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Nyheder2021februar02

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New research investigates relationship between health literacy and self-care

It is important for patients to understand the necessary information for making health decisions, yet studies have shown that a large segment of the population lacks the health literacy to do so. Jessie Chin, School of Information Sciences at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, and colleagues have investigated the relationship between health literacy and "actionable memory," or memory for

16h

Tree rings: Volcano in Iceland chilled summer in Alaska

Reading between the lines of tree rings to reconstruct exactly what happened in Alaska the year that the Laki volcano erupted half a world away in Iceland can help fine-tune future climate predictions. In June 1783, Laki spewed more sulfur into the atmosphere than any other Northern Hemisphere eruption in the last 1,000 years. The Inuit in North America tell stories about the year that summer nev

17h

Ökad risk för död i covid vid psykisk sjukdom

Bland äldre – 60 plus – med psykossjukdom och bipolär sjukdom är andelen döda i covid-19 nästan fyra gånger så stor, som hos psykiskt friska i samma ålder. – Vi ser en hög överdödlighet. Kanske borde gruppen prioriteras för vaccin, menar Martin Maripuu, psykiatriker och forskare vid Umeå universitet. Personer med allvarlig psykisk sjukdom löper kraftigt ökad risk att dö i covid-19. Det visar en s

17h

Standard water treatment technique removes and inactivates an enveloped virus

Enveloped viruses have been detected in raw sewage and sludge, but scientists still don't fully understand the fate and infectivity of these viruses during water purification at treatment plants. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology have discovered that a standard water treatment technique, called iron (III) coagulation, and its electrically driven counterpart, iro

17h

Urban agriculture in Chicago does not allow consumers to rely solely on local food

Environmentally conscious consumers try to 'buy local' when food shopping. Now, a study of food raised around Chicago has shown that buying local can't provide all necessary nutrients for area residents, though it could fulfill their needs if some nutrients were supplied as supplements. The researchers report in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology that urban agriculture made little difference

17h

Load-reducing backpack powers electronics by harvesting energy from walking

Hikers, soldiers and school children all know the burden of a heavy backpack. But now, researchers have developed a prototype that not only makes loads feel about 20% lighter, but also harvests energy from human movements to power small electronics. The new backpack, reported in ACS Nano, could be especially useful for athletes, explorers and disaster rescuers who work in remote areas without elec

17h

Israel opens coronavirus vaccines to all over-16s

New age group eligible from Thursday while focus remains on older at-risk people Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Israel's health ministry has said it will offer coronavirus vaccines to anyone over the age of 16, as part of a rapid campaign in which the majority of older and vulnerable people have already received shots. The ministry has told healthcare providers they

17h

The Terrifying Warning Lurking in the Earth's Ancient Rock Record

Photo Illustrations by Brendan Pattengale | Maps by La Tigre Images above: Glaciers from the Vatnajökull ice cap, in Iceland Brendan Pattengale is a photographer who explores how color can convey emotions in an image. In his photo illustrations throughout this article, the colors of the original photos have been adjusted, but the images are otherwise unaltered. This article was published online o

17h

Urban agriculture in Chicago does not allow consumers to rely solely on local food

Environmentally conscious consumers try to "buy local" when food shopping. Now, a study of food raised around Chicago has shown that buying local can't provide all necessary nutrients for area residents, though it could fulfill their needs if some nutrients were supplied as supplements. The researchers report in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology that urban agriculture made little difference

17h

Standard water treatment technique removes and inactivates an enveloped virus

Enveloped viruses have been detected in raw sewage and sludge, but scientists still don't fully understand the fate and infectivity of these viruses during water purification at treatment plants. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology have discovered that a standard water treatment technique, called iron (III) coagulation, and its electrically driven counterpart, iro

17h

Potentially toxic plankton algae may play a crucial role in the future Arctic

As the sea ice shrinks in the Arctic, the plankton community that produces food for the entire marine food chain is changing. New research shows that a potentially toxic species of plankton algae that lives both via photosynthesis and absorbing food may become an important player in the Arctic Ocean as the future sea ice becomes thinner.

18h

Researchers induce pluripotency in differentiated canine cells for the first time

Dogs have been faithful human companions ever since their domestication thousands of years ago. With improvements in veterinary medicine in recent decades, their life expectancy has increased. However, an unfortunate side effect of this longevity, much like in humans, has been an increase in the occurrence of chronic and degenerative conditions.

18h

Einstein@Home reveals true identity of mysterious gamma-ray source

An international research team including members from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) in Hannover has shown that a rapidly rotating neutron star is at the core of a celestial object now known as PSR J2039−5617. They used novel data analysis methods and the enormous computing power of the citizen science project Einstein@Home to track down the neu

18h

Potentially toxic plankton algae may play a crucial role in the future Arctic

As the sea ice shrinks in the Arctic, the plankton community that produces food for the entire marine food chain is changing. New research shows that a potentially toxic species of plankton algae that lives both via photosynthesis and absorbing food may become an important player in the Arctic Ocean as the future sea ice becomes thinner.

18h

Researchers induce pluripotency in differentiated canine cells for the first time

Dogs have been faithful human companions ever since their domestication thousands of years ago. With improvements in veterinary medicine in recent decades, their life expectancy has increased. However, an unfortunate side effect of this longevity, much like in humans, has been an increase in the occurrence of chronic and degenerative conditions.

18h

This is what Germany's eSports athletes eat

A can of Red Bull next to the computer mouse, a bag of potato chips next to the keyboard – that's how many people imagine nutrition in eSports. "The energy drink is indeed part of the diet for many," says Professor Ingo Froböse, head of the Institute of Movement Therapy and movement-oriented Prevention and Rehabilitation at the German Sport University Cologne, "but overall, eSports players actuall

18h

Mamma-pappa-barn norm när förskolebarn leker

Regnbågsfamiljer och allas rätt att älska är självklarheter i många barns föreställningsvärld. Förskolornas policydokument betonar att barn ska få kännedom om olika familjekonstellationer. Men barnens lekar präglas av en heterosexuell norm, visar en studie på förskolan. – Normkritik är både efterfrågat och ifrågasatt inom förskola och barnkultur. Det finns en efterfrågan på förskolor som arbetar

18h

How gut microbes could drive brain disorders

Nature, Published online: 03 February 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00260-3 Scientists are starting to work out how the gut microbiome can affect brain health. That might lead to better and easier treatments for brain diseases.

18h

The GameStop Story You Think You Know Is Wrong

The story you might have heard goes like this: A group of regular-Joe traders on Reddit took down a hedge fund by bidding up the stock price of the sleepy video-game store GameStop. Their righteous revolution was briefly thwarted last week when Robinhood, the popular brokerage app, restricted trading because it was secretly in cahoots with the hedge funds . This was an outrage : It was as if, in

18h

Why dogs can teach humans about healthier ageing

Our pet dogs could help extend human lives beyond their documented effects on people's wellbeing. Increasingly, studies are looking at how the domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is key to understanding cognition and processes involved in ageing—something that could improve both animal and human wellbeing.

19h

Google says it's too easy for hackers to find new security flaws

In December 2018, researchers at Google detected a group of hackers with their sights set on Microsoft's Internet Explorer. Even though new development was shut down two years earlier, it's such a common browser that if you can find a way to hack it, you've got a potential open door to billions of computers. The hackers were hunting for, and finding, previously unknown flaws, known as zero-day vu

19h

Earmarks Are Good

You may have seen this meme going around: a futuristic, utopian rendering of a city with gleaming skyscrapers, jet-suited commuters, and hanging gardens. The caption : "West Virginia after we're done bribing Joe Manchin." January's Georgia runoff elections delivered Democrats the most tenuous possible control of the Senate, and gave Manchin, the most conservative member of the caucus, a functiona

19h

GSK and CureVac sign £132m deal to develop multi-variant Covid vaccine

Companies hope to have next generation of vaccines against emerging variants by next year GlaxoSmithKline and Germany's CureVac have reached a €150m (£132m) agreement to develop a next generation of Covid-19 vaccines targeting new emerging variants in the pandemic. The two companies said they plan to work jointly to develop a shot next year that can address "multiple emerging variants in one vacc

19h

Imaging non-collinear antiferromagnetic textures via single spin relaxometry

Nature Communications, Published online: 03 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-20995-x In this manuscript, Finco et al demonstrate the use of a quantum magnetometer based on a single NV centre for all-optical imaging of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin textures. By exploiting variations of the NV spin relaxation rate, they succeed in imaging AFM domain walls and skyrmions.

20h

Simulating the ghost: quantum dynamics of the solvated electron

Nature Communications, Published online: 03 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-20914-0 The nature of the bulk hydrated electron has been a challenge for both experiment and theory. Here the authors use a machine-learning model trained on MP2 data to achieve an accurate determination of the structure, diffusion mechanisms, and vibrational spectroscopy of the solvated electron.

20h

Interdependence between nanoclusters AuAg24 and Au2Ag41

Nature Communications, Published online: 03 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21131-5 Despite recent progress in individual nanocluster synthesis, understanding the competing or coexisting effects between particles in solution remains challenging. Here, the authors present the synthesis of a bi-nanocluster system comprising two atomically precise nanoclusters, and map out the interdependent r

20h

Improving hindlimb locomotor function by Non-invasive AAV-mediated manipulations of propriospinal neurons in mice with complete spinal cord injury

Nature Communications, Published online: 03 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-20980-4 After complete spinal cord injury, spinal segments below the lesion maintain inter-segmental communication via the intraspinal propriospinal network. Here, the authors show that neurons in these circuits can be chemogenetically modulated to improve locomotor function in mice after spinal cord injury.

20h

Ferroelectric columnar assemblies from the bowl-to-bowl inversion of aromatic cores

Nature Communications, Published online: 03 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21019-4 Organic ferroelectrics are of potential use in state-of-the-art ferroelectric devices but mechanistic insight in generating ferroelectricity remains limited. Here, the authors demonstrate that a bowl-to-bowl inversion of a bowl shaped organic molecule generates ferroelectric dipole relaxation, extending the

20h

High-throughput phenotypic screen and transcriptional analysis identify new compounds and targets for macrophage reprogramming

Nature Communications, Published online: 03 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21066-x Macrophages may polarize into different states with distinct regulatory functions for inflammation. Here the authors perform high-throughput in vitro screening of a library of ~4000 compounds to identify those with specific effects on human macrophage polarization, while RNAseq helps uncover the targets and

20h

Cryptochrome 1 mediates light-dependent inclination magnetosensing in monarch butterflies

Nature Communications, Published online: 03 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21002-z Exactly how some animals use magnetic fields to navigate is a longstanding puzzle. A study using a new behavioural assay and transgenic butterflies finds the cryptochrome gene necessary for inclination-based magnetic sensing, and shows that both antennae and eyes, which express this gene, are magnetosensory

20h

Belgian regulators advise against giving AstraZeneca Covid vaccine to over-55s

Advisory body suggests Oxford jab should be given only to younger people for time being Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Regulators in Belgium are the the latest in Europe to advise against the administration of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine to older people due a lack of data about its efficacy. Frank Vandenbroucke, Belgium's health minister, said the country's super

20h

How one NY hospital system treated 128,000+ COVID cases

Preparing for a pandemic like COVID-19 was virtually impossible. Northwell Health president and CEO Michael Dowling explains how, as the largest healthcare provider in New York, his team had to continuously organize, innovate, and readjust to dangerous and unpredictable conditions in a way that guaranteed safety for the staff and the best treatment for over 128,000 coronavirus patients. From maki

20h

Can You Trust a Pro-Beef Professor? It's Complicated.

