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Steven Weinberg: the passing of science's most intellectual spokesman
Theoretical physicist Steven Weinberg passed away on July 23. Due to his heavyweight intellect and unparalleled ability to communicate, he was science's most effective spokesman. His passing leaves a void in the world of science communication. I recently read two Big Think articles ( here and here ) memorializing Steven Weinberg, who passed away last month. These articles were written by Marcelo
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LATEST

Jeopardy, a Place Where Facts Used to Matter
Every once in a while, after a commercial break on Jeopardy , Alex Trebek would make an announcement: The judges, he'd say, had done more research. Having consulted an atlas, an encyclopedia, or Google, they'd realized that their initial assessment of a contestant's answer had been wrong. They would now make things right. In an instant, the dollar-based score on the affected contestant's podium w
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Massive Asteroid That Could Obliterate Earth to Fly By, Case the Joint
Rock On Even though we haven't had too many truly near misses, let Asteroid 2016 AJ193 (as it's technically known) serve as reason to reevaluate all of your life choices this weekend. It'll be taking a (relatively) very near fly-by of our planet, casing the place, looking mean, and then…. moving on to the rest of the solar system. Even though it's officially classified as "potentially hazardous"
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Here comes the sun: Planetary scientists find evidence of solar-driven change on the moon
Tiny iron nanoparticles unlike any found naturally on Earth are nearly everywhere on the moon—and scientists are trying to understand why. A new study led by Northern Arizona University doctoral candidate Christian J. Tai Udovicic, in collaboration with associate professor Christopher Edwards, both of NAU's Department of Astronomy and Planetary Science, uncovered important clues to help understand
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Wandering black holes
Every massive galaxy is believed to host a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its center. Its mass is correlated with the mass of the inner regions of its host (and also with some other properties), probably because the SMBH grows and evolves as the galaxy itself grows, through mergers with other galaxies and the infall of material from the intergalactic medium. When material makes its way to the g
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Australia anti-lockdown rallies: protesters violently clash with police in Melbourne
Thousands march through streets of Melbourne and Brisbane, as police try to prevent Sydney rally Follow our Covid live blog for the latest updates NSW hotspots ; NSW restrictions ; border restrictions Victoria's restrictions ; Victorian hotspots Vaccine rollout tracker ; get our free news app ; get our morning email briefing Anti-lockdown protesters clashed violently with police as thousands of u
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A bloody shame: Britons find a new favourite swearword
The UK's most popular expletive has changed after a 27% drop in cursing over 20 years So it's farewell to bloody Nora. The f-word has become Britain's most popular swearword, overtaking "bloody", as the nation's use of expletives has dropped over the past two decades, a linguistics study has found. Data on the use of 16 swearwords in the 1990s and the 2010s shows the f-word was the most frequentl
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NSW records 825 new Covid cases, the worst total of any Australian state since pandemic began
ACT reports eight new coronavirus cases and cancels Floriade while Queensland records zero Victoria sent into statewide lockdown as Shepparton Covid cluster rises to 17 Australia anti-lockdown rallies: protesters violently clash with police in Melbourne NSW hotspots ; NSW restrictions ; border restrictions Victoria's restrictions ; Victorian hotspots Vaccine rollout tracker ; get our free news ap
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The Chair Is Netflix's Best Drama in Years
Perhaps, like me, you inwardly sigh with the breath of a thousand winds whenever you hear the words cancel culture , as mangled and distorted as the expression has become. If so, know that the people behind Netflix's The Chair are likely sighing too. And yet here they are, presenting a unicorn: a near-perfect television show that clocks in at just three hours , and a comedy-drama that skewers the
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The 1 Thing Teachers Can Do to Protect Students
The American public-education system exists at the intersection of E pluribus unum and "in loco parentis," and is built on the understanding that an educated populace is integral to a functioning democracy. As teachers, we sacrifice bits of our freedom in service of this cause because we care, rhetorically and literally, for our students. We were fingerprinted and subjected to background checks a
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Liberal Democracy Is Worth a Fight
Moises Saman / Magnum Of all the empty, pointless statements that are periodically repeated by Western politicians, none is more empty and pointless than this one: "There can be no military solution to this conflict." That was what Ban Ki-moon, then the UN secretary-general, said back in 2013: "There is no military solution to the conflict in Syria." John Kerry, then secretary of state, echoed th
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Covid Australia live news update: Victoria reports 61 new cases and considers statewide lockdown as NSW police move to block protests
More than 1,500 police to be stationed around Sydney CBD as Shepparton outbreak continues to grow in regional Victoria Law and border: how Queensland's harsh rules are creating hardship Vaccination rate of 70% won't end lockdowns if Covid case numbers are too high, expert says Katharine Murphy: 'Yes, Australia craves Covid-normal – but nobody wants that at children's expense' NSW hotspots ; NSW r
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After Killing Department Stores, Amazon Now Plans to Make Department Stores
Brick-and-Mortar Amazon Stores In an almost cruel twist of irony, Amazon is allegedly planning on opening large physical stores akin to department stores in the near future. These brick-and-mortar locations will allow customers to purchase clothes, electronics, kitchen appliances, and more, according to The Wall Street Journal . The ecommerce and web hosting giant is slated to first open their de
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Astronomers Capture Most High-Resolution Images of Deep Space Yet
Deep Space Photography Researchers have captured the most detailed images of deep space yet using radio antennas. Astronomers working with a network of more than 70,000 radio telescopes known as the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) captured the images over the course of 10 years, according to Space.com . The images allow researchers to glimpse at space phenomena that they wouldn't normally be able to
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Scientists Develop the World's First Carbon-Free Steel
First Fossil-Free Steel A Swedish company has created the world's first carbon-free steel marking a big step forward in the fight against climate change. HYBRIT, a Swedish steel conglomerate, created the first ever "fossil-free" steel, according to a statement by SSAB , a steel company and one of the partners in HYBRIT. The steel was sold to Volvo as part of a test run. If successful, the car com
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Elon Musk Just Announced a Humanoid "Tesla Bot"
During this week's AI Day event, Tesla CEO Elon Musk revealed that the car company is working on a humanoid prototype we will get a first glimpse at "sometime next year." To build its robot assistant, the company will draw from existing experience with car manufacturing robotics as well as its AI-powered computer chips that enable its fleet of cars to (almost) drive themselves. It's a rather odd
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Biden Is Betting Americans Will Forget About Afghanistan
Call it the White House's dream scenario: In the end, the voters don't blame Joe Biden. The president's withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan simply aligns him with everyone else who has given up on the notion that the military could mold a fractious country into a stable democratic ally. The administration is hoping that grisly images of desperate Afghans clinging to a C-17 fade, replaced b
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Neuroscientist Anil Seth: 'We risk not understanding the central mystery of life'
The professor of cognitive and computational neuroscience discusses his work to develop a scientific explanation for how the brain conjures consciousness For centuries, philosophers have theorised about the mind-body question, debating the relationship between the physical matter of the brain and the conscious mental activity it somehow creates. Even with advances in neuroscience and brain imagin
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"Doomsday Glacier" Melting Even Faster Due to Earth's Core
To Make Matters Worse The Thwaites Glacier ( aka the "Doomsday Glacier" ) is melting fast. That's no surprise. It's also melting particularly fast, in part, because of manmade climate change. That's also no surprise. What is surprising is a new study published in Nature that revealed the Earth's natural heat is also speeding up the glacial melt. In fact, researchers say the relatively thin crust
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Modern sophistry: how to debunk politicians and self-help books
In Ancient Greece, sophists were philosophers who used their intellect for personal gain rather than the pursuit of knowledge. Though the term is disappearing, sophists are not, especially in the fields of politics and self-help. To recognize a sophist, you first have to understand their strategies. Plato, Orwell, Diderot, and Popper guide the way. According to market research , U.S. self-help bo
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From mentos in a bottle to playing with rainbows: science experiments children can do at home
This Science Week, Dr Karl encourages parents and children to see 'the beauty of doing physical experiments right at home' Children and adults alike may be stuck at home during Science Week this year, but that doesn't mean the pursuit of knowledge has to be put on hold too. Dr Karl Kruszelnicki told Guardian Australia that kids today might have access to a wealth of information with the internet,
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Victoria sent into statewide lockdown as Shepparton Covid cluster rises to 17
Victorian premier Daniel Andrews announces regional lockdown amid 77 new coronavirus cases Law and border: how Queensland's harsh rules are creating hardship Vaccination rate of 70% won't end lockdowns if Covid case numbers are too high, expert says NSW hotspots ; NSW restrictions ; border restrictions Victoria's restrictions ; Victorian hotspots Vaccine rollout tracker ; get our free news app ;
