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Pharaoh's groupies: why are we obsessed with ancient Egypt?
I was initially attracted to Egyptology because of some unexplainable, irrational love for an ancient culture. But I now view these gorgeous, chiseled kings as bullies and narcissists. Fetishizing ancient cultures makes ourselves easy marks for the next charismatic authoritarian who comes along. The following is excerpted from The Good Kings , to be published by National Geographic Books on Novem
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LATEST

Blood clot risk greater after Covid infection than after vaccination
Analysis of 29m people finds danger of infection with Sars-Cov-2 far outweighs the risks of having jab Coronavirus – latest updates BBC presenter Lisa Shaw died of Covid vaccine complications, coroner finds The chances of developing dangerous blood clots after being infected with the virus that causes Covid-19 far outweighs the risks of the AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines, according to the larges
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The Absurdity of Police Comparing Vaccine Mandates to Nazi Germany
It was after Chicago Mayor Lori Lightfoot announced that she would pursue a COVID-19 vaccination mandate for all city employees that the local Fraternal Order of Police president, John Catanzara, finally understood what it was like to be a Jew in Hitler's Germany. "We're in America, G-ddamn it. We don't want to be forced to do anything. Period," Catanzara said, as transcribed by the Chicago Sun-T
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Ultrafast electron microscopy leads to pivotal discovery
Everyone who has ever been to the Grand Canyon can relate to having strong feelings from being close to one of nature's edges. Similarly, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have discovered that nanoparticles of gold act unusually when close to the edge of a one-atom thick sheet of carbon, called graphene. This could have big implications for the develop
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The physics behind a water bear's lumbering gait
Plump and ponderous, tardigrades earned the nickname "water bears" when scientists first observed the 0.02-inch-long animals' distinctive lumbering gaits in the 18th century. Their dumpy plod, however, raises the question of why tardigrades evolved to walk at all.
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Scientists: Octopuses Love to Fling Objects at Each Other
Tentacle Warfare Six years ago, a team of scientists from the University of Sydney filmed common Sydney octopuses ( Octopus tetricus ) "throwing" shells, silt, and other seafloor detritus at each other. At the time, it wasn't clear whether they were actually targeting one another or if the other octopuses were merely collateral damage, since they use the same "throwing" mechanism to discard food
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Watch Lunatics Fire 3D Printed Assault Rifles and Handguns
Printing Guns 3D printing technologies have come a long way — to the point that an entire underground culture of firearm enthusiasts are now attending events at which they fire guns they (mostly) printed at home, Vice reports in a troubling new video documentary. It's a dystopian vision. A recent event in Florida dubbed the "Gun Maker's Match" saw attendees compete using their home-assembled hand
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What California's Recall Election Says About America
W e did not meet at the French Laundry. Gavin Newsom, the California governor who faces a recall election on September 14, hasn't been back to the extravagantly expensive Napa Valley restaurant since he dined there with lobbyists last year in violation of his own COVID-19 restrictions. We met instead at a café in a nonprofit bookstore in the Mission District—much more on message. Newsom had just
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Air pollution linked to more severe mental illness – study
Exclusive: research finds small rise in exposure to air pollution leads to higher risk of needing treatment Exposure to air pollution is linked to an increased severity of mental illness, according to the most comprehensive study of its kind. The research, involving 13,000 people in London, found that a relatively small increase in exposure to nitrogen dioxide led to a 32% increase in the risk of
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A Bungled Mess
Updated at 4:03 p.m. ET on August 27, 2021. For days, those defending President Joe Biden's pullout from Afghanistan repeated the mantra that no U.S. citizens had been killed during the successful evacuation of tens of thousands of Americans and Afghans from the country. This reckless prediction ricocheted across social media and was bound to be invalidated—indeed, it was almost tempting fate to
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Scientists: Life May Thrive on Ocean Worlds Far Larger Than Earth
Extreme Conditions A team of scientists has identified a new class of exoplanets and, despite their drastic differences from our home here on Earth, the researchers say they could be great candidates in the search for extraterrestrial life . These so-called Hycean planets are known for their high temperatures, ocean-covered surfaces, and hydrogen-rich atmospheres. That means they harbor more extr
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Watch a Guy With Bad Knees Get Superpowers With a Powered Exoskeleton
Spring in His Step In an incredible new Wired video , tech journalist Brent Rose had an incredible time testing out a powered exoskeleton built by the San Francisco-based company Roam Robotics. As Rose explains in the clip, he's had difficulties with his knees. But with the Roam's Forge knee brace, he was able to carry the video's producer in a fireman's carry up several flights of stairs, while
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Russian Space Chief Issues Cryptic Invitation to Elon Musk
Dmitry Rogozin, the head of Russia's space agency Roscosmos, just reached out to SpaceX CEO Elon Musk on Twitter with a cryptic invitation. "Good afternoon, Mr. Elon Musk!" Rogozin wrote. "On October 5, a new expedition will leave for the International Space Station. We are planning to send a cinematographic group of the leading television channel as part of it." According to Rogozin, the goal is
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Nightmarishly large bird-eating centipedes are propping up a whole island ecosystem
Giant bird-eating centipedes may sound like something out of a science-fiction film — but they're not. On tiny Phillip Island, part of the South Pacific's Norfolk Island group , the Phillip Island centipede ( Cormocephalus coynei ) population can kill and eat up to 3,700 seabird chicks each year. And this is entirely natural. This unique creature endemic to Phillip Island has a diet consisting of
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Self-Driving Bus Hits Pedestrian at Tokyo Olympic Village
Share the Road On Thursday afternoon, one of the self-driving shuttle buses operating at the Tokyo Olympic village crashed into a Paralympian while they were crossing the street. The bus drove into 30-year-old Japanese judo competitor Aramitsu Kitazono, who is visually impaired, knocking him over and giving him head and leg injuries, Agence France-Presse reports . While there are more moving part
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Hearing mother's voice can lessen pain in premature babies, study suggests
Researchers measured pain responses in preterm babies during routine procedures in neonatal unit Premature babies appear to feel less pain during medical procedures when they are spoken to by their mothers, researchers have found. Babies that are born very early often have to spend time in neonatal intensive care units, and may need several painful clinical procedures. The situation can also mean
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Confusion over Covid jabs for over-12s in England ahead of new school term
JCVI understood to have concerns about effect of jab on other childhood inoculations Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Confusion is growing over whether all children aged 12 and over will soon be offered a Covid jab as schools in England prepare to return next week, with the NHS gearing up for vaccinations but government scientists warning of potential complications. A
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Prepare for back-to-school Covid surge, Sage experts warn
Minimal immunity and dropping of preventive measures could lead to widespread school infections Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Ministers should be planning for a huge rise in Covid cases as schools return, the government's scientific advisers have warned, as debate continues over whether all older children should be offered a Covid vaccine. A document released on Fr
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The Pandemic Is Making Dads Reevaluate Their Work-Life Balance
Zac Eash had originally planned to be home for two weeks when he became a father. But his daughter was born in early March 2020, and, well, you know. "We both got to spend a lot of time with her the first four months of her life," Eash, a middle-school teacher living in Ames, Iowa, who finished out the school year remotely, told me. When in-person classes resumed late last summer, Eash was acutel
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ISIS-K, Explained
Fifty years ago, John Kerry asked the Senate Foreign Relations Committee a question that is probably occurring to many Americans right now: "How do you ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake?" Yesterday, at least 13 U.S. service members died in an attack on a crowd of Afghans seeking evacuation from Kabul's airport. They died saving their allies from persecution or murder by the Taliba
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Elon Musk: Jeff Bezos Retired for "Full-time Job Filing Lawsuits Against SpaceX"
Got 'Em Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk are trading barbs once again — in the form of Bezos doing whatever he can to stand in SpaceX's way and Musk, well, taking shots on Twitter. "Turns out Besos [that's Spanish for "kisses," a dig Musk has used against Bezos before ] retired in order to pursue a full-time job filing lawsuits against SpaceX," Musk tweeted early on Friday morning. In this case, Musk was
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Reader Beware
Certain doctors may not be anti-vaccine, but they need to be fact-checked as if they are. The post first appeared on Science-Based Medicine .
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Who Takes the Blame?
Who, exactly, is responsible for today's calamity in Afghanistan? ISIS appears to be the author of this tragedy, but are American officials at fault as well? At least 12 U.S. service members and dozens of Afghan civilians are dead after attacks by a pair of suicide bombers just outside the Kabul airport. The number of casualties is sure to rise. For that matter, who will Americans blame when they
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Researchers use stem cells to make insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells
The human body can be genetically inclined to attack its own cells, destroying the beta cells in the pancreas that make insulin, which helps convert sugar into energy. Called Type 1 diabetes, this disorder can occur at any age and can be fatal if not carefully managed with insulin shots or an insulin pump to balance the body's sugar levels.
