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nyheder2021januar08

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Earth Is Spinning Faster After Decades of Slowing Down
We all know that a day on planet Earth is 24 hours long — except it isn't. It's actually a few fractions of a second longer, which is why we have February 29th every four years. Still, Earth isn't a clock, and the actual length of a day can vary slightly. Scientists now say that the days have started trending shorter because the Earth is spinning faster, which could require additional, potentiall
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Tasmanian tiger pups found to be extraordinarily similar to wolf pups
Researchers find more similarities between the thylacine and wolf.
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Scientists paint multicolor atlas of the brain
Columbia scientists have engineered a coloring technique, known as NeuroPAL (a Neuronal Polychromatic Atlas of Landmarks), which makes it possible to identify every single neuron in the mind of a worm.
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Mapping the introduction of the COVID-19 epidemic in the United Kingdom using genomic analysis
The SARS-CoV-2 virus was introduced to the United Kingdom well over 1,000 times in early 2020, according to researchers who analyzed more than 50,000 viral sequences from the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK.
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'Invisible' stem cells evade natural killer cells using immune 'off-switch'
UC San Francisco scientists have discovered a new way to control the immune system's 'natural killer' (NK) cells, a finding with implications for novel cell therapies and tissue implants that can evade immune rejection. The findings could also be used to enhance the ability of cancer immunotherapies to detect and destroy lurking tumors.
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Pfizer Says Its COVID Vaccine Is Effective Against New Strains
The COVID vaccine manufactured by pharmaceuticals Pfizer and BioNTech appears to be effective against new highly transmissible strains of the coronavirus found in the UK and South Africa, according to a preliminary lab test conducted by Pfizer, Reuters reports . The study , uploaded to the preprint archive biorXiv , found that the vaccine was able to neutralize both the N501 and Y501 mutations of
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International travel key to the introduction and early undetected community transmission of COVID-19 in Scotland
Scientists sequencing virus samples from the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Scotland (and through the first wave) have found evidence of community transmission, driven by multiple introductions through international travel, as early as February 2020.
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Antibiotic resistance from random DNA sequences
An important and still unanswered question is how new genes that cause antibiotic resistance arise. In a new study, Swedish and American researchers have shown how new genes that produce resistance can arise from completely random DNA sequences. The results have been published in the journal PLOS Genetics.
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International travel key to the introduction and early undetected community transmission of COVID-19 in Scotland
Scientists sequencing virus samples from the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Scotland (and through the first wave) have found evidence of community transmission, driven by multiple introductions through international travel, as early as February 2020.
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Antibiotic resistance from random DNA sequences
An important and still unanswered question is how new genes that cause antibiotic resistance arise. In a new study, Swedish and American researchers have shown how new genes that produce resistance can arise from completely random DNA sequences. The results have been published in the journal PLOS Genetics.
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Pikas are adapting to climate change remarkably well, contrary to many predictions
Climate change is harming many special places and iconic species around our planet, from Glacier National Park's disappearing glaciers to California redwoods scorched by wildfires. But for the animal I study, the American pika (Ochotona princeps), there's actually some good news: It's not as threatened by climate change as many studies have warned.
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Scientists discover slimy microbes that may help keep coral reefs healthy
Corals have evolved over millennia to live, and even thrive, in waters with few nutrients. In healthy reefs, the water is often exceptionally clear, mainly because corals have found ways to make optimal use of the few resources around them. Any change to these conditions can throw a coral's health off balance.
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Movers and shakers: New evidence for a unifying theory of granular materials
Understanding the dynamics of granular materials—such as sand flowing through an hourglass or salt pouring through a shaker—is a major unsolved problem in physics. A new paper describes a pattern for how record-sized "shaking" events affect the dynamics of a granular material as it moves from an excited to a relaxed state, adding to the evidence that a unifying theory underlies this behavior.