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Jeff Bezos Needs NASA to Listen to Him
In the summer of 2019, Jeff Bezos appeared at a space symposium marking the anniversary of the first moon landing. Fifty years had passed since that historic achievement , and Bezos marveled at how quickly NASA had once moved to select the manufacturer for its lunar lander. "Today there would be three protests," he said, referring to contractors' appeals of NASA decisions, "and the losers would s
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People Liked Malls
Since 2005, Amazon has changed how virtually every American shops. That February, the company launched Prime, the first-of-its-kind, lightning-fast subscription delivery service that now has an estimated 147 million members in the United States. Along the way, Amazon invented its own shopping holiday , assembled an army of couriers schlepping your packages in the trunks of their cars, and turned
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The Remote Work–Fertility Connection
Last year was a blur for Miranda Turner, but she remembers the day her kids' school shut down like it was yesterday. On a Friday in March 2020, Arlington Public Schools, in Virginia, announced that it would close the following Monday because of the newly circulating coronavirus, sending working parents like Turner scrambling to figure out what to do with their kids. An attorney with the punishing
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Grimes Defends Elon Musk on TikTok While Wielding Knife, Petting Robot Dog
Grimes' Gripe Grimes wants you to know that she's got Elon's back — and she'll make her point with a knife if she needs to. Canadian musician Claire Elise Bouche (aka Grimes) posted a TikTok on Friday defending her partner Elon Musk. The video is fairly on brand for the pop star. Set to a remixed "Pretty Young Twerkulator" by City Girls, it features her sitting in a chair petting a robot dog as A
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How to win at life: what sports psychologists can teach us all
The lessons top athletes are learning about stress and mental health can help us handle pressure in our own lives It was going to be the Pandemic Olympics; the cheerless games that would inspire ambivalence at best. And then sport did its thing. Despite the lack of crowds and the looming threat of Covid, Tokyo was amazing. It also became something else: the mental health Olympics. When Simone Bil
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America's Lie
Six miles isn't a great distance, but for one Afghan man and his family, it could be the difference between life and death. Habib, whose full identity I won't disclose for his own safety, served as a contractor for the U.S. military in Afghanistan. It's a job that brought him pride, as well as plaudits from the commanders who worked with him. But it also brought him death threats from the Taliban
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Life's Edge by Carl Zimmer review – what does it mean to be alive?
This profound meditation on the science of life explores where it has come from and how it evolves At a medical research laboratory in California, Alysson Muotri has used chemistry to change skin cells into neurons, which have multiplied to form "organoids" – globes of interconnected brain cells. The organoids can expand to hundreds of thousands of cells, live for years, and even produce detectab
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2021 Wildfires Spewed Record Breaking Amount of C02
Record Smoke Wildfires are raging across the entire globe right now, producing unprecedented amounts of greenhouse gases. That's bad news for the health of our planet — and unquestionable proof that climate change is leaving visible, permanent scars on the environment. This year's wildfires season has already been unprecedented, and it's not over yet. According to the Copernicus Atmospheric Monit
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Billionaire Buys SpaceX Ticket To Make "Space Beer" in Absurd PR Stunt
One Small Hop Next month, tech entrepreneur, pilot, and (of course) billionaire Jared Isaacman will blast off to space on a privately commissioned SpaceX mission. His luggage will be a tad unusual, though: Space.com reports that Isaacman is bringing 70 pounds of hops that, after returning home, will be brewed into beer by whatever brewery decides to buy them at auction. And because he's such a go
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NASA Rover's New, Gorgeous Time Lapse Spots Tiny Martian Moon
Moon Spotting NASA's Mars Perseverance rover has peered into the sky for an epic time lapse — and caught something amazing. The six-wheeled rover managed to capture the tiny Martian moon Deimos in the short clip, a brief and unique glimpse at the much-tinier worlds orbiting the Red Planet. Sky watching is fun no matter where you are. I took this short time lapse movie to watch for clouds, and cau
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Elon Musk Says You'll "Most Likely" Be Able To Beat His Tesla Bot in a Fight
BattleBots On Thursday night, in typical fashion, Elon Musk announced vague plans to develop and release a humanoid robot called the "Tesla bot […] sometime next year." We've already covered the announcement and how Musk has a horrible track record of overpromising and underdelivering — remember when the underground Loop was supposed to be the superhighway of the future instead of a bumpy taxi ri
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Pressure Builds on Unvaccinated Nursing Home Staff
Amid growing concern over new Covid-19 outbreaks in nursing homes, the federal government plans to require vaccination for nursing home staff. While more than 82 percent of nursing home residents are currently vaccinated against the coronavirus, among staff that figure is just 60 percent.
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Naps cannot fix sleep deprivation
A lack of sufficient slow-wave sleep reduces cognitive ability. While naps can help slightly, the effect is so minor as not to be meaningful, according to a new study. The study specifically tested participants' attentiveness and their ability to perform tasks in a prescribed order. There has been a lot of research into the topic of human sleep, much of it contradictory. Here at Big Think, we hav
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US Space Force: Successfully Assembled. Next up: Making Itself Useful.
Now What? At the insistence of former President Trump, the US Congress agreed in December 2019 to make a new branch of the military called the United States Space Force (or USSF). At the time, lawmakers gave the new agency 18 months to get its act together and become a real military service, just like it always dreamed of. It cleared that deadline this July, Air Force Times reports , and now it's
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There's No Time for Small Talk in Middle Age
Each installment of " The Friendship Files " features a conversation between The Atlantic 's Julie Beck and two or more friends, exploring the history and significance of their relationship. This week she speaks with the actors Jessica St. Clair and June Diane Raphael, who co-host The Deep Dive , a podcast that explores their friendship and adult womanhood. They discuss how they found close femal
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The Atlantic Daily: MAGA Cowed Trump on Afghanistan
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. Donald Trump knows he's against President Joe Biden's withdrawal from Afghanistan. He's been saying as much, in harsh words, in the prolific statements he's been emailing out since he got banned f
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Just four colors are enough for any map. Why?
Rule of thumb: four colors are all you need to distinguish the countries on any map. But why? It's a simple question with a difficult answer, eluding scientists for a century. In the end, the four-color problem was the first theorem that was cracked by a computer. Graffiti in Örs Vezér Square in Budapest by Hungary's Two-Tailed Dog Party , illustrating the four-color theorem. Credit : Szilas via
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The climate science behind wildfires: why are they getting worse? – video explainer
We are in an emergency. Wildfires are raging across the world as scorching temperatures and dry conditions fuel the blazes that have cost lives and destroyed livelihoods. The combination of extreme heat, changes in our ecosystem and prolonged drought have in many regions led to the worst fires in almost a decade , and come after the IPCC handed down a damning landmark report on the climate crisis
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Why America's Largest Teachers' Union Refuses to Support Vaccine Mandates
Nearly 90 percent of members of the National Education Association, America's largest teachers' union, self-reported in a recent survey that they have been vaccinated against COVID-19. But that still leaves a lot of unvaccinated teachers and school support staff; the union has roughly 3 million members. Becky Pringle, the NEA's president, has strongly encouraged vaccination, but she told me that
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For some Black Americans, vaccine hesitancy is just one part of a legacy of mistrust
To get the shot, many must overcome their historical memory of unethical medical experiments By late June, Yolanda Corbett, who lives in Washington DC with her three children, was certain she would not get the Covid-19 vaccine. She wanted to protect her family more than anything, but while the vaccine is a clear sign of hope for most, Corbett wasn't convinced. Continue reading…
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Cross-pollinating physicists use novel technique to improve the design of facilities that aim to harvest fusion energy
Physicists are like bees—they can cross-pollinate, taking ideas from one area and using them to develop breakthroughs in other areas. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have transferred a technique from one realm of plasma physics to another to enable the more efficient design of powerful magnets for doughnut-shaped fusion facilities know
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Dear Diary: how keeping a journal can bring you daily peace
Writing a diary is a great way to offload – and, if memory fails, it's a wonderful window on the past I still get funny looks from people when I mention that I keep a diary. Maybe the practice strikes them as shifty or weirdly old-fashioned. It's true that I never feel more furtive than when my wife finds me writing it at our kitchen table – it's like being spotted entering a confessional box in c
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Study reveals existing drugs that kill SARS-CoV2 in cells
A new study reveals several drug contenders already in use for other purposes that have been shown to block or reduce SARS-CoV2 infection in cells. The study uses artificial intelligence-powered image analysis of human cell lines during infection with the novel coronavirus.