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Endosymbiotic theory: evolution is powered by innovation and thievery
Throughout evolutionary history, organisms have "stolen" the innovations of others rather than building them from scratch. For example, the tiny "organs" inside of cells were once free-living bacteria. Today, humans have taken CRISPR from bacteria and used it as a technique for gene editing. Wheels have been on planet Earth for over 6000 years. Suitcases have been around for centuries. Suitcases
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Researchers Are About to Infect Humans With Home-Grown COVID Strain
UK researchers and officials are preparing to infect human volunteers with the delta variant of the coronavirus — on purpose — in a controversial but important "challenge" study that will help them directly measure the impact of vaccines and treatments. Researchers in the UK have already exposed about 40 human volunteers to the original variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, so th
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Atomic snapshots show fast ion migration in ultra-thin clays
Research led by The University of Manchester has found that ions diffuse 10,000 times faster inside atomically thin clays than in bulk clay crystals. Clays are used in a wide variety of membrane applications, so this result offers the potential to achieve vastly improved desalination or fuel cell performance simply by switching to ultra-thin clays when producing the membranes.
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Unraveling the mystery of brown dwarfs
Brown dwarfs are astronomical objects with masses between those of planets and stars. The question of where exactly the limits of their mass lie remains a matter of debate, especially since their constitution is very similar to that of low-mass stars. So how do we know whether we are dealing with a brown dwarf or a very low mass star? An international team, led by scientists from the University of
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New material aids in neural stimulation using light
The ability to target and stimulate neurons brings a host of benefits including better understanding brain function and treating neurological diseases. Currently, state-of-the-art microelectrode arrays (MEAs) can stimulate neurons with high precision, but they lack cell-type specificity and require invasive implantation that can result in tissue damage—think stimulators used to help patients with
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Don't Go in the Basement
A t one point in the long-awaited new film Candyman , billed as a " spiritual sequel " to the 1992 cult horror flick by the same name, a character is heading toward an inevitable confrontation with the monster. We've seen this moment a thousand times. The character knows now that evil is afoot. She knows that it's of a supernatural variety. Blood has been shed. Her every step is measured and caut
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Scientist Warns of Megadroughts That Could Collapse Entire Civilizations
Southern Blob A huge region of water in the south Pacific Ocean has reached considerably warmer temperatures than the water around it — triggering a chain of events that's led to a decade-long megadrought in Chile. The so-called "Southern Blob" is linked to changing wind patterns and rising temperatures caused by rampant burning of fossil fuels and, as a result, has lasted years longer than a nat
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Keep it short and before 3pm: what the sleep scientists say about naps
Napping is a symbol of laziness but it can improve our memory, creativity, empathy and problem-solving Napping has long been a symbol of laziness, but actually it is an essential bodily function that improves our memory, creativity, empathy and problem-solving abilities. Sleep scientists say the gold standard for good physical and mental health is making sure you get between seven and nine hours'
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Scientists Searching for Lost Nuclear Nazi Cubes
Nazi Cubes During World War II, Nazi scientists attempted to make a nuclear bomb, using two-inch cubes of uranium as fuel. The bomb never came to fruition, and while Allied forces confiscated many of the cubes, most have been lost to time. Even the ones that scientists do have access to are still shrouded in mystery. But now researchers are making strides toward tracking them down, according to r
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Hubble captures gravity-lensed quasar
Clustered at the center of this image are six luminous spots of light, four of them forming a circle around a central pair. Appearances can be deceiving, however, as this formation is not composed of six individual galaxies, but only three: to be precise, a pair of galaxies and one distant quasar. Hubble data also indicates that there is a seventh spot of light in the very center, which is a rare
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Weight loss via exercise harder for obese people, data suggests
Research finds that when humans exercise, our bodies limit the energy used on basic metabolic functions Losing weight through exercise appears to be more difficult for obese people, research suggests. Initially, researchers thought that the total energy we spend in a day is the sum of energy expended due to activity (ranging from light gardening to running a marathon) and energy used for basic fu
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Here's how early school begins – and why it is bad for students
This map shows when school starts across America — way too early according to specialists. Due to early school starts, America's students are "chronologically sleep-deprived." California is spearheading a change, which should result in improved academic results. A student napping in a lecture hall. American adolescents are "chronically sleep-deprived and pathologically sleepy." Credit : Sean Gall
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Schrödinger's Planet
In 2006, astronomers gathered in Prague to consider a very basic question: How many planets are in our solar system? Was it nine, or was it actually eight, or perhaps as many as 12? By the end of the conference, after several polite debates and " lots of heated hallway discussions ," the verdict was in. Under the new rules of planethood , the solar system had eight planets, and Pluto wasn't one o
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The Joy of Walking in Games
Here's what you need to know about walking simulators and the psychological benefits of how games can offer a much-needed escape.
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Scientists Demonstrate That Yes, Video Call Meetings Are Exhausting
When the coronavirus pandemic began and many officer workers' jobs started to primarily happen over video calls, it didn't take long for a general malaise colloquially called "Zoom fatigue" to set in. Well, it turns out that Zoom fatigue — referring to video calls regardless of the specific platform on which they're held — is real, according to research published in the Journal of Applied Psychol
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The LIGO/Virgo Collaboration sets new constraints on cosmic strings
The LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA Collaboration, a large group of researchers at different institutes worldwide, has recently set the strongest constraints on cosmic strings to date, using the Advanced LIGO/Virgo full O3 dataset. This dataset contains the latest gravitational waves data detected by a network of three interferometers located in United States and in Italy.
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LED material shines under strain
Smartphones, laptops, and lighting applications rely on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to shine bright. But the brighter these LED technologies shine, the more inefficient they become, releasing more energy as heat instead of light.
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The Books Briefing: Cultivate a Love of Reading Early On
Patrick Zachmann / Magnum This week, kids and teachers across the United States went back to school, after a year and a half of remote learning and Zoom fatigue. This school year is likely to be a mess— again —and among all of the pandemic considerations, teachers are also contending with keeping students engaged in and out of the classroom. Some veteran educators, though, have succeeded at insti
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The Two Blows America Is Dealing to the Taliban
Imagine how the scene at the Kabul airport looked to the suicide bomber in the last seconds before he committed his act of murder yesterday: thousands of men, women, and children queuing and jostling in desperate escape from the coming Taliban regime. These were not randomly selected men, women, and children either. These were people with technical skills: medicine, computers, electrical engineer
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People are hiring out their faces to become deepfake-style marketing clones
Like many students, Liri has had several part-time jobs. A 23-year-old in Israel, she does waitressing and bartending gigs in Tel Aviv, where she goes to university. She also sells cars, works in retail, and conducts job interviews and onboarding sessions for new employees as a corporate HR rep. In Germany. Liri can juggle so many jobs, in multiple countries, because she has hired out her face to
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Your sense of smell may be the key to a balanced diet
Walking past a corner bakery, you may find yourself drawn in by the fresh smell of sweets wafting from the front door. You're not alone: The knowledge that humans make decisions based on their nose has led major brands like Cinnabon and Panera Bread to pump the scents of baked goods into their restaurants, leading to big spikes in sales.
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Is This the End of Welfare as We Know It?
Chaka Pruitt is a Los Angeles–based single mother caring for two kids and two grandkids while she completes a nursing program. The family lives on a penny-pinched, deliberate budget. Bills sometimes go unpaid; necessary purchases sometimes do not get made. But receiving welfare has helped: To offset her educational expenses, Pruitt gets a few hundred dollars a month from the local Temporary Assis
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MIT engineers design touch-sensing glove that 'feels' pressure and maps stimuli
When you pick up a balloon, the pressure to keep hold of it is different from what you would exert to grasp a jar. And now engineers at MIT and elsewhere have a way to precisely measure and map such subtleties of tactile dexterity. The team has designed a new touch-sensing glove that can "feel" pressure and other tactile stimuli. The inside of the glove is threaded with a system of sensors that d
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The US report into Covid's origins is little use in averting another pandemic | Laura Spinney
Regardless of where the virus came from, there's a growing risk of another Covid-like phenomenon occurring US intelligence services have just briefed the president, Joe Biden, on the results of their 90-day investigation into the origins of Covid-19. They were asked to test two hypotheses: that it had a "natural" origin, or that it escaped from a lab. Preliminary reports suggest that their findin
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Highly conductive and elastic nanomembrane for skin electronics
"Skin electronics" are thin, flexible electronics that could be mounted onto the skin. While it may sound like something out of science fiction, it is anticipated that soon such devices will serve in a wide range of applications such as health monitoring, health diagnosis, virtual reality, and human-machine interface.
