viktig för den här åldersgruppen. Hade de varit vuxna hade flera av dem blivit sjukskrivna – men när man går i skolan måste man vara fysiskt närva
Stream Full Episodes of Deadliest Catch: discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/de… Discovery ► https://go.discovery.com/tv-shows/dea… Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Join us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DeadliestCatch https://www.facebook.com/Discovery Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/DeadliestCatch https://twitter.com/Discovery From: Disco
Emissions from shipping activities around the world account for nearly 3 percent of total human-caused greenhouse gas emissions, and could increase by up to 50 percent by 2050, making them an important and often overlooked target for global climate mitigation. At the same time, shipping-related emissions of additional pollutants, particularly nitrogen and sulfur oxides, pose a significant threat t
Owning a home has long been a central tenet of the American dream, and scholarship has touted the economic benefits of homeownership. A new study from the University of Kansas explores the effects of wealth and debt on transitioning to ownership and back, finding that when all things are equal, renters of color are less likely to become homeowners.
In the fall of 2020, some political analysts predicted voters mourning the loss of friends and loved ones to COVID-19 would have blamed then-President Donald Trump for mismanaging the pandemic and, in turn, be more likely to vote for Joe Biden than they were for Hillary Clinton.
At the end of 2020, Boston Dynamics released a spirits-lifting, can't-watch-without-smiling video of its robots doing a coordinated dance routine . Atlas, Spot, and Handle had some pretty sweet moves, though if we're being honest, Atlas was the one (or, in this case, two) that really stole the show. A new video released yesterday has the bipedal humanoid robot stealing the show again, albeit in a
Bumblebees largely contribute to the pollination of crops. However, they are threatened by land use changes due to climate change. Long-term simulations made by researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and partners from Italy have now shown that smart land management may stabilize some species. The results are reported in Global Change Biology.
Researchers have developed a climate-friendly alternative to conventional cement. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions can be reduced during production by up to two thirds when a previously unused overburden from bauxite mining is used as a raw material. The alternative was found to be just as stable as the traditional Portland cement.
Children and adolescents can experience sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea, like adults. An estimated 1-6% of all children and adolescents have obstructive sleep apnea. The sleep disruptions and pauses in breathing from sleep apnea may be linked to obesity, lipid disorders, elevated blood pressure and changes in heart structure in kids.
Boston Dynamics spent most of its 29-year history with no consumer products at all. Now, it has one in the $75,000 Spot robot . There's still no way to buy the company's humanoid Atlas robot, but it's learning some new tricks nonetheless. In the latest Boston Dynamics video, you can marvel at the speed and agility of two Atlas robots as they navigate a parkour course. They even pull off some sick
Researchers at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) in Germany and the Brazilian University of Pará have developed a climate-friendly alternative to conventional cement. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions can be reduced during production by up to two thirds when a previously unused overburden from bauxite mining is used as a raw material. The alternative was found to be just as stable a
ESA's Solar Orbiter and BepiColombo spacecraft made a historic Venus flyby earlier this week, passing by the planet within 33 hours of each other and capturing unique imagery and data during the encounter.
As well as making it one of the most widely recognized molecules, the distinctive soccer ball shape of C60 gives it some useful properties. One of which is thought to be electrical conductivity when multiple molecules are close together. Efforts have therefore been made to optimize C60 so that it can be applied to electronic devices. Now, researchers at the University of Tsukuba have devised a way
Benzylamines, one type of N-functionalized aromatics, are widely used as precursors of pharmaceuticals and synthetic dyes. Catalytic conversion of lignin into value-added N-containing chemicals such as benzylamines is significant to bring the biorefinery concept into reality.
Aerosols are small, solid particles that drift aloft in Earth's atmosphere. These minuscule motes may be any of a number of diverse substances, such as dust, pollution, and wildfire smoke. By absorbing or scattering sunlight, aerosols influence Earth's climate. They also affect air quality and human health.