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Report: Pentagon Working on Space-Based Anti-Satellite Tech
Anti-Satellite Top Pentagon officials are pushing for the declassification of anti-satellite technologies capable of taking out adversary satellites and perhaps even spacecraft, Breaking Defense reports . The military was poised to reveal the project, but the crisis in Afghanistan and the COVID-19 pandemic appear to have delayed the declassification, according to Breaking Defense . Since the proj
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Stunning New Brain-Fat Burning Connection Discovered in Mice
A team of Portuguese scientists made a groundbreaking discovery into how the brain controls, burns, and regulates the visceral fat tissue that surrounds our organs. Scientists long thought the nervous system and immune system collaborated to manage visceral fat, based on signs that the two systems communicated to manage fat surrounding the lungs. But there was no such communication for the fat ar
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Investigators Scrambling To Track Down $97 Million Stolen From Japanese Crypto Exchange
Chump Change On Thursday, the Tokyo crypto exchange Liquid announced that it had been hacked — someone had made off with about $97 million worth of various cryptocurrencies. Investigators from the London crypto theft-tracking firm Elliptic are already on the case, and froze about $16.3 million of stolen Ethereum, Agence France-Presse reports . But it's worth noting that massive crypto heists are
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Rare Cambrian fossils from Utah reveal unexpected anatomical complexity in early comb jellies
Ctenophores, also known as comb jellies, are a group of over 200 living species of invertebrate animals with a transparent gelatinous body superficially resembling that of a jellyfish. There is much interest in ctenophore evolution in recent years as their controversial phylogenetic position in the animal tree of life has prompted conflicting hypotheses. While some studies suggest they might repre
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Radiation-detecting optical fibers installed on the International Space Station
In a spacecraft, in order to protect both crew and electronics from radiation, it is mandatory to invest in effective radiation monitoring systems. The International Space Station (ISS), just like the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is a complex radiation environment that requires bespoke dosimetry devices. Optical-fiber-based technologies can provide both distributed and point radiation dose measu
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Vaccine-skeptic US cardinal off ventilator after contracting Covid-19
Wisconsin shrine says Raymond Burke leaving intensive care Cardinal linked vaccines to microchip implants A high-ranking Roman Catholic cardinal and vaccine skeptic hospitalised after contracting Covid-19 was off a ventilator and being moved out of intensive care on Saturday, according to officials at a Wisconsin shrine he founded. Related: Trump to stage Alabama rally as state struggles with Cov
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Moderna's mRNA Vaccine for HIV Is Starting Human Trials
Before 2020, many of us had never heard of mRNA. With the development of Covid-19 vaccines dependent on this molecule, though, mention of it was all over the news. In early August, the US reached the milestone of 70 percent of adults having received at least one dose of the vaccine. Covid was the first disease mRNA therapeutics tackled, and given the success of the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines at
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How schools of 'microswimmers' can increase their cargo capacity
A new study published in Physical Review Letters describes a way to increase the cargo capacity of microscopic, self-propelled droplets known as "microswimmers." Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organisation found that when a school of microswimmers move in the same direction inside a narrow channel, they can increase the number of
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Study proposes new ways to estimate climate change impacts on agriculture
Most scientists agree climate change has a profound impact on U.S. agricultural production. But estimates vary widely, making it hard to develop mitigation strategies. Two agricultural economists at the University of Illinois take a closer look at how choice of statistical methodology influences climate study results. They also propose a more accurate and place-specific approach to data analysis.
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New insights into bacterial photoreceptors: Similar structures, opposing functions
Sunlight influences an array of biochemical processes in plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. In numerous organisms, phytochromes—a special class of photoreceptors—absorb red or far-red light and transform it into signals that trigger corresponding physiological reactions. In Nature Communications, an international team including scientists from Bayreuth has now reported a surprising discovery: t
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Flawed quality control in the brain traced through misfolded proteins
Proteins are the "tools" of our cells—they are essential to all vital tasks. However, they are only able to do their jobs if they fold correctly and adopt their respective, very specific 3D structure. To ensure that nothing goes wrong with the folding process, it is strictly monitored in the cell. The consequences of a flawed quality control can be seen, for example, in the deposition of misfolded
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Musk hopes "Mechazilla" will catch and assemble the Starship and Super Heavy boosters for rapid reuse
In January of 2021, Elon Musk announced SpaceX's latest plan to increase the number of flights they can mount by drastically reducing turnaround time. The key to this was a new launch tower that would "catch" first stage boosters after they return to Earth. This would forego the need to install landing legs on future Super Heavy boosters and potentially future Starship returning to Earth.
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Understanding the effects of population pressure on violence levels
A continuous rise in global population has led to fears that conflicts and war will become more frequent as resources dwindle. But this widespread belief has not been quantified based on actual Japanese archaeological data, until now. Researchers from Okayama University have now examined the skeletal remains of people living in the Middle Yayoi period of Japan to set the record straight on the rel
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From health care to infrastructure, how AI is changing the world for the better
Over the past several years, our world has been confronted with a range of unprecedented and, at times, deadly challenges—from the covid-19 pandemic to severe weather conditions, and a concurrent rise of societal issues including aging population, urban congestion, and unequal access to health care. But as the development of artificial intelligence (AI) and its applications grow, AI technologies
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Dual-phase alloy extremely resistant to fractures
A team of researchers affiliated with multiple institutions in China, the U.S. and Germany has created a dual-phase alloy that has proven to be extremely resistant to fracturing. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their alloy, why it is so resistant to fracture and possible uses for it. Xianghai An, with the University of Sydney, has published a Perspective piece
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Tired of Dumbed-Down Television? It's Time To Try CuriosityStream.
It is no secret that today's television programing leaves a lot to be desired. This is especially true if you have a zest for learning. Though television giants, such as Discovery, are still present, traditional TV is experiencing a drop in ratings and sales. This isn't exactly a shock, considered the low-quality, dumbed-down reality program they have to offer. However, there is a streaming platf
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The Atlantic Daily: 5 Summer Albums to Keep on Repeat
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. For much of the pandemic, the music industry seemed to hold off on big releases—which left room for listeners to make some new discoveries. Then, this summer, a few marquee names came out of hiber
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New ways to estimate climate change impacts on agriculture
Most scientists agree climate change has a profound impact on U.S. agricultural production. But estimates vary widely, making it hard to develop mitigation strategies. Two agricultural economists take a closer look at how choice of statistical methodology influences climate study results. They also propose a more accurate and place-specific approach to data analysis.
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This Week's Awesome Tech Stories From Around the Web (Through August 21)
ENERGY Laser Fusion Experiment Unleashes an Energetic Burst of Optimism Kenneth Chang | The New York Times "Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory reported on Tuesday that by using 192 gigantic lasers to annihilate a pellet of hydrogen, they were able to ignite a burst of more than 10 quadrillion watts of fusion power—energy released when hydrogen atoms are fused into helium, the s
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Geothermal energy is on the verge of a big breakthrough
This article was originally published by our sister site, Freethink, and is an installment of The Future Explored, a weekly guide to world-changing technology. You can get stories like this one straight to your inbox every Thursday morning by subscribing here . Geothermal energy may finally be on the cusp of its big breakthrough. The often-overlooked energy option has seen a big uptick in demand,
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Spending money on new infrastructure isn't always the best idea
Over the past two centuries, federal, state and municipal governments across the U.S. have launched wave after wave of infrastructure projects. They built canals to move freight in the 1830s and 1840s . Governments subsidized railroads in the mid- and late 19th century. They created local sewage and water systems in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and then dams and irrigation systems thro
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Weekend reads: Fraud in a study of dishonesty; scrutiny of an open access publisher; HHMI prof fired for sexual harassment
Before we present this week's Weekend Reads, a question: Do you enjoy our weekly roundup? If so, we could really use your help. Would you consider a tax-deductible donation to support Weekend Reads, and our daily work? Thanks in advance. The week at Retraction Watch featured: WHO COVID-19 library contains hundreds of papers from hijacked journals … Continue reading
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Marty Raney Falls in the Mud! | Homestead Rescue
Stream Homestead Rescue on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/homestead-rescue About Homestead Rescue: Marty, Matt and Misty Raney use their building, farming and hunting expertise to help people who strive to live off the grid. #HomesteadRescue #Discovery #MartyRaney Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Follow Us on TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@Discovery We're
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'When My Satire Becomes Popular, I Must Ask, What Is the Problem?'