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Hexagonal boron nitride as a tunnel barrier for ferromagnetic tunnel junctions
Tohoku University's Center for Innovative Integrated Electronic Systems (CIES) has been working collaboratively with the University of Cambridge under the core-to-core project (PL: Prof. Endoh). JSPS has announced an analysis using two-dimensional (2D) materials (hexagonal boron nitride; h-BN) as a tunnel barrier for ferromagnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ), which can expect a tunnel magnetoresistance
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Global sand and gravel extraction conflicts with half of UN Sustainable Development Goals
Sand and gravel are the most mined materials in the world, with between 32 and 50 billion tonnes extracted globally each year. They are being extracted faster than they can be replaced. But according to a new study led by researchers at McGill University and the University of Copenhagen, the human and environmental costs of this extraction on lower and middle-income countries have been largely ove
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Simulations of polymers? A quantum puzzle
Using computers to study polymers has always been a major challenge for scientific computation, especially for long and densely packed biomolecules, like DNA. New perspectives are now opening up through quantum computing. Scientists have now recast the basic models of polymer models as optimization problems that can be efficiently solved with quantum computers. This novel approach has made it poss
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Can you spot the fake receptor? The coronavirus can't either.
As covid-19 continues to evolve in the US, researchers are now developing the next generation of therapeutics, including a new approach that could help reduce the time it takes to recover from the disease. While existing treatments include antivirals , antibodies, and steroids , scientists in the US and Europe are now focusing on creating decoys of the receptors the virus normally binds to, poten
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Covid abnormal: why is Australia so far behind on making its own mRNA vaccines?
Annual coronavirus vaccines could be a reality – but Australia is at least 18 months away from manufacturing its own From September – more than nine months after it was approved for emergency use in the United States – the first doses of the Moderna Covid-19 vaccine will arrive on Australian shores. The second mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) vaccine against the coronavirus is a welcome boon ami
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Embryonic development in slow motion
Roe deer are among the few mammals whose embryos go into a particularly long period of dormancy. Using modern molecular methods, researchers have shown for the first time what exactly happens in the embryo during this phase. They have identified signals that control the embryo`s awakening.
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Why are so many Americans leaving their jobs right now?
Americans are leaving their jobs in droves, and many of those who haven't left yet say they're thinking about it. A Microsoft survey of more than 30,000 global workers showed that 41% of workers were considering quitting or changing professions this year. Among all sectors, retail has had the most resignations. Almost 650,000 retail workers quit just in April, according to the Department of Labor
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Interaction between decision-making and interoceptive representations of bodily arousal in frontal cortex [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Decision-making and representations of arousal are intimately linked. Behavioral investigations have classically shown that either too little or too much bodily arousal is detrimental to decision-making, indicating that there is an inverted "U" relationship between bodily arousal and performance. How these processes interact at the level of single neurons as…
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The N terminus of {alpha}-synuclein dictates fibril formation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The generation of α-synuclein (α-syn) truncations from incomplete proteolysis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. It is well established that C-terminal truncations exhibit accelerated aggregation and serve as potent seeds in fibril propagation. In contrast, mechanistic understanding of N-terminal truncations remains ill defined. Previously, we found…
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Hierarchy of signaling thresholds downstream of the T cell receptor and the Tec kinase ITK [Immunology and Inflammation]
The strength of peptide:MHC interactions with the T cell receptor (TCR) is correlated with the time to first cell division, the relative scale of the effector cell response, and the graded expression of activation-associated proteins like IRF4. To regulate T cell activation programming, the TCR and the TCR proximal interleukin-2–inducible…
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METTL14 facilitates global genome repair and suppresses skin tumorigenesis [Medical Sciences]
Global genome repair (GGR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair, corrects bulky helix-distorting DNA lesions across the whole genome and is essential for preventing mutagenesis and skin cancer. Here, we show that METTL14 (methyltransferase-like 14), a critical component of the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methyltransferase complex, promotes GGR through regulating m6A…
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Amino acids activate mTORC1 to release roe deer embryos from decelerated proliferation during diapause [Physiology]
Embryonic diapause in mammals leads to a reversible developmental arrest. While completely halted in many species, European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) embryos display a continuous deceleration of proliferation. During a 4-mo period, the cell doubling time is 2 to 3 wk. During this period, the preimplantation blastocyst reaches a diameter…
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Ssu72 phosphatase directly binds to ZAP-70, thereby providing fine-tuning of TCR signaling and preventing spontaneous inflammation [Immunology and Inflammation]
ZAP-70 is required for the initiation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, and Ssu72 is a phosphatase that regulates RNA polymerase II activity in the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which ZAP-70 regulates the fine-tuning of TCR signaling remains elusive. Here, we found that Ssu72 contributed to the fine-tuning of…
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Bayesian metamodeling of complex biological systems across varying representations [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Comprehensive modeling of a whole cell requires an integration of vast amounts of information on various aspects of the cell and its parts. To divide and conquer this task, we introduce Bayesian metamodeling, a general approach to modeling complex systems by integrating a collection of heterogeneous input models. Each input…
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Classifying mobile genetic elements and their interactions from sequence data: The importance of existing biological knowledge [Biological Sciences]
We agree with Che et al. (1) that understanding how mobile genetic elements (MGEs) spread antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is important. However, decades of research have already characterized a diverse toolbox of MGEs involved in the emergence of AMR, including conjugative plasmids and insertion sequences (ISs), and their interactions. "Mobile" AMR…
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Highly motile nanoscale magnetic artificial cilia [Engineering]
Among the many complex bioactuators functioning at different scales, the organelle cilium represents a fundamental actuating unit in cellular biology. Producing motions at submicrometer scales, dominated by viscous forces, cilia drive a number of crucial bioprocesses in all vertebrate and many invertebrate organisms before and after their birth. Artificially mimicking…
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Structural basis for the activation of the DEAD-box RNA helicase DbpA by the nascent ribosome [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent DEAD-box RNA helicase DbpA from Escherichia coli functions in ribosome biogenesis. DbpA is targeted to the nascent 50S subunit by an ancillary, carboxyl-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM) that specifically binds to hairpin 92 (HP92) of the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). The interaction between HP92 and the…
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NMDA receptor-BK channel coupling regulates synaptic plasticity in the barrel cortex [Physiology]
Postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are crucial mediators of synaptic plasticity due to their ability to act as coincidence detectors of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal activity. However, NMDARs exist within the molecular context of a variety of postsynaptic signaling proteins, which can fine-tune their function. Here, we describe a form of…
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Pathway conversion enables a double-lock mechanism to maintain DNA methylation and genome stability [Plant Biology]
The CMT2 and RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathways have been proposed to separately maintain CHH methylation in specific regions of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Here, we show that dysfunction of the chromatin remodeler DDM1 causes hundreds of genomic regions to switch from CMT2 dependency to RdDM dependency in DNA methylation….
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Rapid sulfuric acid-dimethylamine nucleation enhanced by nitric acid in polluted regions [Chemistry]
Recent research [Wang et al., Nature 581, 184–189 (2020)] indicates nitric acid (NA) can participate in sulfuric acid (SA)–ammonia (NH3) nucleation in the clean and cold upper free troposphere, whereas NA exhibits no obvious effects at the boundary layer with relatively high temperatures. Herein, considering that an SA–dimethylamine (DMA) nucleation…
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Reply to Partridge et al.: Complementary bioinformatics and experimental approaches to investigate the transfer of AMR genes [Biological Sciences]
We would like to thank Sally R. Partridge et al. for the letter (1) and appreciate the opportunity to clarify our methods and thinking in relation to the concerns raised. We developed Plascad (2) for automated plasmid classification based on previously suggested schemes and standards (3–6) and extended the plasmid…
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Picking the arginine lock on PQLC2 cycling [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
A key function of lysosomes is degradation of complex macromolecules, which is followed by export of the constituent metabolites to the cytoplasm. To enable this metabolite export, lysosomes harbor many transporters spanning their limiting membrane. Loss-of-function mutations in lysosomal transporters for lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides are often associated with…
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Protease cleavage of RNF20 facilitates coronavirus replication via stabilization of SREBP1 [Microbiology]
COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented a serious risk to global public health. The viral main protease Mpro (also called 3Clpro) encoded by NSP5 is an enzyme essential for viral replication. However, very few host proteins have been experimentally validated as targets of 3Clpro. Here,…
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Correction for Veres et al., Global airborne sampling reveals a previously unobserved dimethyl sulfide oxidation mechanism in the marine atmosphere [Corrections]
EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for "Global airborne sampling reveals a previously unobserved dimethyl sulfide oxidation mechanism in the marine atmosphere," by Patrick R. Veres, J. Andrew Neuman, Timothy H. Bertram, Emmanuel Assaf, Glenn M. Wolfe, Christina J. Williamson, Bernadett Weinzierl, Simone Tilmes, Chelsea R. Thompson, Alexander B. Thames,…
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Krystal Vasquez
Contributor (@ caffeinatedkrys ) is a freelance science writer in Los Angeles, California who enjoys writing about earth and environmental science. She is also currently finishing up her Ph.D. in atmospheric chemistry at the California Institute of Technology. Author social media Twitter
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How disorderly young galaxies grow up and mature
Using a supercomputer simulation, a research team has succeeded in following the development of a galaxy over a span of 13.8 billion years. The study shows how, due to interstellar frontal collisions, young and chaotic galaxies over time mature into spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way.
