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Elon Musk Pledges $100 Million for Carbon Capture Technology
Carbon Capture SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk lobbed an environmental grenade into the discourse Thursday evening, promising to pony up a substantial $100 million toward a prize for new carbon capture technology. "Am donating $100M towards a prize for best carbon capture technology," he wrote , enigmatically. Last Gasp Technologically, Musk is referring to an umbrella of yet-unrealized concepts t
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The Lancet and The Lancet Oncology: Global demand for cancer surgery set to grow by almost 5 million procedures within 20 years, with greatest burden in low-income countries
Demand for cancer surgery is expected to increase from 9.1 million to 13.8 million procedures over the next twenty years, requiring a huge increase in the workforce including nearly 200,000 additional surgeons and 87,000 anaesthetists globally. With access to post-operative care strongly linked to lower mortality, improving care systems worldwide must be a priority in order to reduce disproportion
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Dr. Fauci Just Absolutely Shredded His Former Boss, Donald Trump
It was no secret that Dr. Anthony Fauci, the United States government's top infectious disease specialist, had a strained relationship with former president Donald Trump. Remember when Fauci physically cringed at one of Trump's digressions during a coronavirus briefing? Or when Trump told a rally of supporters that he might fire Fauci after the election? But now Trump is out, replaced by Joe Bide
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The life-saving space blanket has humble origins
A mylar emergency blanket can come in handy on a trip in the woods or a trek to the moon. (Hans Braxmeier from Pixabay/) This story originally featured on Field & Stream . Like many sports people, I packed a space blanket for years before ever having to use it. When I finally did unwrap the crinkly Mylar sheet, it wasn't to save my life but to make a clean job of ending an animal's. An elk I'd sh
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Race Replay: Ryan vs. Daddy Dave | Street Outlaws
Stream Full Episodes of Street Outlaws: https://discovery.com/tv-shows/street-outlaws/ Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Join us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Discovery https://www.facebook.com/StreetOutlaws Follow on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Discovery https://twitter.com/StreetOutlaws We're on Instagram! https://www.instagram.com/stoutlaws/ https://instagram.co
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New NASA Head Says He's Running Space Agency From His Basement
New Leadership With former NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine out, NASA now finds itself under the leadership of Steve Jurczyk, who had been the agency's associate administrator since May 2018. But Jurczyk's time as acting administrator — Biden has yet to name Bridenstine's permanent successor — will be a bit different than his predecessors', illustrating the unique challenges of running a massiv
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Forget the Wipes and Sprays. Sterilize Your High Touch Items With a UV Sanitizer.
Sterilizing everyday items is a great way to protect yourself and your family from COVID-19, not to mention all sorts of other germs that cause colds, the flu, and other illnesses. However, not all high-touch everyday items are easy to sterilize with disinfectant wipes or sprays. Things like phones, earbuds, keys, and wallets have tiny nooks and crannies that are hard to get into, or are made fro
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Hardware Accelerators May Dramatically Improve Robot Response Times
Group of robots in warehouse (Credit: onurdongel/Getty Images) New work in robotics research at MIT suggests that long-term bottlenecks in robot responsiveness could be alleviated through the use of dedicated hardware accelerators. The research team also suggests it's possible to develop a general methodology for programming robot responsiveness to create specific templates, which would then be d
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Why older adults must go to the front of the vaccine line
A new global, mathematical modeling study shows that in most cases prioritizing older adults for COVID-19 vaccines saves the most lives. It also found that, in some cases, more lives could be saved and infections prevented if those who've already tested positive step to the back of the line.
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COVID-19 infection in immunodeficient patient cured by infusing convalescent plasma, doctors report
Under FDA emergency-use authorization, doctors successfully resolved COVID-19 in a seriously ill, immunodeficient woman using a very high-neutralizing antibody-titer convalescent plasma from a recovered COVID-19 patient. However, further study suggested that use of convalescent plasma may not be warranted in many cases, for two reasons: 1) titer levels are too low in many convalescent plasmas, and
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How cells 'eat' their own fluid components
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process by which cells capture and degrade their own dysfunctional or superfluous components for degradation and recycling. Recent research has revealed that phase separated droplets have a range of important functions in cells. Researchers has unraveled the mechanisms underpinning both how these droplets are captured through autophagy, as well as how droplets c
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Bringing atoms to a standstill: Researchers miniaturize laser cooling
It's cool to be small. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have miniaturized the optical components required to cool atoms down to a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, the first step in employing them on microchips to drive a new generation of super-accurate atomic clocks, enable navigation without GPS, and simulate quantum systems.
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Biden's Pick to Lead FCC is Big Supporter of Net Neutrality
Bringing It Back U.S. President Joe Biden has appointed Jessica Rosenworcel as acting chair for the Federal Communications Commission, The Verge reports . Rosenworcel is a strong supporter of ne neutrality, the principle that ensures all internet communications must be treated equally and are classified as Title II "common carrier service," not Title I "information services." In other words, her
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Advances in modeling and sensors can help farmers and insurers manage risk
When drought caused devastating crop losses in Malawi in 2015-2016, farmers in the southeastern African nation did not initially fear for the worst: the government had purchased insurance for such a calamity. But millions of farmers remained unpaid for months because the insurer's model failed to detect the extent of the losses, and a subsequent model audit moved slowly. Quicker payments would hav
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Nature's decline risks our quality of life
It is no secret that over the last few decades, humans have changed nature at an ever-increasing rate. A growing collection of research covers the many ways this is impacting our quality of life, from air quality to nutrition and income. To better understand how which areas are most at risk, scientists have combed through volumes of literature to present global trends in the relationship between h
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Study finds racial disparities in breast cancer prognosis testing
Women with hormone-dependent breast cancer typically have a favorable prognosis, but new research has found that even after adjusting for age at diagnosis, tumor stage and treatment, there is still a significant mortality gap between Black and non-Hispanic white women with axillary node-negative, hormone-dependent tumors that have a comparable Oncotype Recurrence Score.
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Bringing atoms to a standstill: NIST miniaturizes laser cooling
Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have miniaturized the optical components required to cool atoms down to a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, the first step in employing them on microchips to drive a new generation of super-accurate atomic clocks, enable navigation without GPS, and simulate quantum systems.
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Nature's decline risks our quality of life
It is no secret that over the last few decades, humans have changed nature at an ever-increasing rate. A growing collection of research covers the many ways this is impacting our quality of life, from air quality to nutrition and income. To better understand how which areas are most at risk, scientists have combed through volumes of literature to present global trends in the relationship between h
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New Paper Says Black Holes Could Be as Large as an Entire Galaxy
Galaxy Size Step aside, supermassive black holes — scientists say that there could be black holes the size of an entire galaxy. "The supermassive black holes go up to nearly 100 billion solar masses," Queen Mary University of London astronomer Bernard Carr, who worked on the new research, told Futurism. "If we define a SLAB to be larger than this, then its radius must be at least the size of the
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Designing customized 'brains' for robots
Researchers have developed an automated way to design customized hardware that speeds up a robot's operation. The system, called robomorphic computing, accounts for the robot's physical layout in suggesting an optimized hardware architecture.
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Deep sleep takes out the trash
By examining fruit flies' brain activity and behavior, the researchers found that deep sleep has an ancient, restorative power to clear waste from the brain. This waste potentially includes toxic proteins that may lead to neurodegenerative disease.