Few observers of global discourse range as widely as Elnathan John, the novelist, satirist, and lawyer who frequently participates online and off in conversations about art, politics, and culture pertaining to at least three continents. His novel, Born on a Tuesday , is a coming-of-age story set in his native Nigeria. In Becoming Nigerian: A Guide , he tried his hand at satire. Today, John lives
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Biodiversitet til debat: Skal vi sætte pris på den vilde natur?
PLUS. Vi står midt i en biodiversitetskrise, hvor sjældne arter forsvinder. Forskerne er enige om, at det er menneskets skyld, men ofte uenige om betydningen for menneskers velfærd og økonomi – og hvordan vi kommer ud af krisen. To forskere svarer på nogle af de spørgsmål, som ofte polariserer debatten.
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Why You May Have More Friends Than Your Friends Do – Facts So Romantic
What should you do if you are worried about your popularity? Relax. Despite what Facebook tells us, it's the quality of friendships that count, not the quantity, and certainly not your average popularity. Photograph by Ivelin Radkov / Shutterstock There's a rude charm to the title, "Why Your Friends Have More Friends Than You." It's catchy, like the title of an antagonistic explainer: Here are th
22h
How schools of 'microswimmers' can increase their cargo capacity
In a new study, researchers found that, when a school of microscopic, self-propelled droplets known as 'microswimmers' moves in the same direction inside a narrow channel, they can increase the cargo capacity — the number of particles they can carry — by 10-fold. Their findings have broad implications, from drug delivery systems to materials with active coatings.
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Biden backs end to wolf protections but hunting worries grow
President Joe Biden's administration is sticking by the decision under former President Donald Trump to lift protections for gray wolves across most of the U.S. But a top federal wildlife official on Friday told The Associated Press there is growing concern over aggressive wolf hunting seasons adopted for the predators in the western Great Lakes and northern Rocky Mountains.
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Cloud shadows cue mini-migrations
A new study shows that zooplankton swim up and down repeatedly within the ocean's twilight zone due to subtle changes in daylight intensity, with implications for deep-sea ecology and the Earth's carbon cycle.
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SARS-CoV-2 escape from a highly neutralizing COVID-19 convalescent plasma [Immunology and Inflammation]
To investigate the evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the immune population, we coincupi bated the authentic virus with a highly neutralizing plasma from a COVID-19 convalescent patient. The plasma fully neutralized the virus for seven passages, but, after 45 d, the deletion of F140 in…
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Inactivation of Hedgehog signal transduction in adult astrocytes results in region-specific blood-brain barrier defects [Neuroscience]
In this study, we use molecular genetic approaches to clarify the role of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in regulating the blood–brain/spinal cord barrier (BBB) in the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Our work confirms and extends prior studies to demonstrate that astrocytes are the predominant cell type in the…
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Droplet tilings for rapid exploration of spatially constrained many-body systems [Physics]
Geometry in materials is a key concept which can determine material behavior in ordering, frustration, and fragmentation. More specifically, the behavior of interacting degrees of freedom subject to arbitrary geometric constraints has the potential to be used for engineering materials with exotic phase behavior. While advances in lithography have allowed…
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Oculo-retinal dynamics can explain the perception of minimal recognizable configurations [Neuroscience]
Natural vision is a dynamic and continuous process. Under natural conditions, visual object recognition typically involves continuous interactions between ocular motion and visual contrasts, resulting in dynamic retinal activations. In order to identify the dynamic variables that participate in this process and are relevant for image recognition, we used a…
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Counting equilibria of large complex systems by instability index [Applied Mathematics]
We consider a nonlinear autonomous system of N≫1 degrees of freedom randomly coupled by both relaxational ("gradient") and nonrelaxational ("solenoidal") random interactions. We show that with increased interaction strength, such systems generically undergo an abrupt transition from a trivial phase portrait with a single stable equilibrium into a topologically nontrivial…
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Pro-inflammatory T helper 17 directly harms oligodendrocytes in neuroinflammation [Immunology and Inflammation]
T helper (Th)17 cells are considered to contribute to inflammatory mechanisms in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the discussion persists regarding their true role in patients. Here, we visualized central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory processes in models of MS live in vivo and in MS brains and discovered…
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Assisted assembly of bacteriophage T7 core components for genome translocation across the bacterial envelope [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
In most bacteriophages, genome transport across bacterial envelopes is carried out by the tail machinery. In viruses of the Podoviridae family, in which the tail is not long enough to traverse the bacterial wall, it has been postulated that viral core proteins assembled inside the viral head are translocated and…
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Two-dimensional electronic-vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy for interactions of electronic and nuclear motions at interfaces [Chemistry]
Interactions of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom are essential for understanding excited-states relaxation pathways of molecular systems at interfaces and surfaces. Here, we present the development of interface-specific two-dimensional electronic–vibrational sum frequency generation (2D-EVSFG) spectroscopy for electronic–vibrational couplings for excited states at interfaces and surfa
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An in vivo selection-derived d-peptide for engineering erythrocyte-binding antigens that promote immune tolerance [Chemistry]
When displayed on erythrocytes, peptides and proteins can drive antigen-specific immune tolerance. Here, we investigated a straightforward approach based on erythrocyte binding to promote antigen-specific tolerance to both peptides and proteins. We first identified a robust erythrocyte-binding ligand. A pool of one million fully d-chiral peptides was injected into mice,…
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Mitochondrial fatty acid utilization increases chromatin oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes [Cell Biology]
The inability of adult mammalian cardiomyocytes to proliferate underpins the development of heart failure following myocardial injury. Although the newborn mammalian heart can spontaneously regenerate for a short period of time after birth, this ability is lost within the first week after birth in mice, partly due to increased mitochondrial…
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Structural insights into a novel family of integral membrane siderophore reductases [Microbiology]
Gram-negative bacteria take up the essential ion Fe3+ as ferric-siderophore complexes through their outer membrane using TonB-dependent transporters. However, the subsequent route through the inner membrane differs across many bacterial species and siderophore chemistries and is not understood in detail. Here, we report the crystal structure of the inner membrane…
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Metapopulation capacity determines food chain length in fragmented landscapes [Ecology]
Metapopulation capacity provides an analytic tool to quantify the impact of landscape configuration on metapopulation persistence, which has proven powerful in biological conservation. Yet surprisingly few efforts have been made to apply this approach to multispecies systems. Here, we extend metapopulation capacity theory to predict the persistence of trophically interacting…
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A dynamic electrically driven soft valve for control of soft hydraulic actuators [Engineering]
Regulation systems for fluid-driven soft robots predominantly consist of inflexible and bulky components. These rigid structures considerably limit the adaptability and mobility of these robots. Soft valves in various forms for fluidic actuators have been developed, primarily fluidically or electrically driven. However, fluidic soft valves require external pressure sources that…
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Topological braiding and virtual particles on the cell membrane [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Braiding of topological structures in complex matter fields provides a robust framework for encoding and processing information, and it has been extensively studied in the context of topological quantum computation. In living systems, topological defects are crucial for the localization and organization of biochemical signaling waves, but their braiding dynamics…
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Benzofuran sulfonates and small self-lipid antigens activate type II NKT cells via CD1d [Immunology and Inflammation]