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How bees turn pollen to pellets to get it to their hives
Honey bees have developed a way to transform pollen particles into a viscoelastic pellet, allowing them to transport pollen efficiently, quickly, and reliably to their hive, according to a new study. The study also suggests the insects remove pollen from their bodies at speeds 2-10 times slower than their typical grooming speeds. "Removing a pollen pellet is like the opposite of ripping off a Ban
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Lamin B1 sequesters 53BP1 to control its recruitment to DNA damage
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are harmful lesions and a major cause of genome instability. Studies have suggested a link between the nuclear envelope and the DNA damage response. Here, we show that lamin B1, a major component of the nuclear envelope, interacts directly with 53BP1 protein, which plays a pivotal role in the DSB repair. This interaction is dissociated after DNA damage. Lamin B1 overex
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Histone citrullination by PADI4 is required for HIF-dependent transcriptional responses to hypoxia and tumor vascularization
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) activate transcription of target genes by recruiting coactivators and chromatin-modifying enzymes. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4) catalyzes the deimination of histone arginine residues to citrulline. Here, we demonstrate that PADI4 expression is induced by hypoxia in a HIF-dependent manner in breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PADI4, in turn,
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Environmental vulnerability of the global ocean epipelagic plankton community interactome
Marine plankton form complex communities of interacting organisms at the base of the food web, which sustain oceanic biogeochemical cycles and help regulate climate. Although global surveys are starting to reveal ecological drivers underlying planktonic community structure and predicted climate change responses, it is unclear how community-scale species interactions will be affected by climate ch
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High-purity production and precise editing of DNA base editing ribonucleoproteins
Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex–mediated base editing is expected to be greatly beneficial because of its reduced off-target effects compared to plasmid- or viral vector–mediated gene editing, especially in therapeutic applications. However, production of recombinant cytosine base editors (CBEs) or adenine base editors (ABEs) with ample yield and high purity in bacterial systems is challenging. H
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No ordinary proteins: Adsorption and molecular orientation of monoclonal antibodies
The interaction of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with air/water interfaces plays a crucial role in their overall stability in solution. We aim to understand this behavior using pendant bubble measurements to track the dynamic tension reduction and x-ray reflectivity to obtain the electron density profiles (EDPs) at the surface. Native immunoglobulin G mAb is a rigid molecule with a flat, "Y" shape
3h
An epigenetic basis of inbreeding depression in maize
Inbreeding depression is widespread across plant and animal kingdoms and may arise from the exposure of deleterious alleles and/or loss of overdominant alleles resulting from increased homozygosity, but these genetic models cannot fully explain the phenomenon. Here, we report epigenetic links to inbreeding depression in maize. Teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor (TCP) transcrip
3h
Synchronous and opponent thermosensors use flexible cross-inhibition to orchestrate thermal homeostasis
Body temperature homeostasis is essential and reliant upon the integration of outputs from multiple classes of cooling- and warming-responsive cells. The computations that integrate these outputs are not understood. Here, we discover a set of warming cells (WCs) and show that the outputs of these WCs combine with previously described cooling cells (CCs) in a cross-inhibition computation to drive
3h
Multiform antimicrobial resistance from a metabolic mutation
A critical challenge for microbiology and medicine is how to cure infections by bacteria that survive antibiotic treatment by persistence or tolerance. Seeking mechanisms behind such high survival, we developed a forward-genetic method for efficient isolation of high-survival mutants in any culturable bacterial species. We found that perturbation of an essential biosynthetic pathway (arginine bio
3h
Synthesis of medicinally relevant oxalylamines via copper/Lewis acid synergistic catalysis
Allylamines have long been recognized as valuable synthons because of their excellent reactivity in organic synthesis. Her e, an efficient amination reaction of allenyl ethers via copper/Lewis acid synergistic catalysis has been established, providing straightforward access to diverse functionalized Z -oxalylamines and E -halogenated oxalylamines in good to excellent yields with high regio- and s
3h
Basal nucleation and the prevalence of ascending swarms in Long Valley caldera
Earthquake swarms are ubiquitous in volcanic systems, being manifestations of underlying nontectonic processes such as magma intrusions or volatile fluid transport. The Long Valley caldera, California, is one such setting where episodic earthquake swarms and persistent uplift suggest the presence of active magmatism. We quantify the long-term spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity in
3h
Sustained oxygenation accelerates diabetic wound healing by promoting epithelialization and angiogenesis and decreasing inflammation
Nonhealing diabetic wounds are common complications for diabetic patients. Because chronic hypoxia prominently delays wound healing, sustained oxygenation to alleviate hypoxia is hypothesized to promote diabetic wound healing. However, sustained oxygenation cannot be achieved by current clinical approaches, including hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Here, we present a sustained oxygenation system consi
3h
Genome-wide synthetic lethal screen unveils novel CAIX-NFS1/xCT axis as a targetable vulnerability in hypoxic solid tumors
The metabolic mechanisms involved in the survival of tumor cells within the hypoxic niche remain unclear. We carried out a synthetic lethal CRISPR screen to identify survival mechanisms governed by the tumor hypoxia–induced pH regulator carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). We identified a redox homeostasis network containing the iron-sulfur cluster enzyme, NFS1. Depletion of NFS1 or blocking cyst(e)ine
3h
Myths and facts about getting an academic faculty position in neuroscience
We at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke routinely receive questions and statements from trainees and faculty that suggest widespread beliefs about the necessity of a National Institutes of Health K99/R00 award, other prior funding, and/or specific types of publications for obtaining one's first tenure-track position in neuroscience. To address these beliefs, we examined
3h
Morphine-sensitive synaptic transmission emerges in embryonic rat microphysiological model of lower afferent nociceptive signaling
Debilitating chronic pain resulting from genetic predisposition, injury, or acquired neuropathy is becoming increasingly pervasive. Opioid analgesics remain the gold standard for intractable pain, but overprescription of increasingly powerful and addictive opioids has contributed to the current prescription drug abuse epidemic. There is a pressing need to screen experimental compounds more effici
3h
Structure of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p110{gamma}-p101 complex reveals molecular mechanism of GPCR activation
The class IB phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), PI3K, is a master regulator of immune cell function and a promising drug target for both cancer and inflammatory diseases. Critical to PI3K function is the association of the p110 catalytic subunit to either a p101 or p84 regulatory subunit, which mediates activation by G protein–coupled receptors. Here, we report the cryo–electron microscopy structu
3h
The Atlantic Daily: The West's Impossibly Extreme Weather
In the West, crisis is becoming routine. Extreme heat, out-of-control wildfires, droughts, floods—climate catastrophes are just part of the weather now. This is what climate change looks like, and it is here. "Even describing climate-related events as unprecedented or unpredictable becomes less meaningful," our California-based staff writer Ronald Brownstein points out. "Is an event that has neve
3h
A new type of infrared polaritons at the surface of bulk crystals
An international team has reported in Nature the first observation of ghost polaritons, which are a new form of surface waves carrying nanoscale light strongly coupled with material oscillations and featuring highly collimated propagation properties. The research team observed these phenomena over a common material—calcite—and showed how ghost polaritons can facilitate a superior control of infrar
4h
Gray zone: when is it best not to save a life?
