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Nyheder2021februar05

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Forests of the world in 3D
Primeval forests are of great importance for biodiversity and global carbon and water cycling. The three-dimensional structure of forests plays an important role because it influences processes of gas and energy exchange with the atmosphere, and provides habitats for numerous species. An international research team investigated the variety of different complex structures found in the world's fores
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Sensor and detoxifier in one
Ozone is a problematic air pollutant that causes serious health problems. A newly developed material not only quickly and selectively indicates the presence of ozone, but also simultaneously renders the gas harmless. The porous '2-in-one systems' also function reliably in very humid air.
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Novel immunotherapy approach to treat cat allergy
Researchers brought forward the potential of high doses of a specific adjuvant molecule, namely CpG oligonucleotide, in successfully modulating the immune system's allergic response to the main cat allergen Fel d 1, thereby inducing a tolerance-promoting reaction and reverting the main hallmarks of cat allergy.
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Peginterferon-lambda shows strong antiviral action to accelerate clearance of COVID-19
A clinical study led by Dr. Jordan Feld, a liver specialist at Toronto Centre for Liver Disease, University Health Network (UHN), showed an experimental antiviral drug can significantly speed up recovery for COVID-19 outpatients – patients who do not need to be hospitalized.This could become an important intervention to treat infected patients and help curb community spread, while COVID-19 vaccine
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The Impeccably Designed Ostrich Pillow Will Help You Nap Anywhere, Anytime
One of the worst parts of adulting is dealing with the day-to-day responsibilities associated with being alive, especially when all you want to do is cozy up and indulge in a midday catnap . But before you roll your eyes at the thought of adding a nap to your daily routine, research out of Harvard suggests the key to being more productive in the afternoon is an afternoon snooze . Not only is it a
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SpaceX Has Plans to Start a Starlink Phone Service
Starlink Phone In a filing with the Federal Communications Commission, SpaceX is petitioning for a Starlink phone service, voice calls, and cheaper plans for low income households through the agency's Lifeline program, as Ars Technica reports . To be clear, SpaceX isn't about to beam gigabytes of data to your smartphone — it's more of a landline solution that uses existing connections, including
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The battle of algorithms: Uncovering offensive AI
As machine-learning applications move into the mainstream, a new era of cyber threat is emerging—one that uses offensive artificial intelligence (AI) to supercharge attack campaigns. Offensive AI allows attackers to automate reconnaissance, craft tailored impersonation attacks, and even self-propagate to avoid detection. Security teams can prepare by turning to defensive AI to fight back—using au
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Energy harvesting: Printed thermoelectric generators for power generation
Thermoelectric generators, TEGs for short, convert ambient heat into electrical power. They enable maintenance-free, environmentally friendly, and autonomous power supply of the continuously growing number of sensors and devices for the Internet of Things (IoT) and recovery of waste heat. Scientists have now developed three-dimensional component architectures based on novel, printable thermoelectr
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Stanford Professor: Elon Musk and the FAA Are Both Out of Line
Two Wrongs Things came to a head between SpaceX and the Federal Aviation Administration when CEO Elon Musk publicly lashed out at the regulatory group , writing that under its rules, "humanity will never get to Mars." On one level, the story appears to be a tale of a responsible government agency trying to curb a reckless company, Stanford University adjunct professor Steve Blank argued in a new
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Center for BrainHealth researchers create virtual reality cognitive assessment
Virtual reality isn't just for gaming. Researchers can use virtual reality, or VR, to assess participants' attention, memory and problem-solving abilities in real world settings. By using VR technology to examine how folks complete daily tasks, like making a grocery list, researchers can better help clinical populations that struggle with executive functioning to manage their everyday lives.
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Book helps identify risks of reading difficulties in preschoolers
A study expands validation evidence for a new screening tool that directly engages preschool-age children during clinic visits to assess their early literacy skills. The tool has the potential to identify reading difficulties as early as possible, target interventions and empower families to help their child at home, according to researchers.
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Signs of burnout can be detected in sweat
Engineers have developed a wearable system that can continually measure the concentration of cortisol – the stress hormone – in human sweat. Their device can eventually help doctors better understand and treat stress-related conditions like burnout and obesity.
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Physical discipline and cognitive deprivation associated with specific types of developmental delay
A study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), published by Elsevier, reports that in a diverse, cross-national sample of youth, physical discipline and cognitive deprivation had distinct associations with specific domains of developmental delay. The findings are based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, which is an ongoing, international househo
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The Most Vaccinated Country on Earth Is Having Trouble Reopening
In recent weeks, Israel has been able to give a large portion of its citizens at least one injection of a coronavirus vaccine, thanks to a major push for mass inoculation. Yet despite the many vaccinations, the country is still struggling to ease lockdown measures and resume normal life, according to The Associated Press . Due to issues with some residents following public safety guidelines, incl
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Scientists Are Investigating If Time Warps Near a Nuclear Reactor
A team of theoretical physicists at Griffiths University in Australia are investigating a radical quantum theory of time which posits that there is a asymmetry between time and space. To explain why time points from the past to the future, scientists have proposed that under the second law of thermodynamics, time itself moves towards increased entropy, a measurement of disorder in a system. But t
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4 mobility tools to help soothe and stretch your sore muscles
A hard workout shouldn't leave you with lingering pain. The right recovery tools will help increase blood flow and fight fatigue to soothe your aches. (Amanda Ringstad/) If you want to get stronger, faster, and healthier, your recovery and mobility are just as important as your workouts. These simple tools can get your weary muscles back into shape quickly, so you can get back to the gym. Foam ro
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Beginner-friendly golf balls that will help you fall in love with the game
Hole in one! (Unsplash/) There's no question that the materials, surface, core, and number of construction layers of a golf ball has an impact on performance. When you're just starting out, however, the satisfying "thwack" of your club against the ball and ability to play a few holes without sending your ball flying out of bounds are often more pressing concerns than the finer points of compressi
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Breakthrough in quantum photonics promises a new era in optical circuits
The modern world is powered by electrical circuitry on a "chip"—the semiconductor chip underpinning computers, cell phones, the internet, and other applications. In the year 2025, humans are expected to be creating 175 zettabytes (175 trillion gigabytes) of new data. How can we ensure the security of sensitive data at such a high volume? And how can we address grand-challenge-like problems, from p
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How Ants Fight Fast-Evolving Enemy Microbes
Creature amalate Fri, 02/05/2021 – 15:01 Image A female beewolf wasp drags a bee into her nest to provision her larvae. Media credits Charlie Jackson via Flickr Media rights CC by 2.0 Bacterial allies may help insects win the evolutionary arms race against disease-causing microorganisms. Thursday, February 4, 2021 Nala Rogers, Staff Writer https://www.insidescience.org/news/how-ants-fight-fast-e
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Breakthrough in quantum photonics promises a new era in optical circuits
In recently published work, researchers at USC have shown that single photons can be emitted in a uniform way from quantum dots arranged in a precise pattern. The team has used such methods to create single-quantum dots, with their remarkable single-photon emission characteristics. It is expected that the ability to precisely align uniformly-emitting quantum dots will enable the production of opti
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Women's voices in the media still outnumbered by those of men: study
New research from Simon Fraser University shows that women's voices continue to be underrepresented in the media, despite having prominent female leaders across Canada and internationally. Researchers in SFU's Discourse Processing Lab found that men outnumber women quoted in Canadian news media about three to one. The findings from the team's Gender Gap Tracker study were published this week in th
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Long live superconductivity! Short flashes of light with sustaining impact
Superconductivity—the ability of a material to transmit an electric current without loss—is a quantum effect that, despite years of research, is still limited to very low temperatures. Now a team of scientists at the MPSD has succeeded in creating a metastable state with vanishing electrical resistance in a molecular solid by exposing it to finely tuned pulses of intense laser light. This effect h
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SpaceX Launching NASA Telescope to Find Habitable Alien Worlds
Historical Survey NASA announced on Thursday that it's chosen SpaceX to launch an upcoming mission that will help the space agency map out the universe — and even perhaps understand how it was created. The Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer (SPHEREx) mission involves launching a new telescope into orbit that will be able to scan hundreds o
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The Aurora 7 Is an Amazing 26-Pound Laptop With 7 Displays, Zero Purpose
Different laptops are designed to cater to the needs of different folks. Some laptops are tiny. Some are ruggedized. Some are chonky, so-called 'desktop replacements.' And some laptops, Dear Reader — some laptops look the benighted fusion of a late-90s Thinkpad and a Swiss Army knife. Behold the prototype Aurora 7, as built by Expanscape (best check with Alienware about that name, guys): I'm not
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Pandemic precarity: COVID-19 is exposing and exacerbating inequalities in the American heartland [Social Sciences]
Crises lay bare the social fault lines of society. In the United States, race, gender, age, and education have affected vulnerability to COVID-19 infection. Yet, consequences likely extend far beyond morbidity and mortality. Temporarily closing the economy sent shock waves through communities, raising the possibility that social inequities, preexisting and…
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Harold A. Scheraga (10/18/1921-8/1/2020): A pioneering scientist who laid the foundations of protein science in the 20th century [Retrospectives]
Harold Abraham Scheraga, an eminent Professor of chemistry and biophysics at Cornell University for 73 years, died on August 1, 2020 at the age of 98. Scheraga (known to his colleagues as Harold) has been a pioneer in the general field of macromolecules (polymers, proteins, DNA, and so forth). He…
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Invasive mussels regulate nutrient cycling in the largest freshwater ecosystem on Earth [Ecology]
Biogeochemical cycles involve the fluxes of chemical elements within and among ecosystems. These cycles are complex, potentially involving interactions among hundreds of species as well as numerous physical processes. Organisms and physical processes can both move elements, such as nutrients, among different ecosystems and across habitats within an ecosystem. Lakes…
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Delivery of mRNA vaccine with a lipid-like material potentiates antitumor efficacy through Toll-like receptor 4 signaling [Applied Biological Sciences]
Intracellular delivery of messenger RNA (mRNA)-based cancer vaccine has shown great potential to elicit antitumor immunity. To achieve robust antitumor efficacy, mRNA encoding tumor antigens needs to be efficiently delivered and translated in dendritic cells with concurrent innate immune stimulation to promote antigen presentation. Here, by screening a group of…
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Neural correlates of goal-directed and non-goal-directed movements [Neuroscience]
What are the cortical neural correlates that distinguish goal-directed and non–goal-directed movements? We investigated this question in the monkey frontal eye field (FEF), which is implicated in voluntary control of saccades. Here, we compared FEF activity associated with goal-directed (G) saccades and non–goal-directed (nG) saccades made by the monkey. Although…
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The role of double-diffusive convection in basal melting of Antarctic ice shelves [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The Antarctic Ice Sheet loses about half its mass through ocean-driven melting of its fringing ice shelves. However, the ocean processes governing ice shelf melting are not well understood, contributing to uncertainty in projections of Antarctica's contribution to global sea level. We use high-resolution large-eddy simulation to examine ocean-driven melt,…
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The evolution of red color vision is linked to coordinated rhodopsin tuning in lycaenid butterflies [Evolution]
Color vision has evolved multiple times in both vertebrates and invertebrates and is largely determined by the number and variation in spectral sensitivities of distinct opsin subclasses. However, because of the difficulty of expressing long-wavelength (LW) invertebrate opsins in vitro, our understanding of the molecular basis of functional shifts in…
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Collective dynamics in entangled worm and robot blobs [Physiology]
Living systems at all scales aggregate in large numbers for a variety of functions including mating, predation, and survival. The majority of such systems consist of unconnected individuals that collectively flock, school, or swarm. However, some aggregations involve physically entangled individuals, which can confer emergent mechanofunctional material properties to the…
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Structural basis for differential recognition of phosphohistidine-containing peptides by 1-pHis and 3-pHis monoclonal antibodies [Biochemistry]
In 2015, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that selectively recognize the 1-pHis or 3-pHis isoforms of phosphohistidine were developed by immunizing rabbits with degenerate Ala/Gly peptides containing the nonhydrolyzable phosphohistidine (pHis) analog- phosphotriazolylalanine (pTza). Here, we report structures of five rabbit mAbs bound to cognate pTza peptides: SC1-1 and SC50-3 that recognize…
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Diel transcriptional oscillations of light-sensitive regulatory elements in open-ocean eukaryotic plankton communities [Environmental Sciences]
The 24-h cycle of light and darkness governs daily rhythms of complex behaviors across all domains of life. Intracellular photoreceptors sense specific wavelengths of light that can reset the internal circadian clock and/or elicit distinct phenotypic responses. In the surface ocean, microbial communities additionally modulate nonrhythmic changes in light quality…
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Neural divergence and hybrid disruption between ecologically isolated Heliconius butterflies [Evolution]
The importance of behavioral evolution during speciation is well established, but we know little about how this is manifest in sensory and neural systems. A handful of studies have linked specific neural changes to divergence in host or mate preferences associated with speciation. However, the degree to which brains are…
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Functional consequences of convergently evolved microscopic skin features on snake locomotion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The small structures that decorate biological surfaces can significantly affect behavior, yet the diversity of animal–environment interactions essential for survival makes ascribing functions to structures challenging. Microscopic skin textures may be particularly important for snakes and other limbless locomotors, where substrate interactions are mediated solely through body contact. While previo
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Tropospheric carbonyl sulfide mass balance based on direct measurements of sulfur isotopes [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Robust estimates for the rates and trends in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP; plant CO2 uptake) are needed. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the major long-lived sulfur-bearing gas in the atmosphere and a promising proxy for GPP. Large uncertainties in estimating the relative magnitude of the COS sources and sinks limit…
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Reduced proinsecticide activation by cytochrome P450 confers coumaphos resistance in the major bee parasite Varroa destructor [Applied Biological Sciences]
Varroa destructor is one of the main problems in modern beekeeping. Highly selective acaricides with low toxicity to bees are used internationally to control this mite. One of the key acaricides is the organophosphorus (OP) proinsecticide coumaphos, that becomes toxic after enzymatic activation inside Varroa. We show here that mites…
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Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-2 determines cellular energy dynamics by regulating creatine kinase-B [Neuroscience]
Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks) regulate various biological processes. IP6Ks convert IP6 to pyrophosphates such as diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7) and bis-diphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate (IP8). IP7 is produced in mammals by a family of inositol hexakisphosphate kinases, IP6K1, IP6K2, and IP6K3, which have distinct biological functions. The inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 2
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Stress granule formation, disassembly, and composition are regulated by alphavirus ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity [Microbiology]
While biomolecular condensates have emerged as an important biological phenomenon, mechanisms regulating their composition and the ways that viruses hijack these mechanisms remain unclear. The mosquito-borne alphaviruses cause a range of diseases from rashes and arthritis to encephalitis, and no licensed drugs are available for treatment or vaccines for prevention….