Air quality scientist Frank Mitloehner has some controversial views on climate change. The quintessential Mitloehner take: Worry less about the burgers and more about Big Oil. That stance puts him at odds with environmental researchers who argue that dietary changes are necessary to address climate change.

20h

24/7 Covid vaccination service unlikely in near future, says Hancock

Limited supplies and preference for daytime jabs mean PM's plan may not be delivered soon Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Boris Johnson's promise to set up a 24/7 Covid vaccination service is unlikely to be delivered in the near future, the health secretary has indicated. Matt Hancock said there was insufficient supply of jabs to extend the operation, which focuses o

20h

Experts 'scan horizon' to help prepare governments for next major biosecurity threat

A panel of experts have outlined key biosecurity questions facing policymakers – "from brain-altering bioweapons to mass surveillance through DNA". Recently published, the exercise – conducted shortly before COVID-19 – follows a 'horizon scan' led by the same researchers on areas of bioengineering that "could prove even more impactful, for better or worse, than the current pandemic."

21h

Brain-related visual problems may affect one in 30 primary school children

A brain-related visual impairment, which until recently was thought to be rare, may affect one in every 30 children according to new research investigating the prevalence of Cerebral Visual Impairment [CVI]. The University of Bristol-led findings published today [3 February] in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology , aim to raise awareness of CVI among parents and teachers to help them identi

21h

Some food contamination starts in the soil

When most people hear "food contamination," they think of bacteria present on unwashed fruits or vegetables, or undercooked meat. However, there are other ways for harmful contaminants to be present in food products.

22h

Evidence for substance at liquid-gas boundary on exoplanet WASP-31b

One of the properties that make a planet suitable for life is the presence of a weather system. Exoplanets are too far away to directly observe this, but astronomers can search for substances in the atmosphere that make a weather system possible. Researchers from SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research and the University of Groningen have now found evidence on exoplanet WASP-31b for chromium

22h

More mammals are being struck by aircraft each year

Investigators have published a global review of mammal strikes with aircraft, noting that events have been increasing by up to 68% annually. More mammals were struck during the landing phase of an aircraft's rotation than any other phase, according to the article published in Mammal Review.

22h

The Making of a Parasitic Plant: Caitlin Conn (Berry College)

https://www.ibiology.org/plant-biology/parasitic-plants Dr. Caitlin Conn describes the common life strategies of parasitic plants in this active learning video designed for undergraduate education. In this active learning lecture, the following learning objectives are addressed: 1) Explore parasitic plants within the broad context of parasitism 2) Identify common adaptations among parasitic plant

23h

Terrawatch: the adventurous icebergs that trigger ice ages

Antarctic bergs travelling north spark changes in ocean circulations and affect composition of our atmosphere How does an ice age start? We know that changes in the Earth's orbit around the sun alter the amount of solar energy reaching our planet, but it has long been a mystery as to how this triggers such a dramatic change in the climate. A study shows that Antarctic icebergs may be responsible

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France's Ugly Brown Derriere

"legions d'honneurs, prix, promotion…. Le champ du cygne de ce système politico médical qui n'a plus le choix que de se soutenir mutuellement. Patience, en d'autre temps, on a donné des médailles aux derniers combatants. On connait la fin" – Capitaine Eric Chabriere.

1d

Thoughts on plant genomes

The growing world population and the challenges posed by climate change make the control of these natural resources one of the most crucial issues for all humanity in the future. In this regard, genome sequence information is of fundamental importance for understanding natural diversity and evolution of living organisms as well as for the design of breeding strategies aimed to produce new varietie

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CO2 laser therapy helps improve sexual function in postmenopausal women with breast cancer

CLEVELAND, Ohio (Feb 3, 2021)–Postmenopausal women often complain of painful intercourse or a lack of desire caused by decreased estrogen levels, which affect vaginal elasticity and lubrication. Survivors of breast cancer typically experience worse symptoms as a result of cancer treatments, and concerns exist regarding hormone therapies. A new study suggests that fractional CO2 laser therapy may

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Biosensors require robust antifouling protection

Some promising biosensors and medical devices work well within pristine laboratory environments but may stop working once exposed to real-world conditions. A thick layer of foulants will quickly cover biosensors, and there is no good way to revive them once they quit working. Essentially, a biosensor is only as good as its antifouling properties. Researchers review a variety of approaches develope

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New blueprint for more stable quantum computers

Researchers have put forward a detailed plan of how faster and better defined quantum bits – qubits – can be created. The central elements are magnetic atoms from the class of so-called rare-earth metals, which would be selectively implanted into the crystal lattice of a material. Each of these atoms represents one qubit. The researchers have demonstrated how these qubits can be activated, entangl

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Why food sticks to nonstick frying pans

Foods will sometimes get stuck to a heated surface, even if oil or a nonstick frying pan is used. Scientists have investigated the fluid properties of oil on a flat surface and their work shows convection may be to blame. When the pan is heated from below, a temperature gradient is established in the oil film, as well as a surface tension gradient. This gradient sets up a type of convection known

1d

Biosensors require robust antifouling protection

Some promising biosensors and medical devices work well within pristine laboratory environments but may stop working once exposed to real-world conditions. A thick layer of foulants will quickly cover biosensors, and there is no good way to revive them once they quit working. Essentially, a biosensor is only as good as its antifouling properties. Researchers review a variety of approaches develope

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Native bees under threat from growing urbanization

Residential gardens are a poor substitute for native bushland and increasing urbanization is a growing threat when it comes to bees, research has found. The research looked at bee visits to flowers, which form pollination networks across different native bushland and home garden habitats.

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The secrets of 3000 galaxies laid bare

The complex mechanics determining how galaxies spin, grow, cluster and die have been revealed following the release of all the data gathered during a massive seven-year astronomy research project.

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Say goodbye to the dots and dashes to enhance optical storage media

A new technology is aimed at modernizing the optical digital storage technology. This advancement allows for more data to be stored and for that data to be read at a quicker rate. Rather than using the traditional dots and dashes as commonly used in these technologies, the innovators encode information in the angular position of tiny antennas, allowing them to store more data per unit area.

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Warmer climate may make new mutations more harmful

A warmer global climate can cause mutations to have more severe consequences for the health of organisms through their detrimental effect on protein function. This may have major repercussions on organisms' ability to adapt to, and survive in, the altered habitats of the future. This is shown in a new Uppsala University research study now published in the scientific journal Proceedings of the Roya

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Warmer climate may make new mutations more harmful

A warmer global climate can cause mutations to have more severe consequences for the health of organisms through their detrimental effect on protein function. This may have major repercussions on organisms' ability to adapt to, and survive in, the altered habitats of the future. This is shown in a new Uppsala University research study now published in the scientific journal Proceedings of the Roya

1d

Warmer climate may make new mutations more harmful

A warmer global climate can cause mutations to have more severe consequences for the health of organisms through their detrimental effect on protein function. This may have major repercussions on organisms' ability to adapt to, and survive in, the altered habitats of the future. This is shown in a new Uppsala University research study now published in the scientific journal Proceedings of the Roya

1d

Remyelinating drug could improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis

Biomedical scientists reports a drug — an estrogen receptor ligand called indazole chloride (IndCl) — has the potential to improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis, or MS. The study was performed on mice induced with a model of MS and the first to investigate IndCl's effect on the pathology and function of the complete afferent visual pathway.

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Study challenges ecology's 'Field of Dreams' hypothesis

A new study challenges the 'Field of Dreams' hypothesis in restoration ecology, which predicts that restoring plant biodiversity will lead to recovery of animal biodiversity. The study of restored tallgrass prairie found the effects of management strategies (specifically controlled burns and bison reintroduction) on animal communities were six times stronger on average than the effects of plant bi

1d

Modeling the brain during pain processing

Researchers show that inhibitory interneurons, which prevent chemical messages from passing between different regions of the brain, make up 20% of the circuitry in the brain required for pain processing. The discovery represents a significant advance in researchers' understanding of how our bodies and brains respond to pain.

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Researchers create novel photonic chip

Researchers have developed and demonstrated for the first time a photonic digital to analog converter without leaving the optical domain. Such novel converters can advance next-generation data processing hardware with high relevance for data centers, 6G networks, artificial intelligence and more.

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A new hands-off probe uses light to explore electron behavior in a topological insulator

Topological insulators are one of the most puzzling quantum materials. Their edges are electron superhighways where electrons flow with no loss, while the bulk of the material blocks electron flow – properties that could be useful in quantum computing and information processing. Researchers used a process called high harmonic generation to separately probe electron behavior in both of those domain

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Deep Vision: Near-infrared imaging and machine learning can identify hidden tumors

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are tumors of the digestive tract that grow underneath the mucus layer covering our organs. Because they are deep inside the tissue, these 'submucosal tumors' are difficult to detect and diagnose, even with a biopsy. Now, researchers have developed a novel minimally invasive and accurate method using infrared imaging and machine learning to distinguish between norma

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This Online Marketplace Specializes in Non Alcoholic Beer That Doesn't Suck

Giving up alcohol is something that many of us have considered at one point or another. The negative side-effects of the habit are well known. But unfortunately, non alcoholic alternatives usually leave a lot to be desired. But a company called Better Rhodes is changing all that. As the premier online marketplace for the best in specially curated non alcoholic beers and beverages, Better Rhodes o

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The Weekly Planet: A New Idea for Fighting Climate Change: Retirement Plans!

Every Tuesday, our lead climate reporter brings you the big ideas, expert analysis, and vital guidance that will help you flourish on a changing planet. Sign up to get T he Weekly Planet , our guide to living through climate change, in your inbox . In January 2020, Boris Khentov attended a climate protest in Washington, D.C., led by Jane Fonda. (She was, at its climax, arrested.) Its theme was th

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Human noise affects animal behaviour, studies show

Traffic noise affected zebra finches' foraging habits and field crickets' mating Working from home during Covid-19 has brought noise pollution close to home, whether it's your partner making calls within earshot or grinding coffee during your Zoom interview. Now research suggests the animal kingdom is also disturbed by the noise of humans and our gadgets. As humans proliferate, we have penetrated

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Neutrons probe molecular behavior of proposed COVID-19 drug candidates

Using neutron experiments and computer simulations, researchers delved into how some of the proposed COVID-19 drug candidates behave at the molecular scale when exposed to water. The results could help experts understand the mechanisms by which drug molecules have the potential to mitigate the impact of viral infection.