Natural killer T (NKT) cells detect lipids presented by CD1d. Most studies focus on type I NKT cells that express semi-invariant αβ T cell receptors (TCR) and recognize α-galactosylceramides. However, CD1d also presents structurally distinct lipids to NKT cells expressing diverse TCRs (type II NKT cells), but our knowledge of…
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Band gaps of crystalline solids from Wannier-localization-based optimal tuning of a screened range-separated hybrid functional [Physics]
Accurate prediction of fundamental band gaps of crystalline solid-state systems entirely within density functional theory is a long-standing challenge. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive method that achieves this by means of nonempirical optimal tuning of the parameters of a screened range-separated hybrid functional. The tuning involves the enforcement…
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Dynamic localization of a helper NLR at the plant-pathogen interface underpins pathogen recognition [Plant Biology]
Plants employ sensor–helper pairs of NLR immune receptors to recognize pathogen effectors and activate immune responses. Yet, the subcellular localization of NLRs pre- and postactivation during pathogen infection remains poorly understood. Here, we show that NRC4, from the "NRC" solanaceous helper NLR family, undergoes dynamic changes in subcellular localization by…
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Regulation of metamorphosis in neopteran insects is conserved in the paleopteran Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera) [Developmental Biology]
In the Paleozoic era, more than 400 Ma, a number of insect groups continued molting after forming functional wings. Today, however, flying insects stop molting after metamorphosis when they become fully winged. The only exception is the mayflies (Paleoptera, Ephemeroptera), which molt in the subimago, a flying stage between the…
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Electrochemical implications of modulating the solvation shell around redox active organic species in aqueous organic redox flow batteries [Engineering]
Organic and organometallic reactants in aqueous electrolytes, being composed of earth-abundant elements, are promising redox active candidates for cost-effective organic redox flow batteries (ORFBs). Various compounds of ferrocene and methyl viologen have been examined as promising redox actives for this application. Herein, we examined the influence of the electrolyte pH…
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Cryo-EM structures of Escherichia coli cytochrome bo3 reveal bound phospholipids and ubiquinone-8 in a dynamic substrate binding site [Chemistry]
Two independent structures of the proton-pumping, respiratory cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase (cyt bo3) have been determined by cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) in styrene–maleic acid (SMA) copolymer nanodiscs and in membrane scaffold protein (MSP) nanodiscs to 2.55- and 2.19-Å resolution, respectively. The structures include the metal redox centers (heme b, heme…
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Synergistic dispersal of plant pathogen spores by jumping-droplet condensation and wind [Applied Biological Sciences]
Plant pathogens are responsible for the annual yield loss of crops worldwide and pose a significant threat to global food security. A necessary prelude to many plant disease epidemics is the short-range dispersal of spores, which may generate several disease foci within a field. New information is needed on the…
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On randomly changing conformity bias in cultural transmission [Anthropology]
Humans and nonhuman animals display conformist as well as anticonformist biases in cultural transmission. Whereas many previous mathematical models have incorporated constant conformity coefficients, empirical research suggests that the extent of (anti)conformity in populations can change over time. We incorporate stochastic time-varying conformity coefficients into a widely used conformity model,
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Wnt signaling recruits KIF2A to the spindle to ensure chromosome congression and alignment during mitosis [Cell Biology]
Canonical Wnt signaling plays critical roles in development and tissue renewal by regulating β-catenin target genes. Recent evidence showed that β-catenin–independent Wnt signaling is also required for faithful execution of mitosis. However, the targets and specific functions of mitotic Wnt signaling still remain uncharacterized. Using phosphoproteomics, we identified that Wnt…
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The trisulfur radical ion S3•- controls platinum transport by hydrothermal fluids [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Platinum group elements (PGE) are considered to be very poorly soluble in aqueous fluids in most natural hydrothermal–magmatic contexts and industrial processes. Here, we combined in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and solubility experiments with atomistic and thermodynamic simulations to demonstrate that the trisulfur radical ion S3•− forms very stable and…
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SAMD9L autoinflammatory or ataxia pancytopenia disease mutations activate cell-autonomous translational repression [Immunology and Inflammation]
Sterile α motif domain-containing protein 9-like (SAMD9L) is encoded by a hallmark interferon-induced gene with a role in controlling virus replication that is not well understood. Here, we analyze SAMD9L function from the perspective of human mutations causing neonatal-onset severe autoinflammatory disease. Whole-genome sequencing of two children with leukocytoclastic panniculitis,…
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A recombinant herpes virus expressing influenza hemagglutinin confers protection and induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity [Microbiology]
Despite widespread yearly vaccination, influenza leads to significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. To make a more broadly protective influenza vaccine, it may be necessary to elicit antibodies that can activate effector functions in immune cells, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). There is growing evidence supporting the necessity…
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Correction for Kim et al., The mechanics and dynamics of cancer cells sensing noisy 3D contact guidance [Corrections]
BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY, CELL BIOLOGY Correction for "The mechanics and dynamics of cancer cells sensing noisy 3D contact guidance," by Jihan Kim, Yuansheng Cao, Christopher Eddy, Youyuan Deng, Herbert Levine, Wouter-Jan Rappel, and Bo Sun, which published March 3, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2024780118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2024780118). The…
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Replication across space and time must be weak in the social and environmental sciences [Environmental Sciences]
Replicability takes on special meaning when researching phenomena that are embedded in space and time, including phenomena distributed on the surface and near surface of the Earth. Two principles, spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity, are generally characteristic of such phenomena. Various practices have evolved in dealing with spatial heterogeneity, including…
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The Baker Company appoints Vice President & Commercial Director, Baker Europe
The Baker Company, Inc. ("Baker") headquartered in Sanford, Maine U.S.A is pleased to announce the appointment of Diko Strietman to Vice President & Commercial Director, Baker Europe. Mr. Strietman will serve as Baker's top commercial executive representing each of the operating companies and associated brands within the EMEA. In this capacity he will guide strategic growth plans as well as provid
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Hundreds of Cape Fur seals entangled in fishing lines and nets every year
Fishing line and nets are having a major impact on Cape fur seals, the most common marine mammal observed around the coastline of South Africa and Namibia, where they are endemic. The first results from an ongoing study, initiated in 2018, shows that a high number of affected animals are pups and juveniles, which were mainly entangled around the neck with fishing line, causing horrific injuries an
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Food claiming to have 'wild mushrooms' rarely do
Harvesting wild mushrooms requires an expert eye to distinguish between the delicious and the inedible. Misidentification can have a range of consequences, from a disgusting taste and mild illness to organ failure and even death. Culinary wild mushrooms staples, such as truffles or porcini, require symbiotic relationships with specific plants in the ecosystem that make it impractical or impossible
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Opening the climate change forecasting toolbox
It is not easy to predict how animals — from insects to fish — are going to respond to climate change and especially extremes of temperature. This lack of understanding hinders our ability to predict the vulnerability of these animals to climate change. Scientists now make several proposal on how to improve the current, widely adopted thermal vulnerability index.
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Cardiovascular disorder genetic testing in children presents unique challenges
Genetic testing for cardiovascular disorders is rapidly expanding, including among children. In its first scientific statement focused on the issue of cardiovascular genetic testing specifically among children, the American Heart Association provides information and guidance on the topic, including issues of timing, consent, family counseling before and after testing, and follow-up.