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Cyanobacteria provide a new paradigm in the regulation of cofactor dependence [Plant Biology]
Competition for resources is a decisive driver for success. Entire civilizations have collapsed when food scarcity leads to conflict. Competition for nutrients has also shaped evolution, with modern-day species descending from the victors. While archeological digs and historical accounts yield insight into how resource competition impacted human history, whole-genome sequencing…
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Women's voices in the media still outnumbered by those of men – study
New research from Simon Fraser University shows that women's voices continue to be underrepresented in the media, despite having prominent female leaders across Canada and internationally. Researchers in SFU's Discourse Processing Lab found that men outnumber women quoted in Canadian news media about three to one. The findings from the team's Gender Gap Tracker study were published this week in th
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Fingerprint for the formation of nitrous oxide emissions
Scientists led by Eliza Harris and Michael Bahn from the Institute of Ecology at the University of Innsbruck have succeeded in studying emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O under the influence of environmental impacts in an unprecedented level of detail. The study, which has now been published in Science Advances , is thus also a starting point for the creation of models that could predict future t
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New study shows pandemic's toll on jobs, businesses, and food security in poorer countries
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic caused a sharp decline in living standards and rising food insecurity in low- and middle-income across the globe, according to a new study published Feb. 5 in the journal Science Advances . Using data collected between April-July 2020 in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Colombia, Ghana, Kenya, Nepal, Philippines, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone, researchers found drops in empl
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Would you use AR/VR for major purchases?
I know that more and more consumers are purchasing cars and homes online. Many people are turning to #VirtualReality and #AugmentedReality when it comes to real estate. People will use AR and VR as a preview before committing to visit a place in person. Do you think this trend will continue after the pandemic? I was reading an article from Forbes talking about this. I purchased a home 3 years ago
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A combinational chemo-immune therapy using an enzyme-sensitive nanoplatform for dual-drug delivery to specific sites by cascade targeting
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery faces challenges from the imprecise targeted delivery and the low bioavailability of drugs due to complex biological barriers. Here, we designed cascade-targeting, dual drug–loaded, core-shell nanoparticles (DLTPT) consisting of CD44-targeting hyaluronic acid shells decorated with doxorubicin (HA-DOX) and mitochondria-targeting triphenylphosphonium derivative nano
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Experimental and theoretical explorations of nanocarriers multistep delivery performance for rational design and anticancer prediction
The poor understanding of the complex multistep process taken by nanocarriers during the delivery process limits the delivery efficiencies and further hinders the translation of these systems into medicine. Here, we describe a series of six self-assembled nanocarrier types with systematically altered physical properties including size, shape, and rigidity, as well as both in vitro and in vivo ana
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Denitrifying pathways dominate nitrous oxide emissions from managed grassland during drought and rewetting
Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas whose atmospheric growth rate has accelerated over the past decade. Most anthropogenic N 2 O emissions result from soil N fertilization, which is converted to N 2 O via oxic nitrification and anoxic denitrification pathways. Drought-affected soils are expected to be well oxygenated; however, using high-resolution isotopic measurements, we found that deni
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Drag-induced directionality switching of kinesin-5 Cin8 revealed by cluster-motility analysis
Directed active motion of motor proteins is a vital process in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Nearly a decade ago, the discovery of directionality switching of mitotic kinesin-5 motors challenged the long-standing paradigm that individual kinesin motors are characterized by an intrinsic directionality. The underlying mechanism, however, remains unexplained. Here, we studied clustering-induced di
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A GWAS in Latin Americans identifies novel face shape loci, implicating VPS13B and a Denisovan introgressed region in facial variation
To characterize the genetic basis of facial features in Latin Americans, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 6000 individuals using 59 landmark-based measurements from two-dimensional profile photographs and ~9,000,000 genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We detected significant association of 32 traits with at least 1 (and up to 6) of 32 different ge
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Migratory earthquake precursors are dominant on an ice stream fault
Simple fault models predict earthquake nucleation near the eventual hypocenter (self-nucleation). However, some earthquakes have migratory foreshocks and possibly slow slip that travel large distances toward the eventual mainshock hypocenter (migratory nucleation). Scarce observations of migratory nucleation may result from real differences between faults or merely observational limitations. We u
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Neuronavigation-guided focused ultrasound for transcranial blood-brain barrier opening and immunostimulation in brain tumors
Focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles can transiently open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to increase therapeutic agent penetration at the targeted brain site to benefit recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) treatment. This study is a dose-escalating pilot trial using a device combining neuronavigation and a manually operated frameless FUS system to treat rGBM patients. The safety and f
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Tumor to normal single-cell mRNA comparisons reveal a pan-neuroblastoma cancer cell
Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that resembles developmental stages of the neural crest. It is not established what developmental processes neuroblastoma cancer cells represent. Here, we sought to reveal the phenotype of neuroblastoma cancer cells by comparing cancer ( n = 19,723) with normal fetal adrenal single-cell transcriptomes ( n = 57,972). Our principal finding was that the neuroblast
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Vacancy ordering induced topological electronic transition in bulk Eu2ZnSb2
Metal-semiconductor transitions from changes in edge chirality from zigzag to armchair were observed in many nanoribbon materials, especially those based on honeycomb lattices. Here, this is generalized to bulk complex Zintl semiconductors, exemplified by Eu 2 ZnSb 2 where the Zn vacancy ordering plays an essential role. Five Eu 2 ZnSb 2 structural models are proposed to guide transmission electr
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Targeting oncoproteins with a positive selection assay for protein degraders
Most intracellular proteins lack hydrophobic pockets suitable for altering their function with drug-like small molecules. Recent studies indicate that some undruggable proteins can be targeted by compounds that can degrade them. For example, thalidomide-like drugs (IMiDs) degrade the critical multiple myeloma transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3 by recruiting them to the cereblon E3 ubiquitin li
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Falling living standards during the COVID-19 crisis: Quantitative evidence from nine developing countries
Despite numerous journalistic accounts, systematic quantitative evidence on economic conditions during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains scarce for most low- and middle-income countries, partly due to limitations of official economic statistics in environments with large informal sectors and subsistence agriculture. We assemble evidence from over 30,000 respondents in 16 original household su
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Fairy circles reveal the resilience of self-organized salt marshes
Spatial patterning is a fascinating theme in both theoretical and experimental ecology. It reveals resilience and stability to withstand external disturbances and environmental stresses. However, existing studies mainly focus on well-developed persistent patterns rather than transient patterns in self-organizing ecosystems. Here, combining models and experimental evidence, we show that transient
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The fibrinolytic system enables the onset of Plasmodium infection in the mosquito vector and the mammalian host
Plasmodium parasites must migrate across proteinaceous matrices to infect the mosquito and vertebrate hosts. Plasmin, a mammalian serine protease, degrades extracellular matrix proteins allowing cell migration through tissues. We report that Plasmodium gametes recruit human plasminogen to their surface where it is processed into plasmin by corecruited plasminogen activators. Inhibition of plasmin
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Nitric oxide prevents aortic valve calcification by S-nitrosylation of USP9X to activate NOTCH signaling
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is an increasingly prevalent condition, and endothelial dysfunction is implicated in its etiology. We previously identified nitric oxide (NO) as a calcification inhibitor by its activation of NOTCH1 , which is genetically linked to human CAVD. Here, we show NO rescues calcification by an S-nitrosylation–mediated mechanism in porcine aortic valve interstitial c
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Parallel, linear, and subnanometric 3D tracking of microparticles with Stereo Darkfield Interferometry
While crucial for force spectroscopists and microbiologists, three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking suffers from either poor precision, complex calibration, or the need of expensive hardware, preventing its massive adoption. We introduce a new technique, based on a simple piece of cardboard inserted in the objective focal plane, that enables simple 3D tracking of dilute microparticles while off
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Myosin-driven actin-microtubule networks exhibit self-organized contractile dynamics
The cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of proteins, including actin, microtubules, and their associated motor proteins, that enables essential cellular processes such as motility, division, and growth. While actomyosin networks are extensively studied, how interactions between actin and microtubules, ubiquitous in the cytoskeleton, influence actomyosin activity remains an open question. Here, we c
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A lymph node-targeted Amphiphile vaccine induces potent cellular and humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2
The profound consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mandate urgent development of effective vaccines. Here, we evaluated an Amphiphile (AMP) vaccine adjuvant, AMP-CpG, composed of diacyl lipid–modified CpG, admixed with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike-2 receptor binding domain protein as a candidate vaccine (ELI-005) in mice. AMP modification efficiently delivers CpG to
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Nsp1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 disrupts the mRNA export machinery to inhibit host gene expression
The ongoing unprecedented severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak worldwide has highlighted the need for understanding viral-host interactions involved in mechanisms of virulence. Here, we show that the virulence factor Nsp1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the host messenger RNA (mRNA) export receptor heterodimer NXF1-NXT1, which is responsible for nuclear export
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Thalamic projections to the subthalamic nucleus contribute to movement initiation and rescue of parkinsonian symptoms
The parafascicular nucleus (Pf) of the thalamus provides major projections to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei involved in action initiation. Here, we show that Pf projections to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), but not to the striatum, are responsible for movement initiation. Because the STN is a major target of deep brain stimulation treatments for Parkinson's disease, we tested the
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Fingerprint for the formation of nitrous oxide emissions
Scientists led by Eliza Harris and Michael Bahn from the Institute of Ecology at the University of Innsbruck have succeeded in studying emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O under the influence of environmental impacts in an unprecedented level of detail. The study, which has now been published in Science Advances, is thus also a starting point for the creation of models that could predict future tr
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Laminating sheets that organize and protect your documents and more
Create your own bookmarks, preserve documents, and more! (Amazon/) Storing all your documents and photos on your computer desktop is a great way to save paper and space, but sometimes you want something more tangible and easier to access. With laminating sheets, you can add durability to how-to manuals and recipes, create luggage or name badges, or put together scrapbooks of printed photos and co
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This Quantum Desktop Computer Can Be Yours for Just $5,000
Head SpinQ A startup based in Shenzhen, China, called SpinQ has unveiled a quantum computer that can fit on a desk — and it costs less than $5,000, as Discover Magazine reports . That's only a tiny fraction of the price tag of powerful quantum computers that have come before it, including D-Wave's first commercially available quantum computer system that cost around $10 million when it went on sa
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Even at half capacity, the Super Bowl could cause COVID-19 outbreaks
Any gathering that brings thousands of people together has the potential to become a superspreading event. (Pixabay/) Like just about everything else, the Super Bowl is going to look pretty different from usual this year. The game will take place on February 7 at the Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, Florida between the Kansas City Chiefs and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. However, the event will be ton
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Gut-testing capsule indicates benefits to prebiotics
A new noninvasive diagnostic imaging tool measures the levels of a naturally occurring enzyme—bile salt hydrolase—inside the body's entire gastrointestinal tract, research finds. Inside the human body lives a large microscopic community called the microbiome, where trillions of bacteria engage in a constant "tug of war" to maintain optimal levels of good and bad bacteria. Most of this struggle ta
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How do virtual meetings affect women's body image?