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Up in flames: SpaceX Starship test flight ends in fiery crash, again

Futuristic rocket explodes on landing after test in Texas Elon Musk developing Starship to carry people to Mars SpaceX's second full test flight of its futuristic, bullet-shaped Starship ended in another fiery crash landing on Tuesday. Elon Musk's company launched its latest Starship prototype from the south-eastern tip of Texas, two months after the previous test ended in an equally explosive be

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Pregnant people can—and should—get vaccinated against COVID-19

A mRNA or viral vector vaccine has much less risk than coming across at COVID-19 infection. (Photo by Amina Filkins from Pexels/) Click here to see all of PopSci's COVID-19 coverage. Keeping up with the never-ending stream of information about the new COVID-19 vaccines can be stressful enough for anyone, but being pregnant can add an extra layer of stress. Just in the past few days, the WHO has f

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Okinawa university suspends researcher for six months following findings of plagiarism and faked data

A materials scientist in Japan was found guilty of plagiarism and fabrication of data in a May 2019 paper, resulting in a six-month suspension, according to her institution. Ye Zhang, of the Bioinspired Soft Matter Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), was the senior author of "Enzyme-mediated dual-targeted-assembly realizes … Continue reading

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Scientists Rushing To Learn If Vaccinated People Still Spread COVID-19

As more people take the FDA-approved coronavirus vaccines, one major question remains: Are those people protected from all COVID-19 infections, or are they merely protected from symptomatic cases and still capable of spreading the coronavirus to others? Unfortunately, we still don't have an answer. But MIT Technology Review reports that Pfizer and researchers at other institutions are rushing to

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Arctic shrubs add new piece to ecological puzzle

A 15-year experiment on Arctic shrubs in Greenland lends new understanding to an enduring ecological puzzle: How do species with similar needs and life histories occur together at large scales while excluding each other at small scales? Its findings also reveal trends related to carbon sequestration and climate change as the Arctic becomes both greener and browner.

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Injection to treat skin cancer developed

Yale researchers are developing a skin cancer treatment that involves injecting nanoparticles into the tumor, killing cancer cells with a two-pronged approach, as a potential alternative to surgery.

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Remyelinating drug could improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis

A team led by a biomedical scientist at the University of California, Riverside, reports a drug — an estrogen receptor ligand called indazole chloride (IndCl) — has the potential to improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis, or MS. The study, performed on mice induced with a model of MS and the first to investigate IndCl's effect on the pathology and function of the complete afferent vi

1d

Sea level will rise faster than previously thought, researchers show

There are two main elements to observe when assessing sea level rise. One is the loss of the ice on land and the other is that the sea will expand as it gets warmer. Researchers have constructed a new method of quantifying just how fast the sea will react to warming. Former predictions of sea level have been too conservative, so the sea will likely rise more and faster than previously believed.

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When hyperactive proteins trigger illnesses

Autoimmune diseases, in which the body's own immune system attacks healthy tissue, can be life-threatening and can impact all organs. A research team has now found a possible cause for these self-destructive immune system attacks: a hyperactive RANK protein on the surface of B cells. The research opens the door to new therapeutic possibilities.

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What impact did police violence have on participation in the October 1, 2020 referendum?

An academic study by professors Toni Rodon (UPF) and Marc Guinjoan (UB) demonstrates that violence decreased participation at the places where it occurred, but increased participation in surrounding municipalities. Part of this increased participation is accounted for by people with a dual sense of national identity who had not planned to vote but did so as a sign of protest or civil disobedience.

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These little words may signal a future breakup

Pronouns in everyday conversations may indicate an impending breakup months in advance—even before either partner realizes what's happening. Researchers analyzed more than 1 million posts by 6,800 Reddit users one year before and one year after they shared news about their breakups in the r/BreakUps subreddit. The researchers found that three months before the breakup, their language began to cha

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Genomic evidence of prevalent hybridization throughout the evolutionary history of the fig-wasp pollination mutualism

Nature Communications, Published online: 02 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-20957-3 Figs and their wasp pollinators are a classic example of coevolution. By assembling and analysing genomes from across the Ficus clade, authors suggest that fig hybridization driven by pollinator host-switching in this obligate pollination system, is more common than previously thought.

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Researchers design next-generation photodetector

Northwestern University researchers have developed a new approach to quantum device design that has produced the first gain-based long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetector using band structure engineering based on a type-II superlattice material.

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Jeff Bezos Is Stepping Down as CEO of Amazon

Era Ender Jeff Bezos has become a household name as he's built Amazon up from a humble online marketplace to a civilization-scale empire. But now, he said in a letter to employees , he's stepping down. "As much as I still tap dance into the office, I'm excited about this transition," he wrote. "Being the CEO of Amazon is a deep responsibility, and it's consuming." Exec Function Filling Bezos' sho

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Providing inclusive care for LGBTQ2SPIA+ cancer patients

In an upcoming issue of the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, published by Elsevier, undergraduate researchers from the University of Alberta's Radiation Therapy Program in the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry describe how LGBTQ2SPIA+ patients face unique cancer risks, including fear of discrimination, higher incidence of certain cancer sites, and lower screening rates, resulting

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COVID-19 lockdowns temporarily raised global temperatures

The lockdowns and reduced societal activity related to the COVID-19 pandemic affected emissions of pollutants in ways that slightly warmed the planet for several months last year, according to new research led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).

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NASA's Perseverance rover lands on Mars in 18 days

NASA's Perseverance is the largest and most technologically advanced rover ever launched into space. On February 18, Perseverance is set to land on the Martian surface. NASA plans to livestream the event. The rover will spend about two years on Mars, where its chief mission is to search for signs of ancient life. NASA's Perseverance is 18 days from landing on Mars and starting its mission of sear

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Scientists advocate breaking laws—of geography and ecology

Recent global calamities—the pandemic, wildfires, floods—are spurring interdisciplinary scientists to nudge aside the fashionable First Law of Geography that dictates "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things."

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How to wear a face mask for maximum protection

Wearing a face mask properly shows you care about your community. (Julian Wan/Unsplash/) Click here to see all of PopSci's COVID-19 coverage. Nearly a year into the pandemic, we've accumulated a lot of information from scientists about the most effective face masks for protecting ourselves and others from COVID-19. But it doesn't matter what kind of mask you're using if you're not wearing it prop

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Best winter gloves: Our picks for touch screen gloves, ski gloves, and more

No matter the weather, these options have you covered. (Alex Iby via Unsplash/) While the expression "cold hands, warm heart" is considered a compliment, we prefer to have a warm heart and warm hands. With the best winter gloves, you can rest assured your hands will be comfortably warm and dry even in the coldest of situations. The best gloves will fit your hand properly while still allowing you

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COVID-19 lockdowns temporarily raised global temperatures

The lockdowns and reduced societal activity related to the COVID-19 pandemic affected emissions of pollutants in ways that slightly warmed the planet for several months last year, according to new research led by NCAR. The counterintuitive finding highlights the influence of airborne particles, or aerosols, that block incoming sunlight.

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Another SpaceX Starship Just Blew Up in a Humongous Explosion

Big Day After nearly a week of drama involving the FAA , SpaceX finally managed to launch its Starship SN9 prototype today from its facility in Boca Chica, Texas. The mammoth rocket blasted off just before 3:30pm EST, rising to approximately 10 kilometers before rotating into its "belly flop" maneuver for its descent — and then, finally, coming down hard and blowing up in a humongous fireball. Fl

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Super-light smart gel nets drinking water from air

Researchers have created an aerogel that extracts water from air without any external power source. In the Earth's atmosphere, there is water that can fill almost half a trillion Olympic swimming pools. But it has long been overlooked as a source for drinking water. To extract water from this underutilized source, the researchers created a type of aerogel, a solid material that weighs almost noth

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NASA Ready to Start Building Its Asteroid-Bound Psyche Spacecraft

Psyche Out NASA's Psyche mission, an uncrewed expedition to an unusual asteroid of the same name, is entering the final stages of preparation. After years of testing and development for the scientific instruments that will analyze the metallic asteroid, NASA is ready to send individual components to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). There, engineers will begin to integrate and assemble the ful

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This Robot Cat Companion Feeds Your Cat's Prey Drive When You're Too Busy To Play

We can all agree that having cats pop in and out of our Zooms is adorable, even when it makes getting work done difficult. But the reality is being at home more doesn't actually mean more time for Mr. Fluffles. As always, there are snuggles. But between all the new added responsibilities of working from home, your cat hasn't been getting quite as much attention as it would prefer. According to RS

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Which COVID-19 personality are you?

New research by Mimi E. Lam at the University of Bergen explores the different "personality types" that have emerged in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. According to Lam, recognizing various COVID-19 identities can refine forecasts of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and impact. Global Solutions Initiative, Population Matters, and AME explore how the world (and society) has changed due to COVID-19. Are

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Bristol and Liverpool to get community Covid testing for variants

Cases show same mutation in both original and Kent strains as South African incarnation Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Community Covid testing is to be expanded in two more cities to stem the spread of the South African variant of the coronavirus , as it emerged that the Kent variant was developing some of the same mutations. Related: What do we know about the two n

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The brains of risk-takers appear to differ in 5 regions

Combined genetic information and brain scans from more than 25,000 people suggest a common genetic and neurobiological basis for risky behavior. Better understanding what motivates risk-taking could help mitigate its costs to society. University of Zurich neuro-economists Gökhan Aydogan, Todd Hare, Christian Ruff, and others looked at the genetic characteristics that correlate with risk-taking be

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Novel polymer toughens up and changes color upon mechanical stress

A fascinating and crucial ability of biological tissue, such as muscle, is self-healing and self-strengthening in response to damage caused by external forces. Most human-made polymers, on the other hand, break irreversibly under enough mechanical stress, which makes them less useful for certain critical applications like manufacturing artificial organs. But what if we could design polymers that r

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Highly deformable piezoelectric nanotruss for tactile electronics

A research team confirmed the potential of tactile devices by developing ceramic piezoelectric materials that are three times more deformable. For the fabrication of highly deformable nanomaterials, the research team built a zinc oxide hollow nanostructure using proximity field nanopatterning and atomic layered deposition.

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Novel photocatalyst effectively turns carbon dioxide into methane fuel with light

Decarbonizing has become a prioritized mission in many countries and the science community is working on the 'carbon capture' technologies. If the captured carbon dioxide could be converted into energy, then it would be killing two birds with one stone. A joint research team has developed a new photocatalyst which can produce methane gas (CH4) selectively and effectively from carbon dioxide using

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Boston Dynamics Robodog Has a Dexterous Arm in New Video

Highlight Reel Boston Dynamics, the Hyundai-owned robotics firm famed for making highly functional, animal-inspired robots, just released yet another supercut video showcasing its doglike robot Spot. The video shows off Spot's dexterity with the robotic arm that extends upward out of its back . In the clip, the robot tidies up a room, twirls a jump rope — for another Spot to hop over, of course —

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Keep dry January going all year with these cutting-edge non-alcoholic cocktails

Dry January needn't mean sticking to the kids' menu. (Thomas Payne/) This story originally featured on Saveur . As long as Dry January has existed , it has been mocked and criticized as a virtue-signaling gimmick that simply demonizes alcohol. While some criticisms of the tradition may be valid, the fact is that abstaining from or reducing alcohol intake, at any time, is an admirable endeavor—not

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A new hands-off probe uses light to explore electron behavior in a topological insulator

Topological insulators are one of the most puzzling quantum materials. Their edges are electron superhighways where electrons flow with no loss, while the bulk of the material blocks electron flow – properties that could be useful in quantum computing and information processing. Researchers at SLAC and Stanford used a process called high harmonic generation to separately probe electron behavior in

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What did the Swiss eat during the Bronze Age?

People living at the Bronze Age faced a series of challenges: climate, opening up of trade and population growth. How did they respond to changes in their diet? Researchers have carried out isotopic analyses on skeletons together with plant remains. They discovered that manure use had become widespread over time to improve crop harvests in response to demographic growth. They also found that there

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How do electrons close to Earth reach almost the speed of light?