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Subsynaptic positioning of AMPARs by LRRTM2 controls synaptic strength
Recent evidence suggests that nano-organization of proteins within synapses may control the strength of communication between neurons in the brain. The unique subsynaptic distribution of glutamate receptors, which cluster in nanoalignment with presynaptic sites of glutamate release, supports this hypothesis. However, testing it has been difficult because mechanisms controlling subsynaptic organiz
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Self-contained soft electrofluidic actuators
Soft robotics revolutionized human-robot interactions, yet there exist persistent challenges for developing high-performance soft actuators that are powerful, rapid, controllable, safe, and portable. Here, we introduce a class of self-contained soft electrofluidic actuators (SEFAs), which can directly convert electrical energy into the mechanical energy of the actuators through electrically respo
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Neuronal control of maternal provisioning in response to social cues
Mothers contribute cytoplasmic components to their progeny in a process called maternal provisioning. Provisioning is influenced by the parental environment, but the molecular pathways that transmit environmental cues between generations are not well understood. Here, we show that, in Caenorhabditis elegans , social cues modulate maternal provisioning to regulate gene silencing in offspring. Inte
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The climate and health benefits from intensive building energy efficiency improvements
Intensive building energy efficiency improvements can reduce emissions from energy use, improving outdoor air quality and human health, but may also affect ventilation and indoor air quality. This study examines the effects of highly ambitious, yet feasible, building energy efficiency upgrades in the United States. Our energy efficiency scenarios, derived from the literature, lead to a 6 to 11% r
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Single-cell RNA-seq reveals a critical role of novel pro-inflammatory EndMT in mediating adverse remodeling in coronary artery-on-a-chip
A three-dimensional microengineered human coronary artery–on–a–chip was developed for investigation of the mechanism by which low and oscillatory shear stress (OSS) induces pro-atherogenic changes. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that OSS induced distinct changes in endothelial cells (ECs) including pro-inflammatory endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). OSS promoted pro-inflammatory
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Deciphering asymmetric charge transfer at transition metal dichalcogenide-graphene interface by helicity-resolved ultrafast spectroscopy
Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)/graphene (Gr) heterostructures constitute a key component for two-dimensional devices. The operation of TMD/Gr devices relies on interfacial charge/energy transfer processes, which remains unclear and challenging to unravel. Fortunately, the coupled spin and valley index in TMDs adds a new degree of freedom to the charges and, thus, another dimension to spect
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Indium-antimony-halide single crystals for high-efficiency white-light emission and anti-counterfeiting
Although single-source white emissive perovskite has emerged as a class of encouraging light-emitting material, the synthesis of lead-free halide perovskite materials with high luminous efficiency is still challenging. Here, we report a series of zero-dimensional indium-antimony (In/Sb) alloyed halide single crystals, BAPPIn 2–2 x Sb 2 x Cl 10 (BAPP = C 10 H 28 N 4 , x = 0 to 1), with tunable emi
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Identification and architecture of a putative secretion tube across mycobacterial outer envelope
Tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria have thick cell-wall and capsule layers that are formed from complex structures. Protein secretion across these barriers depends on a specialized protein secretion system, but none has been reported. We show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3705c and its homologous MSMEG_6251 in Mycobacterium smegmatis are tube-forming proteins in the mycobacterial envelope (TiM
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Enhancing the heat tolerance of reef-building corals to future warming
Reef-building corals thriving in extreme thermal environments may provide genetic variation that can assist the evolution of populations to rapid climate warming. However, the feasibility and scale of genetic improvements remain untested despite ongoing population declines from recurrent thermal stress events. Here, we show that corals from the hottest reefs in the world transfer sufficient heat
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Organic and conservation agriculture promote ecosystem multifunctionality
Ecosystems provide multiple services to humans. However, agricultural systems are usually evaluated on their productivity and economic performance, and a systematic and quantitative assessment of the multifunctionality of agroecosystems including environmental services is missing. Using a long-term farming system experiment, we evaluated and compared the agronomic, economic, and ecological perfor
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X-ray free-electron laser studies reveal correlated motion during isopenicillin N synthase catalysis
Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) catalyzes the unique reaction of –(α-aminoadipoyl)–cysteinyl–valine (ACV) with dioxygen giving isopenicillin N (IPN), the precursor of all natural penicillins and cephalosporins. X-ray free-electron laser studies including time-resolved crystallography and emission spectroscopy reveal how reaction of IPNS:Fe(II):ACV with dioxygen to yield an Fe(III) superoxide c
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Predicting and characterizing a cancer dependency map of tumors with deep learning
Genome-wide loss-of-function screens have revealed genes essential for cancer cell proliferation, called cancer dependencies. It remains challenging to link cancer dependencies to the molecular compositions of cancer cells or to unscreened cell lines and further to tumors. Here, we present DeepDEP, a deep learning model that predicts cancer dependencies using integrative genomic profiles. It uses
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Identification and assessment of cardiolipin interactions with E. coli inner membrane proteins
Integral membrane proteins are localized and/or regulated by lipids present in the surrounding bilayer. While bacteria have relatively simple membranes, there is ample evidence that many bacterial proteins bind to specific lipids, especially the anionic lipid cardiolipin. Here, we apply molecular dynamics simulations to assess lipid binding to 42 different Escherichia coli inner membrane proteins
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A dual-phase alloy with ultrahigh strength-ductility synergy over a wide temperature range
High-entropy alloys (HEAs), as an emerging class of materials, have pointed a pathway in developing alloys with interesting property combinations. Although they are not exempted from the strength-ductility trade-off, they present a standing chance in overcoming this challenge. Here, we report results for a precipitation-strengthening strategy, by tuning composition to design a CoNiV-based face-ce
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Gene therapy with AR isoform 2 rescues spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy phenotype by modulating AR transcriptional activity
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked, adult-onset neuromuscular condition caused by an abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract expansion in androgen receptor (AR) protein. SBMA is a disease with high unmet clinical need. Recent studies have shown that mutant AR-altered transcriptional activity is key to disease pathogenesis. Restoring the transcriptional dysregulation without aff
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Exploring correlations in genetic and cultural variation across language families in northeast Asia
Culture evolves in ways that are analogous to, but distinct from, genomes. Previous studies examined similarities between cultural variation and genetic variation (population history) at small scales within language families, but few studies have empirically investigated these parallels across language families using diverse cultural data. We report an analysis comparing culture and genomes from
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Quantification of fast molecular adhesion by fluorescence footprinting
Rolling adhesion is a unique process in which the adhesion events are short-lived and operate under highly nonequilibrium conditions. These characteristics pose a challenge in molecular force quantification, where in situ measurement of these forces cannot be achieved with molecular force sensors that probe near equilibrium. Here, we demonstrated a quantitative adhesion footprint assay combining
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Many-body thermodynamics on quantum computers via partition function zeros
Partition functions are ubiquitous in physics: They are important in determining the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems and in understanding their phase transitions. As shown by Lee and Yang, analytically continuing the partition function to the complex plane allows us to obtain its zeros and thus the entire function. Moreover, the scaling and nature of these zeros can elucidate phase
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Theta oscillations synchronize human medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala during fear learning
Numerous animal studies have demonstrated that fear acquisition and expression rely on the coordinated activity of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala and that theta oscillations support interregional communication within the fear network. However, it remains unclear whether these results can be generalized to fear learning in humans. We addressed this question using intracranial electro
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Age-dependent regulation of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry genes and cell death programs correlates with COVID-19 severity
Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is highly variable, with pediatric patients typically experiencing less severe infection than adults and especially the elderly. The basis for this difference is unclear. We find that mRNA and protein expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell entry receptor for the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-C
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Red/far-red light signals regulate the activity of the carbon-concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria
Desiccation-tolerant cyanobacteria can survive frequent hydration/dehydration cycles likely affecting inorganic carbon (Ci) levels. It was recently shown that red/far-red light serves as signal-preparing cells toward dehydration. Here, the effects of desiccation on Ci assimilation by Leptolyngbya ohadii isolated from Israel's Negev desert were investigated. Metabolomic investigations indicated a
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Resonant quantum principal component analysis
Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely adopted to reduce the dimension of data while preserving the information. The quantum version of PCA (qPCA) can be used to analyze an unknown low-rank density matrix by rapidly revealing the principal components of it, i.e., the eigenvectors of the density matrix with the largest eigenvalues. However, because of the substantial resource requireme
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Invasion of phagocytic Galectin 3 expressing macrophages in the diabetic brain disrupts vascular repair
The cellular events that dictate the repair of damaged vessels in the brain, especially in those with vascular risk factors such as diabetes, is poorly understood. Here, we dissected the role of resident microglia and infiltrative macrophages in determining the repair of ruptured cerebral microvessels. Using in vivo time-lapse imaging, gene expression analysis, and immunohistochemistry, we identi