For most women—but not for all women—looking at themselves during virtual meetings has not been accompanied by any changes in how satisfied they are with their appearance, according to new research. Video chatting services such as Zoom have become a common way to keep in touch with friends, family, and co-workers. But it's also forced people to sit face-to-face with themselves with a clear view o
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New way to power up nanomaterials for electronic applications
UCLA materials scientists and colleagues have discovered that perovskites, a class of promising materials that could be used for low-cost, high-performance solar cells and LEDs, have a previously unutilized molecular component that can further tune the electronic property of perovskites.
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Scientists Are Weaving Human Brain Cells Into Microchips
Brain Jack It's not unusual for artificial intelligence developers to take inspiration from the human brain when designing their algorithms or the circuitry they run on, but now a project is taking that biological inspiration a step further. Scientists from England's Aston University are physically integrating human brain stem cells into AI microchips, according to a university press release . Th
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Today's stem cell special: Small intestine on a plate!
A team of scientists from Japan have found success in growing small intestinal cells, akin to those found in the human body, from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. The scientists used a procedure they previously developed on embryonic stem cells for this discovery. They claim that the grown cells can be used for laboratory studies focusing on human small intestinal drug transport and metabolis
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Healthy oceans need healthy soundscapes
A global team of researchers set out to understand how human-made noise affects wildlife, from invertebrates to whales, in the oceans, and found overwhelming evidence that marine fauna, and their ecosystems, are negatively impacted by noise. This noise disrupts their behavior, physiology, reproduction and, in extreme cases, causes mortality. The researchers call for human-induced noise to be consi
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Mysterious organic scum boosts chemical reaction efficiency, may reduce chemical waste
Chemical manufacturers frequently use toxic solvents such as alcohols and benzene to make products like pharmaceuticals and plastics. Researchers are examining a previously overlooked and misunderstood phenomenon in the chemical reactions used to make these products. This discovery brings a new fundamental understanding of catalytic chemistry and a steppingstone to practical applications that coul
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Using Artificial Intelligence to prevent harm caused by immunotherapy
Until recently, researchers and oncologists had placed lung cancer patients into two broad categories: those who would benefit from immunotherapy, and those who likely would not. Now, researchers, using artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze simple tissue scans, say they have discovered biomarkers that could tell doctors which lung cancer patients might actually get worse from immunotherapy.
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Molecule from nature provides fully recyclable polymers
Plastics are among the most successful materials of modern times. However, they also create a huge waste problem. Scientists produced different polymers from lipoic acid, a natural molecule. These polymers are easily depolymerized under mild conditions. Some 87 percent of the monomers can be recovered in their pure form and re-used to make new polymers of virgin quality.
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Malcolm & Marie Isn't Art. It's a Meltdown.
Some of the most bittersweet, beautiful moments in cinema history have come from rambling, difficult-to-watch lovers' spats. Quarrels can illuminate the rot in a relationship, and the best films about them illustrate the fine line between love and hate, want and need. Malcolm & Marie is not one of those films. Billed as a story of a couple's "romantic reckoning," the movie, streaming now on Netfl
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Mysterious organic scum boosts chemical reaction efficiency, may reduce chemical waste
Chemical manufacturers frequently use toxic solvents such as alcohols and benzene to make products like pharmaceuticals and plastics. Researchers are examining a previously overlooked and misunderstood phenomenon in the chemical reactions used to make these products. This discovery brings a new fundamental understanding of catalytic chemistry and a steppingstone to practical applications that coul
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Civil engineers find link between hospitals and schools key to community resilience
Health care and education systems are two main pillars of a community's stability. How well and how quickly a community recovers following a natural disaster depends on the resilience of these essential social services. New research published in Nature Scientific Reports has found hospitals and schools are interdependent, suggesting their collective recovery must be considered in order to restore
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Healthy oceans need healthy soundscapes
Rain falls lightly on the ocean's surface. Marine mammals chirp and squeal as they swim along. The pounding of surf along a distant shoreline heaves and thumps with metronomic regularity. These are the sounds that most of us associate with the marine environment. But the soundtrack of the healthy ocean no longer reflects the acoustic environment of today's ocean, plagued with human-created noise.
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Forests of the world in 3-D: Research team analyses complexity of forest structure
Primeval forests are of great importance for biodiversity and global carbon and water cycling. The three-dimensional structure of forests plays an important role here because it influences processes of gas and energy exchange with the atmosphere, whilst also providing habitats for numerous species. An international research team led by the University of Göttingen has investigated the variety of di
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How protein condensation slows down gene activity and ensures the survival of stressed cells
All life on earth evolved multiple layers and networks of ensuring survival upon catastrophic events. Even cells have their emergency plan: the heat shock response. Triggered by multiple stress stimuli such as heat, toxins, or radiation, this cellular safety program tries to prevent permanent damage to the organism. The response resembles an overall adopted 'lockdown' strategy witnessed during the
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FGM safeguarding policies are alienating UK's African diaspora communities
Ahead of tomorrow's International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, by the United Nations, FORWARD, the leading African women-led organization working to end violence against women and girls, and the University of Huddersfield have published new research that documents how the stringent, targeted, FGM safeguarding measures introduced since the 2014 Girl Summit are causing distre
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Healthy oceans need healthy soundscapes
Rain falls lightly on the ocean's surface. Marine mammals chirp and squeal as they swim along. The pounding of surf along a distant shoreline heaves and thumps with metronomic regularity. These are the sounds that most of us associate with the marine environment. But the soundtrack of the healthy ocean no longer reflects the acoustic environment of today's ocean, plagued with human-created noise.
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Forests of the world in 3-D: Research team analyses complexity of forest structure
Primeval forests are of great importance for biodiversity and global carbon and water cycling. The three-dimensional structure of forests plays an important role here because it influences processes of gas and energy exchange with the atmosphere, whilst also providing habitats for numerous species. An international research team led by the University of Göttingen has investigated the variety of di
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How protein condensation slows down gene activity and ensures the survival of stressed cells
All life on earth evolved multiple layers and networks of ensuring survival upon catastrophic events. Even cells have their emergency plan: the heat shock response. Triggered by multiple stress stimuli such as heat, toxins, or radiation, this cellular safety program tries to prevent permanent damage to the organism. The response resembles an overall adopted 'lockdown' strategy witnessed during the
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A philosophical approach to routines can illuminate who we really are
There are hundreds of things we do – repeatedly, routinely – every day. We wake up, check our phones, eat our meals, brush our teeth, do our jobs, satisfy our addictions. In recent years, such habitual actions have become an arena for self-improvement: bookshelves are saturated with bestsellers about 'life hacks', 'life design' and how to 'gamify' our long-term projects, promising everything from
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'Where did I park my car?' Brain stimulation improves mental time travel
In a new study, scientists improved memory of complex, realistic events by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the brain network responsible for memory. The researchers then had participants watch videos of realistic activities to measure how memory works during everyday tasks. The findings prove it is possible to measure and manipulate realistic types of memory.
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Fossil pigments shed new light on vertebrate evolution
This new paper shows that melanin is more than just something that gives colour to the body. It played an important role in the evolution of warm-blooded animals and helped defined what birds and mammals look like today. By studying where melanin occurs in the body in fossils and modern animals researchers have produced the first model for how melanin has evolved over the last 500 million years.
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Startup Unveils World's First Flying Racecar
Flying Racecar Alauda Racing, an Australian eVTOL startup, has revealed the Airspeeder Mk3, which it's calling the "world's first electric flying racing car ready to race." The sleek single-seater quadcopter is designed to be raced against ten others of its kin in a tournament later this year — albeit without human pilots on board, which is unsurprising given the inherent safety risks. At the sam
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Machine learning generates realistic genomes for imaginary humans
Machines, thanks to novel algorithms and advances in computer technology, can now learn complex models and even generate high-quality synthetic data such as photo-realistic images or even resumes of imaginary humans. A study recently published in the international journal PLOS Genetics uses machine learning to mine existing biobanks and generate chunks of human genomes which do not belong to real
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Signs of burnout can be detected in sweat
EPFL engineers, working in association with startup Xsensio, have developed a wearable system that can continually measure the concentration of cortisol—the stress hormone—in human sweat. Their device can eventually help doctors better understand and treat stress-related conditions like burnout and obesity.
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Machine learning generates realistic genomes for imaginary humans
Machines, thanks to novel algorithms and advances in computer technology, can now learn complex models and even generate high-quality synthetic data such as photo-realistic images or even resumes of imaginary humans. A study recently published in the international journal PLOS Genetics uses machine learning to mine existing biobanks and generate chunks of human genomes which do not belong to real
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Grape consumption may protect against UV damage to skin
A recent human study published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology found that consuming grapes protected against ultraviolet (UV) skin damage. Study subjects showed increased resistance to sunburn and a reduction in markers of UV damage at the cellular level. Natural components found in grapes known as polyphenols are thought to be responsible for these beneficial effects.