A new paper examines the various ways premature babies are given life-saving care when their viability is in doubt. The authors propose a new system to help parents and hospitals make life-or-death decisions. The ethical or moral choice is not always obvious. Modern medicine has worked miracles unimaginable even a few generations ago. Where it has not managed to create universal cures, it has oft
4h
1 antibody neutralizes a bunch of COVID virus variants
Researchers have identified an antibody that is highly protective at low doses against a wide range of variants of the virus that causes COVID-19. The virus today is not the same as the one that first sickened people back in December 2019. Many of the variants circulating now are partially resistant to some of the antibody-based therapeutics that were developed based on the original virus. As the
4h
New concept for identifying chemical combinations with potential health effects
About 350,000 chemicals are registered worldwide. Some of these can contribute to human exposure to substances and mixtures via products, applications or food. In order to protect people in everyday life and at work from potentially dangerous chemicals, the legislature has established a comprehensive legal framework. Notably the corresponding acts and regulations mainly cover the evaluation of ind
5h
Promoting nitric oxide electroreduction to ammonia over electron-rich Cu modulated by Ru doping
As an important nitrogen-containing chemical, ammonia plays a vital role in the production of fertilizers, explosives and fine chemicals. At present, ammonia has been mainly manufactured from H2 and N2 under high temperature (300-500 oC) and high pressure (200-300 atm). This process consumes huge amounts of energy and discharges vast amounts of greenhouse gas. Thus, electrochemical ammonia synthes
5h
Work Smarter With 31% Off This Focus-Boosting Wearable
We all have times where we need to get focused and get things done at work, and sometimes, a good playlist and a set of headphones aren't going to cut it. FOCI is a wearable that not only helps keep you on track, it helps you better understand how and when you focus best over time. It's on sale now for 31% off at just $89. A Productivity Tool On Your Hip FOCI is simple to use. Download the app, c
5h
Time in nature can boost teen well-being
Taking a walk in the park or just going out into nature could help teens and young adults feel better, according to a new survey. Public health policies that actively support time spent outside could help promote teens' overall well-being. "Our findings suggest that spending time in nature, which youth define broadly as being outside, being around trees and woods and greenery, can have strong pub
6h
Disagreeable people are more likely to buy conspiracy theories
People who are antagonistic, exploitative, and generally disagreeable are more likely to believe in conspiracy theories, according to recent study. Researchers found that people who possess personality traits known as the "Dark Tetrad" are more likely to believe Princess Diana's death was orchestrated by the British royal family, that the moon landing was faked, and that alien spacecraft are bein
6h
How much will we pay to avoid using self-control?
A team of researchers has identified measures we take in order to avoid exerting self-control in our daily lives. "The failure to use self-control is a problem that humans face every day, but we know little about the cognitive processes that lie beneath it or the lengths we'll go to avoid needing to implement it," explains Candace Raio, an assistant professor of research in the psychiatry departm
6h
Barnacles inspire a blood-repelling tissue glue for sealing wounds faster
Inspired by the sticky substance that barnacles use to cling to rocks, MIT engineers have designed a strong, biocompatible glue that can seal injured tissues and stop bleeding. The new paste can adhere to surfaces even when they are covered with blood, and can form a tight seal within about 15 seconds of application. Such a glue could offer a much more effective way to treat traumatic injuries an
6h
A solid favor for researchers: A new way to investigate the electric double layer effect
All-solid-state batteries are expected to replace conventional batteries with a liquid electrolyte thanks to their improved safety, durability, and capacity. However, the electric double layer (EDL) effect is a phenomenon that is suspected to be a hindrance to battery performance and is difficult to measure. To tackle this issue, scientists have developed a new methodology to explore the EDL using
6h
For copepods, there is no free lunch when coping with climate change
The world's oceans are becoming increasingly stressful places for marine life, and experts are working to understand what this means for the future. From rising temperatures; to acidification as more carbon enters the waters; to changes in the currents; the challenges are multifaceted, making experiments and projections difficult. Copepods are small marine animals that are abundant, widely dispers
6h
Using yeast to create alternative petrochemical processes
As climate change continues to do more damage to our planet, scientists are working to find more efficient and cleaner ways to power the earth. One appealing alternative to common petrochemical processes that generate significant greenhouse gases and other waste products could come from biological systems. Recent work has led to advances in understanding of biochemical pathways and increased rates
6h
When humans disturb marine mammals, it's hard to know the long-term impact
From seismic surveys and Navy sonar to fisheries and shipping, many human activities in the ocean environment cause short-term changes in the behaviors of marine mammals. A longstanding challenge for scientists and regulatory agencies alike has been to understand the biological significance of those changes in terms of their overall impact on affected populations of animals. A new study provides a
6h
Driver Wins Michelle Rodriguez's Money | Getaway Driver
Stream Getaway Driver on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/getaway-driver-us About Getaway Driver: Michelle Rodriguez brings the ultimate driving fantasy to life as 24 elite drivers get behind the wheel in a real-life high-speed chase. Can the getaway drivers evade their pursuers, find an exit and escape, or will their cars pay the ultimate sacrifice? #GetawayDriver #MichelleRodrigu
7h
Cerebras Upgrades Trillion-Transistor Chip to Train 'Brain-Scale' AI
Much of the recent progress in AI has come from building ever-larger neural networks. A new chip powerful enough to handle "brain-scale" models could turbo-charge th is approach. Chip startup Cerebras leaped into the limelight in 2019 when it came out of stealth to reveal a 1.2-trillion-transistor chip. T he size of a dinner plate, the chip is called the Wafer Scale Engine and was the world's lar
7h
Consequences of the loss of threatened vertebrates
The number of vertebrate species inhabiting the different regions of the world is highly variable, as is the proportion of threatened species. Some regions, such as the tropics, have more threatened species than is expected given the total number of species. Yet the vulnerability of the ecosystems facing the ongoing loss of species does not depend only on the species number but also on their ecolo
7h
New way to investigate the electric double layer effect
Progress in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have made all sorts of portable devices feasible and fueled the growth of electronics. However, the intrinsic disadvantages of conventional Li-ion batteries, whose cells use a liquid electrolyte solution, render them not entirely suitable for much-anticipated applications like electric vehicles. These limitations include limited durability, low capacity,
7h
'Super-flexible' electroluminescent devices developed
The future will be colored by "bend-at-will" light sources. A successful research study by a group of South Korean material scientists has proven that this future is not far away. As shown in a recent study published in Advanced Materials, this group from Pusan University has developed a super stretchable, deformable, and durable material through the application of mechanically reinforced ionogel
7h
A small, multi-functional molecule can tag mutant genetic sequences inside mitochondria for removal
Mutant DNA sequences inside cellular mitochondria can be eliminated using a bespoke chemical compound. The approach, developed by scientists at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Science (iCeMS) in Japan, could lead to better treatments for mitochondrial diseases. The researchers published their findings in the journal Cell Chemical Biology.
7h
Explaining thermal tides in the upper atmosphere during the 2015 El Niño
Much like the oceans, the atmosphere on Earth oscillates on a global scale. The so-called atmosphere tides depend on the Sun's heat and gravity, as well as the pull of the Moon and Earth's own rotation. In the troposphere, scientists have identified a regular tide, which they call DW1, that has a 24-hour period and a zonal wave number of 1. Zonal wave number refers to the number of troughs and pea
7h
Friction and wear behavior of tungsten alloy balls revealed
Researchers at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have recently revealed the collective friction and wear behavior of tungsten alloy balls, the important candidate target material for the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS). Results were published in Tribology International.
7h
Two experiments to help humans "go farther / stay longer" in space
When the Space X23 rocket launches on August 28th to resupply the International Space Station, it will carry two experiments designed to sustain humans as they go farther and stay longer in deep space: A physical science investigation known as DEvice for the study of Critical Liquids and Crystallization—Directional Solidification Insert-Reflight (DSI-R), and a space biology experiment known as the
7h
Smart plaster could accelerate the healing of chronic wounds
Circulatory disorders, diabetes or lying in the same position for extended periods can all lead to chronic wounds that do not heal. There are hardly any effective treatment options. A materials science research team from Kiel University (CAU), together with colleagues from the University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein (UKSH), Harvard Medical School, U.S., and Dankook University in South Korea,
8h
New CRISPR-Cas system cuts virus RNA
Researchers from the group of Stan Brouns (Delft University of Technology) have discovered a new CRISPR-Cas system that cuts RNA. The study will be published on August 26 in Science and is expected to offer many opportunities for the development of new applications in genetic research and biotechnology.