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Deubiquitinating enzyme amino acid profiling reveals a class of ubiquitin esterases [Biochemistry]
The reversibility of ubiquitination by the action of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) serves as an important regulatory layer within the ubiquitin system. Approximately 100 DUBs are encoded by the human genome, and many have been implicated with pathologies, including neurodegeneration and cancer. Non-lysine ubiquitination is chemically distinct, and its physiological importance…
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Direct field evidence of autocatalytic iodine release from atmospheric aerosol [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Reactive iodine plays a key role in determining the oxidation capacity, or cleansing capacity, of the atmosphere in addition to being implicated in the formation of new particles in the marine boundary layer. The postulation that heterogeneous cycling of reactive iodine on aerosols may significantly influence the lifetime of ozone…
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Novel function of N-acetyltransferase for microtubule stability and JNK signaling in Drosophila organ development [Developmental Biology]
Regulation of microtubule stability is crucial for the maintenance of cell structure and function. While the acetylation of α-tubulin lysine 40 by acetylase has been implicated in the regulation of microtubule stability, the in vivo functions of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) involved in the acetylation of N-terminal amino acids are not…
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Harnessing ultraconfined graphene plasmons to probe the electrodynamics of superconductors [Physics]
We show that the Higgs mode of a superconductor, which is usually challenging to observe by far-field optics, can be made clearly visible using near-field optics by harnessing ultraconfined graphene plasmons. As near-field sources we investigate two examples: graphene plasmons and quantum emitters. In both cases the coupling to the…
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A genome-scale CRISPR screen reveals factors regulating Wnt-dependent renewal of mouse gastric epithelial cells [Cell Biology]
An ability to safely harness the powerful regenerative potential of adult stem cells for clinical applications is critically dependent on a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms regulating their activity. Epithelial organoid cultures accurately recapitulate many features of in vivo stem cell-driven epithelial renewal, providing an excellent ex vivo platform…
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The neuropeptide allatostatin C from clock-associated DN1p neurons generates the circadian rhythm for oogenesis [Neuroscience]
The link between the biological clock and reproduction is evident in most metazoans. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a key model organism in the field of chronobiology because of its well-defined networks of molecular clock genes and pacemaker neurons in the brain, shows a pronounced diurnal rhythmicity in oogenesis. Still,…
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Human subjects exploit a cognitive map for credit assignment [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
An influential reinforcement learning framework proposes that behavior is jointly governed by model-free (MF) and model-based (MB) controllers. The former learns the values of actions directly from past encounters, and the latter exploits a cognitive map of the task to calculate these prospectively. Considerable attention has been paid to how…
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Evolutionarily stable strategies in stable and periodically fluctuating populations: The Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model [Applied Mathematics]
An evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is an evolutionary strategy that, if adapted by a population, cannot be invaded by any deviating (mutant) strategy. The concept of ESS has been extensively studied and widely applied in ecology and evolutionary biology [M. Smith, On Evolution (1972)] but typically on the assumption that…
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Microbial dynamics of elevated carbon flux in the open ocean's abyss [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
In the open ocean, elevated carbon flux (ECF) events increase the delivery of particulate carbon from surface waters to the seafloor by severalfold compared to other times of year. Since microbes play central roles in primary production and sinking particle formation, they contribute greatly to carbon export to the deep…
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Humanitarian need drives multilateral disaster aid [Sustainability Science]
As the climate changes, human livelihoods will increasingly be threatened by extreme weather events. To provide adequate disaster relief, states extensively rely on multilateral institutions, in particular the United Nations (UN). However, the determinants of this multilateral disaster aid channeled through the UN are poorly understood. To fill this gap,…
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Tocopherol controls D1 amino acid oxidation by oxygen radicals in Photosystem II [Plant Biology]
Photosystem II (PSII) is an intrinsic membrane protein complex that functions as a light-driven water:plastoquinone oxidoreductase in oxygenic photosynthesis. Electron transport in PSII is associated with formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for oxidative modifications of PSII proteins. In this study, oxidative modifications of the D1 and D2 proteins…
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Runx1 and Runx3 drive progenitor to T-lineage transcriptome conversion in mouse T cell commitment via dynamic genomic site switching [Developmental Biology]
Runt domain-related (Runx) transcription factors are essential for early T cell development in mice from uncommitted to committed stages. Single and double Runx knockouts via Cas9 show that target genes responding to Runx activity are not solely controlled by the dominant factor, Runx1. Instead, Runx1 and Runx3 are coexpressed in…
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Loss of sweet taste despite the conservation of sweet receptor genes in insectivorous bats [Evolution]
The evolution of taste perception is usually associated with the ecology and dietary changes of organisms. However, the association between feeding ecology and taste receptor evolution is unclear in some lineages of vertebrate animals. One example is the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2. Previous analysis of partial sequences has revealed…
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Diagenetic formation of uranium-silica polymers in lake sediments over 3,300 years [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The long-term fate of uranium-contaminated sediments, especially downstream former mining areas, is a widespread environmental challenge. Essential for their management is the proper understanding of uranium (U) immobilization mechanisms in reducing environments. In particular, the long-term behavior of noncrystalline U(IV) species and their possible evolution to more stable phases in…
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Ecological adaptation in European eels is based on phenotypic plasticity [Evolution]
The relative role of genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity is of fundamental importance in evolutionary ecology [M. J. West-Eberhard, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (suppl. 1), 6543–6549 (2005)]. European eels have a complex life cycle, including transitions between life stages across ecological conditions in the Sargasso Sea, where spawning…
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A cascaded dual deformable phase plate wavefront modulator enables direct AO integration with existing microscopes
Microscopy is the workhorse of contemporary life science research, enabling morphological and chemical inspection of living tissue with ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolution. Even though modern microscopes are genuine marvels of engineering, minute deviations from ideal imaging conditions will still lead to optical aberrations that rapidly degrade imaging quality. A mismatch between the
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NASA mission to test technology for satellite swarms
A NASA mission slated for launch on Friday will place three tiny satellites into low-Earth orbit, where they will demonstrate how satellites might track and communicate with each other, setting the stage for swarms of thousands of small satellites that can work cooperatively and autonomously.
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Biden Calls on All Americans to Wear Masks in Public For 100 Days
Flanked by vice president Kamala Harris and the nation's top infectious disease expert Dr. Anthony Fauci, United States President Joe Biden signed several additional executive orders today "to change the course of this pandemic and get COVID-19 under control." Front and center among the new executive orders is a mandate for all Americans to wear masks for the next 100 days of Biden's presidency.
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The US Army Is Testing an Auto-Aiming Part of Its "Iron Man" Suit
Gun Stabilizer The US Army is developing a gun barrel stabilizer for its next-generation rifle that could greatly level out any unintended movement, Task & Purpose reports . The piece of tech is a leftover part of the military's Next Generation Squad Weapon (NGSW) effort, which was originally part of the US Special Operations Command's (SOCOM) "Iron Man" suit project. The powered suit was abandon
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Why Did Early Humans Leave Africa?
Homo sapiens have always been on the move. But the traditional out-of-Africa story explains that H. sapiens evolved in Africa and then migrated in a wave to colonize the rest of the world. What sparked this exodus?
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Scientists make pivotal discovery on mechanism of Epstein-Barr virus latent infection
Researchers at The Wistar Institute have discovered a new enzymatic function of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) protein EBNA1, a critical factor in EBV's ability to transform human cells and cause cancer. Published in Cell, this study provides new indications for inhibiting EBNA1 function, opening up fresh avenues for development of therapies to treat EBV-associated cancers.
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Scientists make pivotal discovery on mechanism of Epstein-Barr virus latent infection
Researchers at The Wistar Institute have discovered a new enzymatic function of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) protein EBNA1, a critical factor in EBV's ability to transform human cells and cause cancer. Published in Cell, this study provides new indications for inhibiting EBNA1 function, opening up fresh avenues for development of therapies to treat EBV-associated cancers.
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Snake sex chromosomes say less about sex and more about survival
Sex-specific chromosomes are a dangerous place to be, if you're a gene. Because these chromosomes—Y chromosomes, in humans—do not have a matching chromosome with which to exchange genetic information, they are prone to losing non-essential genes left and right in a process called genetic decay.