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Pikas are adapting to climate change remarkably well, contrary to many predictions
Climate change is harming many special places and iconic species around our planet, from Glacier National Park's disappearing glaciers to California redwoods scorched by wildfires. But for the animal I study, the American pika (Ochotona princeps), there's actually some good news: It's not as threatened by climate change as many studies have warned.
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Scientists discover slimy microbes that may help keep coral reefs healthy
Corals have evolved over millennia to live, and even thrive, in waters with few nutrients. In healthy reefs, the water is often exceptionally clear, mainly because corals have found ways to make optimal use of the few resources around them. Any change to these conditions can throw a coral's health off balance.
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I've Been Secret Friends With My Son's Ex for 30 Years
Each installment of The Friendship Files features a conversation between The Atlantic 's Julie Beck and two or more friends, exploring the history and significance of their relationship. This week she talks with a woman whose best friend is her ex-boyfriend's mother—and more than 30 years into the relationship, they still haven't told him they're friends. They discuss how their friendship has evo
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Search for better COVID vaccines confounded by existing rollouts
Nature, Published online: 08 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00015-0 As placebo-controlled testing falls out of favour, vaccine developers eye blood markers and challenge trials to assess next-generation candidates.
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The linguistic device that creates resonance between people and ideas
In literature, writers often use the word "you" generically to make an idea seem more universal, even though it might not be.
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Tasmanian tiger pups found to be extraordinary similar to wolf pups
Micro-CT scanning and digital reconstructions have been used to compare the skulls of the Tasmanian tiger (thylacine) and wolf across their early development and into adulthood, establishing that not only did the thylacine resemble the wolf as adults, but also as newborns and juveniles.
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Cancer cells hibernate like bears to evade harsh chemotherapy
Researchers show that cancer cells hijack an evolutionary conserved program to survive chemotherapy. Furthermore, the researchers show that novel therapeutic strategies aimed at specifically targeting cancer cells in this slow-dividing state can prevent cancer regrowth.
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Patterns in primordial germ cell migration
Biologists and mathematicians have investigated how primordial germ cells behave in zebrafish embryos when not influenced by a guidance cue and developed software that merges 3D microscopy images of multiple organisms. This made it possible to recognize patterns in the cell distribution and thus to highlight tissues that influence cell migration.
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Neptune's bumpy childhood could reveal our solar system's missing planets
This image was taken by Voyager 2, and features its Great Dark Spot and a bright moving spot colloquially called Scooter. (NASA/JPL/) The modern solar system spins serenely, the planets locked in seemingly eternal circles around the sun. But it wasn't always so. This tranquility appears to have emerged only after a gladiatorial period of planetary clashes—one in which titans ricocheted off each o
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UK records highest daily death toll since start of pandemic
London mayor declares major incident because of risk of hospitals being overwhelmed
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Covid reached UK in three waves from southern Europe, study shows
Researchers release most detailed analysis ever carried out of disease transmission
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Tasmanian tiger pups found to be extraordinary similar to wolf pups
Micro-CT scanning and digital reconstructions have been used to compare the skulls of the Tasmanian tiger (thylacine) and wolf across their early development and into adulthood, establishing that not only did the thylacine resemble the wolf as adults, but also as newborns and juveniles.
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Pioneering a way to keep very small satellites in orbit
A cubesat, largely built by undergraduate students and scheduled to launch on Sunday, will explore the feasibility of a new propulsion method that could enable very small satellites to move around Earth's orbit without carrying fuel. This could pave the way for tiny satellites that stay in orbit for long periods and operate in swarms, monitoring storms and natural disasters, for example.
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Fast transport in carbon nanotube membranes could advance human health
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have discovered that carbon nanotube membrane pores could enable ultra-rapid dialysis processes that would greatly reduce treatment time for hemodialysis patients.
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New strategies for designing electroluminescent materials
New research details how a class of electroluminescent materials, key components of devices such as LED lights and solar cells, can be designed to work more efficiently. Published in Nature Photonics, the combined efforts of experimental and theoretical researchers provides insights into how these and other similar materials could be used for novel applications in the future.