8h
Five ways to help your dog live a longer, healthier life
As anyone who has ever lived with a dog will know, it often feels like we don't get enough time with our furry friends. Most dogs only live around ten to 14 years on average—though some may naturally live longer, while others may be predisposed to certain diseases that can limit their lifespan.
8h
Rare barley mutation with potential
The importance of the root system for agricultural yields is often underestimated. Whether roots can access water and nutrients effectively also determines the resilience of important crops to drought and climate change. Researchers from the Universities of Bonn and Bologna (Italy) have discovered and described a mutant in barley: Its roots grow downwards much more sharply than usual. This discove
8h
New study findings could help improve flood projections
Climate change will lead to more and stronger floods, mainly due to the increase of more intense heavy rainfall. In order to assess how exactly flood risks and the severity of floods will change over time, it is particularly helpful to consider two different types of such extreme precipitation events: weaker and stronger ones. An international group of scientists led by Dr. Manuela Brunner from th
8h
Biodiversity needs better data archiving
Missing metadata—data that provide information about other data—might not sound like a big deal, but it's a costly problem that's hindering humanity's plans to protect the planet's biodiversity. An international team of researchers has audited the largest global repository for storing genetic sequence data to see if the entries included basic metadata needed to make them useful for monitoring gene
8h
New study shows rundown neighborhoods not slated to go into a steep decline
Scholars and criminologists have examined the relationship between urban decay and violent crime for decades. A new study of Detroit from the University of California Firearm Violence Research Center at UC Davis Health shows that the transition from dilapidated buildings and unkempt lots to violent crime is not as inevitable as the landmark "broken windows" theory would suggest.
8h
Why some Christians see LGBTQ rights as an attack
Is Christianity under attack in the United States? Zero-sum beliefs appear to make some Christians say yes. Some church leaders and politicians claim recent LGBTQ progress—such as the 2015 United States Supreme Court ruling guaranteeing same-sex couples the right to marry—is an attack on Christianity. Researchers wanted to understand whether that sentiment is widely shared by other Christians . T
8h
Symptomatic COVID patients are more contagious, study finds
Individuals with COVID-19 are most likely to spread the virus to close contacts two days before the onset of symptoms to three days after symptoms appear, and the risk of transmission is highest when patients had mild or moderate disease severity, according to a new study.
9h
Study confirms virus variants reduce protection against COVID-19
A laboratory study finds that blood serum drawn from people previously vaccinated or naturally infected show 'significantly reduced' defense against two variants of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Researchers said that their findings emphasize the importance of vaccinations combined with maintaining public health measures to cut off the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
9h
Bacterial bloom as the Earth thawed
Around 650 million years ago, the Earth entered into the Marinoan glaciation that saw the entire planet freeze. The "Snowball Earth" impeded the evolution of life. But as it warmed, biotic life began to flourish. A research team from Tohoku University has analyzed rock samples from China to tell us more about this transition.
9h
Drönare levererar hjärtstartare vid hjärtstopp
I ett pilotprojekt har drönare använts för att leverera hjärtstartare när det har kommit skarpa larm om misstänkt hjärtstopp. Drönarna användes i drygt en femtedel av larmen. När de användes så utförde de pricksäkra leveranser och anlände oftast innan ambulansen var på plats. – Det här är första gången i världen som en forskargrupp redovisar resultat från en studie där hjärtstartare har flugits u
9h
Astronomers Still Can't Explain Fast Radio Bursts
The LOFAR Telescope was key to testing the binary-wind model. Few astronomical phenomena have been as vexing in recent years as fast radio bursts. These momentary flashes release as much energy in a millisecond as the sun does in three days, and the mechanism behind them is still a mystery. Astronomers have learned a lot about FRBs, but one of the leading explanations has failed a critical test .
9h
First light from Sunstorm CubeSat
Around the same size as two big Harry Potter paperbacks, ESA's Sun-watching Sunstorm CubeSat has produced its first solar X-ray spectrum, coming just over a week after its launch to orbit aboard a Vega rocket.
9h
PODCAST: Skal de transeuropæiske tog på skinner igen?
Ugens Transformator handler om tog og skinner. Hvis toget skal være et grønt alternativ til flytrafikken, kunne det være anledningen til at genindføre det sagnomspundne netværk Trans Europ Express. Men vi runder også fremtiden for de danske baner, letbaner kontra BRT og brint kontra eltog.
10h
Maps of urban heat islands with focus on environmental justice
Floods, tornadoes and hurricanes cause deaths every year, but when it comes to weather-related fatalities, extreme heat is America's deadliest killer. And the mercury is rising due to climate change: unprecedented heatwaves killed hundreds across Western North America this summer, making it one of the deadliest on record.
10h
Varför krockar inte fåglar?
Hur undviker fåglar att krocka när de flyger genom täta trädkronor? Forskaren Per Henningsson tog hjälp av familjens undulat för att ta reda på svaret. Pandemirestriktionerna med uppmaningen att jobba hemma blev startskottet för Per Henningssons studie, som involverade både hustrun Teresa och sjuåriga dottern Alice i arbetet. Och, inte minst, familjens ett år gamla undulathona Poppen. Byggde hind
11h
Dina föräldrars blodgrupp påverkar risken att du får blodpropp
Den som har två arvsanlag för blodgrupp A, B eller AB har dubbelt så hög risk att drabbas av hjärt-kärlsjukdom. För att hitta personer med ökad risk ger därför ett gentest bättre svar än ett vanligt blodprov. Om en patient har två genetiska anlag för A, B eller AB är risken dubbelt så hög att drabbas, jämfört med om ena anlaget är 0. – Det är stor skillnad när det gäller risken för blodpropp, ber
11h
CTCF and transcription influence chromatin structure re-configuration after mitosis
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25418-5 Higher-order chromatin structure is temporarily disrupted during mitosis. Here the authors show that loss of the architectural factor CTCF results in failure to form structural loops and leads to inappropriate cis-regulatory contacts and alterations of compartmental interactions after mitosis. Furthermore, the
11h
Stable representation of a naturalistic movie emerges from episodic activity with gain variability
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25437-2 Here the authors show that individual neural responses in mouse V1 to a repeated natural movie clip consist of episodic activity which is unstable in gain across weeks. Despite of the gain variability, time in the natural movie is stably represented by population activity in V1.
11h
Four dimensions characterize attributions from faces using a representative set of English trait words
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25500-y People form impressions about others from seeing their faces, and use many words to describe those impressions. Here, using ratings of 100 representatively sampled white adult faces on a large set of traits, the authors show that trait impressions from faces can be summarized by four psychological dimensions.
11h
Observation of the modification of quantum statistics of plasmonic systems
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25489-4 So far, experimental results have favoured the often unstated assumption that quantum statistical properties of multiparticle systems are preserved in plasmonic platforms. Here, the authors show how multiparticle interference in photon-plasmon scattering can modify the excitation mode of plasmonic systems.
11h
Measuring dimensionality and purity of high-dimensional entangled states
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25447-0 Quantifying dimensionality of high-dimensional entangled states is challenging, especially in the presence of mixedness and noise. Here, the authors propose and demonstrate a method to quantify the dimensionality and purity of a bi-photon HD entangled state, scaling linearly with entanglement dimension.
11h
Intravital imaging of islet Ca2+ dynamics reveals enhanced β cell connectivity after bariatric surgery in mice
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25423-8 Bariatric surgery procedures reduce weight and improve metabolic diseases. Here the authors investigate the effects of Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG) on beta-cell function in mice using in vivo Ca2 + imaging and show that VSG increases beta-cell function and intra-islet connectivity.
11h
A pre-registered short-term forecasting study of COVID-19 in Germany and Poland during the second wave
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25207-0 Forecasting models have been used extensively to inform decision making during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this preregistered and prospective study, the authors evaluated 14 short-term models for Germany and Poland, finding considerable heterogeneity in predictions and highlighting the benefits of combined forec
11h
Book Review: Reimagining Humanity's Obligation to Wild Animals
In "Wild Souls," Emma Marris uses philosophy and science to explore the worth of wild animals and the species they belong to, and the responsibility we have toward them. Ultimately, Marris writes, it's time to renegotiate our approach to conservation to better match the realities of our human-dominated world.
12h
Unite Your AirPods With Your Mac By Using AirBuddy
Apple has big plans for AirPods, including giving them literal self-awareness . What it oddly is not interested in is making your AirPods easier to use with your Mac. Sure, you can connect them to your Mac, but it treats them like just another set of Bluetooth headphones, without any of iOS' useful features. AirBuddy fills that gap and unites your Mac and AirPods with one click, and coordinates b
20h
Comparing the pathogen numbers in backyard and commercial composts
Compost—organic material that is added to soil to help plants grow—is widely used by gardeners because it improves soil health and reduces the amount of organic waste in landfills. Although several studies have looked at commercial composts, very few have investigated backyard compost samples. In a new study, researchers have measured the number of pathogens in both types of compost.