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Small electric fields can play decisive role in formation of diamond
Diamond, like graphite, is a special form of carbon. Its cubic crystal structure and its strong chemical bonds give it its unique hardness. For thousands of years, it has also been sought after as both a tool and as a thing of beauty. Only in the 1950s did it become possible to produce diamonds artificially for the first time.
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Angstrom multilayer metrology by combining spectral measurements and machine learning
With the recent explosive demand for data storage, ranging from data centers to various smart and connected devices, the need for higher-capacity and more compact memory devices is constantly increasing. As a result, semiconductor devices are now moving from 2-D to 3-D. The 3-D-NAND flash memory is the most commercially successful 3-D semiconductor device today, and its demand for supporting our d
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Producing green hydrogen through the exposure of nanomaterials to sunlight
A research team from the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS) has joined forces with French researchers from the Institute of Chemistry and Processes for Energy, Environment and Health (ICPEES), a CNRS-University of Strasbourg joint research lab, to pave the way towards the production of green hydrogen. This international team has developed new sunlight-photosensitive-nanostructur
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Novel effector biology research provides insights into devastating citrus greening disease
Citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB), is devastating to the citrus industry, causing unprecedented amounts of damage worldwide. There is no known cure. Since the disease's introduction to the United States in the early 2000s, research efforts have increased exponentially. However, there is still a lack of information about the molecular mechanism behind the disease.
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Fighting respiratory virus outbreaks through 'nano-popcorn' sensor-based rapid detection
Viral respiratory diseases are easily transmissible and can spread rapidly across the globe, causing significant damage. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a testament to this. In the past too, other viruses have caused massive respiratory disease outbreaks: for example, a subtype of the influenza virus, the type A H1N1 virus, was responsible for the Spanish flu and the Swine flu outbreaks. Thus, to
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Butterfly wing clap explains mystery of flight
The fluttery flight of butterflies has so far been somewhat of a mystery to researchers, given their unusually large and broad wings relative to their body size. Now researchers have studied the aerodynamics of butterflies in a wind tunnel. The results suggest that butterflies use a highly effective clap technique, therefore making use of their unique wings. This helps them rapidly take off when e
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California harbor porpoises rebound after coastal gillnetting stopped
Harbor porpoises have rebounded in a big way off California. Their populations have recovered dramatically since the end of state set-gillnet fisheries that years ago entangled and killed them in the nearshore waters they frequent. These coastal set-gillnet fisheries are distinct from federally-managed offshore drift-gillnet fisheries. They have been prohibited in inshore state waters for more tha
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Rocks show Mars once felt like Iceland
A comparison of chemical and climate weathering of sedimentary rock in Mars' Gale Crater indicate the region's mean temperature billions of years ago was akin to current conditions on Iceland.
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Saturn's moon Titan: Largest sea is 1,000-feet deep
Far below the gaseous atmospheric shroud on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, lies Kraken Mare, a sea of liquid methane. Astronomers have estimated that sea to be at least 1,000-feet deep near its center – enough room for a potential robotic submarine to explore.
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Novel effector biology research provides insights into devastating citrus greening disease
Citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB), is devastating to the citrus industry, causing unprecedented amounts of damage worldwide. There is no known cure. Since the disease's introduction to the United States in the early 2000s, research efforts have increased exponentially. However, there is still a lack of information about the molecular mechanism behind the disease.
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How cells 'eat' their own fluid components
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process by which cells capture and degrade their own dysfunctional or superfluous components for degradation and recycling. Recent research has revealed that phase separated droplets have a range of important functions in cells. An international collaboration between German, Norwegian, and Japanese researchers has unraveled the mechanisms underpinning both how t
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Two-photon polymerization of PEGda hydrogel microstructure
The fabrication of shape-memory hydrogel scaffolds not only requires biocompatibility, micrometer resolution, high mechanical strength, but also requires a low polymerisation threshold in high-water content environment to incorporate microstructures with biological tissues. Towards this goal, scientists from China and Australia developed a new hydrogel formula that full fills this goal and demonst
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First-ever atomic resolution video of salt crystals forming in real time
Two novel techniques, atomic-resolution real-time video and conical carbon nanotube confinement, allow researchers to view never-before-seen details about crystal formation. The observations confirm theoretical predictions about how salt crystals form and could inform general theories about the way in which crystal formation produces different ordered structures from an otherwise disordered chemic
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How cells 'eat' their own fluid components
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process by which cells capture and degrade their own dysfunctional or superfluous components for degradation and recycling. Recent research has revealed that phase separated droplets have a range of important functions in cells. An international collaboration between German, Norwegian, and Japanese researchers has unraveled the mechanisms underpinning both how t
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Early humans used chopping tools to break animal bones and consume the bone marrow
Researchers from the Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University unraveled the function of flint tools known as "chopping tools," found at the prehistoric site of Revadim, east of Ashdod. Applying advanced research methods, they examined use-wear traces on 53 chopping tools, as well as organic residues found on some of the tools. They also made and used replicas of the t
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Pandemic Numbers Are (Finally) Tiptoeing in the Right Direction
Editor's Note: The Atlantic is making vital coverage of the coronavirus available to all readers. Find the collection here . In last week's update , we wrote that the United States had reported the worst weekly case, hospitalization, and death numbers of the pandemic. At the time, it wasn't clear what proportion of the case and death increases were related to postholiday reporting backlogs. This
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New study: nine out of ten US infants experience gut microbiome deficiency
A new peer-reviewed study reveals that the vast majority of US infants may be suffering from a substantial deficiency in an important bacterium key to breast milk utilization and immune system development, as well as protection against gut pathogens linked to common newborn conditions such as colic and diaper rash. The study is the largest to date to benchmark the widespread deficiency in gut bact
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Study finds bilateral agreements help developing economies spur foreign investment
Developing economies suffer from a paradox: they don't receive investment flows from developed economies because they lack stability and high-quality financial and lawmaking institutions, but they can't develop those institutions without foreign funds.A new study finds that bilateral investment treaties, known as BITs, can help developing economies overcome this paradox, but only as long as those
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Dynamic competition between SARS-CoV-2 NSP1 and mRNA on the human ribosome inhibits translation initiation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a beta-CoV that recently emerged as a human pathogen and is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. A molecular framework of how the virus manipulates host cellular machinery to facilitate infection remains unclear. Here, we focus on SARS-CoV-2 NSP1, which is…
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Major alterations in the mononuclear phagocyte landscape associated with COVID-19 severity [Immunology and Inflammation]
Dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes are crucial mediators of innate and adaptive immune responses during viral infection, but misdirected responses by these cells may contribute to immunopathology. Here, we performed high-dimensional flow cytometry-analysis focusing on mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) lineages in SARS-CoV-2–infected patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. We provide a…
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Much of Earth's nitrogen was locally sourced
Scientists show evidence that nitrogen acquired during Earth's formation came from both the inner and outer regions of the protoplanetary disk. The study has implications for signs of potential habitability of exoplanets.
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Discovery of new praying mantis species from the time of the dinosaurs
A research team has identified a new species of praying mantis thanks to imprints of its fossilized wings. It lived in Labrador, in the Canadian Subarctic around 100 million years ago, during the time of the dinosaurs, in the Late Cretaceous period. The researchers believe that the fossils of the new genus and species, Labradormantis guilbaulti, helps to establish evolutionary relationships betwee
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Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells underestimated
A recent study finds that annual methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas (AOG) wells in Canada and the US have been greatly underestimated – by as much as 150% in Canada, and by 20% in the US. Indeed, the research suggests that methane gas emissions from AOG wells are currently the 10th and 11th largest sources of anthropogenic methane emission in the US and Canada, respectively.