Nutrient imbalances can adversely impact crop health and agricultural productivity. The trace elements zinc and iron are taken up by the same transporters in plants, so zinc deficiency can result in excess uptake of iron. How does the plant cope with this imbalance? Researchers from Meiji University, Japan, reveal that autophagy, the process of intracellular self-degradation, may have an unexpecte
Halterna av coronaviruset sars-cov-2 ökar successivt i avloppsvattnet i Göteborg, dock från relativt låga nivåer. Det framgår av de senaste veckornas mätningar och den analys som nu gjorts vid Göteborgs universitet. – Trenden är tydlig, det går sakteliga uppåt nu, även om det inte är några större mängder, säger Heléne Norder, adjungerad professor i mikrobiologi vid avdelningen för infektionssjukd
Forskare har lyckats mäta kolisotoper i atmosfären hos en exoplanet – 300 ljusår från jorden. Metoden krattar manegen för fortsatt sökande efter utomjordiskt liv. Det finns miljarder planeter runt stjärnorna i vår galax, som snurrar runt i sina egna solsystem. Genom att fånga upp en svag signal från yttre rymden har ett forskarlag lyckats analysera isotopsignaler från en av de så kallade exoplane
Seahorses have long been a popular attraction in public aquariums, but they remain mysterious. They are a fish with a difference in that they swim in an upright, vertical position. They have flexible necks and long, tubular snouts that point downward, giving them the appearance of a horse's head. Their lower bodies form a flexible, prehensile tail, which is square in outline and can wrap around ob
Depending on who you ask, blockchains are useful documentation tools, the foundation of a new form of finance, or even a new type of lifeform . Yet when you cut through the hype, you find a new and incredibly powerful tool with an enormous range of applications. The Blockchain Bootcamp Certification Training Bundle can get you up to speed on this world-changing tech. It's on sale for only $19.99.
De midlertidige pladser er blevet en vigtig og permanent måde at pleje, behandle og rehabilitere de flere og mere komplekse ældre medicinske borgere i kommunerne. Men der er en række behov, som er vigtige at være opmærksomme på, skriver sundhedschef.
The first full-size prototype of SpaceX's Starship vehicle should be ready to launch on an orbital test flight "in a few weeks," company founder and CEO Elon Musk said via Twitter on Saturday (Aug. 14).
Kebnekaises snöhöljda sydtopp fortsätter att krympa och avsmältningen det senaste året ligger på närmare två meter. Den uppmätta höjden är dessutom den lägsta sedan mätningarna startade på 1940-talet. Den 14 augusti i år mätte forskare vid Tarfala forskningsstation Kebnekaises sydtopp till 2 094,6 meter över havet (med felmarginal på ±0,2 meter). Det är den lägsta höjden som uppmätts sedan 1940-t
Sheep have been grazing the salt marsh landscape of the Gower Peninsula in Wales since medieval times. Today around 3,500 lambs and ewes feed there, where a diet of naturally growing samphire and sorrel gives their meat a unique flavor.
As a typical human pathogenic fungus, Cryptococcus neoformansis a life-threatening invasive fungal pathogen with a worldwide distribution causing ∼700,000 deaths annually. Cryptococcosis is not just an infection with multi-organ involvement, intracellular survival and extracellular multiplication of the fungus also play important roles in the pathogenesis of C. neoformansinfections. Because adequa
The announcement by BHP, the world's second-largest mining company, that it will shift its oil and gas assets into a joint venture with Australian outfit Woodside is a clear indication the "Big Australian" is getting out of the carbon-based fuel industry.
Australia's oceans are home to a startling array of biodiversity—whales, dolphins, dugongs and more. But not all components of Aussie marine life are the charismatic sort of animal that can feature in a tourism promotion, documentary, or conservation campaign.
Australian native plants are having a moment in the sun, with more of us seeking out and planting native species than in the past. Our gardens—and our social media feeds—are brimming with beautiful Australian native blooms.