In the Van Allen radiation belts, electrons can reach almost the speed of light. Researchers have revealed conditions for such strong accelerations. They had demonstrated in 2020: during solar storm plasma waves play a crucial role. However, it remained unclear why ultra-relativistic electron energies are not achieved in all solar storms. They now show: extreme depletions of the background plasma

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Air pollution poses risk to thinking skills in later life

Exposure to air pollution in childhood is linked to a decline in thinking skills in later life, a study suggests. A greater exposure to air pollution at the very start of life was associated with a detrimental effect on people's cognitive skills up to 60 years later, the research found.

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Imaging identifies breast cancer patients unlikely to benefit from hormone therapy

Hormone therapy can be very effective for so-called estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. But it only works for a little more than half of women who receive the treatment. In a small study, researchers found that women whose tumors did not respond to a one-day estrogen challenge did not benefit from hormone therapy. The findings could help doctors choose treatments most likely to help their pa

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Captain Tom Moore inspired millions. The NHS inspired him | Gaby Hinsliff

The heroic fundraiser has died days after contracting Covid. He taught us all about giving something back Every death in a pandemic is tragic, and every loss is mourned. But even in these days when so many families are grieving, there is something particularly cruel about the news of Captain Sir Tom Moore's death , shortly after contracting Covid. The 100-year-old former soldier, and his indomita

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1/3 of Americans are hesitant about COVID-19 vaccination

More than a third of people nationwide report they are either unlikely or at least hesitant to get a COVID-19 vaccine when it becomes available, a new study shows. News reports indicate COVID-19 vaccines are not getting out soon enough nor in adequate supplies to most regions, but the new findings suggest a larger underlying problem than shortages. The results, from public polling of more than 80

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Blixtsnabba beräkningar avslöjar krafter i atomens mitt

En beräkning som är så komplex att den tar tjugo år att genomföra på en kraftfull stationär dator, kan nu göras på en timme på en vanlig laptop. Fysiker har konstruerat en matematisk genväg för att otroligt snabbt beräkna atomkärnors egenskaper, utifrån kvantmekaniska modeller för den starka kraften mellan protoner och neutroner. Den nya metoden bygger på ett koncept som kallas emulering, där en

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Deep Vision: Near-infrared imaging and machine learning can identify hidden tumors

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are tumors of the digestive tract that grow underneath the mucus layer covering our organs. Because they are deep inside the tissue, these "submucosal tumors" are difficult to detect and diagnose, even with a biopsy. Now, researchers from Japan have developed a novel minimally invasive and accurate method using infrared imaging and machine learning to distinguish be

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A show of force: Novel polymer that toughens up and changes color upon mechanical stress

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) developed a polymer whose properties change markedly after being exposed to mechanical stress. In bulk form, the mechano-responsive polymer shows color changing, fluorescence, and self-strengthening abilities even under simple compression or extension. These fundamental findings are unprecedented in the field of mechanochemistry and could pa

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Cells that detect brain activity drive the need for sleep in fruit flies

The longer someone stays awake, the more likely they'll start getting tired as their brain needs sleep. But how the brain senses that need for sleep hasn't always been clear. Now, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have shown in fruit flies that certain groups of brain cells called astrocytes sense electrical activity in different regions of the brain and use these signals to facilitate the proces

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Cells that detect brain activity drive the need for sleep in fruit flies

The longer someone stays awake, the more likely they'll start getting tired as their brain needs sleep. But how the brain senses that need for sleep hasn't always been clear. Now, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have shown in fruit flies that certain groups of brain cells called astrocytes sense electrical activity in different regions of the brain and use these signals to facilitate the proces

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The underestimated mutation potential of retrogenes

Genetic information is stored in DNA and transcribed as mRNA. The mRNA is usually translated into proteins. However, it has long been known that mRNA can also be reverse transcribed to DNA and integrated back into the genome. Such cases are referred to as retrogenes. In an article, a team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Plön and the Zoological Institute of the Chinese Aca

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The underestimated mutation potential of retrogenes

Genetic information is stored in DNA and transcribed as mRNA. The mRNA is usually translated into proteins. However, it has long been known that mRNA can also be reverse transcribed to DNA and integrated back into the genome. Such cases are referred to as retrogenes. In an article, a team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Plön and the Zoological Institute of the Chinese Aca

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Harvesting forage fish can prevent fishing-induced population collapses of large piscivorous fish [Ecology]

Fisheries have reduced the abundances of large piscivores—such as gadids (cod, pollock, etc.) and tunas—in ecosystems around the world. Fisheries also target smaller species—such as herring, capelin, and sprat—that are important parts of the piscivores' diets. It has been suggested that harvesting of these so-called forage fish will harm piscivores….

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The conserved autoimmune-disease risk gene TMEM39A regulates lysosome dynamics [Cell Biology]

TMEM39A encodes an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein and carries single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk of major human autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The exact cellular function of TMEM39A remains not well understood. Here, we report that TMEM-39, the sole Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) ortholog of TMEM39A, regulates lysosome distributi

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Redox regulation of NADP-malate dehydrogenase is vital for land plants under fluctuating light environment [Plant Biology]

Many enzymes involved in photosynthesis possess highly conserved cysteine residues that serve as redox switches in chloroplasts. These redox switches function to activate or deactivate enzymes during light-dark transitions and have the function of fine-tuning their activities according to the intensity of light. Accordingly, many studies on chloroplast redox regulation…

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A dark quencher genetically encodable voltage indicator (dqGEVI) exhibits high fidelity and speed [Neuroscience]

Voltage sensing with genetically expressed optical probes is highly desirable for large-scale recordings of neuronal activity and detection of localized voltage signals in single neurons. Most genetically encodable voltage indicators (GEVI) have drawbacks including slow response, low fluorescence, or excessive bleaching. Here we present a dark quencher GEVI approach (dqGEVI)…

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Autophagy is required for proper cysteine homeostasis in pancreatic cancer through regulation of SLC7A11 [Cell Biology]

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest forms of cancer and is highly refractory to current therapies. We had previously shown that PDAC can utilize its high levels of basal autophagy to support its metabolism and maintain tumor growth. Consistent with the importance of autophagy in PDAC, autophagy…

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COVID-19 gender policy changes support female scientists and improve research quality [Political Sciences]

With more time being spent on caregiving responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic, female scientists' productivity dropped. When female scientists conduct research, identity factors are better incorporated in research content. In order to mitigate damage to the research enterprise, funding agencies can play a role by putting in place gender equity…

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Hormone seasonality in medical records suggests circannual endocrine circuits [Systems Biology]

Hormones control the major biological functions of stress response, growth, metabolism, and reproduction. In animals, these hormones show pronounced seasonality, with different set-points for different seasons. In humans, the seasonality of these hormones remains unclear, due to a lack of datasets large enough to discern common patterns and cover all…

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Using machine learning to estimate the effect of racial segregation on COVID-19 mortality in the United States [Social Sciences]

This study examines the role that racial residential segregation has played in shaping the spread of COVID-19 in the United States as of September 30, 2020. The analysis focuses on the effects of racial residential segregation on mortality and infection rates for the overall population and on racial and ethnic…

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PON2 subverts metabolic gatekeeper functions in B cells to promote leukemogenesis [Cell Biology]

Unlike other cell types, developing B cells undergo multiple rounds of somatic recombination and hypermutation to evolve high-affinity antibodies. Reflecting the high frequency of DNA double-strand breaks, adaptive immune protection by B cells comes with an increased risk of malignant transformation. B lymphoid transcription factors (e.g., IKZF1 and PAX5) serve…

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Characterization of the strain-rate-dependent mechanical response of single cell-cell ȷunctions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Cell–cell adhesions are often subjected to mechanical strains of different rates and magnitudes in normal tissue function. However, the rate-dependent mechanical behavior of individual cell–cell adhesions has not been fully characterized due to the lack of proper experimental techniques and therefore remains elusive. This is particularly true under large strain…

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Identifying hydrophobic protein patches to inform protein interaction interfaces [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Interactions between proteins lie at the heart of numerous biological processes and are essential for the proper functioning of the cell. Although the importance of hydrophobic residues in driving protein interactions is universally accepted, a characterization of protein hydrophobicity, which informs its interactions, has remained elusive. The challenge lies in…

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Enhancement and maximum in the isobaric specific-heat capacity measurements of deeply supercooled water using ultrafast calorimetry [Physics]

Knowledge of the temperature dependence of the isobaric specific heat (Cp) upon deep supercooling can give insights regarding the anomalous properties of water. If a maximum in Cp exists at a specific temperature, as in the isothermal compressibility, it would further validate the liquid–liquid critical point model that can explain…

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Transverse spin dynamics in structured electromagnetic guided waves [Applied Physical Sciences]

Spin–momentum locking, a manifestation of topological properties that governs the behavior of surface states, was studied intensively in condensed-matter physics and optics, resulting in the discovery of topological insulators and related effects and their photonic counterparts. In addition to spin, optical waves may have complex structure of vector fields associated…

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Absence of retbindin blocks glycolytic flux, disrupts metabolic homeostasis, and leads to photoreceptor degeneration [Neuroscience]

We previously reported a model of progressive retinal degeneration resulting from the knockout of the retina-specific riboflavin binding protein, retbindin (Rtbdn−/−). We also demonstrated a reduction in neural retinal flavins as a result of the elimination of RTBDN. Given the role of flavins in metabolism, herein we investigated the underlying…

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Vertical sleeve gastrectomy confers metabolic improvements by reducing intestinal bile acids and lipid absorption in mice [Physiology]

Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is one of the most effective and durable therapies for morbid obesity and its related complications. Although bile acids (BAs) have been implicated as downstream mediators of VSG, the specific mechanisms through which BA changes contribute to the metabolic effects of VSG remain poorly understood. Here,…

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Amygdala-hippocampal innervation modulates stress-induced depressive-like behaviors through AMPA receptors [Neuroscience]

Chronic stress is one of the most critical factors in the onset of depressive disorders; hence, environmental factors such as psychosocial stress are commonly used to induce depressive-​like traits in animal models of depression. Ventral CA1 (vCA1) in hippocampus and basal lateral amygdala (BLA) are critical sites during chronic stress-induced…

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A stable antimicrobial peptide with dual functions of treating and preventing citrus Huanglongbing [Plant Biology]

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), caused by a vector-transmitted phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. Currently, there are no effective strategies to prevent infection or to cure HLB-positive trees. Here, using comparative analysis between HLB-sensitive citrus cultivars and HLB-tolerant citrus hybrids and relatives, we ident

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The novel PII-interactor PirC identifies phosphoglycerate mutase as key control point of carbon storage metabolism in cyanobacteria [Microbiology]

Nitrogen limitation imposes a major transition in the lifestyle of nondiazotrophic cyanobacteria that is controlled by a complex interplay of regulatory factors involving the pervasive signal processor PII. Immediately upon nitrogen limitation, newly fixed carbon is redirected toward glycogen synthesis. How the metabolic switch for diverting fixed carbon toward the…

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IL17A critically shapes the transcriptional program of fibroblasts in pancreatic cancer and switches on their protumorigenic functions [Immunology and Inflammation]

A hallmark of cancer, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), is a massive stromal and inflammatory reaction. Many efforts have been made to identify the anti- or protumoral role of cytokines and immune subpopulations within the stroma. Here, we investigated the role of interleukin-17A (IL17A) and its effect on tumor fibroblasts…