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As oceans warm, large fish struggle
Warming ocean waters could reduce the ability of fish, especially large ones, to extract the oxygen they need from their environment. Animals require oxygen to generate energy for movement, growth and reproduction. Researchers describe their newly developed model to determine how water temperature, oxygen availability, body size and activity affect metabolic demand for oxygen in fish.
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'Smiling eyes' aren't a perfect gauge of emotions
Smiles that lift the cheeks and crinkle the eyes aren't necessarily a window to a person's emotions, research finds. In fact, these "smiling eye" smiles, called Duchenne smiles, seem to be related to smile intensity, rather than acting as an indicator of whether a person is happy or not, says Jeffrey Girard, a former postdoctoral researcher at Carnegie Mellon University's Language Technologies In
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Personalizing cancer care with improved tumor models
While decades of research have resulted in substantial improvements in surviving cancer, a key challenge remains in identifying new drugs that improve outcomes for patients. In APL Bioengineering , researchers suggest a major hurdle is the paucity of models for cancer research that accurately represent patient tumors. They provide a perspective on strategies using models from individual patients a
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Combining best of both worlds for cancer modeling
Treatment options for many types of cancers remain limited, due partly to the in vitro tools used to model cancers and that results from animal studies do not always translate well to human disease. These shortcomings point to a clear need for a better, patient-specific model. Researchers suggest bioengineered microscale organotypic models can address this need. They discuss the advantages and cap
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A closer look at T cells reveals big differences in mild vs. severe COVID-19 cases
A big question on people's minds these days: how long does immunity to SARS-CoV-2 last following infection? Now a research team from La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI), The University of Liverpool and the University of Southampton has uncovered an interesting clue. Their new study suggests that people with severe COVID-19 cases may be left with more of the protective 'memory' T cells needed t
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Rethink immigration policy for STEM doctorates
A streamlined process for awarding green cards to international STEM doctoral students graduating from U.S. universities could benefit American innovation and competitiveness, including leveling the field for startups eager to attract such highly skilled workers, according to a new study by researchers from Cornell University and the University of California, San Diego.
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Developmental origins of eczema and psoriasis discovered
Scientists have created a highly detailed map of skin, which reveals that cellular processes from development are re-activated in cells from patients with eczema and psoriasis inflammatory skin diseases. The study in Science offers potential new drug targets for treating these painful skin diseases and provides a new understanding of inflammatory disease. Part of the global Human Cell Atlas initia
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Space CEO Offers $1 Million for Evidence of Life After Death
Life After Death Las Vegas real estate mogul and CEO of space station module startup Bigelow Aerospace Robert Bigelow is offering up $1 million in prizes for evidence of "the survival of consciousness after permanent bodily death," The New York Times reports . Bigelow, a billionaire who has also raised eyebrows for investigating UFO sightings, recently founded the Bigelow Institute for Consciousn
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Ultrafast nanoimaging of the order parameter in a structural phase transition
Understanding microscopic processes in materials and devices that can be switched by light requires experimental access to dynamics on nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. Here, we introduce ultrafast dark-field electron microscopy to map the order parameter across a structural phase transition. We use ultrashort laser pulses to locally excite a 1 T- TaS 2 (1 T -polytype of tantalum disu
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Unraveling CO adsorption on model single-atom catalysts
Understanding how the local environment of a "single-atom" catalyst affects stability and reactivity remains a challenge. We present an in-depth study of copper 1 , silver 1 , gold 1 , nickel 1 , palladium 1 , platinum 1 , rhodium 1 , and iridium 1 species on Fe 3 O 4 (001), a model support in which all metals occupy the same twofold-coordinated adsorption site upon deposition at room temperature
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Iridium-catalyzed Z-retentive asymmetric allylic substitution reactions
Z -Olefins are challenging synthetic targets owing to their relative thermodynamic instability. Transition metal–catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions are well known for installing stereocenters adjacent to branched or E -linear olefins. However, analogous reactions for the synthesis of optically active Z -olefin products are rare. Here we report iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic
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Convergent evolution of pain-inducing defensive venom components in spitting cobras
Convergent evolution provides insights into the selective drivers underlying evolutionary change. Snake venoms, with a direct genetic basis and clearly defined functional phenotype, provide a model system for exploring the repeated evolution of adaptations. While snakes use venom primarily for predation, and venom composition often reflects diet specificity, three lineages of cobras have independ
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Nanoscale localized contacts for high fill factors in polymer-passivated perovskite solar cells
Polymer passivation layers can improve the open-circuit voltage of perovskite solar cells when inserted at the perovskite–charge transport layer interfaces. Unfortunately, many such layers are poor conductors, leading to a trade-off between passivation quality (voltage) and series resistance (fill factor, FF). Here, we introduce a nanopatterned electron transport layer that overcomes this trade-o
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Transvection regulates the sex-biased expression of a fly X-linked gene
Sexual dimorphism in animals results from sex-biased gene expression patterns. These patterns are controlled by genetic sex determination hierarchies that establish the sex of an individual. Here we show that the male-biased wing expression pattern of the Drosophila biarmipes gene yellow , located on the X chromosome, is independent of the fly sex determination hierarchy. Instead, we find that a
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Host succinate is an activation signal for Salmonella virulence during intracellular infection
Key to the success of intracellular pathogens is the ability to sense and respond to a changing host cell environment. Macrophages exposed to microbial products undergo metabolic changes that drive inflammatory responses. However, the role of macrophage metabolic reprogramming in bacterial adaptation to the intracellular environment has not been explored. Here, using metabolic profiling and dual
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Glycolysis fuels phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling to bolster T cell immunity
Infection triggers expansion and effector differentiation of T cells specific for microbial antigens in association with metabolic reprograming. We found that the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is induced in CD8 + T effector cells through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. In turn, ablation of LDHA inhibits PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and its transcription fac
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Clock genes and environmental cues coordinate Anopheles pheromone synthesis, swarming, and mating
Anopheles mating is initiated by the swarming of males at dusk followed by females flying into the swarm. Here, we show that mosquito swarming and mating are coordinately guided by clock genes, light, and temperature. Transcriptome analysis shows up-regulation of the clock genes period ( per ) and timeless ( tim ) in the head of field-caught swarming Anopheles coluzzii males. Knockdown of per and
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Ancient balancing selection maintains incompatible versions of the galactose pathway in yeast
Metabolic pathways differ across species but are expected to be similar within a species. We discovered two functional, incompatible versions of the galactose pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . We identified a three-locus genetic interaction for growth in galactose, and used precisely engineered alleles to show that it arises from variation in the galactose utilization genes GAL2 , GAL1/10/7 ,
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JARID2 and AEBP2 regulate PRC2 in the presence of H2AK119ub1 and other histone modifications
Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2) cooperate to determine cell identity by epigenetic gene expression regulation. However, the mechanism of PRC2 recruitment by means of recognition of PRC1-mediated H2AK119ub1 remains poorly understood. Our PRC2 cryo–electron microscopy structure with cofactors JARID2 and AEBP2 bound to a H2AK119ub1-containing nucleosome reveals a bridge helix i
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Mapping the molecular and cellular complexity of cortical malformations
The cerebral cortex is an intricate structure that controls human features such as language and cognition. Cortical functions rely on specialized neurons that emerge during development from complex molecular and cellular interactions. Neurodevelopmental disorders occur when one or several of these steps is incorrectly executed. Although a number of causal genes and disease phenotypes have been id
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Developmental cell programs are co-opted in inflammatory skin disease
The skin confers biophysical and immunological protection through a complex cellular network established early in embryonic development. We profiled the transcriptomes of more than 500,000 single cells from developing human fetal skin, healthy adult skin, and adult skin with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. We leveraged these datasets to compare cell states across development, homeostasis, and di
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Regulation of the Dot1 histone H3K79 methyltransferase by histone H4K16 acetylation
Dot1 (disruptor of telomeric silencing-1), the histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase, is conserved throughout evolution, and its deregulation is found in human leukemias. Here, we provide evidence that acetylation of histone H4 allosterically stimulates yeast Dot1 in a manner distinct from but coordinating with histone H2B ubiquitination (H2BUb). We further demonstrate that this stimulat
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Bifurcation of planetary building blocks during Solar System formation
Geochemical and astronomical evidence demonstrates that planet formation occurred in two spatially and temporally separated reservoirs. The origin of this dichotomy is unknown. We use numerical models to investigate how the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk influenced the timing of protoplanet formation and their internal evolution. Migration of the water snow line can generate two disti
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On surviving—and leaving—prison during a pandemic
The public health threat that prisons has never been clearer than during the COVID-19 pandemic. (ArturVerkhovetskiy, ViewApart, ArturVerkhovetskiy, Jerome-Cronenberger/Deposit Photos/) In early 2020, Alexis Triplett watched the news coming out of China, her gaze set on a TV inside her cell in La Vista Correctional Facility in Pueblo, Colorado. People over there were getting sick with a mysterious
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Rethink immigration policy for STEM doctorates
A streamlined process for awarding green cards to international STEM doctoral students graduating from U.S. universities could benefit American innovation and competitiveness, including leveling the field for startups eager to attract such highly skilled workers, according to a new study by researchers from Cornell University and the University of California, San Diego.