I USA har forskere opnået en output-energi på 1,35 MJ for en input-energi på 1,9 MJ i et laserfusionseksperiment. Dermed er de nu ganske tæt på målet om at generere mere fusionsenergi end den energi, der går til at sætte processen i gang.
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25292-1 Synthetic anti-ferromagnets, where two ferromagnetic layers are coupled anti-ferromagnetically via a spacer, are known for their very large current-induced domain wall velocities. Here, Guan et al show that the velocity of the domain walls in synthetic anti-ferromagnetic nanowires can be tuned over a wide rang
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25338-4 Proximity biotinylation is a powerful tool to profile interactomes, but it requires genetic engineering of the target protein. Here, the authors develop a proximity biotinylation enzyme that can be directed to the target using antibodies, enabling interactome profiling of endogenous proteins or PTMs.
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25147-9 Summertime ozone air pollution in North China remains severe. Here the authors find large biogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides in North China, mainly driven by fertilizer application, challenge the mitigation of ozone pollution by only reducing combustion induced ozone precursors' emissions.
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25333-9 Obesity is a major risk factor for cancer related death. Here, the authors show that visceral adipose-derived factors promote vasculogenesis and metastatic dissemination by activation of STAT3, which inhibits miR-200a and enhances ZEB2 expression, effectively reprogramming colorectal cancer cells into a highly
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24857-4 The authors introduce an analytical approach for quantitative analysis of 3D atom dynamics during electron microscopy. They image a Co-Mo-S nanocrystal with 1.5 Å resolution, and observe chemical transformations caused by beam-stimulated vibrations.
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25303-1 Sonodynamic therapy has therapeutic promise due to its safety and good tissue penetration, but is currently bottlenecked due to a lack of efficient and safe sonosensitizers. Here the authors show that [Ru(bpy)3]2+ can produce singlet oxygen and sonooxidize NADH in deep tissue, and destroy mouse tumors effectiv
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25028-1 Proper meiotic chromosome segregation requires mismatch repair genes MLH1 and MLH3, of which variants occur in the human population. Here, the authors use computational predictions and yeast assays to select human MLH1/3 variants for modelling in mice, observing reproductive defects from abnormal levels of cro
Nature Communications, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25346-4 The BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2-RAD51 (BRCA1-P) complex is well known to play a fundamental role in DNA repair, but how the complex recruitment is regulated is still a matter of interest. Here the authors reveal mechanistic insights into RNF168 activity being responsible for PALB2 recruitment, through BARD1-BRCA1 during
Nature, Published online: 18 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02220-3 The Australian government must embrace UNESCO's assessment to marshal the resources needed to protect the unique coral ecosystem.
2 094,6 meter över havet. Så högt sträckte sig Kebnekaises sydtopp den 14 augusti år 2021, vilket innebär en förlust på drygt två meter sedan motsvarande tidpunkt år 2020. Forskare förväntar sig att höjden går upp och ned över tid, men sedan millennieskiftet har Kebnekaise krympt på ett sätt som avviker från denna "jojo-effekt".
As devastating wildfires ravage Greece, experts say the blazes cast a harsh light on the failure to prepare against and contain them, threatening irreversible damage to the country's rich biodiversity.
Hundreds of firefighters struggled for a third day Wednesday to contain France's worst wildfire of the summer near the glitzy Riviera resort of Saint-Tropez which has forced thousands of residents and tourists to flee.
As the world struggles to contain COVID-19, a group of leading, scientific experts from the U.S., Latin America, Africa and South Asia released a report today outlining the strong scientific foundations for taking actions to stop the next pandemic by preventing the spillover of pathogens from animals to people. The report provides recommendations for research and actions to forestall new pandemics
Requiring vaccine passports would not violate any individual rights that a well-ordered society would choose to defend. Photograph by FrankHH / Shutterstock The latest surge in COVID-19 cases in the United States has been called a pandemic of antivaxxers and conspiracy theorists. But it is more than that. Children under 12, for example, are ineligible for vaccination, yet surprisingly susceptible
The extent of vaccine nationalism, wherein countries stockpile vaccines to prioritize access for their citizenry over equitable vaccine sharing, may strongly impact global trajectories of COVID-19 case numbers and increase the potential emergence of novel variants, according to a new study.