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Scientists working with Navajo Nation tag nearly 100 bighorn sheep to diagnose disease, track movements
Some of the world's most sacred and spectacular lands unfold across the sovereign Navajo Nation—an area nearly the size of Maine encompassing parts of Arizona, Utah and New Mexico. Here, desert bighorn sheep slip silently from view in rugged canyons and among red sandstone cliffs. Evocative petroglyphs and pictographs of the animal, which has been hunted and revered across time, adorn rocks throug
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An avalanche of violence: Analysis reveals predictable patterns in armed conflicts
New work by SFI's Collective Computation Group (C4) finds that human conflict exhibits remarkable regularity despite substantial geographic and cultural differences.
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These Futuristic Flying Ambulances May Soon Be Zooming Around New York
Ambulance use surged in 2020 because of the Covid-19 pandemic, even as emergency medical service providers struggled due to the revenue hit they took from delayed and canceled elective procedures. While we're fervently hoping that far fewer people will need ambulances this year, there may soon be a whole new means of emergency transportation, at least in New York: flying ambulances. Israeli aeros
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Scientists working with Navajo Nation tag nearly 100 bighorn sheep to diagnose disease, track movements
Some of the world's most sacred and spectacular lands unfold across the sovereign Navajo Nation—an area nearly the size of Maine encompassing parts of Arizona, Utah and New Mexico. Here, desert bighorn sheep slip silently from view in rugged canyons and among red sandstone cliffs. Evocative petroglyphs and pictographs of the animal, which has been hunted and revered across time, adorn rocks throug
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Deadly parasites create unique cellular structures to survive
Scientists have solved a key parasitic puzzle, revealing the unique and complex structures toxoplasmosis and malaria parasites make in order to survive in different hosts.
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Generic 'you' in literature grabs readers
Using the generic "you" can help make ideas resonate, research on what readers highlight indicates. Writers often use the word "you" generically to make an idea seem more universal, even though it might not be. A paper on the linguistic device appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . Previously, researchers have found that heightened resonance can result from altering a me
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What is Elon Musk's Starship?
Elon Musk's company SpaceX is building a vehicle that could transform space travel.
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Deadly parasites create unique cellular structures to survive
Scientists have solved a key parasitic puzzle, revealing the unique and complex structures toxoplasmosis and malaria parasites make in order to survive in different hosts.
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Most people spent CARES act funds on needs, not wants
A new study suggests last year's Economic Impact Payments provided essential support.
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Confronting pervasive segregation
As President-elect Joseph R. Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris prepare for a new national administration, the Civil Rights Project at UCLA has issued new research underscoring the grievous segregation of Black students and calling on the new administration to act to fulfill the promise of the landmark Brown v. Board of education ruling as pledged in the Democratic campaign.
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Researchers develop new system for measuring ship-generated underwater noise
Strathclyde researchers have developed a novel way of measuring underwater noise created by ships which poses a danger to marine life.
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Nanosheet-based electronics could be one drop away
Scientists at Japan's Nagoya University and the National Institute for Materials Science have found that a simple one-drop approach is cheaper and faster for tiling functional nanosheets together in a single layer. If the process, described in the journal ACS Nano, can be scaled up, it could advance development of next-generation oxide electronics.
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Researchers develop new system for measuring ship-generated underwater noise
Strathclyde researchers have developed a novel way of measuring underwater noise created by ships which poses a danger to marine life.
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Even before COVID, 1/3 of US families were 'net worth poor'
Even before COVID-19, one-third of US households with children were "net worth poor," meaning they lacked enough financial resources to sustain their families for three months at a poverty level, new research shows. In 2019, 57% of Black families and 50% of Latino families with children were poor in terms of net worth. By comparison, the rate for white families was 24%. "These 'net worth poor' ho
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With Little Federal Help, Local Officials Struggle to Vaccinate
According to a Washington Post estimate based on state and federal data, only around 5.9 million people had been vaccinated as of Thursday — fewer than might be expected from the 21.4 million doses that have been distributed already, and far behind White House benchmarks.