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Temporal dissociation of neural activity underlying synesthetic and perceptual colors [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Grapheme-color synesthetes experience color when seeing achromatic symbols. We examined whether similar neural mechanisms underlie color perception and synesthetic colors using magnetoencephalography. Classification models trained on neural activity from viewing colored stimuli could distinguish synesthetic color evoked by achromatic symbols after a delay of ∼100 ms. Our results provide an…

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Reply to Sitters and Olde Venterink: Untangling the relative importance of processes that influence fecal nutrient stoichiometry [Biological Sciences]

Sitters and Olde Venterink (1) question the generality of the positive relationship that we show between herbivore body size and fecal N:P stoichiometry (2). Their data show different and at times opposite patterns. They highlight dietary composition and metabolic requirement as two additional size-related mechanisms determining fecal nutrient ratios and…

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Plant virus evolution under strong drought conditions results in a transition from parasitism to mutualism [Evolution]

Environmental conditions are an important factor driving pathogens' evolution. Here, we explore the effects of drought stress in plant virus evolution. We evolved turnip mosaic potyvirus in well-watered and drought conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions that differ in their response to virus infection. Virus adaptation occurred in all accessions independently…

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Superdiffusion of quantized vortices uncovering scaling laws in quantum turbulence [Physics]

Generic scaling laws, such as Kolmogorov's 5/3 law, are milestone achievements of turbulence research in classical fluids. For quantum fluids such as atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, superfluid helium, and superfluid neutron stars, turbulence can also exist in the presence of a chaotic tangle of evolving quantized vortex lines. However, due to…

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Cytoplasmic synthesis of endogenous Alu complementary DNA via reverse transcription and implications in age-related macular degeneration [Medical Sciences]

Alu retroelements propagate via retrotransposition by hijacking long interspersed nuclear element-1 (L1) reverse transcriptase (RT) and endonuclease activities. Reverse transcription of Alu RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) is presumed to occur exclusively in the nucleus at the genomic integration site. Whether Alu cDNA is synthesized independently of genomic integration is…

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Cross-talk of insulin-like peptides, juvenile hormone, and 20-hydroxyecdysone in regulation of metabolism in the mosquito Aedes aegypti [Developmental Biology]

Female mosquitoes feed sequentially on carbohydrates (nectar) and proteins (blood) during each gonadotrophic cycle to become reproductively competent and effective disease vectors. Accordingly, metabolism is synchronized to support this reproductive cyclicity. However, regulatory pathways linking metabolism to reproductive cycles are not fully understood. Two key hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) an

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In vivo NIR-II structured-illumination light-sheet microscopy [Applied Physical Sciences]

Noninvasive optical imaging with deep tissue penetration depth and high spatiotemporal resolution is important to longitudinally studying the biology at the single-cell level in live mammals, but has been challenging due to light scattering. Here, we developed near-infrared II (NIR-II) (1,000 to 1,700 nm) structured-illumination light-sheet microscopy (NIR-II SIM) with…

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The RING E3 ligase SDIR1 destabilizes EBF1/EBF2 and modulates the ethylene response to ambient temperature fluctuations in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

The gaseous phytohormone ethylene mediates numerous aspects of plant growth and development as well as stress responses. The F-box proteins EIN3-binding F-box protein 1 (EBF1) and EBF2 are key components that ubiquitinate and degrade the master transcription factors ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3) and EIN3-like 1 (EIL1) in the ethylene response…

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Thymine dissociation and dimer formation: A Raman and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic study [Applied Physical Sciences]

In this study, absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, and Raman spectra of nonirradiated and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated thymine solutions were recorded in order to detect thymine dimer formation. The thymine dimer formation, as a function of irradiation dose, was determined by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the formation of a mutagenic (6-4) photoproduct…

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Correction for Yuan et al., Structural mechanism of helicase loading onto replication origin DNA by ORC-Cdc6 [Corrections]

BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for "Structural mechanism of helicase loading onto replication origin DNA by ORC-Cdc6," by Zuanning Yuan, Sarah Schneider, Thomas Dodd, Alberto Riera, Lin Bai, Chunli Yan, Indiana Magdalou, Ivaylo Ivanov, Bruce Stillman, Huilin Li, and Christian Speck, which was first published July 15, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2006231117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci….

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Correction to Supporting Information for Qadir et al., Single-cell resolution analysis of the human pancreatic ductal progenitor cell niche [SI Correction]

CELL BIOLOGY Correction to Supporting Information for "Single-cell resolution analysis of the human pancreatic ductal progenitor cell niche," by Mirza Muhammad Fahd Qadir, Silvia Álvarez-Cubela, Dagmar Klein, Jasmijn van Dijk, Rocío Muñiz-Anquela, Yaisa B. Moreno-Hernández, Giacomo Lanzoni, Saad Sadiq, Belén Navarro-Rubio, Michael T. García, Ángela Díaz, Kevin Johnson, David Sant,…

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Correction to Supporting Information for Stern et al., Experimental and statistical reevaluation provides no evidence for Drosophila courtship song rhythms [SI Correction]

NEUROSCIENCE Correction to Supporting Information for "Experimental and statistical reevaluation provides no evidence for Drosophila courtship song rhythms," by David L. Stern, Jan Clemens, Philip Coen, Adam J. Calhoun, John B. Hogenesch, Ben J. Arthur, and Mala Murthy, which was first published August 29, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1707471114 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci….

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Correction for Chen et al., Regulation of axon repulsion by MAX-1 SUMOylation and AP-3 [Corrections]

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Correction for "Regulation of axon repulsion by MAX-1 SUMOylation and AP-3," by Shih-Yu Chen, Chun-Ta Ho, Wei-Wen Liu, Mark Lucanic, Hsiu-Ming Shih, Pei-Hsin Huang, and Hwai-Jong Cheng, which was first published August 13, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1804373115 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, E8236–E8245). The authors note that the following…

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Developmental synaptic regulator, TWEAK/Fn14 signaling, is a determinant of synaptic function in models of stroke and neurodegeneration [Neuroscience]

Identifying molecular mediators of neural circuit development and/or function that contribute to circuit dysfunction when aberrantly reengaged in neurological disorders is of high importance. The role of the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway, which was recently reported to be a microglial/neuronal axis mediating synaptic refinement in experience-dependent visual development, has not been explored…

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Th2 cells lacking T-bet suppress naive and memory T cell responses via IL-10 [Immunology and Inflammation]

Exacerbated immune responses and loss of self-tolerance lead to the development of autoimmunity and immunopathology. Novel therapies to target autoreactive T cells are still needed. Here, we report that Th2-polarized T cells lacking the transcription factor T-bet harbor strong immunomodulatory potential and suppress antigen-specific CD8+ T cells via IL-10. Tbx21−/−…

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The Arabidopsis GRAS-type SCL28 transcription factor controls the mitotic cell cycle and division plane orientation [Plant Biology]

Gene expression is reconfigured rapidly during the cell cycle to execute the cellular functions specific to each phase. Studies conducted with synchronized plant cell suspension cultures have identified hundreds of genes with periodic expression patterns across the phases of the cell cycle, but these results may differ from expression occurring…

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Network motifs involving both competition and facilitation predict biodiversity in alpine plant communities [Ecology]

Biological diversity depends on multiple, cooccurring ecological interactions. However, most studies focus on one interaction type at a time, leaving community ecologists unsure of how positive and negative associations among species combine to influence biodiversity patterns. Using surveys of plant populations in alpine communities worldwide, we explore patterns of positive…

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Mechanism and ultrasensitivity in Hedgehog signaling revealed by Patched1 disease mutations [Cell Biology]

Hedgehog signaling is fundamental in animal embryogenesis, and its dysregulation causes cancer and birth defects. The pathway is triggered when the Hedgehog ligand inhibits the Patched1 membrane receptor, relieving repression that Patched1 exerts on the GPCR-like protein Smoothened. While it is clear how loss-of-function Patched1 mutations cause hyperactive Hedgehog signaling…

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A machine learning-based framework for modeling transcription elongation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

RNA polymerase II (Pol II) generally pauses at certain positions along gene bodies, thereby interrupting the transcription elongation process, which is often coupled with various important biological functions, such as precursor mRNA splicing and gene expression regulation. Characterizing the transcriptional elongation dynamics can thus help us understand many essential biological…

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Cell dispersal by localized degradation of a chemoattractant [Cell Biology]

Chemotaxis, the guided motion of cells by chemical gradients, plays a crucial role in many biological processes. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, chemotaxis is critical for the formation of cell aggregates during starvation. The cells in these aggregates generate a pulse of the chemoattractant, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), every…

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Conjugative plasmids interact with insertion sequences to shape the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes [Environmental Sciences]

It is well established that plasmids play an important role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes; however, little is known about the role of the underlying interactions between different plasmid categories and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in shaping the promiscuous spread of AMR genes. Here, we developed…

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High-resolution imaging reveals compartmentalization of mitochondrial protein synthesis in cultured human cells [Cell Biology]

Human mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA, that is expressed in the mitochondrial matrix. This genome encodes 13 vital polypeptides that are components of the multisubunit complexes that couple oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The inner mitochondrial membrane that houses these complexes comprises the inner boundary membrane that runs parallel to…

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SOX9-COL9A3-dependent regulation of choroid plexus epithelial polarity governs blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier integrity [Neuroscience]

The choroid plexus (CP) is an extensively vascularized neuroepithelial tissue that projects into the brain ventricles. The restriction of transepithelial transport across the CP establishes the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier that is fundamental to the homeostatic regulation of the central nervous system microenvironment. However, the molecular mechanisms that control this…

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Intercellular communication induces glycolytic synchronization waves between individually oscillating cells [Systems Biology]

Many organs have internal structures with spatially differentiated and sometimes temporally synchronized groups of cells. The mechanisms leading to such differentiation and coordination are not well understood. Here we design a diffusion-limited microfluidic system to mimic a multicellular organ structure with peripheral blood flow and test whether a group of…

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GABA from vasopressin neurons regulates the time at which suprachiasmatic nucleus molecular clocks enable circadian behavior [Neuroscience]

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian pacemaker in mammals, is a network structure composed of multiple types of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons and glial cells. However, the roles of GABA-mediated signaling in the SCN network remain controversial. Here, we report noticeable impairment of the circadian rhythm in mice with…

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Area-specific thalamocortical synchronization underlies the transition from motor planning to execution [Neuroscience]

We studied correlated firing between motor thalamic and cortical cells in monkeys performing a delayed-response reaching task. Simultaneous recording of thalamocortical activity revealed that around movement onset, thalamic cells were positively correlated with cell activity in the primary motor cortex but negatively correlated with the activity of the premotor cortex….