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These Distant 'Baby' Black Holes Seem to Be Misbehaving—and Experts Are Perplexed
Radio images of the sky have revealed hundreds of "baby" and supermassive black holes in distant galaxies, with the galaxies' light bouncing around in unexpected ways. Galaxies are vast cosmic bodies, tens of thousands of light years in size, made up of gas, dust, and stars (like our sun). Given their size, you'd expect the amount of light emitted from galaxies would change slowly and steadily, o
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Healthy oceans need healthy soundscapes
Rain falls lightly on the ocean's surface. Marine mammals chirp and squeal as they swim along. The pounding of surf along a distant shoreline heaves and thumps with metronomic regularity. These are the sounds that most of us associate with the marine environment. But the soundtrack of the healthy ocean no longer reflects the acoustic environment of today's ocean, plagued with human-created noise.
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Vegan diet better for weight loss and cholesterol control than Mediterranean diet
A vegan diet is more effective for weight loss than a Mediterranean diet, according to a groundbreaking new study that compared the diets head to head. The randomized crossover trial, which was published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition, found that a low-fat vegan diet has better outcomes for weight, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and cholesterol levels, compared with a
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How deadly diseases change personal as well as national histories | Jim Waterson
My grandfather lost his life to TB, but his brother would go on to be part of the scientific team that coined the term 'coronavirus' When my grandfather's lungs finally collapsed, so did my family. He spent his final weeks receiving oxygen to help keep him alive, his body having been eaten away by disease. My dad, allowed in to say goodbye for the final time, was horrified to see his father reduc
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Best toaster oven: Save counter space and time with our toaster oven picks
The best toaster ovens for quick and easy meals. (Andrew "Donovan" Valdivia via Unsplash/) The ubiquitous toaster oven has humble beginnings that stretch back to 1910—when scientist William S. Hadaway cobbled together a small oven out of spare parts for the Westinghouse Corporation. Today, toaster oven sales have bloomed to nearly two million units per year, thanks to these kitchen appliances' ve
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Kids Are Getting Hospitalized With a Weird COVID-Related Disease
Almost 100 children in the UK are being hospitalized per week with pediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome (PIMS), a rare and dangerous disease that can pop up weeks after COVID-19, The Guardian reports . UK health authorities found that about one in 5,000 children experienced PIMS about a month after having COVID-19, even if they showed no symptoms during the coronavirus infection. Symptoms
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Adenovirus-Vector Vaccine Roundup, Feb 5: Sputnik and More
We've had yet more news in this area in the ten days or so since my last vaccine news roundup post , so here's a look at the current situation. Most all the news has been in the viral vector area, so I'll stick to that this time around. The big news here is the publication of the Gamaleya Institute's "Sputnik-V" vaccine data. In the end, we have data on about 15,000 patients who were vaccinated,
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The future of grant proposals is video
Nature, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00341-3 Written grant proposals are inefficient to prepare and review, and scoring is notoriously unreliable. It's time to consider audio-visual alternatives.
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Quasicrystal-clear: Material reveals unique shifting surface structure under microscope
Ever since their discovery, quasicrystals have garnered much attention due to their strange structure. Today, they remain far from being well-understood. In a new study, scientists reveal, for the first time, a unique shifting surface atomic structure in a material emulating quasicrystals, opening doors to the better understanding of magnetic and superconducting properties of quasicrystals, and po
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Spicy perfection isn't to prevent infection
Spicy food is considered an example of 'Darwinian gastronomy': selection for antimicrobial ingredients to counter infection risk. By analysing over thirty thousand recipes, we show that average number of spices per recipe is more strongly associated with socioeconomic factors than infectious disease.
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New technique rapidly quantifies immune response following vaccination
A global team of researchers has developed a new strategy for fast and reliable antibody tests, which can quantify the immune response induced by vaccination and reveal the timeline and stage of pathogen infection. The team's one-step quantitative antibody tests are conducted using (blood) serum and are on a par with the gold-standard, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.
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New combination therapy offers chance of healing hepatitis B
Around 260 million people, more than three percent of the global population, are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV); in the long term, this often leads to complications such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. A cure is not yet possible with the available medication. Scientists have now investigated a new combination therapy that has proven highly effective in their infection m
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How a green economy could work for you | Angela Francis
How do you get the environment to the top of everyone's priority list? You can't, says climate advocate Angela Francis — but you can get them to care about improving their lives. In this pragmatic talk, she shares her playbook for helping even the most skeptical among us see the benefits of a greener economy on their health, wealth and well-being.
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Predictive policing is still racist—whatever data it uses
It's no secret that predictive policing tools are racially biased . A number of studies have shown that racist feedback loops can arise if algorithms are trained on police data , such as arrests. But new research shows that training predictive tools in a way meant to lessen bias has little effect. Arrest data biases predictive tools because police are known to arrest more people in Black and othe
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As Covid-19 Vaccination Continues, Variants Pose Challenges
New research and reporting this week raised further alarm about highly infectious variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19. The new variants, researchers fear, will make it more difficult to control a pandemic that has already caused an estimated 2.27 million deaths worldwide.
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New technique rapidly quantifies immune response following vaccination
A global team of researchers has developed a new strategy for fast and reliable antibody tests, which can quantify the immune response induced by vaccination and reveal the timeline and stage of pathogen infection. The team's one-step quantitative antibody tests are conducted using (blood) serum and are on a par with the gold-standard, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.
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NATO Chief Wants Military Tanks to Have Solar Panels
Army Green NATO secretary-general Jens Stoltenberg says that the world's militaries emit a serious amount of greenhouse gases , and that they should try to clean up their act. His idea? Slap some solar panels onto military tanks so they can generate their own power instead of using fossil fuels, according to The National News . It's an unusual plan — one that might slash the military's environmen
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Forests of the world in 3D
Primeval forests are of great importance for biodiversity and global carbon and water cycling. The three-dimensional structure of forests plays an important role because it influences processes of gas and energy exchange with the atmosphere, and provides habitats for numerous species. An international research team led by Göttingen University investigated the variety of different complex structure
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Drop the stress
Under stress conditions, cells switch quickly from the normal to the crisis mode to prevent themselves from being damaged. This so-called heat shock response is associated with a rapid downregulation of gene activity to release capacities to cope with the threat. Researchers at the MPI of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg have now discovered how exactly a stress-induced molecular droplet f
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At the core of the Integrator complex
A new paper from the Galej group at EMBL Grenoble describes the structure of key parts of the Integrator complex. This complex, which is composed of multiple protein subunits, is involved in global regulation of the process of transcription, during which the cell's DNA is used as a template to make instructions in the form of RNA. Knowing the structure of the Integrator complex will help scientist
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The Absurd Logic of Internet Recipe Hacks
There are many points at which one's understanding of reality could conceivably start to slip while watching a stranger on the internet construct a pie out of Spaghetti-Os. It could be when the cook, a young woman named Janelle Elise Flom, holds up her container of garlic powder to the camera in the exact same way that YouTube makeup artists introduce a lip gloss. It could be when she adds a spla
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Deadly white-nose syndrome changes surviving bats' genes
Researchers have found genetic differences between bats killed by white-nose syndrome and bats that survived. The finding suggests that survivors rapidly evolve to resist the fungal disease, according to a new study. "Evolution is often thought of as a process that happened long ago. We have found that it has also been happening right in our backyards…" White-nose syndrome has killed millions of
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Mathematicians develop new classes of stellar dynamics systems solutions
The Vlasov-Poisson equations describe many important physical phenomena such as the distribution of gravitating particles in interstellar space, high-temperature plasma kinetics, and the Landau damping effect. A joint team of scientists from the Mathematical Institute of RUDN University and the Mathematical Institute of the University of Munich suggested a new method to obtain stationary solutions
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Tiny sensor technique reveals cellular forces involved in tissue generation
A new technique developed by Brown University researchers reveals the forces involved at the cellular level during biological tissue formation and growth processes. The technique could be useful in better understanding how these processes work, and in studying how they may respond to environmental toxins or drug therapies.
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This year's Super Bowl flyover will be unlike any other
From left to right: A B-2, a B-52, and a B-1 over Guam in 2016. (Tech. Sgt. Richard P. Ebensberger / U.S. Air Force/) On Sunday evening, just as the last note sounds on the National Anthem at Super Bowl LV, three U.S. Air Force planes should roar over the stadium in Tampa, Florida. It will be a trio of bombers. That represents a change from recent years that saw smaller craft, such as the F-16s o
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Flu shot lessens risk for COVID symptoms in kids
Children who receive a seasonal flu shot are less likely to suffer symptoms from a COVID-19 infection, according to new research. The finding comes from a review of more than 900 children diagnosed with COVID-19 in 2020. "It is known that the growth of one virus can be inhibited by a previous viral infection," says Anjali Patwardhan, professor of pediatric rheumatology and child health at the Uni
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The Ramanujan Machine: Researchers have developed a 'conjecture generator' that creates mathematical conjectures
Using AI and computer automation, Technion researchers have developed a 'conjecture generator' that creates mathematical conjectures, which are considered to be the starting point for developing mathematical theorems. They have already used it to generate a number of previously unknown formulas. The study, which was published in the journal Nature, was carried out by undergraduates from different
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At the core of the integrator complex
Gene expression is a highly regulated process that involves several steps. These include transcription of DNA instructions into RNA, removal of non-coding segments from the RNA message, and its subsequent translation into proteins. All these steps involve specific molecular machineries responsible for conducting each process with high accuracy. The Galej group, based at EMBL Grenoble, studies the
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At the core of the integrator complex
Gene expression is a highly regulated process that involves several steps. These include transcription of DNA instructions into RNA, removal of non-coding segments from the RNA message, and its subsequent translation into proteins. All these steps involve specific molecular machineries responsible for conducting each process with high accuracy. The Galej group, based at EMBL Grenoble, studies the
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A 62-year old Russian mystery (and conspiracy theory) has been solved
In 1959, a group of nine Russian hikers was killed in an overnight incident in the Ural Mountains. Conspiracies about their deaths have flourished ever since, including alien invasion, an irate Yeti, and angry tribesmen. Researchers have finally confirmed that their deaths were due to a slab avalanche caused by intense winds. In February 1959, a group of nine hikers crossed through Russia's Ural
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NASA Picks Contractor to Ship Cargo to the Moon
Combo Breaker NASA has selected the Texas-based space company Firefly Aerospace to ship a cargo delivery of ten science investigations and technology demos to the Moon by 2023 as part of the agency's Artemis program. The goal is to lay the groundwork for future human missions to the lunar surface. The $93.3 million contract, Task Order 19D, is part of NASA's Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLP
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Africa's Hit Science Show For Kids Is Coming To The U.S.