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Solar system formation in two steps
An international team of researchers from the University of Oxford, LMU Munich, ETH Zurich, BGI Bayreuth, and the University of Zurich discovered that a two-step formation process of the early Solar System can explain the chronology and split in volatile and isotope content of the inner and outer Solar System.
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A new study shows the relationship between surgery and Alzheimer's disease
Amsterdam, January 21, 2021 – A new study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease carried out by researchers at the Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL University Hospital, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Bonn Medical Center, proposes that major surgery is a promoter or accelerator of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The first author of the publication was Carmen Lage and the prin
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COVID-19 infection in immunodeficient patient cured by infusing convalescent plasma
Under FDA emergency-use authorization, doctors successfully resolved COVID-19 in a seriously ill, immunodeficient woman using a very high-neutralizing antibody-titer convalescent plasma from a recovered COVID-19 patient. However, further study suggested that use of convalescent plasma may not be warranted in many cases, for two reasons: 1) titer levels are too low in many convalescent plasmas, and
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OSU researchers prove fish-friendly detection method more sensitive than electrofishing
Delivering a minor electric shock into a stream to reveal any fish lurking nearby may be the gold standard for detecting fish populations, but it's not much fun for the trout. Scientists at Oregon State University have found that sampling stream water for evidence of the presence of various species using environmental DNA, known as eDNA, can be more accurate than electrofishing, without disrupting
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mRNA Vaccines: What Happens
A question that comes up a lot about mRNA vaccines is what happens at the cellular level after you're injected with one. The mechanism of any such vaccine is to cause cells to produce a viral protein antigen, but which cells actually do this? It's also understood that mRNA vaccines tend to act as their own adjuvant and stimulate a further immune response that improves their efficacy – but how doe
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Biden Admin Shocked to Discover No Vaccine Distribution Plan
We have good news and bad news. The bad news is that after President Joe Biden was sworn in, he and his administration quickly learned that the outgoing Trump team still hadn't developed a plan to distribute the vaccine, CNN reports . The good news is that at last, exactly one full year since the first coronavirus cases were detected in the United States, the White House is actively developing a
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Ancient Mars was more like Iceland than Idaho
New research indicates that, more than 3 billion years ago, seasons in Gale Crater on Mars were probably something like those in Iceland. The ancient Martian crater is the focus of a study comparing data from the Curiosity rover to places on Earth where similar geologic formations have experienced weathering in different climates. Iceland's basaltic terrain and cool weather, with temperatures typ
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Researchers develop new graphene nanochannel water filters
When sheets of two-dimensional nanomaterials like graphene are stacked on top of each other, tiny gaps form between the sheets that have a wide variety of potential uses. In research published in the journal Nature Communications, a team of Brown University researchers has found a way to orient those gaps, called nanochannels, in a way that makes them more useful for filtering water and other liqu
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Detailed tumour profiling
As part of a clinical study involving patients from the University Hospitals in Zurich and Basel, researchers are conducting a thorough and highly precise investigation into the molecular and functional properties of tumours. Their goal is to help physicians to better determine which treatment will best match every patient's cancer and thus be most effective.
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Drinking is up for people with depression during COVID
People with anxiety and depression are more likely to report an increase in drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic than those without mental health issues, according to a new study. While drinking grew the most among younger people, older adults with anxiety and depression also saw a sharper increase in their risk for harmful alcohol use. "This increase in drinking, particularly among people with
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The Biden Generation's Last Chance
Jim Clyburn sat by himself on the dais at Joe Biden's inauguration, thinking about his late wife, Emily, who wasn't there with him. Without Clyburn, the third-ranking House Democrat, who endorsed the former vice president at a crucial moment last year, Biden might not have taken the oath of office yesterday. But without Emily's influence, Clyburn told me, that endorsement might never have happene
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Amazon Offers to Help White House Distribute COVID Vaccine
In a Wednesday letter obtained by Reuters , Amazon offered to help the new American president Joe Biden with the country's efforts to roll out the COVID-19 vaccine. The retailer, which is the country's second largest employer behind Walmart, offered to open the doors of its many facilities around the country to help healthcare providers administer vaccines. "We are prepared to leverage our operat
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As oceans warm, large fish struggle
Warming ocean waters could reduce the ability of fish, especially large ones, to extract the oxygen they need from their environment. Animals require oxygen to generate energy for movement, growth and reproduction. In a recent paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, an international team of researchers from McGill, Montana and Radboud universities describe their newly develope
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SpaceX won't be the only company launching commercial rockets in 2021
"Looks like the blue skies went to black!" We are overjoyed to share this new video of our Launch Demo 2 flight. The adrenaline is still flowing after we aced this flight and delivered satellites for nine different @NASA and university teams exactly to their target orbit. pic.twitter.com/nVX21hXywi — Virgin Orbit (@Virgin_Orbit) January 18, 2021
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As oceans warm, large fish struggle
Warming ocean waters could reduce the ability of fish, especially large ones, to extract the oxygen they need from their environment. Animals require oxygen to generate energy for movement, growth and reproduction. In a recent paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, an international team of researchers from McGill, Montana and Radboud universities describe their newly develope
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A mathematical framework enables accurate characterization of shapes
In nature, many things have evolved that differ in size, color and, above all, in shape. While the color or size of an object can be easily described, the description of a shape is more complicated. In a study now published in Nature Communications, Jacqueline Nowak of the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology and her colleagues have outlined a new and improved way to describe shapes
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Study updates breast cancer risk estimates for women with no family history
A new multi-institution study led by Fergus Couch, Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic pathologist, provides more accurate estimates of breast cancer risk for U.S. women who harbor inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes. The findings of the CARRIERS Consortium study, published Jan. 20 in The New England Journal of Medicine, may allow health care providers to better assess the risk of breast ca
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It's a sweet relief to be vaccinated – but it's not a return to normality | Polly Toynbee
As older people relish being vaccinated, the UK government's messaging risks being confusing and contradictory Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Age brings few benefits, as far as I can see: not wisdom, not virtue, nor serenity. But what a bonus to find yourself among the ranks of septuagenarians lining up for the Covid-19 vaccine. This gift of life arrives via an auto
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How work addiction negatively affects your mental and physical health
Work addiction is a growing public health risk in industrialized nations, with some research showing that 5–10% of the United States population meet the criteria. Workaholism comes with a variety of serious mental and physical health concerns such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, lowered immunity, substance abuse, or even chronic fatigue. Employees at the highest risk for stress-related disorder
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Watch a glass frog get funky when mating croaks are too quiet
Glass frogs that live near loud streams add to mating calls with the flap of a hand, a wave of a foot, or a bob of the head to attract a mate, a new study shows. Researchers have documented these frogs that "dance" near rushing streams—where noise can obscure those crucial love songs—in the rainforests of India, Borneo, Brazil, and, now, Ecuador. Conservation ecologist Rebecca Brunner, a PhD cand
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Embedded counseling services can improve accessibility for students
Kerry Karaffa is the first MU Counseling Center psychologist to be embedded specifically within the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine, where he provides tailored counseling services for professional students training to become veterinarians. He is also aware that veterinarians are at increased risk for mental health concerns and suicidality compared to the general public due to
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Seeds transfer their microbes to the next generation
Scientists have been pondering if the microbiome of plants is due to nature or nurture. Research at Stockholm University, published in Environmental Microbiology, showed that oak acorns contain a large diversity of microbes, and that oak seedlings inherit their microbiome from these acorns.