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Learning to silence saccadic suppression [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Perceptual stability is facilitated by a decrease in visual sensitivity during rapid eye movements, called saccadic suppression. While a large body of evidence demonstrates that saccadic programming is plastic, little is known about whether the perceptual consequences of saccades can be modified. Here, we demonstrate that saccadic suppression is attenuated…

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The mutational load in natural populations is significantly affected by high primary rates of retroposition [Evolution]

Gene retroposition is known to contribute to patterns of gene evolution and adaptations. However, possible negative effects of gene retroposition remain largely unexplored since most previous studies have focused on between-species comparisons where negatively selected copies are mostly not observed, as they are quickly lost from populations. Here, we show…

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A high-resolution record of early Paleozoic climate [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The spatial coverage and temporal resolution of the Early Paleozoic paleoclimate record are limited, primarily due to the paucity of well-preserved skeletal material commonly used for oxygen-isotope paleothermometry. Bulk-rock δ18O datasets can provide broader coverage and higher resolution, but are prone to burial alteration. We assess the diagenetic character of…

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Expression attenuation as a mechanism of robustness against gene duplication [Evolution]

Gene duplication is ubiquitous and a major driver of phenotypic diversity across the tree of life, but its immediate consequences are not fully understood. Deleterious effects would decrease the probability of retention of duplicates and prevent their contribution to long-term evolution. One possible detrimental effect of duplication is the perturbation…

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The KRAS and other prenylated polybasic domain membrane anchors recognize phosphatidylserine acyl chain structure [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

KRAS interacts with the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM) using a hybrid anchor that comprises a lysine-rich polybasic domain (PBD) and a C-terminal farnesyl chain. Electrostatic interactions have been envisaged as the primary determinant of interactions between KRAS and membranes. Here, we integrated molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and…

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Consequences of aneuploidy in human fibroblasts with trisomy 21 [Cell Biology]

An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome, the most common genetic disease in humans. The mechanisms contributing to aneuploidy-related pathologies in this syndrome, independent of the identity of the triplicated genes, are not well defined. To characterize aneuploidy-driven phenotypes in trisomy 21 cells, we performed global transcriptome, proteome,…

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Herbivory and warming interact in opposing patterns of covariation between arctic shrub species at large and local scales [Ecology]

A major challenge in predicting species' distributional responses to climate change involves resolving interactions between abiotic and biotic factors in structuring ecological communities. This challenge reflects the classical conceptualization of species' regional distributions as simultaneously constrained by climatic conditions, while by necessity emerging from local biotic interactions. A ubi

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Kin selection explains the evolution of cooperation in the gut microbiota [Evolution]

Through the secretion of "public goods" molecules, microbes cooperatively exploit their habitat. This is known as a major driver of the functioning of microbial communities, including in human disease. Understanding why microbial species cooperate is therefore crucial to achieve successful microbial community management, such as microbiome manipulation. A leading explanation…

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Histone H3Q5 serotonylation stabilizes H3K4 methylation and potentiates its readout [Biochemistry]

Serotonylation of glutamine 5 on histone H3 (H3Q5ser) was recently identified as a permissive posttranslational modification that coexists with adjacent lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). While the resulting dual modification, H3K4me3Q5ser, is enriched at regions of active gene expression in serotonergic neurons, the molecular outcome underlying H3K4me3–H3Q5ser crosstalk remains largely unexplored

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Lactobacillus bile salt hydrolase substrate specificity governs bacterial fitness and host colonization [Microbiology]

Primary bile acids (BAs) are a collection of host-synthesized metabolites that shape physiology and metabolism. BAs transit the gastrointestinal tract and are subjected to a variety of chemical transformations encoded by indigenous bacteria. The resulting microbiota-derived BA pool is a mediator of host–microbiota interactions. Bacterial bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) cleave…

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Retinal bioavailability and functional effects of a synthetic very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in mice [Biochemistry]

Rare, nondietary very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) are uniquely found in the retina and a few other vertebrate tissues. These special fatty acids play a clinically significant role in retinal degeneration and development, but their physiological and interventional research has been hampered because pure VLC-PUFAs are scarce. We hypothesize that…

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Determinism and contingencies shaped the evolution of mitochondrial protein import [Evolution]

Mitochondrial protein import requires outer membrane receptors that evolved independently in different lineages. Here we used quantitative proteomics and in vitro binding assays to investigate the substrate preferences of ATOM46 and ATOM69, the two mitochondrial import receptors of Trypanosoma brucei. The results show that ATOM46 prefers presequence-containing, hydrophilic proteins that…

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Data integration enables global biodiversity synthesis [Environmental Sciences]

The accessibility of global biodiversity information has surged in the past two decades, notably through widespread funding initiatives for museum specimen digitization and emergence of large-scale public participation in community science. Effective use of these data requires the integration of disconnected datasets, but the scientific impacts of consolidated biodiversity data…

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Observing ozone chemistry in an occupied residence [Environmental Sciences]

Outdoor ozone transported indoors initiates oxidative chemistry, forming volatile organic products. The influence of ozone chemistry on indoor air composition has not been directly quantified in normally occupied residences. Here, we explore indoor ozone chemistry in a house in California with two adult inhabitants. We utilize space- and time-resolved measurements…

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In situ magnetic identification of giant, needle-shaped magnetofossils in Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum sediments [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

Near-shore marine sediments deposited during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum at Wilson Lake, NJ, contain abundant conventional and giant magnetofossils. We find that giant, needle-shaped magnetofossils from Wilson Lake produce distinct magnetic signatures in low-noise, high-resolution first-order reversal curve (FORC) measurements. These magnetic measurements on bulk sediment samples identify

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Chromatophores efficiently promote light-driven ATP synthesis and DNA transcription inside hybrid multicompartment artificial cells [Systems Biology]

The construction of energetically autonomous artificial protocells is one of the most ambitious goals in bottom-up synthetic biology. Here, we show an efficient manner to build adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) synthesizing hybrid multicompartment protocells. Bacterial chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides accomplish the photophosphorylation of adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) to ATP, functionin

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The feeding system of Tiktaalik roseae: an intermediate between suction feeding and biting [Evolution]

Changes to feeding structures are a fundamental component of the vertebrate transition from water to land. Classically, this event has been characterized as a shift from an aquatic, suction-based mode of prey capture involving cranial kinesis to a biting-based feeding system utilizing a rigid skull capable of capturing prey on…

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Language left behind on social media exposes the emotional and cognitive costs of a romantic breakup [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Using archived social media data, the language signatures of people going through breakups were mapped. Text analyses were conducted on 1,027,541 posts from 6,803 Reddit users who had posted about their breakups. The posts include users' Reddit history in the 2 y surrounding their breakups across the various domains of…

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Nonsurgical treatment of skin cancer with local delivery of bioadhesive nanoparticles [Medical Sciences]

Keratinocyte-derived carcinomas, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), comprise the most common malignancies. Surgical excision is the therapeutic standard but is not always clinically feasible, and currently available alternatives are limited to superficial tumors. To address the need for a nonsurgical treatment for nodular skin cancers like SCC, we developed a…

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Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the presence of favipiravir-RTP [Biochemistry]

The RNA polymerase inhibitor favipiravir is currently in clinical trials as a treatment for infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), despite limited information about the molecular basis for its activity. Here we report the structure of favipiravir ribonucleoside triphosphate (favipiravir-RTP) in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA…

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Correction for Aras et al., Mitochondrial Nuclear Retrograde Regulator 1 (MNRR1) rescues the cellular phenotype of MELAS by inducing homeostatic mechanisms [Corrections]

MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for "Mitochondrial Nuclear Retrograde Regulator 1 (MNRR1) rescues the cellular phenotype of MELAS by inducing homeostatic mechanisms," by Siddhesh Aras, Neeraja Purandare, Stephanie Gladyck, Mallika Somayajulu-Nitu, Kezhong Zhang, Douglas C. Wallace, and Lawrence I. Grossman, which was first published November 30, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2005877117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci….

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Venus flytraps found to produce magnetic fields

The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is a carnivorous plant that encloses its prey using modified leaves as a trap. During this process, electrical signals known as action potentials trigger the closure of the leaf lobes. An interdisciplinary team of scientists has now shown that these electrical signals generate measurable magnetic fields.

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Sustainability benchmarks for plastics recycling and redesign

Researchers developing renewable plastics and exploring new processes for plastics upcycling and recycling technologies will now be able to easily baseline their efforts to current manufacturing practices to understand if their efforts will save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

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Russia Says New Combat Suit Will Survive .50 Caliber Bullets

Bulletproof The Russian state-owned military developer Rostec says that its next generation of combat armor will be able to withstand a direct shot from a .50 caliber bullet. The armor, which will be the fourth generation of Rostec's Sotnik, or Centurion, battle armor, is expected to become the most futuristic set of infantry gear out there, Task & Purpose reports , though it's not clear when it

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Myths of Vaccine Manufacturing

In the last few days, the question of why more drug companies haven't been enlisted for vaccine production has come up. It's mostly due to this tweet: The problem is, as far as I can see, this is simply wrong. There are not "dozens of other pharma companies" who "stand ready" to produce these mRNA vaccines. To me, this betrays a lack of knowledge about what these vaccines are and how they're prod

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1 in 10 college women experience period poverty, more likely to experience depression

New George Mason University study is first to examine unmet basic menstrual health needs, (often called 'period poverty') and associations with depression among college students. More than 14% of participants reported lack of access to menstrual products in the past year, and 10% reported period poverty every month. Women who experienced period poverty were more likely to report symptoms suggestiv

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Modeling the brain during pain processing

The many different sensations our bodies experience are accompanied by deeply complex exchanges of information within the brain, and the feeling of pain is no exception. So far, research has shown how pain intensity can be directly related to specific patterns of oscillation in brain activity, which are altered by the activation and deactivation of the 'interneurons' connecting different regions o

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How to tell if your dog is a genius

Anyone who has lived with a dog will know their capacity for learning the meaning of words, even ones you don't want them to know. How many times have you had to spell the words "walk" or "dinner" in the hope of avoiding an explosion of excitement?

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Venus flytraps found to produce magnetic fields

The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is a carnivorous plant that encloses its prey using modified leaves as a trap. During this process, electrical signals known as action potentials trigger the closure of the leaf lobes. An interdisciplinary team of scientists has now shown that these electrical signals generate measurable magnetic fields. Using atomic magnetometers, it proved possible to record

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How to blackmail your family

Raising kids can be tough, and sometimes you need all the help you can get. Biologists at the University of Bristol argue that some animals might be able to blackmail reluctant relatives into assisting with the rearing of young. The study is published today [2 February] in The American Naturalist.

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Researchers create novel photonic chip

Researchers at the George Washington University and University of California, Los Angeles, have developed and demonstrated for the first time a photonic digital to analog converter without leaving the optical domain. Such novel converters can advance next-generation data processing hardware with high relevance for data centers, 6G networks, artificial intelligence and more.

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Hydrogen-producing enzyme protects itself against oxygen

An international research team from the Photobiotechnology Research Group at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) led by Professor Thomas Happe and the Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines (CNRS) in Marseille has been able to get to the bottom of this unique feature. They describe the molecular mechanism in Nature Communications on 2 February 2021.

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Hydrogen-producing enzyme protects itself against oxygen

An international research team from the Photobiotechnology Research Group at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) led by Professor Thomas Happe and the Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines (CNRS) in Marseille has been able to get to the bottom of this unique feature. They describe the molecular mechanism in Nature Communications on 2 February 2021.

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Study challenges ecology's 'Field of Dreams' hypothesis

A new study challenges the "Field of Dreams" hypothesis in restoration ecology, which predicts that restoring plant biodiversity will lead to recovery of animal biodiversity. The study of restored tallgrass prairie found the effects of management strategies (specifically controlled burns and bison reintroduction) on animal communities were six times stronger on average than the effects of plant bi

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Researchers create novel photonic chip

Researchers at the George Washington University and University of California, Los Angeles, have developed and demonstrated for the first time a photonic digital to analog converter without leaving the optical domain. Such novel converters can advance next-generation data processing hardware with high relevance for data centers, 6G networks, artificial intelligence and more.