African TV execs say it's unlike any show for kids that's been produced and broadcast on the continent — especially with its focus on women presenters and scientists. (Image credit: N*GEN Science TV Show/Screengrab by NPR)
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The Books Briefing: Murder, They Wrote
When there's so much going wrong in the real world, it can feel like a relief to escape into the wrongs of another world. Why else would crime fiction be having a moment right now? The Netflix series Lupin is on track to be watched more than 70 million times, and many viewers will likely follow up their bingeing with a dive into the show's literary origins. Arsène Lupin—a French thief created in
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Machine learning generates realistic genomes for imaginary humans
Machines, thanks to novel algorithms and advances in computer technology, can now learn complex models and even generate high-quality synthetic data such as photo-realistic images or even resumes of imaginary humans. A study recently published in the international journal PLOS Genetics uses machine learning to mine existing biobanks and generate chunks of human genomes which do not belong to real
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Researchers find a way to increase spatial resolution in brain activity visualization
Researchers from the HSE Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience have proposed a new method to process magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, which helps find cortical activation areas with higher precision. The method can be used in both basic research and clinical practice to diagnose a wide range of neurological disorders and to prepare patients for brain surgery. The paper describing the algorithm wa
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The Ramanujan Machine
The study, which was published in the journal Nature , was carried out by undergraduates from different faculties under the tutelage of Assistant Professor Ido Kaminer of the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Faculty of Electrical Engineering at the Technion.
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Daily briefing: Call for fully open sharing of coronavirus genome
Nature, Published online: 04 February 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00326-2 Hundreds of scientists are urging that SARS-CoV-2 genome data should be shared more openly. Plus, the long road to long-read assembly, and an algorithm that creates tough new maths problems for humans to solve.
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'Some Team Has to Want Me'
In Sunday's Super Bowl, three of the four offensive and defensive coordinators—the highest-ranking assistant coaches on the field—will be Black. That their teams are competing for a championship isn't the only thing Eric Bieniemy of the Kansas City Chiefs and Byron Leftwich and Todd Bowles of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers have in common. They also are striking examples of how the National Football Lea
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How to predict the unpredictable in a changing climate
The retreat of an Alaskan glacier in the Barry Arm fjord, caused by rising temperatures, has left a steep and hefty land mass without structural support. If the hillside collapses in a landslide, millions of tons of rock and soil will plummet into the waters below, generating a wave of water hundreds of feet tall, endangering nearby coastal towns. Perhaps even more troubling, scientists cannot pre
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Trapping gases better with boron nitride 'nanopores'
What is common between a technology for storing energy in a solar cell and that for water purification? They both rely on the use of porous materials, or more specifically, 'nanoporous' materials that can trap gas molecules within narrow spaces on their surface, called pores, which are only nanometers (one-billionth of a meter) in size. In the parlance of chemistry, the phenomenon is known as adso
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Keystone XL was supposed to be a green pipeline. What does that even mean?
Pipelines are more than just unsightly. (Jotoya/Pixabay/) In mid-January, TC Energy announced that their controversial Keystone XL pipeline would achieve net-zero energy as soon as it was commissioned, and that all of the pipeline's operations would run on renewable energy by 2030. Nevertheless, a newly inaugurated President Joe Biden revoked Keystone XL's permit, stating in his Executive Order t
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Friendship and Stonework Grow More Beautiful With Time
Each installment of The Friendship Files features a conversation between The Atlantic 's Julie Beck and two or more friends, exploring the history and significance of their relationship. This week she talks with Mary Beth Kelly, who wanted to reclaim her family home after her husband passed away, and Jane DeWitt, the stonemason who helped her do that. They discuss what it was like to work on such
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'Runway Roadkill' rapidly increasing at airports across the world, UCC study finds
The number of reported collisions (i.e. strikes) between aircraft and wildlife is increasing globally, with consequences for personnel and passenger safety as well as for industry economics. These are important considerations for airport operators that are obliged to mitigate wildlife hazards at airfields. Incidents involving mammals account for approximately 3-10% of all recorded strikes. However
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Computer can determine whether you'll die from COVID
Using patient data, artificial intelligence can make a 90 percent accurate assessment of whether a person will die from COVID-19 or not, according to new research at the University of Copenhagen. Body mass index (BMI), gender and high blood pressure are among the most heavily weighted factors. The research can be used to predict the number of patients in hospitals, who will need a respirator and d
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Energy harvesting: Printed thermoelectric generators for power generation
Thermoelectric generators, TEGs for short, convert ambient heat into electrical power. They enable maintenance-free, environmentally friendly, and autonomous power supply of the continuously growing number of sensors and devices for the Internet of Things (IoT) and recovery of waste heat. Scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now developed three-dimensional component architect
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Sensor and detoxifier in one
Ozone is a problematic air pollutant that causes serious health problems. A newly developed material not only quickly and selectively indicates the presence of ozone, but also simultaneously renders the gas harmless. As reported by Chinese researchers in Angewandte Chemie, the porous '2-in-one systems' also function reliably in very humid air.
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Marmosets can eavesdrop on each other
Marmosets perceive the vocal interactions of other marmosets not just as a string of calls, but as coherent conversations, research finds. They also evaluate the interactions' content, according to the new study in Science Advances . It's difficult to measure what information animals gain when they eavesdrop on vocal interactions between other members of their species, or conspecifics. If they do
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The Atlantic Daily: Marjorie Taylor Greene Is Just the GOP's Latest Challenge
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox . Donald Trump is gone. But fringe ideas that he endorsed are still finding representation in Washington, and Republicans once again are facing a test of what the party will and won't tolerate. Ton
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The best wall mounts to optimize TV viewing
Optimize your viewing experience. (Unsplash/) When you hit the couch and turn on the television after a long day of work, the last thing you want is to crane and cramp your neck attempting to get a clear and comfortable view. Luckily there are a variety of affordable, sleek, and easy to install wall mounts for your screens. Not only can adjustable full motion mounts reduce neck and eye straining,
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A magnetic twist to graphene
Electrons in materials have a property known as 'spin," which is responsible for a variety of properties, the most well-known of which is magnetism. Permanent magnets, like the ones used for refrigerator doors, have all the spins in their electrons aligned in the same direction. Scientists refer to this behavior as ferromagnetism, and the research field of trying to manipulate spin as spintronics.
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Chimp deaths at Sierra Leone sanctuary linked to a bacterium
An international team of researchers has found what they believe to be the pathogen that has been killing chimpanzees at a Sierra Leone sanctuary for approximately 15 years. In their paper published in the journal Nature Communications, the group describes their study of multiple samples of chimp tissue retrieved from some of the dead chimps and what they have found thus far.
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Has life existed beyond Earth?
When the NASA Mars rover Perseverance touches down on the surface of Mars on February 18, it will arrive in Jezero Crater, which preserves evidence of a time when rivers flowed on Mars.
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Bioplastics in the sustainability dilemma
Plastics made from crops such as maize or sugarcane instead of fossil fuels are generally considered sustainable. One reason is that plants bind CO2, which compensates for the carbon released into the atmosphere when plastics are disposed. However, there is a catch: With increasing demand for raw materials for bioplastic production, the areas under cultivation may not be sufficient. As a result, n
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Chimp deaths at Sierra Leone sanctuary linked to a bacterium
An international team of researchers has found what they believe to be the pathogen that has been killing chimpanzees at a Sierra Leone sanctuary for approximately 15 years. In their paper published in the journal Nature Communications, the group describes their study of multiple samples of chimp tissue retrieved from some of the dead chimps and what they have found thus far.
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Switching nanolight on and off
The report demonstrates a new method to control the flow of light of nanolight. Optical manipulation on the nanoscale, or nanophotonics, has become a critical area of interest as researchers seek ways to meet the increasing demand for technologies that go well beyond what is possible with conventional photonics and electronics.
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In symbiosis: Plants control the genetics of microbes
Researchers have discovered that plants may be able to control the genetics of their intimate root symbionts – the organism with which they live in symbiosis – thereby providing a better understanding of their growth. In addition to having a significant impact on all terrestrial ecosystems, their discovery may lead to improved eco-friendly agricultural applications.
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Bioplastics in the sustainability dilemma
Plastics made from crops such as maize or sugarcane instead of fossil fuels are generally considered sustainable. One reason is that plants bind CO2, which compensates for the carbon released into the atmosphere when plastics are disposed. However, there is a catch: With increasing demand for raw materials for bioplastic production, the areas under cultivation may not be sufficient. As a result, n
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Advanced tables to enhance your ping pong game
Ready to play? (Unsplash/) Whether you're the competitive spiking type or a casual rally kind of person, ping pong is the ideal sport for players of all ages and abilities. Not only does it help improve reflex, balance, and hand-eye coordination, it's a game that can be played socially or solo. Ping pong tables are simple and quick to set up, move, and store, and can endure the elements. Get a fr
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New fiber optic temperature sensing approach to keep fusion power plants running
The pursuit of fusion as a safe, carbon-free, always-on energy source has intensified in recent years, with a number of organizations pursuing aggressive timelines for technology demonstrations and power plant designs. New-generation superconducting magnets are a critical enabler for many of these programs, which creates growing need for sensors, controls, and other infrastructure that will allow
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Not all banking crises involve panics: study
A banking crisis is often seen as a self-fulfilling prophecy: The expectation of bank failure makes it happen. Picture people lining up to withdraw their money during the Great Depression or customers making a run on Britain's Northern Rock bank in 2007.
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Matthew Walker: Why Is It Essential To Make Time For Sleep?
Sleep is crucial for our health — and there are alarming consequences when we don't get enough. Matthew Walker explores the many benefits of a full night of sleep, and how to make sleep a priority. (Image credit: Bret Hartman/Bret Hartman / TED)
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Are COVID-sniffing dogs the new tool in helping detect the virus?
Pandemic protocols and procedures are rapidly evolving as we learn more about getting the spread of COVID-19 under control. One new tool to help us track those infected with COVID-19 may be COVID-sniffing dogs. Dr. David Dorman, professor of toxicology in the Department of Molecular Biosciences at NC State's College of Veterinary Medicine, sat down with The Abstract to talk about how dogs are able
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New map of the Netherlands shows where nitrogen reduction will be most effective
By reforming agriculture in targeted areas, we can protect the Natura 2000 areas much more effectively. This is what Jan Willem Erisman of Leiden University and Ton Brouwer of Gispoint consultancy write in a new report. With a special nitrogen map, they make clear in which areas in the Netherlands the most can be gained. They aim to contribute to a new and targeted nitrogen policy.
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Every challenge astronauts will face on a flight to Mars
In 1972, the space race officially ended as NASA sent one last crew of astronauts to the surface of the moon (Apollo 17). This was the brass ring that both the US and the Soviets were reaching for, the "moonshot" that would determine who had supremacy in space. In the current age of renewed space exploration, the next great leap will clearly involve sending astronauts to Mars.
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Study: 'Hidden' genes could be key in development of new antibiotics
A study from the Center for Phage Technology, part of Texas A&M's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Texas A&M AgriLife Research, shows how the "hidden" genes in bacteriophages—types of viruses that infect and destroy bacteria—may be key to the development of a new class of antibiotics for human health.
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Are COVID-sniffing dogs the new tool in helping detect the virus?
Pandemic protocols and procedures are rapidly evolving as we learn more about getting the spread of COVID-19 under control. One new tool to help us track those infected with COVID-19 may be COVID-sniffing dogs. Dr. David Dorman, professor of toxicology in the Department of Molecular Biosciences at NC State's College of Veterinary Medicine, sat down with The Abstract to talk about how dogs are able
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Primitive fish hold clues to our ancestors' move to land
The genetic basis of air-breathing and limb movement was established in our fish ancestor 50 million years before vertebrates transitioned from water to land, report researchers. There is nothing new about humans and all other vertebrates having evolved from fish. The conventional understanding has been that certain fish shimmied landwards roughly 370 million years ago as primitive, lizard-like a
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A warp in the Milky Way linked to galactic collision
When most of us picture the shape of the Milky Way, the galaxy that contains our own sun and hundreds of billions of other stars, we think of a central mass surrounded by a flat disc of stars that spiral around it. However, astronomers know that rather than being symmetrical, the disc structure is warped, more like the brim of a fedora, and that the warped edges are constantly moving around the ou
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Is the future too bleak to have kids? Some men think so
Across medical and social sciences, the reasons men choose to have children and their understanding of fertility awareness have been seriously understudied. Maja Bodin wants to address the issue in her research paper, "A wonderful experience or a frightening commitment? An exploration of men's reasons to (not) have children."