A research group is developing polymers that can be broken down into their constituent parts; thus, when the catalyst for depolymerization is absent or removed, the polymers will be highly stable and their thermal and mechanical properties can be tuned to meet the needs of various applications.
On average, people in larger cities are better off economically. But a new study builds on previous research that says, that's not necessarily true for the individual city-dweller. It turns out, bigger cities also produce more income inequality.
Blue light is illuminating new understanding of a key signaling pathway in embryo development, tissue maintenance and cancer genesis. Researchers have developed an approach using blue light to activate the Wnt signaling pathway in frog embryos. The pathway plays a wide variety of roles in animal and human development, and the ability to regulate it with light will allow researchers to better study
If you're putting together a team for a project, you might be inclined to pick people with cheerful, optimistic dispositions and flexible thinking. But a new management study indicates your team might also benefit from people who are exactly the opposite.
Researchers contributed to a deeper understanding of free electron laser physics by evaluating the interaction between an ultraviolet laser and a relativistic electron beam in a pure dipole magnet. The team used a 266-nm laser at the soft x-ray FEL test facility to modulate an 800-MeV electron beam….The results showed that a short dipole magnet can serve as an effective tool for introducing ener
Nature, Published online: 17 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02199-x Scientists and environmentalists say the road, slated to pass through Iguaçu National Park, could harm research projects and precious ecosystems.
A good night's sleep is one of life's great joys, so there's nothing quite like the crushing blow of being kept awake by snoring. This is especially ture if the person snoring is you or someone you love. According to data out of Johns Hopkins Medicine , around 45-percent of people snore occasionally, like when you drink too much or are totally exhausted. Another 25-percent of people snore on a re
There's no sense quite like smell to trigger an emotional response. One whiff of a damp basement, a dusty blanket, a ripe strawberry, or a steaming bowl of pasta can instantly evoke feelings and memories that have their roots in the distant past. Yet when it comes to learning about bygone times, we barely give a thought to the vapors that once prevailed—galleries and museums are the domain of artw
If you're putting together a team for a project, you might be inclined to pick people with cheerful, optimistic dispositions and flexible thinking. But a new management study indicates your team might also benefit from people who are exactly the opposite, according to experts at Rice University, the University of Western Australia, Bond University and the University of Queensland.
In the digital age, service center operations, including call centers and help desks, are increasingly important as main channels for organizations to interact with their customers. Companies are looking for ways to manage service centers more efficiently—including routing calls to appropriate representatives—because service centers have a direct impact on customer satisfaction and firm performanc
Including music in the background of a television commercial may make for a more effective sports product advertisement, according to a new study. The evidence is in consumers' brain waves: Study participants who were shown the version of a commercial that included music in the background had higher emotional arousal and attention level that those who were shown a version that only included narra
Urbanization is causing many mammal species to grow bigger, possibly because of readily available food in places packed with people, according to a new study. The finding runs counter to many scientists' hypothesis that cities would trigger mammals to get smaller over time. Buildings and roads trap and re-emit a greater degree of heat than green landscapes, causing cities to have higher temperatu
A former researcher at the Mount Desert Island Laboratory in Maine who co-founded a lab spinoff faked data in research supported by federal funding, according to the U.S. Office of Research Integrity. The researcher, Viravuth Yin, "engaged in research misconduct by knowingly, intentionally, and/or recklessly falsifying and/or fabricating data," the ORI said in an announcement … Continue reading