1d
Gnats from Hell | Naked and Afraid
Stream Naked and Afraid on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/naked-and-afraid About Naked and Afraid: What happens when you put two complete strangers – sans clothes – in some of the most extreme environments on Earth? Each male-female duo is left with no food, no water, no clothes, and only one survival item. #NakedAndAfraid #Discovery #Survival Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.l
1d
Dipti Nayak (UC Berkeley) 2: The Mysteries of the Methanogens
https://www.ibiology.org/microbiology/archaea In her second video, Nayak describes research she has done on methanogenic archaea – microorganisms that produce the potent greenhouse gas methane. One species of methanogens, Methanosarcina acetivorans, has unique chemical modifications on the enzyme it uses to produce methane. Dr. Nayak describes how she used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to determine
1d
Engineers test liquid acquisition device aboard Blue Origin's New Shepard rocket
A Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) experiment was performed aboard Blue Origin's New Shepard suborbital rocket today, which launched from Van Horn, Texas. Five variations of the tapered liquid acquisition device (LAD), which is designed to safely deliver liquid propellant to a rocket engine from fuel tanks, were aboard the rocket to evaluate their performance in microgravity.
1d
Learning biology by playing with proteins
It's a cloudy July afternoon in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and MIT Edgerton Center Instructor Amanda Mayer is using brightly-colored plastic to build proteins. She takes a small yellow block and moves it to the end of a chain of blue and green ones, clicking it into place. "Congratulations," she says to the four high school students guiding her hand over Zoom. "You've all become synthetic biologist
1d
Vaxxed moms may pass COVID immunity to breastfeeding babies
The breast milk of lactating mothers vaccinated against COVID-19 contains a significant supply of antibodies that may help protect breastfeeding infants from the illness, according to new research. "Our findings show that vaccination results in a significant increase in antibodies against SARS-CoV-2—the virus that causes COVID-19—in breast milk, suggesting that vaccinated mothers can pass on this
1d
Snake venom-related enzyme may drive COVID-19 mortality
An enzyme with an elusive role in severe inflammation may be a key mechanism driving COVID-19 severity and could provide a new therapeutic target to reduce COVID-19 mortality, a new study shows. Researchers analyzed blood samples from two COVID-19 patient cohorts and found that circulation of the enzyme—secreted phospholipase A2 group IIA, or sPLA2-IIA,—may be the most important factor in predict
1d
Skull simulation reveals how 'Hobbits' chomped on food
New research examines the chewing mechanics of an ancient human relative called Homo floresiensis . Not much more than three feet tall, the hominin's diminutive size earned it the nickname the "Hobbit," after the characters in J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings . Homo floresiensis inhabited the Indonesian island of Flores before our species arrived there some 50,000 years ago. For the new stu
1d
Diverse DNA signatures linked to heart disease
Risk for heart disease does not look the same on the genetic level for different population groups, report an international team of researchers. The studY begins to outline gene activity patterns that could serve as early warning indicators for cardiovascular disease.
1d
Quantifying the subjective cost of self-control in humans [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Since Odysseus committed to resisting the Sirens, mechanisms to limit self-control failure have been a central feature of human behavior. Psychologists have long argued that the use of self-control is an effortful process and, more recently, that its failure arises when the cognitive costs of self-control outweigh its perceived benefits….
1d
Phytoplankton biodiversity is more important for ecosystem functioning in highly variable thermal environments [Ecology]
The 21st century has seen an acceleration of anthropogenic climate change and biodiversity loss, with both stressors deemed to affect ecosystem functioning. However, we know little about the interactive effects of both stressors and in particular about the interaction of increased climatic variability and biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning. This…
1d
Efficient quantum algorithm for dissipative nonlinear differential equations [Computer Sciences]
Nonlinear differential equations model diverse phenomena but are notoriously difficult to solve. While there has been extensive previous work on efficient quantum algorithms for linear differential equations, the linearity of quantum mechanics has limited analogous progress for the nonlinear case. Despite this obstacle, we develop a quantum algorithm for dissipative…
1d
Native structure of the RhopH complex, a key determinant of malaria parasite nutrient acquisition [Microbiology]
The RhopH complex is implicated in malaria parasites' ability to invade and create new permeability pathways in host erythrocytes, but its mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we enrich the endogenous RhopH complex in a native soluble form, comprising RhopH2, CLAG3.1, and RhopH3, directly from parasite cell lysates and determine its…
1d
ENHANCED GRAVITROPISM 2 encodes a STERILE ALPHA MOTIF-containing protein that controls root growth angle in barley and wheat [Plant Biology]
The root growth angle defines how roots grow toward the gravity vector and is among the most important determinants of root system architecture. It controls water uptake capacity, nutrient use efficiency, stress resilience, and, as a consequence, yield of crop plants. We demonstrated that the egt2 (enhanced gravitropism 2) mutant…
1d
Chlamydomonas LZTFL1 mediates phototaxis via controlling BBSome recruitment to the basal body and its reassembly at the ciliary tip [Cell Biology]
Many G protein–coupled receptors and other signaling proteins localize to the ciliary membrane for regulating diverse cellular processes. The BBSome composed of multiple Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins is an intraflagellar transport (IFT) cargo adaptor essential for sorting signaling proteins in and/or out of cilia via IFT. Leucine zipper transcription factor-like…
1d
A poplar short-chain dehydrogenase reductase plays a potential key role in biphenyl detoxification [Plant Biology]
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants with severe effects on human health and the biosphere. Plant-based remediation offers many benefits over conventional PCB remediation, but its development has been hampered by our poor understanding of biphenyl metabolism in eukaryotes, among other factors. We report here a major PCB-responsive protein…
1d
TEM1 combinatorially binds to FLOWERING LOCUS T and recruits a Polycomb factor to repress the floral transition in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
Arabidopsis TEMPRANILLO 1 (TEM1) is a transcriptional repressor that participates in multiple flowering pathways and negatively regulates the juvenile-to-adult transition and the flowering transition. To understand the molecular basis for the site-specific regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) by TEM1, we determined the structures of the two plant-specific DNA-binding domains…
1d
Functional heterogeneity of IFN-{gamma}-licensed mesenchymal stromal cell immunosuppressive capacity on biomaterials [Applied Biological Sciences]
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly combined with biomaterials to enhance their therapeutic properties, including their immunosuppressive function. However, clinical trials utilizing MSCs with or without biomaterials have shown limited success, potentially due to their functional heterogeneity across different donors and among different subpopulations of cells. Here, we evaluated the
1d
Dynamical system model predicts when social learners impair collective performance [Applied Mathematics]
A key question concerning collective decisions is whether a social system can settle on the best available option when some members learn from others instead of evaluating the options on their own. This question is challenging to study, and previous research has reached mixed conclusions, because collective decision outcomes depend…
1d
Psychological ownership interventions increase interest in claiming government benefits [Social Sciences]
Each year, eligible individuals forgo billions of dollars in financial assistance in the form of government benefits. To address this participation gap, we identify psychological ownership of government benefits as a factor that significantly influences individuals' interest in applying for government benefits. Psychological ownership refers to how much an individual…
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SPATA33 localizes calcineurin to the mitochondria and regulates sperm motility in mice [Developmental Biology]
Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent phosphatase that plays roles in a variety of biological processes including immune responses. In spermatozoa, there is a testis-enriched calcineurin composed of PPP3CC and PPP3R2 (sperm calcineurin) that is essential for sperm motility and male fertility. Because sperm calcineurin has been proposed as a target for…
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LRRK2 plays essential roles in maintaining lung homeostasis and preventing the development of pulmonary fibrosis [Immunology and Inflammation]
Perturbation of lung homeostasis is frequently associated with progressive and fatal respiratory diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is highly expressed in healthy lungs, but its functions in lung homeostasis and diseases remain elusive. Herein, we showed that LRRK2 expression was clearly reduced in mammalian fibrotic…
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Tardigrades exhibit robust interlimb coordination across walking speeds and terrains [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Tardigrades must negotiate heterogeneous, fluctuating environments and accordingly utilize locomotive strategies capable of dealing with variable terrain. We analyze the kinematics and interleg coordination of freely walking tardigrades (species: Hypsibius exemplaris). We find that tardigrade walking replicates several key features of walking in insects despite disparities in size, skeleton, and..