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Immune checkpoint inhibitors increase T cell immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection
The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, yet the role of antiviral T cell immunity during infection and the contribution of immune checkpoints remain unclear. By prospectively following a cohort of 292 patients with melanoma, half of which treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), we identified 15 patients with acute or convalescent COVID-19 and investigated their transcriptomic, prote
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Seadragon genome analysis provides insights into its phenotype and sex determination locus
The iconic phenotype of seadragons includes leaf-like appendages, a toothless tubular mouth, and male pregnancy involving incubation of fertilized eggs on an open "brood patch." We de novo–sequenced male and female genomes of the common seadragon ( Phyllopteryx taeniolatus ) and its closely related species, the alligator pipefish ( Syngnathoides biaculeatus ). Transcription profiles from an evolu
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Completely foldable electronics based on homojunction polymer transistors and logics
An increase in the demand for completely foldable electronics has motivated efforts for the development of conducting polymer electrodes having extraordinary mechanical stability. However, weak physical adhesion at intrinsic heterojunctions has been a challenge in foldable electronics. This paper reports the completely foldable polymer thin-film transistors (PTFTs) and logic gate arrays. Homojunc
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A neural substrate of compulsive alcohol use
Alcohol intake remains controlled in a majority of users but becomes "compulsive," i.e., continues despite adverse consequences, in a minority who develop alcohol addiction. Here, using a footshock-punished alcohol self-administration procedure, we screened a large population of outbred rats to identify those showing compulsivity operationalized as punishment-resistant self-administration. Using
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Reservoir computing with biocompatible organic electrochemical networks for brain-inspired biosignal classification
Early detection of malign patterns in patients' biological signals can save millions of lives. Despite the steady improvement of artificial intelligence–based techniques, the practical clinical application of these methods is mostly constrained to an offline evaluation of the patients' data. Previous studies have identified organic electrochemical devices as ideal candidates for biosignal monitor
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Planar cell polarity signaling components are a direct target of {beta}-amyloid-associated degeneration of glutamatergic synapses
The signaling pathway directly controlling the maintenance of adult glutamatergic synapses has not been well understood. Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling components were recently shown to play essential roles in the formation of glutamatergic synapses. Here, we show that they are localized in the adult synapses and are essential for their maintenance. Synapse loss at early stages of Alzheimer
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Structures of dimeric human NPC1L1 provide insight into mechanisms for cholesterol absorption
Polytopic Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) plays a major role in intestinal absorption of biliary cholesterol, vitamin E (VE), and vitamin K (VK). The drug ezetimibe inhibits NPC1L1-mediated absorption of cholesterol, lowering of circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Here, we report cryo–electron microscopy structures of human NPC1L1 (hNPC1L1) bound to either cholesterol or a
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Acoustic tweezer with complex boundary-free trapping and transport channel controlled by shadow waveguides
Acoustic tweezers use ultrasound for contact-free, bio-compatible, and precise manipulation of particles from millimeter to submicrometer scale. In microfluidics, acoustic tweezers typically use an array of sources to create standing wave patterns that can trap and move objects in ways constrained by the limited complexity of the acoustic wave field. Here, we demonstrate spatially complex particl
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Magnetic-actuated "capillary container" for versatile three-dimensional fluid interface manipulation
Fluid interfaces are omnipresent in nature. Engineering the fluid interface is essential to study interfacial processes for basic research and industrial applications. However, it remains challenging to precisely control the fluid interface because of its fluidity and instability. Here, we proposed a magnetic-actuated "capillary container" to realize three-dimensional (3D) fluid interface creatio
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N6-methyladenosine binding induces a metal-centered rearrangement that activates the human RNA demethylase Alkbh5
Alkbh5 catalyzes demethylation of the N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A), an epigenetic mark that controls several physiological processes including carcinogenesis and stem cell differentiation. The activity of Alkbh5 comprises two coupled reactions. The first reaction involves decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) and formation of a Fe 4+ O species. This oxyferryl intermediate oxidizes the m 6 A to
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Microengineered perfusable 3D-bioprinted glioblastoma model for in vivo mimicry of tumor microenvironment
Many drugs show promising results in laboratory research but eventually fail clinical trials. We hypothesize that one main reason for this translational gap is that current cancer models are inadequate. Most models lack the tumor-stroma interactions, which are essential for proper representation of cancer complexed biology. Therefore, we recapitulated the tumor heterogenic microenvironment by cre
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Quantitative complementarity of wave-particle duality
To test the principle of complementarity and wave-particle duality quantitatively, we need a quantum composite system that can be controlled by experimental parameters. Here, we demonstrate that a double-path interferometer consisting of two parametric downconversion crystals seeded by coherent idler fields, where the generated coherent signal photons are used for quantum interference and the con
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Spectroscopic label-free microscopy of changes in live cell chromatin and biochemical composition in transplantable organoids
Organoids formed from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) could be a limitless source of functional tissue for transplantations in many organs. Unfortunately, fine-tuning differentiation protocols to form large quantities of hiPSC organoids in a controlled, scalable, and reproducible manner is quite difficult and often takes a very long time. Recently, we introduced a new approach of ra
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This Revolutionary Supplement Supports the Restorative Sleep Your Body Needs
Getting restorative sleep on a regular basis is extremely important. Without it, your physical and cognitive performance is guaranteed to suffer. And getting low-quality sleep for a long period can significantly impact your health. But thanks to the team of scientists and researchers at Neurohacker Collective, it's easier than ever to get the rest your body needs. After years of researching sleep
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Expert: Periodic mask-wearing is here to stay
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that everyone—including the vaccinated—resume mask-wearing while indoors in public places where transmission rates are on the rise. The change comes as COVID-19's delta variant creates dangerous hotspots of community spread across the country. At this point, it's starting to feel like we'll be wearing masks forever. While that's not e
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Rescue robots get a speed upgrade for rough terrain
A new algorithm speeds up path planning for robots that use their arms to make their way across treacherous terrain such as disaster areas or construction sites. The improved path planning algorithm found successful paths three times as often as standard algorithms, while needing much less processing time. "In a collapsed building or on very rough terrain , a robot won't always be able to balance
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New look at 'shocking' study says we need more vitamin C
Reevaluating data from a brutal 1940s study on vitamin C suggests people need more vitamin C than current recommendations specify. It was wartime and food was scarce. Leaders of England's effort to wage war and help the public survive during World War II needed to know: Were the rations in lifeboats adequate for survival at sea? And, among several experiments important for public as well as milit
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Effect of 'eddy killing' in oceans is no longer a matter of guesswork
Applying a new coarse-graining, spatial method of analysis to satellite imagery, scientists provide a direct measure of the impact of wind driven eddy-killing on the kinetic energy of ocean currents — a continual loss of 50 gigawatts, equivalent to the detonation of a Hiroshima nuclear bomb every 20 minutes, year round.
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AI Blood Test Can Spot Lung Cancers With 90 Percent Accuracy
Researchers at the Baltimore-based biotech company Delfi Diagnostics have developed a machine learning-based blood testing technology that could greatly help detect early stages of lung cancer. In their study published in the journal Nature Communications , the team outlines how the diagnostic tool can analyze genome-wide cell-free DNA fragmentation (cfDNAs) profiles, nucleic acid fragments prese
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White clover's toxic tricks traced to its hybridization
The common weed known as white clover releases toxic cyanide when its leaf tissues are damaged. This chemical defense, a response called cyanogenesis, helps it to deter insect pests. Research shows how white clover developed its anti-herbivory superpower with input from both of its seemingly innocuous parents.
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Evapotranspiration: Watching over water use
As soil and other surfaces dry, water is transferred into the air as water vapor. That is evaporation. Plants actively release water, moving it out of their leaves and stems and into the drier air. That is transpiration.
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Seeds may spell trouble for secretive ginseng collectors
Ginseng collectors are planting seeds of the endangered forest herb in forests, conserving and supplementing remaining truly wild populations, research in Pennsylvania finds. But on the down side, they are often planting seeds they bought online from places such as Wisconsin, produced in shaded field operations with inputs of fertilizer. That germplasm threatens to weaken the gene pool of the pla
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Early illness detection improves outcomes for nursing home residents
Detecting illness early among nursing home residents not only improves patient health outcomes, but also reduces avoidable hospitalizations and saves the facilities money, according to a new study. Researchers analyzed six years of financial data for 11 Missouri nursing homes that are part of the Missouri Quality Improvement Initiative, a program that implemented advanced practice registered nurs
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New study sheds light on how an autoimmune disorder may underlie male infertility
Investigators have found that the absence of autoimmune regulator (Aire) in mice results in fertility problems similar to those affecting men with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS-1). Aire-dependent central tolerance plays a critical role in maintaining male fertility by preventing autoimmune attack against multiple reproductive targets, they report.