Rates of physical and psychological aggression among couples increased significantly after the implementation of shelter-in-place restrictions at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers report. The pandemic resulted in a six-to-eightfold increase in rates of intimate partner aggression across the US. Physical aggression increased from two acts per year before the pandemic to 15 acts per
While other simulations have modeled black hole growth, new model is the first single computer simulation powerful enough to comprehensively account for the numerous forces and factors that play into the evolution of supermassive black holes. Simulation shows that galaxies' spiral arms 'put the brakes on gas,' enabling it to fall into the black hole and as gas heats up while falling into a black h
IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for "T-cell responses to hybrid insulin peptides prior to type 1 diabetes development," by Angela M. Mitchell, Aimon A. Alkanani, Kristen A. McDaniel, Laura Pyle, Kathleen Waugh, Andrea K. Steck, Maki Nakayama, Liping Yu, Peter A. Gottlieb, Marian J. Rewers, and Aaron W. Michels, which published…
Ethylene influences plant growth, development, and stress responses via crosstalk with other phytohormones; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we describe a mechanistic link between the brassinosteroid (BR) and ethylene biosynthesis, which regulates cellular protein homeostasis and stress responses. We demonstrate that as a scaffold, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxy
The Mesozoic Dipole Low (MDL) is a period, covering at least ∼80 My, of low dipole moment that ended at the start of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. Recent studies of Devonian age Siberian localities identified similarly low field values a few tens of million years prior to the Permo-Carboniferous Reverse…
A significant proportion of autism risk genes regulate synapse function, including plasticity, which is believed to contribute to behavioral abnormalities. However, it remains unclear how impaired synapse plasticity contributes to network-level processes linked to adaptive behaviors, such as experience-dependent ensemble plasticity. We found that Syngap1, a major autism risk gene,…
The hippocampus is critically important for a diverse range of cognitive processes, such as episodic memory, prospective memory, affective processing, and spatial navigation. Using individual-specific precision functional mapping of resting-state functional MRI data, we found the anterior hippocampus (head and body) to be preferentially functionally connected to the default mode…
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)–engineered T cell therapies have been recognized as powerful strategies in cancer immunotherapy; however, the clinical application of CAR-T is currently constrained by severe adverse effects in patients, caused by excessive cytotoxic activity and poor T cell control. Herein, we harnessed a dietary molecule resveratrol (RES)–responsive transactivator…
We present exact results that give insight into how interactions lead to transport and superconductivity in a flat band where the electrons have no kinetic energy. We obtain bounds for the optical spectral weight for flat-band superconductors that lead to upper bounds for the superfluid stiffness and the two-dimensional (2D)…
Genomic data are being produced and archived at a prodigious rate, and current studies could become historical baselines for future global genetic diversity analyses and monitoring programs. However, when we evaluated the potential utility of genomic data from wild and domesticated eukaryote species in the world's largest genomic data repository,…
Electro-Fenton processes aim at producing oxidizing radicals with fewer added chemicals and residues but are still unable to completely eliminate both. This study demonstrates that a reagent-free electro-Fenton process that runs solely on oxygen and electricity can be achieved by sequential dual-cathode electrocatalysis. H2O2 is produced on an electrodeposited PEDOT…
A simple electrochemically mediated method for the conversion of alkyl carboxylic acids to their borylated congeners is presented. This protocol features an undivided cell setup with inexpensive carbon-based electrodes and exhibits a broad substrate scope and scalability in both flow and batch reactors. The use of this method in challenging…
The ABCG1 homodimer (G1) and ABCG5–ABCG8 heterodimer (G5G8), two members of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–binding cassette (ABC) transporter G family, are required for maintenance of cellular cholesterol levels. G5G8 mediates secretion of neutral sterols into bile and the gut lumen, whereas G1 transports cholesterol from macrophages to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)….