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A new nanomaterial for the war against counterfeits
Despite the anticounterfeiting devices attached to luxury handbags, marketable securities, and identification cards, counterfeit goods are on the rise. There is a demand for the next-generation anticounterfeiting technologies—that surpass the traditional ones—that are not easily forgeable and can hold various data.
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Teamwork in a molecule
Chemists at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena have demonstrated the value of 'teamwork' by successfully harnessing the interaction between two gallium atoms in a novel compound to split the particularly strong bond between fluorine and carbon. The gallium compound is also cheaper and more environmentally friendly than conventional alternatives.
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New, simplified genetic test effectively screens for hereditary cancers
Researchers have developed a new integrated genetic/epigenetic DNA-sequencing protocol known as MultiMMR that can identify the presence and cause of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in a single test from a small sample of DNA in colon, endometrial, and other cancers. This alternative to complex, multi-step testing workflows can also determine causes of MMR deficiency often missed by current clinic
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Search for axions from nearby star Betelgeuse comes up empty
The elusive axion particle is many times lighter than an electron, with properties that barely make an impression on ordinary matter. As such, the ghost-like particle is a leading contender as a component of dark matter—a hypothetical, invisible type of matter that is thought to make up 85 percent of the mass in the universe.
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Researchers make domestic high-performance bipolar membranes possible
The bipolar membrane, a type of ion exchange membrane, is considered the pivotal material for zero emission technology. It is composed of an anode and cathode membrane layer, and an intermediate hydrolysis layer. Under reverse bias, the water molecules in the intermediate layer produce OH- and H+ by polarization.
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Space Station Captures Amazing Footage of Lightning From Above
Looking Down Sensitive storm-chasing equipment on the International Space Station caught a dazzling light show on video as it watched the electrical activity of a thunderstorm from above. The recordings, which were captured by the European Space Agency's Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM), help reveal how lightning originates and even how storms can distribute greenhouse gases through t
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Ten suggestions for female faculty and staff during the pandemic
When university campuses sent students, staff and faculty members home in March, Padmini Rangamani, a professor at the University of California San Diego, suddenly found herself running her research lab remotely, teaching her classes online, and supervising her two children, ages 10 and 13, who are also learning online.
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Astronomers estimate Titan's largest sea is 1,000-feet deep
Far below the gaseous atmospheric shroud on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, lies Kraken Mare, a sea of liquid methane. Cornell University astronomers have estimated that sea to be at least 1,000-feet deep near its center—enough room for a potential robotic submarine to explore.
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Hair aging differs by race, ethnicity
While aging is an unavoidable biological process with many influencing factors that results in visible changes to the hair, there is limited literature examining the characteristics of hair aging across the races. Now a new study describes the unique characteristics of hair aging among different ethnicities that the authors hope will aid in a culturally sensitive approach when making recommendatio
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Seeds transfer their microbes to the next generation
Scientists have been pondering if the microbiome of plants is due to nature or nurture. Research at Stockholm University, published in Environmental Microbiology , showed that oak acorns contain a large diversity of microbes, and that oak seedlings inherit their microbiome from these acorns. The microorganisms found on the seed are often valuable for the plant, promoting its growth and protecting
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New study on the role of monocytes in sarcoidosis
The cause of the inflammatory lung disease sarcoidosis is unknown. In a new study, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have investigated whether a type of immune cell called a monocyte could be a key player in sarcoidosis pathogenesis and explain why some patients develop more severe and chronic disease than others. The study, which is published in The European Respiratory Journal , ope
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Neuronal recycling: This is how our brain allows us to read
Is there an area and cognitive mechanism in our brain specifically devoted to reading? Probably not. According to new research, underlying reading there is evolutionarily ancient function more generally used to process many other visual stimuli. We process letters and words similarly to how we do with any visual stimulus: we identify basic features as shape, size, structure. On the basis of the st
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Six-fold rise in brain pressure disorder that affects mostly women
A brain pressure disorder that especially affects women, causing severe headaches and sometimes permanent sight loss, has risen six-fold in 15 years, and is linked to obesity and deprivation, a new study by Swansea University researchers has shown.Rates of emergency hospital admissions in Wales for people with the disorder were also five times higher than for those without.
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Climate change puts hundreds of coastal airports at risk of flooding
Newcastle University scientists have found that 269 airports are at risk of coastal flooding now. A temperature rise of 2C – consistent with the Paris Agreement – would lead to 100 airports being below mean sea level and 364 airports at risk of flooding. If global mean temperature rise exceeds this then as many as 572 airports will be at risk by 2100, leading to major disruptions without appropria
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COVID-19 virus helps block host immunity
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, blocks the processes of innate immune activation that normally direct the production and/or signaling of type I interferon (IFN-I) by the infected cell and tissues. IFN-I is a key component of host innate immunity that is responsible for eliminating the virus at the early stage of infection
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Diamonds need voltage
Diamonds are fascinating – as jewellery but also because of the extreme hardness of the material. How exactly this variant of carbon is formed deep underground and under extremely high pressures and temperatures remains a mystery. Now, researchers from the Russian Academy of Sciences Novosibirsk, collaborating with the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ, have documented a new influencing f
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Lifelong lessons from my unexpected encounter with a synchrotron
Nature, Published online: 21 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00181-1 Biomedical scientist Vladimira Foteva didn't imagine she would be working with physicists at an Australian particle accelerator when she began her PhD, but the experience taught her the value of collaboration across disciplines.
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Ketamine and Psychedelics: Next-Wave Antidepressants
Ketamine and psychedelics are making headlines as new alternative antidepressant therapeutics. For years scientists have been studying the benefits of these drugs on the brain and exciting new research has led to the idea that our understanding of what underlies depression could be wrong and these next-wave antidepressants could be another remedy of one of […]
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Pauli-krystaller og Klein-tunneling
En række besynderlige kvantefænomener forudsagt teoretisk for mange år siden er nu endelig påvist. Måske kan de give bedre forståelse af superledning og ultralydssystemer.