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Bile acids may play previously unknown role in Parkinson's

What does bile acid production in the digestive tract have to do with Parkinson's disease? Quite a lot, according to a sweeping new analysis published in the journal Metabolites. The findings reveal that changes in the gut microbiome — the rich population of helpful microbes that call the digestive tract home — may in turn alter bile acid production by favoring synthesis of toxic forms of the ac

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Cancer research expands body's own immune system to kill tumors

Scientists are hoping advances in cancer research could lead to a day when a patient's own immune system could be used to fight and destroy a wide range of tumors. Cancer immunotherapy has some remarkable successes, but its effectiveness has been limited to a relatively small handful of cancers. In APL Bioengineering, researchers describe how advances in engineering models of tumors can greatly ex

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Study indicates US cities underestimate their GHG emissions by nearly 20%

Cities have become critical players in reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are causing global climate change. Urban areas produce almost 70 percent of those emissions, and city governments are proposing a variety of policy actions aimed at reducing them. Many cities also produce inventories that detail their greenhouse gas emissions.

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What evolution reveals about the function of bitter receptors

To evaluate the chemical composition of food from a physiological point of view, it is important to know the functions of the receptors that interact with food ingredients. These include receptors for bitter compounds, which first evolved during evolution in bony fishes such as the coelacanth. What 400 million years of evolutionary history reveal about the function of both fish and human bitter re

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Researchers map non-visible materials at nanoscale with ultrasound

The increasing miniaturization of electrical components in industry requires a new imaging technique at the nanometre scale. Delft researcher Gerard Verbiest and ASML have developed a first proof-of-concept method that they now plan to further develop. The method uses the same principle as ultrasound scanning in pregnancies, but on a much, much smaller scale.

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'Genetic SD-card': Scientists obtain new methods to improve the genome editing system

Researchers from Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) in collaboration with colleagues from Belgium take a step in the development of genome editing technology. Currently it is possible to deliver genetic material of different sizes and structures to organs and tissues. This is the key to eliminating DNA defects and treating more patients. The project is guided by Professor

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Tracking cells with omnidirectional visible laser particles

Microlaser particles have emerged as unique optical probes for single-cell tracking. However, due to inherent directionality of laser emissions, cell tracking with laser particles suffers from frequent loss of cell traces. Recently, scientists at Harvard Medical School and Peking University placed omnidirectional visible laser particles into live cells, and demonstrated continuous spatial tracking

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What evolution reveals about the function of bitter receptors

To evaluate the chemical composition of food from a physiological point of view, it is important to know the functions of the receptors that interact with food ingredients. These include receptors for bitter compounds, which first evolved during evolution in bony fishes such as the coelacanth. What 400 million years of evolutionary history reveal about the function of both fish and human bitter re

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'Genetic SD-card': Scientists obtain new methods to improve the genome editing system

Researchers from Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) in collaboration with colleagues from Belgium take a step in the development of genome editing technology. Currently it is possible to deliver genetic material of different sizes and structures to organs and tissues. This is the key to eliminating DNA defects and treating more patients. The project is guided by Professor

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So you got the vaccine. Can you still infect people? Pfizer is trying to find out.

Sebastián De Toma joined Pfizer's clinical trial last year, getting his shots in August and September. The Argentinian journalist still doesn't know if he got the real covid-19 vaccine or the placebo, but on Sunday, January 31, the trial doctors called him with a new offer. Would De Toma be willing to undergo a series of nasal swabs to regularly test for the virus? He says the doctors offered to

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Flerriktat våld på de särskilda ungdomshemmen

Våldet har ökat på de särskilda ungdomshemmen. Personal behöver mer stöd och hjälp för att hantera vardagen, men också reflektera över sin eget ansvar i våldssituationer, menar Peter Andersson som forskar om socialt arbete. De särskilda ungdomshemmen drivs av myndigheten Statens institutionsstyrelse (SiS), och är en form av social dygnsvård med tillfälliga boenden för ungdomar med psykiska ohälsa

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The Only Carbon Capture Plant in the US Just Shut Down

Going Offline Carbon capture tech, which scrubs greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere, is often heralded as a necessary component of the global fight against climate change. It's an appealing pitch. If we just had the right machines , we could easily clean up our act and save the environment. But in the real world, carbon capture remains a pipe dream — and case in point, Earther reports that the

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Boston Dynamics gave its dog-like robot a charging dock and an arm on its head

Last time we heard from Boston Dynamics, its robots were having a holiday dance party over on YouTube. Now, the company is getting back to business in 2021 by updating its dog-like Spot robot with some new tricks. Spot went on sale last year and the company claims it has sold roughly 400 of the $75,000 bots to companies in fields like nuclear power, mining, and high-end construction. Now, the com

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New tool facilitates inclusion of people of diverse ancestry in large genetics studies

People of diverse ancestry have typically been excluded from genome-wide association studies, exacerbating existing health disparities. A free-access software package called Tractor allows genetics researchers to account for ancestry in a precise manner. This advance will improve the discovery of gene variants that increase risk of disease in both understudied individuals and the population as a w

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NREL reports sustainability benchmarks for plastics recycling and redesign

Researchers developing renewable plastics and exploring new processes for plastics upcycling and recycling technologies will now be able to easily baseline their efforts to current manufacturing practices to understand if their efforts will save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.Benchmark data calculated and compiled at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a measurement

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Modeling the brain during pain processing

Through new research published in EPJ B, researchers show that inhibitory interneurons, which prevent chemical messages from passing between different regions of the brain, make up 20% of the circuitry in the brain required for pain processing. The discovery represents a significant advance in researchers' understanding of how our bodies and brains respond to pain.

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The Lancet: Study reports preliminary efficacy and safety results from interim analysis of Russian COVID-19 phase 3 vaccine trial

An interim analysis of data from the phase 3 trial of the COVID-19 vaccine from Russia (Gam-COVID-Vac) suggests that a two-dose regimen of the adenovirus-based vaccine offers 91.6% efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19. The preliminary findings, published in The Lancet, are based on analysis of data from nearly 20,000 participants, three-quarters of whom received the vaccine and one quarter receiv

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Sea level will rise faster than previously thought

There are two main elements to observe when assessing sea level rise. One is the loss of the ice on land and the other is that the sea will expand as it gets warmer. Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen have constructed a new method of quantifying just how fast the sea will react to warming. Former predictions of sea level have been too conservative, so the sea will li

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Immense hydrocarbon cycle discovered in world's ocean

Hydrocarbons and petroleum are almost synonymous in environmental science. After all, oil reserves account for nearly all the hydrocarbons we encounter. But the few hydrocarbons that trace their origin to biological sources may play a larger ecological role than scientists originally suspected.

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Tetrahedron Solutions Finally Proved Decades After Computer Search

The tetrahedron is the simplest three-dimensional shape with flat sides. Its basic properties have beguiled curious minds as far back as Plato and Aristotle. Now, a conclusive proof posted in November has certifiably identified all the special tetrahedra there are to find. The work answers a question about an ancient shape thanks to a cutting-edge innovation that provides mathematicians with a ne

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Sea level rise could be worse than feared, warn researchers

Danish team predict possible 1.35m rise by 2100 and highlight issues with previous modelling The rise in the sea level is likely to be faster and greater than previously thought, according to researchers who say recent predictions are inconsistent with historical data. In its most recent assessment, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said the sea level was unlikely to rise beyond 1.1 m

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The Pandemic Is Heading Toward a Strange In-Between Time

Is the United States past the worst of the pandemic? Cases and hospitalizations have fallen in most states in the past few days, and vaccination news has brightened. Johnson & Johnson published trial data showing that its one-dose vaccine is safe and effective, and the Biden administration has bought 200 million additional vaccine doses from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna, which already have approve

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Good customer service can lead to higher profits, even for utilities without competition

New research finds that satisfied customers mean increased profits even for public utilities that don't face competition. It found that customer satisfaction does not lead to increased profits via higher rates or greater demand suggests current regulatory controls are effective. The findings suggest regulators should view investments in customer satisfaction as recoverable costs.

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International research network identifies triggers for severe course of liver cirrhosis

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a common cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. In ACLF the progressive loss of function of the scarred liver can no longer be compensated (acute decompensation). As a result, other organs such as the kidney or brain fail. The triggers for acute decompensation of liver cirrhosis and an ACLF are most frequently bacterial infections, liver inflammation ca

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Opioid prescriptions remained elevated two years after critical care

Nearly 11 percent of people admitted to an ICU in Sweden between 2010 and 2018 received opioid prescriptions on a regular basis for at least six months and up to two years after discharge. That is according to a study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet published in Critical Care Medicine . The findings suggest some may become chronic opioid users despite a lack of evidence of the drugs' long-

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The new normal: How businesses in China are coping with the Covid-19 pandemic

The effect of the Covid-19 pandemic can be clearly felt in the marketplace. This has been an unprecedented existential crisis for individuals and organizations alike across the globe. To ensure communities and corporations emerge unscathed, leaders need to effectively respond to these trying times. The latest edition of the Frontiers of Business Research in China offers six practical perspectives

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Emotional smarts benefit entrepreneurs more than IQ

Emotional intelligence may be more vital to a business' survival than previously thought, according to new research. Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand, use, and manage emotions to relieve stress. "We found that entrepreneurs benefit much more from emotional competences than other competencies—such as IQ—due to high uncertainty and ambiguity that comes with the world of entrepren

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The FAA Says It Told SpaceX Not to Launch Starship That Exploded

Blast Radius SpaceX watchers will remember the incident in early December when SpaceX launched its then-latest Starship prototype in the vehicle's first high altitude test, only for it to explode in a spectacular fireball upon landing. Now, on the morning of yet another Starship launch, the Federal Aviation Administration says that it explicitly told SpaceX not to launch the SN8 prototype that bl

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How to blackmail your family

Raising kids can be tough, and sometimes you need all the help you can get. Biologists at the University of Bristol argue that some animals might be able to blackmail reluctant relatives into assisting with the rearing of young. The study is published today [2 February] in The American Naturalist.

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Venus flytraps found to produce magnetic fields

The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is a carnivorous plant that encloses its prey using modified leaves as a trap. During this process, electrical signals known as action potentials trigger the closure of the leaf lobes. An interdisciplinary team of scientists has now shown that these electrical signals generate measurable magnetic fields.

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Joe Biden's Challenge Was Barack Obama's Victory

When Myanmar was summoned to The Hague last year to face allegations that its armed forces had carried out a genocide against the country's Rohingya Muslim minority, no military officers attended. Instead, it was the Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi lamenting that the horrific reports and photos seen by the world were "an incomplete and misleading factual picture of the situation." Domes

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When hyperactive proteins trigger illnesses

Autoimmune diseases, in which the body's own immune system attacks healthy tissue, can be life-threatening and can impact all organs. A research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now found a possible cause for these self-destructive immune system attacks: a hyperactive RANK protein on the surface of B cells. The research opens the door to new therapeutic possibilities.