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Up-regulation of the manganese transporter SLC30A10 by hypoxia-inducible factors defines a homeostatic response to manganese toxicity [Physiology]
Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that induces incurable parkinsonism at elevated levels. However, unlike other essential metals, mechanisms that regulate mammalian Mn homeostasis are poorly understood, which has limited therapeutic development. Here, we discovered that the exposure of mice to a translationally relevant oral Mn regimen up-regulated expression of…
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Structures and topological defects in pressure-driven lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals [Applied Physical Sciences]
Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals are water-based materials composed of self-assembled cylindrical aggregates. Their behavior under flow is poorly understood, and quantitatively resolving the optical retardance of the flowing liquid crystal has so far been limited by the imaging speed of current polarization-resolved imaging techniques. Here, we employ a single-shot quantitative…
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Dynamically structured bubbling in vibrated gas-fluidized granular materials [Engineering]
The dynamics of granular materials are critical to many natural and industrial processes; granular motion is often strikingly similar to flow in conventional liquids. Food, pharmaceutical, and clean energy processes utilize bubbling fluidized beds, systems in which gas is flowed upward through granular particles, suspending the particles in a liquid-like…
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Bromodomain containing 9 (BRD9) regulates macrophage inflammatory responses by potentiating glucocorticoid receptor activity [Immunology and Inflammation]
In macrophages, homeostatic and immune signals induce distinct sets of transcriptional responses, defining cellular identity and functional states. The activity of lineage-specific and signal-induced transcription factors are regulated by chromatin accessibility and other epigenetic modulators. Glucocorticoids are potent antiinflammatory drugs; however, the mechanisms by which they selectively att
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Asymmetric misfit nanotubes: Chemical affinity outwits the entropy at high-temperature solid-state reactions [Chemistry]
Asymmetric two-dimensional (2D) structures (often named Janus), like SeMoS and their nanotubes, have tremendous scope in material chemistry, nanophotonics, and nanoelectronics due to a lack of inversion symmetry and time-reversal symmetry. The synthesis of these structures is fundamentally difficult owing to the entropy-driven randomized distribution of chalcogens. Indeed, no Janus…
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Dissecting the role of interprotomer cooperativity in the activation of oligomeric high-temperature requirement A2 protein [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The human high-temperature requirement A2 (HtrA2) mitochondrial protease is critical for cellular proteostasis, with mutations in this enzyme closely associated with the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. HtrA2 forms a homotrimeric structure, with each subunit composed of protease and PDZ (PSD-95, DLG, ZO-1) domains. Although we had previously shown that successive…
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Advances and challenges in time-resolved macromolecular crystallography
Conformational changes within biological macromolecules control a vast array of chemical reactions in living cells. Time-resolved crystallography can reveal time-dependent structural changes that occur within protein crystals, yielding chemical insights in unparalleled detail. Serial crystallography approaches developed at x-ray free-electron lasers are now routinely used for time-resolved diffra
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RNA editing restricts hyperactive ciliary kinases
Protein kinase activity must be precisely regulated, but how a cell governs hyperactive kinases remains unclear. In this study, we generated a constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase DYF-5 (DYF-5CA) in Caenorhabditis elegans that disrupted sensory cilia. Genetic suppressor screens identified that mutations of ADR-2, an RNA adenosine deaminase, rescued ciliary phenotypes of dyf-5CA
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Chimeric spike mRNA vaccines protect against Sarbecovirus challenge in mice
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 highlights the need to develop universal vaccination strategies against the broader Sarbecovirus subgenus. Using chimeric spike designs, we demonstrate protection against challenge from SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351, bat CoV (Bt-CoV) RsSHC014, and a heterologous Bt-CoV WIV-1 in vuln
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Identification of a quality-control factor that monitors failures during proteasome assembly
In eukaryotic cells, half of all proteins function as subunits within multiprotein complexes. Imbalanced synthesis of subunits leads to unassembled intermediates that must be degraded to minimize cellular toxicity. Here, we found that excess PSMC5, a subunit of the proteasome base, was targeted for degradation by the HERC1 ubiquitin ligase in mammalian cells. HERC1 identified unassembled PSMC5 by
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Photomediated ring contraction of saturated heterocycles
Saturated heterocycles are found in numerous therapeutics and bioactive natural products and are abundant in many medicinal and agrochemical compound libraries. To access new chemical space and function, many methods for functionalization on the periphery of these structures have been developed. Comparatively fewer methods are known for restructuring their core framework. Herein, we describe a vi
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Field-induced transition within the superconducting state of CeRh2As2
Materials with multiple superconducting phases are rare. Here, we report the discovery of two-phase unconventional superconductivity in CeRh 2 As 2 . Using thermodynamic probes, we establish that the superconducting critical field of its high-field phase is as high as 14 tesla, even though the transition temperature is only 0.26 kelvin. Furthermore, a transition between two different superconduct
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Low thermal conductivity in a modular inorganic material with bonding anisotropy and mismatch
The thermal conductivity of crystalline materials cannot be arbitrarily low, as the intrinsic limit depends on the phonon dispersion. We used complementary strategies to suppress the contribution of the longitudinal and transverse phonons to heat transport in layered materials that contain different types of intrinsic chemical interfaces. BiOCl and Bi 2 O 2 Se encapsulate these design principles
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A positive relationship between functional redundancy and temperature in Cenozoic marine ecosystems
The long-term effects of climate change on biodiversity and biogeographic patterns are uncertain. There are known relationships between geographic area and both the number of species and the number of ecological functional groups—termed the species-area relationship and the functional diversity–area relationship, respectively. We show that there is a positive relationship between the number of sp
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Population sequencing data reveal a compendium of mutational processes in the human germ line
Biological mechanisms underlying human germline mutations remain largely unknown. We statistically decompose variation in the rate and spectra of mutations along the genome using volume-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization. The analysis of a sequencing dataset (TOPMed) reveals nine processes that explain the variation in mutation properties between loci. We provide a biological interpreta
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Insolation triggered abrupt weakening of Atlantic circulation at the end of interglacials
Abrupt cooling is observed at the end of interglacials in many paleoclimate records, but the mechanism responsible remains unclear. Using model simulations, we demonstrate that there exists a threshold in the level of astronomically induced insolation below which abrupt changes at the end of interglacials of the past 800,000 years occur. When decreasing insolation reaches the critical value, it t
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Enterococcus peptidoglycan remodeling promotes checkpoint inhibitor cancer immunotherapy
The antitumor efficacy of cancer immunotherapy can correlate with the presence of certain bacterial species within the gut microbiome. However, many of the molecular mechanisms that influence host response to immunotherapy remain elusive. In this study, we show that members of the bacterial genus Enterococcus improve checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in mouse tumor models. Active enterococci exp
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Geometric deep learning of RNA structure
RNA molecules adopt three-dimensional structures that are critical to their function and of interest in drug discovery. Few RNA structures are known, however, and predicting them computationally has proven challenging. We introduce a machine learning approach that enables identification of accurate structural models without assumptions about their defining characteristics, despite being trained w
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Prenatal maternal infection promotes tissue-specific immunity and inflammation in offspring
The immune system has evolved in the face of microbial exposure. How maternal infection experienced at distinct developmental stages shapes the offspring immune system remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during pregnancy, maternally restricted infection can have permanent and tissue-specific impacts on offspring immunity. Mechanistically, maternal interleukin-6 produced in response to i
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Developmental and evolutionary dynamics of cis-regulatory elements in mouse cerebellar cells
Organ development is orchestrated by cell- and time-specific gene regulatory networks. In this study, we investigated the regulatory basis of mouse cerebellum development from early neurogenesis to adulthood. By acquiring snATAC-seq (single-nucleus assay for transposase accessible chromatin using sequencing) profiles for ~90,000 cells spanning 11 stages, we mapped cerebellar cell types and identi
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Airborne transmission of respiratory viruses
The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of and a need to update the traditional view of transmission pathways for respiratory viruses. The long-standing definitions of droplet and airborne transmission do not account for the mechanisms by which virus-laden respiratory droplets and aerosols travel through the air and lead to infection. In this Review, we dis
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Allow 'nonuse rights' to conserve natural resources
Traditionally, natural resources in the United States have been managed for productive uses, meaning resource extraction. To acquire and maintain leases of publicly owned resources such as oil and gas, timber, and rangelands, the resources must be put to certain "productive uses." Purchasing rights to natural resources to conserve them, rather than for extraction, is typically not an option.
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