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Sleuths scrutinize high-profile study of ultra-processed foods and weight gain
In July 2019, Kevin Hall, of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, and colleagues published a study in Cell Metabolism that found, according to its title, that "Ultra-Processed Diets Cause Excess Calorie Intake and Weight Gain." Not surprisingly, the paper — which nutrition researchers urged caution in interpreting in an accompanying editorial — earned media … Continue reading
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Smooth touchdown: novel camera-based system for automated landing of drone on a fixed spot
While autonomous drones can greatly assist with difficult rescue missions, they require a safe landing procedure. In a new study, scientists from Shibaura Institute of Technology (SIT), Japan, have demonstrated automated drone landing with a simple 2D camera guiding the drone to a symbolized landing pad. The guiding camera can be further improved to include depth-related information, paving the wa
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Investigational combo therapy shows benefit for TP53 mutant MDS and AML patients
Moffitt Cancer Center is leading a national, multicenter clinical trial investigating a new therapy option for this group of patients. It builds upon the standard of care therapy, combining eprenetapopt (APR-246) with the chemotherapy azacitidine. Results of the phase 1b/2 trial to determine the safety, recommended dose and efficacy of the combination therapy were published in the Journal of Clini
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Tough childhood damages life prospects
An adverse upbringing often impairs people's circumstances and health in their adult years, especially for couples who have both had similar experiences. This is shown by a new study, carried out by Uppsala University researchers, in which 818 mothers and their partners filled in a questionnaire one year after having a child together. The study is now published in the scientific journal PLOS ONE .
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Angstrom multilayer metrology by combining spectral measurements and machine learning
The 3D-NAND is the most commercially successful 3D memory device today, and its demand is growing exponentially. As each layer thickness corresponds to the effective channel length, accurate characterization and control of layer-by-layer thickness is critical. Engineers in South Korea invented a nondestructive thickness characterization method of each layer in semiconductor multilayer stacks with
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Watch a Fire Break Out on Board a NASA Spacecraft
Light It Up To make sure that future spacecraft don't run the risk of catching fire on the way to the Moon, NASA is conducting a series of Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments ( SAFFIRE ) experiments on board a used cargo spacecraft. And yes, the experiments involve igniting actual, controlled fires on the interior of the uncrewed spacecraft, as seen in a video uploaded by the space agency. The lat
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Electrons caught in the act
Tsukuba University scientists create movies of the ultrafast motion of electrons traveling through an organic semiconductor with atomic-level resolution. This work may lead to more powerful and miniaturized smart devices.
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How the brain learns that earmuffs are not valuable at the beach
A collaboration between the University of Tsukuba and the NEI in the US has discovered that fast-spiking neurons in the basal ganglia allow monkeys to associate different values with the same objects based on the surrounding environment. Blocking input from these cells inhibited learning of new scene-based values, but did not erase already learned associations. This could help understand clinical
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Ten suggestions for female faculty and staff during the pandemic
"Ten simple rules for women principal investigators during a pandemic" was published recently in PLOS Computational Biology . It's perhaps important to note that despite its title, the article is careful to say that the cardinal rule is that there are no rules. So all 10 points outlined are in fact suggestions. Also despite its title, Rangamani says most of the 10 points outlined in the publicatio
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CNIO participates in a study that defines the most important genes that increase breast cancer risk
* The study will help to improve prevention programmes since it "defines the most useful genes" for breast cancer risk prediction tests, the authors write* The study will be published in the 'New England Journal of Medicine' (NEJM) and is authored by 250 researchers from dozens of institutions in more than 25 countries* Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers today. One in eight women will
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What tailgating does to men's bodies
The heavy eating and drinking that go along with tailgating doesn't affect all men the same way, new research suggests. Researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine simulated a tailgating situation with a small group of overweight but healthy men and examined the impact of the eating and drinking on their livers using blood tests and a liver scan. They discovered remarkably diff
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Suicide-related internet searches during early stages of COVID-19 pandemic
This study monitored suicide-related internet search rates during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and researchers report searches for suicide decreased during that time. Although this study cannot independently confirm that changes in search rates were caused by changes in population-level suicide rates, it showed that COVID-19 may have been inversely associated with
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Palaeontology: Fossil burrows point to ancient seafloor colonization by giant marine worms
Giant ambush-predator worms, possible ancestors of the 'bobbit worm', may have colonized the seafloor of the Eurasian continent around 20 million years ago. The findings, based on the reconstruction of large, L-shaped burrows from layers of seafloor dating back to the Miocene (23 million to 5.3 million years ago) of northeast Taiwan, are reported in Scientific Reports this week.
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Drug-delivery microcapsules tagged with zirconium-89 can be tracked by PET imaging
Polymer and radionuclide chemists report major advance in microcapsule drug delivery systems. Their microcapsules — labeled with radioactive zirconium-89 — are the first example of hollow polymer capsules capable of long-term, multiday positron emission tomography imaging in vivo. In previous work, the researchers showed that the hollow capsules could be filled with a potent dose of the cancer d
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Treating moms with postpartum depression helps their babies' brains
For the study 40 infants of women diagnosed with postpartum depression were matched with 40 infants of non-depressed mothers on infant age, gender and socioeconomic status. The mothers with postpartum depression received nine weeks of group CBT. The infants were all tested before the treatment and nine weeks later, including a questionnaire on the infant behaviour completed by the mother and her p
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CRISPR technology to cure sickle cell disease at UIC
The first cases treated with gene-editing technology were recently published in an article co-authored by Dr. Damiano Rondelli, the Michael Reese Professor of Hematology at the UIC College of Medicine. The article reports two patients have been cured of beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease after their own genes were edited with CRISPR-Cas9 technology. The two researchers who invented this tech
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The physics behind tumor growth
Researchers at Duke University have developed a predictive theory for tumor growth that approaches the subject from a new point of view. Rather than focusing on the biological mechanisms of cellular growth, the researchers instead use thermodynamics and the physical space the tumor is expanding into to predict its evolution from a single cell to a complex cancerous mass.
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Message in a bottle: Info-rich bubbles respond to antibiotics
In a new study, Luis H. Cisneros and his colleagues describe the effects of antibiotics on membrane vesicles, demonstrating that such drugs actively modify the properties of vesicle transport. Under the influence of antibiotics, MVs were produced and released by bacteria in greater abundance and traveled faster and further from their origin. The work sheds new light on these important information-
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California harbor porpoises rebound after coastal gillnetting stopped
Harbor porpoises have rebounded in a big way off California. Their populations have recovered dramatically since the end of state set-gillnet fisheries that years ago entangled and killed them in the nearshore waters they frequent. These coastal set-gillnet fisheries are distinct from federally-managed offshore drift-gillnet fisheries. They have been prohibited in inshore state waters for more tha
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Arnold Schwarzenegger Gets COVID Vaccine
Former California Governor — and over-the-top 80s and 90s action movie star — Arnold Schwarzenegger got the first of two injections that make up the coronavirus vaccine on Wednesday. Like several other public figures , the actor-turned-politician decided to get vaccinated on camera, NBC reports , so that he could use the opportunity to encourage anyone who might be hesitant about getting the COVI
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California harbor porpoises rebound after coastal gillnetting stopped
Harbor porpoises have rebounded in a big way off California. Their populations have recovered dramatically since the end of state set-gillnet fisheries that years ago entangled and killed them in the nearshore waters they frequent. These coastal set-gillnet fisheries are distinct from federally-managed offshore drift-gillnet fisheries. They have been prohibited in inshore state waters for more tha
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Innovations through hair-thin optical fibers
Scientists at the University of Bonn have built hair-thin optical fiber filters in a very simple way. They are not only extremely compact and stable, but also color-tunable. This means they can be used in quantum technology and as sensors for temperature or for detecting atmospheric gases. The results have been published in the journal Optics Express.
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Lasers create miniature robots from bubbles
Robots are widely used to build cars, paint airplanes and sew clothing in factories, but the assembly of microscopic components, such as those for biomedical applications, has not yet been automated. Lasers could be the solution. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have used lasers to create miniature robots from bubbles that lift, drop and manipulate small pieces into
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How fellow students improve your own grades
Better grades thanks to your fellow students? A study conducted by the University of Zurich's Faculty of Business, Economics and Informatics has revealed that not only the grade point average, gender and nationality peers can influence your own academic achievement, but so can their personalities. Intensive contact and interaction with persistent fellow students improve your own performance, and t
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The idea of an environmental tax is finally gaining strength
An extra 290,000 pounds a year for lighting and cleaning because smog darkens and pollutes everything: with this cost estimate for the industrial city of Manchester, the English economist Arthur Cecil Pigou once founded the theory of environmental taxation. In the classic "The Economics of Welfare," the first edition of which was published as early as 1920, he proved that by allowing such 'externa
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Early breeding reduced harmful mutations in sorghum
When humans first domesticated maize some 9,000 years ago, those early breeding efforts led to an increase in harmful mutations to the crop's genome compared to their wild relatives, which more recent modern breeding has helped to correct.