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Astronomers Capture Some of the Most Detailed Galaxy Photos Yet
(Photo: L.K. Morabito / DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys) This week, astronomers snapped some of the most high-definition galaxy photographs ever taken—ones they think will transform our understanding of how galaxies evolve. Researchers at Durham University in the UK combined radio signals from over 70,000 antennae across nine European countries to capture the images, according to BBC News. The collec
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A master gear in the circadian clock
A gene called Npas4, already known to play a key role in balancing excitatory and inhibitory inputs in brain cells, appears to also be a master timekeeper for the brain's circadian clock, new research suggests. The finding broadens understanding of the circadian clock's molecular mechanisms, which could eventually lead to new treatments for managing challenges such as jet lag, shift work, and slee
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Study could offer hope to Pompe disease patients
Pompe disease is a rare genetic disorder that disables heart and skeletal muscles and can lead to early death if untreated. The only available treatment for the disease is enzyme replacement therapy that must be injected regularly, sometimes every few days, for life. The treatment can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars a year. Researchers have now developed a method that could make enzyme repla
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You're cooler than you think! Hypothermia may go unnoticed when exercising in the cold
An exercise physiology study has demonstrated that perception of core body temperature is altered by low-intensity exercise in cold environments. The findings have provided important information about the role of temperature sensation in thermoregulation and suggest that, during activities performed in the water or in the winter, the possibility of accidental hypothermia should be kept in mind.
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New approach identifies T cells in COVID-19 patients
T cells play a decisive role in fighting the coronavirus and preventing infected individuals from becoming seriously ill. They identify and fight the virus directly within the infected cells. Researchers have produced a precise profile of the T cells that respond to SARS-CoV-2 and described them at various stages of the illness. This novel methodological approach may in the future also help to ass
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4D back-projection method reveals seismicity that initiated in the lower mantle in 2015
On 30 May 2015, a magnitude 7.9 earthquake took place beneath Japan's remote Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, located about 1,000 kilometers south of Tokyo. The seismic activity occurred over 660 kilometers below Earth's surface, near the transition between the upper and lower mantle. The mechanism of deep-focus earthquakes, like the 2015 quake, has long been mysterious—the extremely high pressure and t
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What drives market share profitability?
Researchers from University of Alabama and Indiana University published a new paper in the Journal of Marketing that examines why a market share-profit relationship exists and how this understanding can be used to explain the very large difference in the value of market share between firms and across industries.
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The Books Briefing: How Fan Fiction Reimagines the Writing Process
When The Last Jedi came out, some viewers had déjà vu : Certain aspects of the movie's plot were strikingly similar to the events in several popular stories on the fan-fiction site Archive of Our Own. The coincidence may seem strange, but in many ways it's unsurprising that the people who were thinking most deeply about a franchise—its creators and devotees alike—would come to the same conclusion
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Body cams alone not enough to prevent police violence
Experts are calling for broader police reforms after new analysis from The Australian National University (ANU) and the University of Waterloo in Canada raised serious questions about the effectiveness of body-worn cameras (BWCs) at preventing police wrongdoing.
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How microbial communities adapt to soil acidification
Temperate grasslands in northern China have experienced soil acidification in the last 30 years due to increasing acid deposition and unsustainable management. Long-term soil acidification may lead to leaching of base cations, nutrient imbalances and metal stress for soil biomes.
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Obstacle Course Racing with Michelle Rodriguez | Getaway Driver
Stream Getaway Driver on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/getaway-driver-us About Getaway Driver: Michelle Rodriguez brings the ultimate driving fantasy to life as 24 elite drivers get behind the wheel in a real-life high-speed chase. Can the getaway drivers evade their pursuers, find an exit and escape, or will their cars pay the ultimate sacrifice? #GetawayDriver #MichelleRodrigu
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Creation of a detailed 'catalogue' of degradation products in cells
Cells have their own quality control to prevent the production and accumulation of harmful proteins. This quality control is essential for correct embryonic development in all mammals and plays an important role in tumors and genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. A group of researchers from the University of Bern and the University of Basel have now made visible and cataloged for the first tim
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Why COVID-19 won't make downtown office buildings obsolete
After nearly five decades headquartered in suburban Chicago, McDonald's ditched the burbs and unveiled its sterling new complex on the edge of the city's downtown. Deluxe Corps, a financial services company with an annual revenue of $2 billion, recently relocated from Shoreview, Minnesota, to downtown Minneapolis and Visa announced a move from a Foster City, California, strip mall to San Francisco
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Can puppets boost social skills for kids with autism?
Puppets can attract and hold the attention of children with autism spectrum disorder, raising the potential for developing more engaging therapies that strengthen social engagement and facilitate learning. The new study in the journal Autism Research is the first to test anecdotal evidence that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), like most youngsters, pay attention to puppets. In a seri
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Looks aren't the only advantage of being beautiful
Beautiful people are more likely to get hired, receive better performance evaluations, and get paid more—but the advantage isn't just due to their good looks, say researchers. The findings of a new study indicate that while a "beauty premium" exists across professions , it's partially because attractive people develop distinct traits as a result of how the world responds to their attractiveness.
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GIV/Girdin regulates spatiotemporal signaling during sperm capacitation
Mammalian sperm cannot fertilize an egg from the get-go. It's an ability acquired only after insemination, during passage through the female reproductive tract, and requires two consecutive, time-sensitive processes to provide sperm with the physical and biochemical traits necessary to complete their fundamental job.
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Ultrafast charge transfer in Prussian blue analogues
Photoinduced charge transfers are an interesting electronic property of Prussian blue and some analogously structured compounds. A team of researchers has now been able to elucidate the ultrafast processes in the light-induced charge transfer between iron and manganese in a manganese-containing Prussian blue analog. As reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie, different processes induced by light
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Masks Work
By coincidence, in November 2019 I did an investigation into the question – does wearing a facemask reduce the risk of transmitting or getting a respiratory infection? I was in Australia at the time and noticed that their large Asian population frequently wore facemasks in public. It seemed odd, and my initial hypothesis was that this was likely a cultural behavior without supporting evidence. I
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Praising middle school students improves on-task behavior by up to 70%
Students speaking out of turn, texting, telling rude jokes, falling asleep in class, making distracting gestures—managing these behaviors is all in a day's work for many middle school teachers, who shepherd adolescents through some of their most trying years. Add in the disruptions of a global pandemic to exacerbate student anxiety and depression, and this year middle school teachers may find them
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Team isolates antibodies that target alphaviruses
A multi-institutional team led by researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center has isolated monoclonal antibodies that in laboratory and animal studies prevented infection by alphaviruses, including the often-lethal Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV).
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A new dataset could aid climate justice research
The impacts of climate change strike hardest in socially and economically vulnerable communities; knowing this, researchers have constructed a variety of indices to try to identify populations most at risk. These datasets often rely on demographic data, but leave out important financial and real estate information that could help to identify communities where vulnerable groups could be pushed out
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Eight out of ten teachers think education news is negative and demoralising
For many teachers, news coverage of education seems to be unrelentingly negative. They say this is particularly noticeable in reporting of results of standardized tests such as NAPLAN and the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which seems to place most of the blame for perceived problems on them.
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Increasing the accuracy of mosquito vector surveillance
A team of researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS), led by Assistant Professor Nalini Puniamoorthy from the Department of Biological Sciences, has developed an integrative approach that increases the accuracy of mosquito surveillance and management.
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Build Anything With This AutoCAD Programming Certification Bundle
Good design isn't just pleasant to live and work in, it can literally save your life . And many buildings are first assembled not on the site but within a virtual environment with computer-assisted design (CAD) that makes it easy to ensure a design is both within zoning codes and within the bounds of physics. The Learn AutoCAD Programming Certification Bundle will show you how to construct a buil
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Så kan tryckt elektronik bli miljövänligare
Med elektroniskt bläck kan man trycka elektroniska funktioner på tyg och papper. Till exempel displayer på kläder och belysning på väggar. Men tryckprocessen kräver idag miljöfarliga lösningsmedel. Nu har forskare i Umeå tagit fram ett webbverktyg för att hitta bättre lösningsmedel. Så kallad tryckt elektronik är ett snabbt växande fält, som kommer att förändra hur vi använder elektronik i framti
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Att vara polyamorös och förälder
Personer som är öppet polyamorösa kan mötas av starka reaktioner från omgivningen. Inte minst om de har barn. I en ny studie berättar polyamorösa om hur de hanterar normer kring familjeliv och föräldraskap. I våras utlöste en frågespalt i DN både läsarstorm och debatt. En oroad kvinna bad om råd eftersom hennes vuxne son berättat att han och mamman till deras barn lever i en polyamorös relation.
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Between worlds
Nature, Published online: 20 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02227-w A long way from home.
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