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What makes some ads more shareable than others?
In one of the more memorable commercials of Super Bowl 2020, rapper Lil Nas X and actor Sam Elliott face off in a dance duel for Cool Ranch Doritos. The cost was arguably worthwhile, considering the millions of times the spot was viewed and shared across social media platforms for free.
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Novel immunotherapy approach to treat cat allergy
Researchers from the Department of Infection and Immunity of the Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH) brought forward the potential of high doses of a specific adjuvant molecule, namely CpG oligonucleotide, in successfully modulating the immune system's allergic response to the main cat allergen Fel d 1, thereby inducing a tolerance-promoting reaction and reverting the main hallmarks of cat allerg
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Packing more juice in lithium-ion batteries through silicon anodes and polymeric coatings
Although silicon anodes could greatly boost the capacity of Li-ion batteries, their performance rapidly degrades with use. Polymeric coatings can help solve this problem, but very few studies have explored the underlying mechanisms. In a recent study, scientists from Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology investigate how a poly(borosiloxane) coating greatly stabilizes the capacity of s
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Anticancer drug may improve outcome for severe COVID-19 patients
Treating severe COVID-19 patients with the anticancer drug bevacizumab may reduce mortality and speed up recovery, according to a small clinical study in Italy and China that was led by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden between February and April 2020. On average, blood oxygen levels, body temperature and inflammatory markers significantly improved in patients treated with a single do
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Trapping gases better with boron nitride "nanopores"
Porous activated carbon (AC) is well-known for its ability to efficiently trap gases and help in catalyzing chemical reactions on its surface. Lately, boron nitride (BN), with a structure similar to that of carbon, has emerged as an attractive alternative to carbon. Now, in a new study, scientists from Japan reveal superior gas confinement in porous BN compared with that of AC, thereby unveiling a
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Role of WOX1 in compound leaf development revealed
Plant-specific WOX family transcription factors play important roles ranging from embryogenesis to lateral organ development. The WOX1 transcription factors, which belong to the modern clade of the WOX family, are known to regulate outgrowth of the leaf blade specifically in the mediolateral axis; however, the role of WOX1 in compound leaf development remains unknown.
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Role of WOX1 in compound leaf development revealed
Plant-specific WOX family transcription factors play important roles ranging from embryogenesis to lateral organ development. The WOX1 transcription factors, which belong to the modern clade of the WOX family, are known to regulate outgrowth of the leaf blade specifically in the mediolateral axis; however, the role of WOX1 in compound leaf development remains unknown.
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Biologically inspired, high-performance polyurethane developed for stretchable electronics
A research group led by Prof. Zhu Jin at the Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (NIMTE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) developed a polyurethane with excellent properties of stretchability, toughness, self-healing and even thermal repair, which mimics the biological functionalities of human muscles. The study was published in Advanced Functional Materials.
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SPIRou carries out first ever measurement of a very young exoplanet's density
A research team led by scientists from IRAP (CNRS/CNES/Université Toulouse III—Paul Sabatier) and IPAG (CNRS/UGA) has for the first time measured the internal density of a very young exoplanet orbiting a newly formed, extremely active star. Despite the 'noise' generated by the star's activity, they successfully achieved this using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT)'s planet hunting instrume
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Quantum systems learn joint computing
Today's quantum computers contain up to several dozen memory and processing units, the so-called qubits. Severin Daiss, Stefan Langenfeld, and colleagues from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching have successfully interconnected two such qubits located in different labs to a distributed quantum computer by linking the qubits with a 60-meter-long optical fiber. Over such a distanc
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Scientists Can Finally Study Einsteinium 69 Years After Its Discovery
The 20th century was notable for numerous reasons, not least of which that humanity split the atom. In the remnants of atomic explosions, scientists found never-before-seen elements like einsteinium. Now, almost 70 years after its discovery, scientists have collected enough einsteinium to conduct some basic analysis . Scientists understood that something should exist on the periodic table where e
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The Six Best Indie Movies to Watch Out for This Year
"This film was written in 2017 and shot in 2019." So reads the disclaimer at the start of The Pink Cloud , a clever and surprising Brazilian movie that was among the best offerings at this year's Sundance Film Festival. Far from a mundane declaration, the note from the writer-director Iuli Gerbase underlines the accidental resonance of her film. The story is about a deadly cloud that swamps a cit
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A Heroic Effort to Measure Helium
After an intense game of cat and mouse with different particles, atomic physicists have measured the radius of the helium nucleus five times more precisely than before. Christopher Intagliata reports.
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CRISPR editing of mitochondria: Promising new biotech?
Although the CRISPR/Cas9 system has seen widespread application in editing the nuclear genome, using it to edit the mitochondrial genome has been problematic. The main hurdles have been a lack of suitable editing sites in the small mtDNA, and the traditional difficulty of importing the guide RNA into the mitochondrial matrix where nucleoids can be accessed.
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CRISPR editing of mitochondria: Promising new biotech?
Although the CRISPR/Cas9 system has seen widespread application in editing the nuclear genome, using it to edit the mitochondrial genome has been problematic. The main hurdles have been a lack of suitable editing sites in the small mtDNA, and the traditional difficulty of importing the guide RNA into the mitochondrial matrix where nucleoids can be accessed.
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Mathematics developed new classes of stellar dynamics systems solutions
The Vlasov-Poisson equations describe many important physical phenomena such as the distribution of gravitating particles in the interstellar space, high-temperature plasma kinetics, and the Landau damping effect. A joint team of scientists from the Mathematical Institute of RUDN University and the Mathematical Institute of the University of Munich suggested a new method to obtain stationary solut
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Biosensors to detect P. jirovecii, responsible for Pneumocystis pneumonia
Currently, the detection of the fungus in patients, who may be asymptomatic carriers until they develop pneumonia, uses the PCR technique, which takes several hours and requires adequate facilities and qualified personnel. However, the application of nanotechnology now makes it possible to develop more sensitive and efficient biosensors to detect specific sequences corresponding to pathogens respo
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Signs of burnout can be detected in sweat
EPFL engineers, working in association with startup Xsensio, have developed a wearable system that can continually measure the concentration of cortisol – the stress hormone – in human sweat. Their device can eventually help doctors better understand and treat stress-related conditions like burnout and obesity.
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How blood and lymph vessels remain separated after development
Researchers in Japan have clarified the mechanism by which blood and lymphatic vessels remain separated after development. The characteristics and structures of these two vessel types are very similar, and how they maintain separation has remained unexplained for many years. In this study, researchers found that the molecule Folliculin (FLCN) in vascular endothelial cells acts as a gatekeeper to m
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Oxford Covid vaccine almost as effective against Kent variant, trials suggest
Scientists say it offers only slightly lower protection compared with original Covid Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The Covid vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca is nearly as effective against the Kent variant as it is against older forms of the virus, according to preliminary research results. Researchers analysed swabs from trial voluntee
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Matt Hancock orders third review on link between vitamin D and Covid
Exclusive: UK health secretary asks PHE and Nice to 're-review' prior appraisals Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage A third review into the link between vitamin D and Covid has been ordered by the UK health secretary as more studies suggest that having low levels of the "sunshine hormone" raises the risk of death. Matt Hancock has again asked the National Institute for
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Dartmouth-invented technology allows doctors to see beam field during radiation treatment
With the use of the BeamSite Cherenkov imaging camera system invented by DoseOptics, LLC., radiation oncologists at Dartmouth's and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center can capture real-time external beam delivery images during cancer patients' standard radiation therapy sessions. These images are used to verify that the beam is targeting the exact area intended, and make necessary ad
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Doggie DNA tests help predict the breeds that will be Puppy Bowl MVPs
The rescue pups that star in the Puppy Bowl come with all sorts of behaviors and quirks. Can DNA test help shed light? (discovery+/) The clock is winding down in the fourth quarter of the 17th annual Puppy Bowl . Team Fluff's Beliveau pounces on the ball and races into the end zone as time expires: touchdownnnn. While it could be simple luck, this puppy's well-timed flash of football genius may h
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Coronapod: Variants – what you need to know
Nature, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00320-8 Researchers are scrambling to understand the biology of new coronavirus variants and the impact they might have on vaccine efficacy.
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A Heroic Effort to Measure Helium
After an intense game of cat and mouse with different particles, atomic physicists have measured the radius of the helium nucleus five times more precisely than before. Christopher Intagliata reports. — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Can a miniscule worm hold the secret to genetically reversing brain damage?
A team of Hebrew University researchers have successfully used genetic engineering as a first step to what one day may allow scientists to genetically repair damaged brain circuits. The process, which was performed in tiny translucent C. elegans worms, saw the introduction of synthetically engineered connections (or synapses), as a means for bypassing missing connections between neurons in an impa
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Can a miniscule worm hold the secret to genetically reversing brain damage?
A team of Hebrew University researchers have successfully used genetic engineering as a first step to what one day may allow scientists to genetically repair damaged brain circuits. The process, which was performed in tiny translucent C. elegans worms, saw the introduction of synthetically engineered connections (or synapses), as a means for bypassing missing connections between neurons in an impa
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Crystalline polymers for the rapid detection and efficient degradation of ozone
Ozone is a problematic air pollutant that causes serious health problems. A newly developed material not only quickly and selectively indicates the presence of ozone, but also simultaneously renders the gas harmless. As reported by Chinese researchers in Angewandte Chemie, the porous "two-in-one systems" also function reliably in very humid air.
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Neanderthal gut microbiota and the bacteria helping our health
Neanderthals' gut microbiota included beneficial microorganisms that are also found in the modern human microbiome. An international research group led by the University of Bologna achieved this result by extracting and analyzing ancient DNA from 50,000-year-old fecal sediments sampled at the archaeological site of El Salt, near Alicante (Spain).
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Neanderthal gut microbiota and the bacteria helping our health
Neanderthals' gut microbiota included beneficial microorganisms that are also found in the modern human microbiome. An international research group led by the University of Bologna achieved this result by extracting and analyzing ancient DNA from 50,000-year-old fecal sediments sampled at the archaeological site of El Salt, near Alicante (Spain).
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Bimeronium: A new member of the topological spin textures family
Topological spin textures in magnetic systems are intriguing objects that exhibit exotic physics and have potential applications in information storage and processing. The most fundamental and exemplary topological spin texture is called the skyrmion, which is a nanoscale circular domain wall carrying a nonzero integer topological charge. The skyrmion texture in magnetic materials was theoreticall
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Cottagecore Was Just the Beginning
Cottagecore was a natural fit for a pandemic year. The subculture is all about pretending to live an idyllic life in the woods, and in 2020 was embraced as a sweet attempt to make the best of a bad situation. Teenagers and 20-somethings have been cosplaying online, posting as if solitude and wildflowers and ever-growing piles of homemade bread were enough to live on. By mid-March, cottagecore was
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What are Covid variants – and should we be worried?