One of the remarkable discoveries in the history of functional neuroimaging was that a consistent set of brain regions show decreases in blood flow during performance of different tasks when compared to rest (1). The idea that this might be due to quiescence of an activated state during rest (e.g.,…
The cosolvent effect arises from the interaction of cosolute molecules with a protein and alters the equilibrium between native and unfolded states. Denaturants shift the equilibrium toward the latter, while osmolytes stabilize the former. The molecular mechanism whereby cosolutes perturb protein stability is still the subject of considerable debate. Probing…
Water has fascinated humans for centuries, and, despite its central importance in biology, chemistry, and industry, we are still refining our understanding of its properties. One area of vigorous research over the last ∼50 y has been water's supercooled liquid state—water cooled below the temperature at which ice would normally…
Invisibly small carbon nanotubes aligned as fibers and sewn into fabrics become a thermoelectric generator that can turn heat from the sun or other sources into energy, researchers report. The researchers worked to make custom nanotube fibers and test their potential for large-scale applications. Their small-scale experiments led to a fiber-enhanced, flexible cotton fabric that turned heat into e
Scientists have developed a novel strategy using brain-wide genome-editing technology that can reduce Alzheimer's disease(AD) pathologies in genetically modified AD mouse models. This advanced technology offers immense potential to be translated as a novel long-acting therapeutic treatment for AD patients.
A survey of more than 17,000 pregnant and lactating people who received the COVID-19 vaccine showed that they did not experience symptoms any more severe than their non-pregnant counterparts. The study in JAMA Network Open shows "there were not any increased reactions in pregnant individuals beyond what is expected from a vaccine" says Linda Eckert, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the
If you're a male chimp looking for love — or offspring — it pays to make friends with other males. A study examined why male chimpanzees form close relationships with each other, and found that male chimpanzees that build strong bonds with the alpha male of the group, or with a large network of other males, are more successful at siring offspring.
Researchers have, with the help of cryogenic electron microscopy, succeeded in producing a high-resolution image of photosystem II – the central complex of photosynthesis – of the model plant Arabidopsis. The enormous complex is responsible for the vital oxygen production in photosynthesis that once made life possible on our planet.
New research has uncovered considerable class differences in the gender revolution of who holds the purse strings among British couples. Low-earning and high-earning women are taking more control of the finances in their relationships, but in different ways, says the research.
Despite its importance for forest regeneration, food webs, and human economies, changes in tree fecundity with tree size and age remain largely unknown. The allometric increase with tree diameter assumed in ecological models would substantially overestimate seed contributions from large trees if fecundity eventually declines with size. Current estimates are…
Damialis et al. (1) report that higher airborne pollen concentrations were related to higher COVID-19 infection rates, proposing that "pollen exposure weakens the immunity … by diminishing the antiviral interferon response." They speculate that the effect could be stronger for those with allergies. As allergic people may also be more…
The Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota is a terrestrial lagerstätte that contains exceptionally well-preserved fossils indicating the origin and early evolution of Mesozoic life, such as birds, dinosaurs, pterosaurs, mammals, insects, and flowering plants. New geochronologic studies have further constrained the ages of the fossil-bearing beds, and recent investigations on Early…
Species-specific sperm−egg interactions are essential for sexual reproduction. Broadcast spawning of marine organisms is under particularly stringent conditions, since eggs released into the water column can be exposed to multiple different sperm. Bindin isolated from the sperm acrosome results in insoluble particles that cause homospecific eggs to aggregate, whereas no…
Betsch and Sprengholz (1) address the issue of supposedly increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing frequency in allergic patients during the pollen season because of the misinterpreted similar symptoms of allergic and viral rhinitis. We (2) had previously reported a significant and positive relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infections and…
CHEMISTRY Correction for "The pervasive threat of lead (Pb) in drinking water: Unmasking and pursuing scientific factors that govern lead release," by Raymond J. Santucci Jr and John R. Scully, which was first published September 8, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1913749117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 23211–23218). The authors note that Fig….
ANTHROPOLOGY Correction for "The genomics of ecological flexibility, large brains, and long lives in capuchin monkeys revealed with fecalFACS," by Joseph D. Orkin, Michael J. Montague, Daniela Tejada-Martinez, Marc de Manuel, Javier del Campo, Saul Cheves Hernandez, Anthony Di Fiore, Claudia Fontsere, Jason A. Hodgson, Mareike C. Janiak, Lukas F….