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Study indicates US cities underestimate their GHG emissions by nearly 20%

Professor Kevin Gurney of Northern Arizona University's School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems and colleagues have compared the self-reported emissions inventories published by 48 major US cities to estimates from a state-of-the-art emissions information system. As described in Nature Communications, Gurney and his research collaborators found large differences and a systematic under-

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Generation of conjunctivae in a dish

Researchers from Osaka University generated functional conjunctival tissue in a dish. By identifying the protein epidermal growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor for the development and maturation of conjunctival cells, respectively, they showed functional, mucin-producing conjunctival tissues can be formed from human induced pluripotent stem cells. This study could help with identifying nov

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Why food sticks to nonstick frying pans

Foods will sometimes get stuck to a heated surface, even if oil or a nonstick frying pan is used. Scientists have investigated the fluid properties of oil on a flat surface and their work shows convection may be to blame. When the pan is heated from below, a temperature gradient is established in the oil film, as well as a surface tension gradient. This gradient sets up a type of convection known

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USPSTF recommends against screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in general population

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general adult population. Carotid artery stenosis is the narrowing of arteries that supply blood to the brain. This recommendation applies to adults without a history of transient ischemic attack, stroke or other neurologic signs or symptoms related to the carotid arteries.

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Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections among people entering China

Researchers assessed the proportion of international entrants to China with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since April, people entering China via air, sea or land have been mandatorily tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR test at border checkpoints. Those who have tested positive have been hospitalized in isolation and those who have tested negative have been quarantined for 14 days at centr

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Temperature, humidity, wind predict second wave of pandemic

The "second wave" of the coronavirus pandemic has placed much blame on a lack of appropriate safety measures. However, due to the impacts of weather, research suggests two outbreaks per year are inevitable. Though face masks, travel restrictions, and social distancing guidelines help slow the number of new infections in the short term, the lack of climate effects incorporated into epidemiological

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Biosensors require robust antifouling protection

Some promising biosensors and medical devices work well within pristine laboratory environments but may stop working once exposed to real-world conditions. A thick layer of foulants will quickly cover biosensors, and there is no good way to revive them once they quit working. Essentially, a biosensor is only as good as its antifouling properties. In APL Materials, researchers review a variety of a

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The benefits of reading outdoors

Investigators demonstrate that image luminance has opposite effects on the contrast sensitivity of cortical pathways signaling lights than darks. It impairs luminance discrimination for the brightest stimuli of the scene while improving it for the darkest stimuli, a mechanism that is needed toefficiently sample natural scenes.

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Novel photocatalyst effectively turns carbon dioxide into methane fuel with light

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major greenhouse gases causing global warming. If carbon dioxide could be converted into energy, it would be killing two birds with one stone in addressing environmental issues. A joint research team led by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has developed a new photocatalyst which can produce methane fuel (CH4) selectively and effectively from carbon dioxide us

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More vitamin C may ease bleeding gums

Bleeding gums may be a sign you need more vitamin C, according to a new study. Current advice from the American Dental Association tells you that if your gums bleed, make sure you are brushing and flossing twice a day because it could be a sign of gingivitis, an early stage of periodontal disease. And that might be true. So if you are concerned, see your dentist. Your vitamin intake could be anot

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Novel photocatalyst effectively turns carbon dioxide into methane fuel with light

Decarbonising has become a prioritised mission in many countries and the science community is working on the "carbon capture" technologies. If the captured carbon dioxide could be converted into energy, then it would be killing two birds with one stone. A joint research team led by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has developed a new photocatalyst which can produce methane gas (CH4) selectivel

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Biosensors require robust antifouling protection

Some promising biosensors and medical devices work well within pristine laboratory environments. However, they tend to stop working to deliver medical therapeutics or monitor chronic health issues once exposed to the real-world conditions of complex biological fluids.

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How a geospatial nervous system could help us design a better future | Jack Dangermond

What if we could better understand the world's biggest challenges simply by looking at a map? Jack Dangermond, a pioneer in geographic information system (GIS) technology that powers the digital maps people around the world use every day, speaks with TED technology curator Simone Ross about how his team is building a geospatial nervous system: a global, interconnected GIS network that reveals patt

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9-Year-Old Dies Hours After Falling Ill With COVID

A nine-year-old boy from Florida died due to complications from the coronavirus last week — mere hours after his symptoms reportedly began. The boy, J.J. Boatman, was running around and playing on the afternoon of January 26, his family told KTVT . But later in the evening, his family rushed him to the emergency room because he was struggling to breathe, his face and lips were turning blue, and h

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Osteoporosepatienter skal have ens besked

Videnscenter for Knoglesundhed har til både sundhedsprofessionelle og patienter udviklet materiale, der skal sikre, at osteoporosepatienter oplever en mere ensartet kommunikation, når det kommer til fysisk aktivitet.

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Study aims to break the chains of incarceration in African American males

Over the last three decades, the United States prison population has exploded from 300,000 to more than 2 million. More than 1.1 million are African American men—the vast number of whom have returned within one to three years of their release. In fact, according to the World Prison Brief, America boasts the highest recidivism rate at more than 50 percent.

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Significant cancer rates in California sea lions have major human health implications

Scientists at The Marine Mammal Center—the world's largest marine mammal hospital—have found that viral-caused cancer in adult California sea lions is significantly increased by their exposure to toxins in the environment. The study is the result of over 20 years of research and examination of nearly 400 California sea lion patients by The Marine Mammal Center.

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Breast cancer-on-a-chip for testing immunotherapy drugs

There are many mechanisms by which the body responds to foreign invaders. One of these involves the T-cells of the immune system, which have a number of different proteins on their surface called 'checkpoint proteins.' These checkpoint proteins bind to proteins on the surface of other cells and can result in either stimulation or suppression of T-cell activity. Normally, surface proteins on foreig

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The Deadliest Month Yet

On January 21, 2020, the United States confirmed its first case of COVID-19. One year later, the country is still breaking grim records: January 2021 was the deadliest month of the pandemic yet, claiming more than 95,000 Americans, about one-fifth of the 433,751 deaths recorded to date , according to The Atlantic 's COVID Tracking Project. The U.S. hit this mark even as the pandemic seems to be l

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Significant cancer rates in California sea lions have major human health implications

Scientists at The Marine Mammal Center—the world's largest marine mammal hospital—have found that viral-caused cancer in adult California sea lions is significantly increased by their exposure to toxins in the environment. The study is the result of over 20 years of research and examination of nearly 400 California sea lion patients by The Marine Mammal Center.

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How do electrons close to Earth reach almost the speed of light?

In the Van Allen radiation belts, electrons can reach almost speed of light. Hayley Allison and Yuri Shprits, German Research Centre for Geosciences, have revealed conditions for such strong accelerations. They had demonstrated in 2020: during solar storm plasma waves play a crucial role. However, it remained unclear why ultra-relativistic electron energies are not achieved in all solar storms. In

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Air-guiding in solid-core optical waveguides: A solution for on-chip trace gas spectroscopy

We demonstrate an air-suspended waveguide that exhibits exceptional field delocalization and an external field confinement of 107 %, providing a stronger interaction with the surrounding air than a free-space beam. Operating at mid-infrared wavelengths, the waveguide is an ideal building block of next-generation on-chip sensors for sensitive and specific trace gas detection by tunable diode laser

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What did the Swiss eat during the Bronze Age?

People living at the Bronze Age faced a series of challenges: climate, opening up of trade and population growth. How did they respond to changes in their diet? UNIGE and UPF have carried out isotopic analyses on skeletons together with plant remains. They discovered that manure use had become widespread over time to improve crop harvests in response to demographic growth. They also found that the

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Fine tuned: adjusting the composition and properties of semiconducting 2D alloys

Semiconducting 2D alloys could be key to overcoming the technical limitations of modern electronics. Although 2D Si-Ge alloys would have interesting properties for this purpose, they were only predicted theoretically. Now, scientists from Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology have realized the first experimental demonstration. They have also shown that the Si to Ge ratio can be adjust

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Study shows benefits of wetland restoration

Wetland restoration in the Wairarapa provides significant benefits to people and ecosystems, including contributing to a more stable climate, diminished flooding, and cleaner waterways, a Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington study has found.

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SpaceX Announces Contest to Win Free Multi-Day Trip to Orbit

Space Vacation Yesterday, SpaceX announced a contest in which one lucky winner will be able to take a multi-day trip to orbit — for free. The winner will join three other private astronauts, The New York Times reports , in a launch tentatively scheduled for later this year, that will raise money for childhood cancer research. "If you're going to accomplish all those great things out in space, all

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Ergodicity of turbulence measurements upon complex terrain in Loess Plateau

Ergodic properties of turbulence must be tested before experimental study. The terrain can be a major cause of periodic, large-scale turbulence, compared to which for the turbulence above the flat underlying surface, the large-scale (10-40 min) turbulence in the tableland region tends to be more steady and, thus, can also satisfy the ergodicity easily. But under the condition of extremely stable s

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Tracking cells with omnidirectional visible laser particles

Microlaser particles have emerged as unique optical probes for single-cell tacking. However, due to inherent directionality of laser emission, cell tracking with laser particles suffers from frequent loss of cell traces. Recently, scientists in Harvard Medical School and Peking University placed omnidirectional visible laser particles into live cells, and demonstrated continuous spatial tracking o

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Tsunamis and tsunami warning: Recent progress and future prospects

Tsunamis are one of the most destructive disasters in the ocean. Large tsunamis are mostly generated by earthquakes, and they can propagate across the ocean without significantly losing energy. During the shoaling process in coastal areas, the wave amplitude increases dramatically, causing severe life loss and property damage. There have been frequent tsunamis since the 21st century, drawing the a

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Shark attack numbers remained 'extremely low' in 2020, but fatalities spiked

Shark attacks decreased for the third consecutive year, falling to 57 unprovoked bites worldwide in 2020, compared with 64 bites in 2019 and 66 in 2018, according to the annual summary issued by the University of Florida's International Shark Attack File. The most recent five-year global average sank to 80 incidents annually.

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How your social media data can become a 'mental health X-ray'

About one in five people suffer from a psychiatric disorder, and many go years without treatment, if they receive it at all. In a new study, researchers developed machine-learning algorithms that analyzed the relationship between psychiatric disorders and Facebook messages. The algorithms were able to correctly predict the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders with statistical accuracy, suggesting d

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New book outlines how cities organize to achieve sustainability initiatives

Cities across the United States are implementing sustainability measures as a central part of their work, but some officials have struggled to overcome divisional and bureaucratic boundaries, lack of coordination and collective action dilemmas. A University of Kansas researcher has co-written a book outlining how city governments have successfully implemented functionally broad sustainability effo

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Cyanobacteria could revolutionize the plastic industry

Cyanobacteria produce plastic naturally as a by-product of photosynthesis—and they do it in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the University of Tübingen have now succeeded for the first time in modifying the bacteria's metabolism to produce this natural plastic in quantities enabling it to be used industrially. This new plastic could come to compete with environmentall

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Cyanobacteria could revolutionize the plastic industry

Cyanobacteria produce plastic naturally as a by-product of photosynthesis—and they do it in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the University of Tübingen have now succeeded for the first time in modifying the bacteria's metabolism to produce this natural plastic in quantities enabling it to be used industrially. This new plastic could come to compete with environmentall

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Even with vaccines, we still need treatments for Covid. So what works?

Analysis: death rates in intensive care are falling as doctors identify more ways to help those with the disease Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Vaccines may have been described as the great escape route from the Covid pandemic – but treatments, which are bringing down death rates, will be needed as much as ever in the era of jabs because the virus is not expected to

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The secrets of 3000 galaxies laid bare

The complex mechanics determining how galaxies spin, grow, cluster and die have been revealed following the release of all the data gathered during a massive seven-year Australian-led astronomy research project.

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