In the UK, all eyes are on South African, Brazilian and Kent variants – with mutations transmitting among the population Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage With the discovery of new coronavirus variants in parts of the UK, prompting intensive testing, we take a look at what the variants are and how concerned we should be. Continue reading…
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Frustration Is Spreading Faster Than the Vaccine Is
If you are the child of elderly parents in parts of the United States right now, and if you are trying to get them a COVID-19 vaccine, you are living in a shortage economy, a world of queues and rumors, a shadowy land of favoritism and incompetence—a world not unlike the world of the very late, very stifling, Brezhnev-era Soviet Union . Picture the scene: We're on opposite sides of the country, b
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'Pandemic burnout' on rise as latest Covid lockdowns take toll
Increasing number of people report feeling worn out and unable to cope due to period of sustained stress 'Be kind to yourself': tips on coping with lockdown stress Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Psychologists are reporting a rise in "pandemic burnout" as many people find the current phase of lockdowns harder, with an increasing number feeling worn out and unable to
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Billionaire capitalists are designing humanity's future. Don't let them | Matt Shaw
Tech barons like Jeff Bezos want to colonize space and our oceans. Their visions of the future aren't public-spirited or democratic Last year a group of cryptocurrency investors purchased a decommissioned cruise liner, the Pacific Dawn, and renamed it the MS Satoshi, after the alleged creator of Bitcoin. The investors were members of the "seasteading" community, an experimental movement that want
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Covid: could Britain have been more like New Zealand?
Island nation status could facilitate border controls to eradicate virus and ease lockdown restrictions Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The UK's physical isolation sets it apart from its continental neighbours, but could its island status have protected it from the full horror of Covid-19, had it closed borders in early 2020, as New Zealand and Taiwan did? Both have
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Liberals Are Choosing Convenience Over Workers
On November 3, as Americans voted in record numbers to deny President Donald Trump a second term in office, Californians overwhelmingly approved Proposition 22, a ballot initiative that exempts app-based gig companies like Uber and Lyft from the obligation to classify rideshare and delivery drivers as employees. The impact of the measure, which in effect creates a new employment category—the cont
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Counterinsurgency Isn't the Answer
Okay, let's put an end to this silliness before it gets out of hand: We do not need a counterinsurgency strategy to defeat right-wing extremism in the United States of America. Say it with me once more, for the people in the back: We do not need a counterinsurgency strategy to defeat right-wing extremism in the United States of America. Not only that, but we shouldn't listen to those who seek to
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What Does This Man Know That Other Democrats Don't?
Governor Roy Cooper doesn't know why he keeps winning in North Carolina while other Democrats keep losing. "I wish there was a secret that I could tell you," he told me a few weeks ago on a Zoom call from the governor's mansion. "I'm not sure that there is. If I had the secret, I'd be out there holding seminars." In 2016, North Carolina Democrats went into Election Day thinking they could sweep t
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Fast amplitude modulation up to 1.5 GHz of mid-IR free-space beams at room-temperature
Nature Communications, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20710-2 Broadband integrated electrical modulators are key components for photonic systems. Here, the authors present a room temperature mid-IR free-space amplitude modulator based on a semiconductor heterostructure that exploits the change in reflectance occurring at the change between weak and strong coupling.
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Structure and binding properties of Pangolin-CoV spike glycoprotein inform the evolution of SARS-CoV-2
Nature Communications, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21006-9 It has been suggested that pangolin coronaviruses may be the origin of SARS-CoV-2. Here the authors show that the Pangolin-CoV spike is structurally closely related to the closed form of SARS-CoV-2 spike and exhibits similar binding properties to human and pangolin ACE2; although neither spike binds bat ACE2
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Direct insight into the structure-property relation of interfaces from constrained crystal structure prediction
Nature Communications, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20855-0 The prediction of atomic structure at interfaces is a challenging problem in material science. Here, the authors demonstrate a new algorithm for global structure prediction of interface reconstructions by successfully identifying atomic arrangements in symmetric and asymmetric tilt boundaries in polycrystall
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Carbon emission from Western Siberian inland waters
Nature Communications, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21054-1 Rivers and lakes are thought to be a major conduit of loss for the massive amounts of carbon locked away in high-latitude systems, but such losses are poorly constrained. Here the authors quantify carbon emissions from rivers and lakes across Western Siberia, finding that emissions are high and exceed carbon
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Ligand-directed two-step labeling to quantify neuronal glutamate receptor trafficking
Nature Communications, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21082-x The analysis of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) trafficking is essential for understanding molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, but the analytical tools are currently limited. Here, the authors report a method that combines affinity-based receptor labeling and bioorthogonal click chemistry to qu
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Integrative molecular characterization of sarcomatoid and rhabdoid renal cell carcinoma
Nature Communications, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21068-9 Sarcomatoid and rhabdoid tumours are highly aggressive forms of renal cell carcinoma that are also responsive to immunotherapy. In this study, the authors perform a comprehensive molecular characterization of these tumours discovering an enrichment of specific alterations and an inflamed phenotype.
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Structures of active-state orexin receptor 2 rationalize peptide and small-molecule agonist recognition and receptor activation
Nature Communications, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21087-6 Agonists of the orexin receptor 2 (OX2R) show promise in the treatment of narcolepsy. Cryo-EM structures of active-state OX2R bound to an endogenous peptide agonist and a small-molecule agonist suggest a molecular mechanism that rationalizes both receptor activation and inhibition.
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Diagnostic and prognostic value of 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT for treatment planning of 90Y-resin microsphere radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with planar image
Scientific Reports, Published online: 05 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-82887-w Diagnostic and prognostic value of 99m Tc-MAA SPECT/CT for treatment planning of 90 Y-resin microsphere radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with planar image
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In Public Health's Response to Covid, Fear Tactics Are a Misstep
There is compelling evidence that fear can change behavior, and as public health professors with expertise in history and ethics, we have been open to using fear in some situations. But, if fear-based strategies are applied to the pandemic, today's social and political context might cause them to backfire.
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Silicon anode structure generates new potential for lithium-ion batteries
New research has identified a nanostructure that improves the anode in lithium-ion batteries. Instead of using graphite for the anode, the researchers turned to silicon: a material that stores more charge but is susceptible to fracturing. The team deposited silicon atoms on top of metallic nanoparticles to form an arched nanostructure, increasing the strength and structural integrity of the anode.
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This is how we lost control of our faces
In 1964, mathematician and computer scientist Woodrow Bledsoe first attempted the task of matching suspects' faces to mugshots. He measured out the distances between different facial features in printed photographs and fed them into a computer program. His rudimentary successes would set off decades of research into teaching machines to recognize human faces. Now a new study shows just how much t
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The next act for messenger RNA could be bigger than covid vaccines
On December 23, as part of a publicity push to encourage people to get vaccinated against covid-19, the University of Pennsylvania released footage of two researchers who developed the science behind the shots, Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman, getting their inoculations. The vaccines, icy concoctions of fatty spheres and genetic instructions , used a previously unproven technology based on messe
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Skadligare mutationer i varmare klimat
Ett varmare globalt klimat kan leda till att skadligheten ökar hos nya mutationer som påverkar proteiners funktion. Detta kan få stora konsekvenser för organismers förmåga att anpassa sig till och överleva i framtidens förändrade miljöer. Naturliga miljöer förändras i en allt snabbare takt på grund av de pågående klimatförändringarna. Det innebär nya livsvillkor för många arter. – På lång sikt må
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Goats Don't Vote
While some animals that rove in groups appear to cast a form of ballot about directions, goats mostly copy each other.
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UK Covid live: minister defends hotel quarantine delay, saying time is needed to prepare
Latest updates: James Cleverly defends government approach after criticism over slow delivery of policy Minister defends quarantine hotel delay Up to 100 UK children a week hospitalised with rare post-Covid disease Jeremy Hunt says restrictions should stay until cases below 1,000 a day Global coronavirus updates – live 10.29am GMT All adults aged 50 and over will have had a coronavirus vaccine by
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Mapping hotspots of undersized fish and crustaceans may aid sustainable fishing practices
A new study in Frontiers in Marine Science provides a first-of-its-kind evaluation of which regions of southern European seas are in the most need of fishing restrictions. These areas have persistently shown high numbers of undersized fish and crustaceans, which are typically discarded because they are below the allowable size limit for collection. These findings may offer a strategy for prioritiz
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Mapping hotspots of undersized fish and crustaceans may aid sustainable fishing practices
A new study in Frontiers in Marine Science provides a first-of-its-kind evaluation of which regions of southern European seas are in the most need of fishing restrictions. These areas have persistently shown high numbers of undersized fish and crustaceans, which are typically discarded because they are below the allowable size limit for collection. These findings may offer a strategy for prioritiz
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UK minister defends delay over Covid quarantine hotels
Rush to book hotel rooms near airports as Labour accuses government of putting lives at risk Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The Foreign Office minister James Cleverly has defended the UK government's delay in implementing quarantine hotels, as reports claimed ministers were racing to reserve thousands of hotel rooms near airports in time for the beginning of the sch
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Pushed to the limit: A CMOS-based transceiver for beyond 5G applications at 300 GHz
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and NTT Corporation develop a novel CMOS-based transceiver for wireless communications at the 300 GHz band, enabling future beyond-5G applications. Their design addresses the challenges of operating CMOS technology at its practical limit and represents the first wideband CMOS phased-array system to operate at such elevated frequencies.
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The APA Discusses Brain Training with Professor Aaron Seitz
Kim Mills, senior director of strategic external communications and public affairs for the American Psychological Association, met the University of California, Riverside's Brain Game Center director, Professor Aaron Seitz about brain training and his current large scale study on Brain Training. Read or watch the interview here: https://www.apa.org/research/action/speaking-of-psychology/brain-tra
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Spacewatch: Airbus to build three more moon mission modules
Three more European service modules will be made for use as part of Nasa's Artemis programme The European Space Agency has contracted Airbus Defence and Space to build three more European service modules (ESM) to be used as part of the Artemis moon landing programme. The new contract adds to the three ESMs already in production. All three of the new modules will propel astronauts to the moon. The
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Up to 100 UK children a week hospitalised with rare post-Covid disease
Exclusive: 75% of children worst affected by paediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome are BAME Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Up to 100 children a week are being hospitalised with a rare disease that can emerge weeks after Covid-19, leaving them in intensive care, doctors have said. In a phenomenon that is worrying paediatricians, 75% of the children worst affe
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Photos of the Week: Snowy Elmo, Mogul Run, Sea Goddess
A visit with Punxsutawney Phil, preparations for the Year of the Ox in China, a funambulist in Italy, a rocket explosion in Texas, a farmers' protest in India, flooding in France, dogs at play on a frozen lake in Turkey, a crowded beach in Brazil, and much more
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Osteoporosepatienter skal have ens besked
Videnscenter for Knoglesundhed har til både sundhedsprofessionelle og patienter udviklet materiale, der skal sikre, at osteoporosepatienter oplever en mere ensartet kommunikation, når det kommer til fysisk aktivitet.
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SSRgenotyper: A new tool to digitally genotype simple sequence repeats
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are common components of genomic DNA that are widely used in genetic studies at the level of populations and individuals. However, the process of genotyping SSRs — determining which individuals have which alleles — still relies on time-consuming and potentially hazardous lab-based methods. SSRgenotyper is a new software tool that automates the process of genotyping
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Vinder: Vejle gør det igen
En langvarig og dedikeret indsats for at blive model­sygehus for moderne kræftbehandling bidrager til, at Vejle Sygehus for sjette år i træk kan kalde sig Danmarks bedste til kræftbehandling.