CELL BIOLOGY Correction for "iRhom2 controls the substrate selectivity of stimulated ADAM17-dependent ectodomain shedding," by Thorsten Maretzky, David R. McIlwain, Priya Darshinee A. Issuree, Xue Li, Jordi Malapeira, Sadaf Amin, Philipp A. Lang, Tak W. Mak, and Carl P. Blobel, which was first published June 25, 2013; 10.1073/pnas.1302553110 (Proc. Natl….
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Correction for "Autocrine regulation of ecdysone synthesis by β3-octopamine receptor in the prothoracic gland is essential for Drosophila metamorphosis," by Yuya Ohhara, Yuko Shimada-Niwa, Ryusuke Niwa, Yasunari Kayashima, Yoshiki Hayashi, Kazutaka Akagi, Hitoshi Ueda, Kimiko Yamakawa-Kobayashi, and Satoru Kobayashi, which was first published January 20, 2015; 10.1073/pnas.14
PHYSICS Correction to Supporting Information for "Quantum approximate optimization of the long-range Ising model with a trapped-ion quantum simulator," by Guido Pagano, Aniruddha Bapat, Patrick Becker, Katherine S. Collins, Arinjoy De, Paul W. Hess, Harvey B. Kaplan, Antonis Kyprianidis, Wen Lin Tan, Christopher Baldwin, Lucas T. Brady, Abhinav Deshpande, Fangli…
The sediment record from Lake Ohrid (Southwestern Balkans) represents the longest continuous lake archive in Europe, extending back to 1.36 Ma. We reconstruct the vegetation history based on pollen analysis of the DEEP core to reveal changes in vegetation cover and forest diversity during glacial–interglacial (G–IG) cycles and early basin…
Dormancy has repeatedly evolved in plants, animals, and microbes and is hypothesized to facilitate persistence in the face of environmental change. Yet previous experiments have not tracked demography and trait evolution spanning a full successional cycle to ask whether early bouts of natural selection are later reinforced or erased during…
Marine fisheries are an essential component of global food security, but many are close to their limits and some are overfished. The models that guide the management of these fisheries almost always assume reproduction is proportional to mass (isometry), when fecundity generally increases disproportionately to mass (hyperallometry). Judged against several…
Constraining secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in the past is fundamental to understanding short-term processes of the geodynamo. Such records also constitute a powerful and independent dating tool for archaeological sites and geological formations. In this study, we present 11 robust archaeointensity results from Pre-Pottery to Pottery…
Climate scientists have long emphasized the importance of climate tipping points like thawing permafrost, ice sheet disintegration, and changes in atmospheric circulation. Yet, save for a few fragmented studies, climate economics has either ignored them or represented them in highly stylized ways. We provide unified estimates of the economic impacts…
Essential worker absenteeism has been a pressing problem in the COVID-19 pandemic. Nearly 20% of US hospitals experienced staff shortages, exhausting replacement pools and at times requiring COVID-positive healthcare workers to remain at work. To our knowledge there are no data-informed models examining how different staffing strategies affect epidemic dynamics…
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be used to generate brain organoids containing an eye structure called the optic cup, according to a new study. The organoids spontaneously developed bilaterally symmetric optic cups from the front of the brain-like region, demonstrating the intrinsic self-patterning ability of iPSCs in a highly complex biological process.
In a recent study in PLOS ONE, researchers from 6 different countries, including Camilo Alejo and Catherine Potvin of the Department of Biology at McGill University, examined the importance of Indigenous Territories in climate change mitigation across Panama and the Amazon Basin. They found that Indigenous Territories represent effective natural solutions to meet the Paris Agreement by protecting
Last week, a landmark climate report from the United Nations gave the sobering consensus of decades of international climate change research: "It is unequivocal that human influence has warmed the atmosphere, ocean and land," causing "widespread and rapid changes" in the air, seas, once-frozen places and plant and animal life that have touched every region on Earth.
Nature, Published online: 17 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02248-5 COVID vaccine development in Iran, a smart chain mail that stiffens on demand and how the world can produce enough batteries for all the electric cars.
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