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Pfizer vaccine protects against new Covid variants, study suggests
Blood sample tests from 20 people show vaccine is effective against UK and South Africa variants Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The Covid-19 vaccine from Pfizer and BioNTech appears to protect against viruses carrying at least one of the key mutations found in two coronavirus variants that are causing rapid spread across the UK, according to a study. However, furthe
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Entangling electrons with heat
Quantum entanglement is key for next-generation computing and communications technology, researchers can now produce it using temperature differences.
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Engineers find antioxidants improve nanoscale visualization of polymers
Reactive molecules, such as free radicals, can be produced in the body after exposure to certain environments or substances and go on to cause cell damage. Antioxidants can minimize this damage by interacting with the radicals before they affect cells.
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'Hail to the queen': Saving the Caribbean queen conch
Second only to the spiny lobster, the queen conch is a prized delicacy long harvested for food and is revered for its beautiful shell. Conch populations have dwindled so low, creating a dire and urgent situation in ecological and economic terms. To preserve this significant molluscan fishery in the Caribbean, the world's leading expert on queen conch aquaculture has published an 80-page, step-by-s
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Key features that help block excess light absorption during photosynthesis
New research reveals the core structure of the light-harvesting antenna of cyanobacteria or blue-green algae — including key features that both collect energy and block excess light absorption. Scientists built a model of the large protein complex called phycobilisome that collects and transmits light energy. Phycobilisomes allow cyanobacteria to take advantage of different wavelengths of light t
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Using the SYK model to examine the fast-charging process of quantum batteries
The Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model, an exactly solvable model devised by Subir Sachdev and Jinwu Ye, has recently proved useful for understanding the characteristics of different types of matter. As it describes quantum matter without quasiparticles and is simultaneously a holographic version of a quantum black hole, it has so far been adopted by both condensed matter and high-energy physicists.
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Engineers find antioxidants improve nanoscale visualization of polymers
Reactive molecules, such as free radicals, can be produced in the body after exposure to certain environments or substances and go on to cause cell damage. Antioxidants can minimize this damage by interacting with the radicals before they affect cells.
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High-speed atomic force microscopy visualizes cell protein factories
Factor-pooling by ribosomes caught on video using state-of-art high-speed atomic force microscopy technology.
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Why Trump Suddenly Changed His Tune
After two months of inciting violence and undermining the peaceful transfer of power—and a 12-hour Twitter ban—the president got his tweeting privileges back last night and released a video acknowledging that a new administration will take office later this month and calling for calm. "This moment calls for healing and reconciliation," the president said. The demonstrators he had egged on and sai
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Nanodroplets and ultrasound 'drill' may bust blood clots
A new technique for eliminating particularly tough blood clots uses engineered nanodroplets and an ultrasound "drill" to break up the clots from the inside out. The technique has not yet gone through clinical testing. In vitro testing has shown promising results. Specifically, the new approach is designed to treat retracted blood clots, which form over extended periods of time and are especially
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Detecting COVID-19 antibodies in 10-12 seconds
Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University report findings on an advanced nanomaterial-based biosensing platform that detects, within seconds, antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to testing, the platform will help to quantify patient immunological response to the new vaccines with precision.
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Antibiotic resistance from random DNA sequences
An important and still unanswered question is how new genes that cause antibiotic resistance arise. In a new study, Swedish and American researchers have shown how new genes that produce resistance can arise from completely random DNA sequences. The results have been published in the journal PLOS Genetics.
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Research finds increased trust in government and science amid pandemic
New Curtin University research has found a dramatic increase in people's trust in government in Australia and New Zealand as a result of the COVID pandemic.
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