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Dogs digest human food better and poop less
Most dogs eat a diet that's primarily kibble. When fed a fresh-food diet, however, they don't need to consume as much. Dogs on fresh-food diets have healthier gut biomes. You know the drill. You're having dinner when suddenly a black nose appears under the table between your legs. You tilt back and there are those eyes. Those eyes. If you're a savvy dog owner, you resist sliding down there — eati
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New methods for exploring the 'dark matter' of biology
New tools and methods have been described by researchers to study an unusual protein modification and gain fresh insights into its roles in human health and disease. The study – about how certain sugars modify proteins — lays a foundation for better understanding diseases like muscular dystrophy and cancer.
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Ultrasound in the treatment of brain diseases
Ultrasound is not only used as an imaging technique but targeted pulses of ultrasound can be used as a highly accurate treatment for a range of brain diseases. A review shows that the new treatments are already on the brink of broad clinical application.
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A single-molecule guide to understanding chemical reactions better
Scientists report measurement of electrical conductivity of single DNA molecules as a way of monitoring the formation of double-stranded DNA on a gold surface. In their latest article, they investigate the time evolution of the reaction and report findings not observed previously, demonstrating the suitability of the single-molecule approach in elucidating reaction pathways and exploring novel che
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How elephants evolved to become big and cancer-resistant
All things being equal, large, long-lived animals should have the highest risk of cancer. The calculation is simple: Tumors grow when genetic mutations cause individual cells to reproduce too quickly. A long life creates more opportunities for those cancerous mutations to arise. So, too, does a massive body: Big creatures — which have many more cells — should develop tumors more frequently. Why,
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A single-molecule guide to understanding chemical reactions better
Scientists report measurement of electrical conductivity of single DNA molecules as a way of monitoring the formation of double-stranded DNA on a gold surface. In their latest article, they investigate the time evolution of the reaction and report findings not observed previously, demonstrating the suitability of the single-molecule approach in elucidating reaction pathways and exploring novel che
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Time management can work but in unexpected ways
Researchers conducted a first-of-its-kind meta-analysis of time management literature. Their study pored over data from 158 separate studies spanning four decades, six continents and involving more than 53,000 respondents. Their conclusion? Yes, time management does work. Though maybe not as one might initially think.
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School gardens linked with kids eating more vegetables
Getting children to eat their vegetables can seem like an insurmountable task, but nutrition researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have found one way: school gardens and lessons on using what's grown in them. Researchers worked with 16 elementary schools across Central Texas to install vegetable gardens and teach classes to students and parents about nutrition and cooking.
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Engineering professor up to nine retractions for image problems
An engineering researcher is up to nine retractions for image issues, having lost eight papers in the last month. Yashvir Singh, of India's Graphic Era University — ironically enough, given the reasons for the retractions — is the first author on seven of the papers, and second author on the eighth, which appeared between 2016 … Continue reading
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Ocean surface slicks are pelagic nurseries for diverse fishes
Scientists have discovered that a diverse array of marine animals find refuge in so-called 'surface slicks' in Hawai'i. These ocean features create a superhighway of nursery habitat for more than 100 species of commercially and ecologically important fishes, such as mahi-mahi, jacks, and billfish.
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Dynamic 3D printing process features a light-driven twist
The speed of light has come to 3D printing. Engineers have developed a new method that uses light to improve 3D printing speed and precision while also, in combination with a high-precision robot arm, providing the freedom to move, rotate or dilate each layer as the structure is being built. The method introduces the 'on-the-fly' ability to manipulate the original design layer by layer and pivot t
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»Hacking er en holdsport«
PLUS. For bare en uge siden lå det nye, nordiske hackerhold 'Kalmarunionen' nummer ét i verden. Kom med på reportage ind i en ganske særlig sportsgren.
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Listen: Can You Get Reinfected?
An unexpected second wave of the virus has hit Manaus, Brazil—and brings with it new worries about reinfection. Staff writer James Hamblin explains to producer Katherine Wells what's going on there and what it could mean for the rest of the world. Listen to their conversation on the podcast Social Distance , along with a special airing of the first episode of The Experiment , a new show from The
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Can a fin become a limb?
Researchers examine what's happening at genetic level to drive patterns in fin skeleton versus limb skeleton and find mutants with modified fins in a more limb-like pattern by adding new bones, complete with muscles and joints. The results reveal the ability to form limb-like structures was present in the common ancestor of tetrapods and teleost fishes and has been retained in a latent state which
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Some sperm cells poison their competitors
Competition among sperm cells is fierce – they all want to reach the egg cell first to fertilize it. A research team now shows in mice that the ability of sperm to move progressively depends on the protein RAC1. Optimal amounts of active protein improve the competitiveness of individual sperm, whereas aberrant activity can cause male infertility.
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Human immune cells have natural alarm system against HIV
Researchers have identified a potential way to eradicate the latent HIV infection that lies dormant inside infected immune cells. Studying human immune cells, the researchers showed that such cells have a natural alarm system that detects the activity of a specific HIV protein. Rather than attack the virus based on its appearance, this strategy is to attack the virus based on what it is doing — v
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New global 'wind atlas' propels sustainable energy
Wind energy scientists have released a new global wind atlas – a digital compendium filled with documented extreme wind speeds for all parts of the world – to help engineers select the turbines in any given region and accelerate the development of sustainable energy.
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Coronavirus live news: US records 40,000 deaths in two weeks; Mexico runs out of vaccine
Concern over Covid spread on Super Bowl weekend; China to donate vaccines to DR Congo; French PM defends slow vaccine rollout. Follow latest updates Sweden and Denmark plan digital vaccine certificates for travel German minister criticises Von der Leyen over vaccines 'disgrace' UK minister:restrictions should stay until cases fall to 1,000 a day About 4,000 Covid variants across world, says UK mi
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NASA will pay $500,000 for your innovative ideas about food production in space
A major hurdle for any human mission to Mars is how to feed astronauts during the extended spaceflight. NASA is currently crowdsourcing solutions through its Deep Space Food Challenge. The challenge is open to all U.S. citizens and ends July 30, 2021. NASA has big plans for the coming decades. The agency's Artemis program has set its sights on returning to the Moon after an absence of nearly 50 y
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The Lancet Public Health: Weekly testing and two-week isolation most cost-effective strategy to control spread of COVID-19 in high transmission areas, US study suggests
Weekly COVID-19 testing, coupled with a two-week isolation period for positive cases, may be the most cost-effective strategy to tackle the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the USA when transmission is high until vaccines are widely available, a modelling study published in The Lancet Public Health journal suggests.
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Repeated testing for COVID-19 is vital, economic and public health analysis shows
Epidemiologists at The University of Texas at Austin and other institutions have a new analysis that shows the value of having all people in the U.S. tested on a regular, rotating basis to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus and the loss of life from COVID-19. In a paper in The Lancet Public Health, the paper is relevant as the U.S. weighs options to control the spread of COVID-19 through inc
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Gout drug could reduce Covid hospital stays, new research finds
Colchicine also found to reduce need for extra oxygen and has potential to be used in outpatient settings Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage A cheap drug normally used to treat gout has been found to have the potential to significantly reduce hospital stays among Covid-19 patients and the need for extra oxygen. The results of new research into colchicine conducted in Br
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Elon Musk Laments "Foolish" Mistake That Led to Starship Explosion
Testing, Testing SpaceX CEO Elon Musk has his regrets about tests of his space company's Starship rocket. The latest two prototypes went up in flames during their respective maiden voyages, in December and earlier this week. One of the main culprits for the explosions: the sequence of events the spacecraft had to run through as they descended in order to first right themselves and then provide en
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The CDC declares Super Bowl parties a no-go
The United States just now coming down from its largest wave yet and vaccines on the way, we all need to be doing everything we can to prevent another spike. (Pixabay /) Click here to see all of PopSci's COVID-19 coverage. With inoculations in full swing, there is hope that the pandemic could ease up over the course of this year. However, right now is a critical time to remain vigilant about publ
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Race Replay: Daddy Dave vs. Monza | Street Outlaws
Stream Full Episodes of Street Outlaws: https://discovery.com/tv-shows/street-outlaws/ Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Follow Us on TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@Discovery Join us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Discovery https://www.facebook.com/StreetOutlaws Follow on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Discovery https://twitter.com/StreetOutlaws We're on Instagram! ht
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Unlimited computer fractals can help train AI to see
Most image-recognition systems are trained using large databases that contain millions of photos of everyday objects, from snakes to shakes to shoes. With repeated exposure, AIs learn to tell one type of object from another. Now researchers in Japan have shown that AIs can start learning to recognize everyday objects by being trained on computer-generated fractals instead. It's a weird idea but i
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Surface effect of electrodes revealed by operando surface science methodology
Surface and interface play critical roles in energy storage devices, thus calling for in-situ/operando methods to probe the electrified surface/interface. However, the commonly used in-situ/operando characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray spectroscopy and topography, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are based on the structural,
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Imaging the first moments of a body plan emerging in the embryo
Egg cells start out as round blobs. After fertilization, they begin transforming into people, dogs, fish, or other animals by orienting head to tail, back to belly, and left to right. Exactly what sets these body orientation directions has been guessed at but not seen. Now researchers at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) have imaged the very beginning of this cellular rearrangement, and their
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Imaging the first moments of a body plan emerging in the embryo
Egg cells start out as round blobs. After fertilization, they begin transforming into people, dogs, fish, or other animals by orienting head to tail, back to belly, and left to right. Exactly what sets these body orientation directions has been guessed at but not seen. Now researchers at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) have imaged the very beginning of this cellular rearrangement, and their
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The Pandemic Is in Tenuous Retreat
Editor's Note: The Atlantic is making vital coverage of the coronavirus available to all readers. Find the collection here . The good news in COVID-19 data continued this week, as new cases, hospitalizations, and deaths all dropped. For the seven-day period running January 28 to February 3, weekly new cases were down more than 16 percent over the previous week, and dropped below 1 million for the
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US Admiral: "Real Possibility" of Nuclear War With China, Russia
Doomsday Warning United States Navy admiral Charles Richard, who serves as commander of the United States Strategic Command, has a dire warning for the coming years. He says that nuclear war with China, Russia, or both is a "very real possibility." Richard argues that the US military needs to rethink its approach to mitigating and managing conflict with other powerful countries. After two decades
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Imaging technique provides link to innovative products
When we think about the links to the future—the global transition to solar and wind energy, tactile virtual reality or synthetic neurons—there's no shortage of big ideas. It's the materials to execute the big ideas—the ability to manufacture the lithium-ion batteries, opto-electronics and hydrogen fuel cells—that stand between concept and reality.
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The strange impact of the first consumer review
If you're about to buy something online and its only customer review is negative, you'd probably reconsider the purchase, right? It turns out a product's first review can have an outsized effect on the item's future—it can even cause the product to fail.
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Imaging the first moments of a body plan emerging in the embryo
Egg cells start out as round blobs. After fertilization, they begin transforming into people, dogs, fish, or other animals by orienting head to tail, back to belly, and left to right. Exactly what sets these body orientation directions has been guessed at but not seen. Now researchers at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) have imaged the very beginning of this cellular rearrangement, and their
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New study examines addiction medicine treatment in Vietnam
A study published in The Lancet HIV marks one of the first scientifically robust assessments of a new model of treating HIV in lower or middle income countries where injection drug use is a major cause of HIV infection. It also suggests the importance of building support for peer and community connections to tackle the opioid epidemic that continues to ravage the United States in the midst of the
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New test provides fast and accurate diagnosis of liposarcomas
Researchers have leveraged the latest advances in RNA technology and machine learning methods to develop a gene panel test that allows for highly accurate diagnosis of the most common types of liposarcoma. It quickly and reliably distinguishes benign lipomas from liposarcomas and can be performed in laboratories at a lower cost than current 'gold standard' tests. The new assay is described in The
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