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Giant worm's undersea lair discovered by fossil hunters in Taiwan
Scientists believe 2-metre-long burrow once housed predator that ambushed passing sea creatures The undersea lair of a giant worm that ambushed passing marine creatures 20m years ago has been uncovered by fossil hunters in Taiwan. Researchers believe the 2-metre-long burrow found in ancient marine sediment once housed a prehistoric predator that burst out of the seabed and dragged unsuspecting an
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Getting rescued by helicopter has risks. This gadget could make it safer.
The litter stabilization system, in this configuration, consists of two units, one at each end of the rescue basket. (Scott C Childress / U.S. Army/) When Caleb Carr was 15, he was taking part in a search-and-rescue training expedition in Oregon, and an adult on the trip suffered a heart attack. A helicopter from the state's National Guard arrived to try to airlift the man out, but the operation
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Dare to lead as your authentic self | Tracy Young
As the founder of a startup, Tracy Young often worried that employees and investors valued male CEOs more — and that being a woman compromised her position as a leader. In this brave, personal talk, she gives an honest look at the constraints women face when trying to adapt to a male-dominated business culture — and shares how she developed the courage and vulnerability to lead as her complete,
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Fossil burrows point to ancient seafloor colonization by giant marine worms
Giant ambush-predator worms, possible ancestors of the 'bobbit worm', may have colonized the seafloor of the Eurasian continent around 20 million years ago. The findings, based on the reconstruction of large, L-shaped burrows from layers of seafloor dating back to the Miocene (23 million to 5.3 million years ago) of northeast Taiwan, are reported in Scientific Reports this week.
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Antarctica: the ocean cools at the surface but warms up at depth
Scientists from the CNRS, CNES, IRD, Sorbonne Université, l'Université Toulouse III – Paul Sabatier and their Australian colleagues, with the support of the IPEV, have concluded that the slight cooling observed at the surface of the Southern Ocean hides a rapid and marked warming of the waters, to a depth of up to 800 metres. These results were obtained thanks to unique data acquired over the past
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California harbor porpoises rebound after coastal gillnetting stopped
Harbor porpoises have rebounded in a big way off California. Their populations have recovered dramatically since the end of state set-gillnet fisheries that years ago entangled and killed them in the nearshore waters they frequent. These coastal set-gillnet fisheries are distinct from federally-managed offshore drift-gillnet fisheries. They have been prohibited in inshore state waters for more tha
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Fossil burrows point to ancient seafloor colonization by giant marine worms
Giant ambush-predator worms, possible ancestors of the 'bobbit worm', may have colonized the seafloor of the Eurasian continent around 20 million years ago. The findings, based on the reconstruction of large, L-shaped burrows from layers of seafloor dating back to the Miocene (23 million to 5.3 million years ago) of northeast Taiwan, are reported in Scientific Reports this week.
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English care homes 'sitting ducks' as GPs refuse Covid vaccine at infected sites
Suspected outbreaks recorded in 635 facilities, but vaccinations delayed despite NHS deadline to protect vulnerable people Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Covid outbreaks are slowing delivery of the vaccine to some care homes in England as GPs postpone jabs in infected facilities. Managers say they have been left as sitting ducks. Suspected Covid outbreaks were recor
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Secret Ingredient Found to Power Supernovas
In 1987, a giant star exploded right next to our own Milky Way galaxy. It was the brightest and closest supernova since the invention of the telescope some four centuries earlier, and just about every observatory turned to take a look. Perhaps most excitingly, specialized observatories buried deep underground captured shy subatomic particles called neutrinos streaming out of the blast. These part
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Innovations through hair-thin optical fibres
Scientists at the University of Bonn have built hair-thin optical fibre filters in a very simple way. They are not only extremely compact and stable, but also colour-tunable. This means they can be used in quantum technology and as sensors for temperature or for detecting atmospheric gases. The results have been published in the journal "Optics Express".
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COVID-19 model reveals key role for innate immunity in controlling viral load
Since SARS-CoV-2 was identified in December 2019, researchers have worked feverishly to study the novel coronavirus. Although much knowledge has been gained, scientists still have a lot to learn about how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human body, and how the immune system fights it. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science have developed a mathematical model of SARS-C
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Lasers create miniature robots from bubbles (video)
Robots are widely used to build cars, paint airplanes and sew clothing in factories, but the assembly of microscopic components, such as those for biomedical applications, has not yet been automated. Lasers could be the solution. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have used lasers to create miniature robots from bubbles that lift, drop and manipulate small pieces into
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How fellow students improve your own grades
Better grades thanks to your fellow students? A study conducted by the University of Zurich's Faculty of Business, Economics and Informatics has revealed that not only the grade point average, gender and nationality peers can influence your own academic achievement, but so can their personalities. Intensive contact and interaction with persistent fellow students improve your own performance, and t
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Incentivizing vaccine adherence: could it be the key to achieving herd immunity?
To achieve success, experts estimate that at least 70 to 90 percent of the population must be inoculated with a COVID-19 vaccine to achieve herd immunity, but how can we ensure folks will voluntarily receive a vaccine? An examination of scientific evidence on incentivizing vaccine adherence found that modest financial incentives resulted in as much as a 7-fold increase in adherence compared to no
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Alla ålar är från en och samma population
De föds och dör i Sargassohavet, men är annars spridda över stora geografiska områden. Till skillnad från andra djur med stort utbredningsområde, har alla ålar samma genetiska uppsättning. Forskare som jämfört hela arvsmassan hos ålar från olika delar av Europa och Nordafrika är förvånade. – När vi jämför ålar från olika områden hittar vi inga som helst skillnader i frekvensen av genvarianter. Tr
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There's no way we could stop a rogue AI
Artificial intelligence that's smarter than us could potentially solve problems beyond our grasp. AI that are self-learning can absorb whatever information they need from the internet, a Pandora's Box if ever there was one. The nature of computing itself prevents us from limiting the actions of a super-intelligent AI if it gets out of control. There have been a fair number of voices— Stephen Hawk
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The UK has record death tolls, yet still the government has no clear Covid strategy | Helen Ward
Vaccination on its own is not a way out of this pandemic. We need to use other tools and involve ordinary people Helen Ward is professor of public health at Imperial College London Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Back in April 2020, I wrote of my despair that so many people were desperately ill and dying because politicians had "refused to listen and act on advice".
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Fighting respiratory virus outbreaks through 'nano-popcorn' sensor-based rapid detection
Respiratory diseases like influenza can spread rapidly and escalate to global health crises. Thus, to control them, simple yet sensitive detection techniques are needed. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a potential candidate but currently lacks reproducibility. To overcome this, researchers in Korea have now developed a novel SERS-based sensor that can effectively detect influenza A vir
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Teamwork in a molecule
Chemists at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena have demonstrated the value of 'teamwork' by successfully harnessing the interaction between two gallium atoms in a novel compound to split the particularly strong bond between fluorine and carbon. The gallium compound is also cheaper and more environmentally friendly than conventional alternatives.
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Crystal close up
Two novel techniques, atomic-resolution real-time video and conical carbon nanotube confinement, allow researchers to view never-before-seen details about crystal formation. The observations confirm theoretical predictions about how salt crystals form and could inform general theories about the way in which crystal formation produces different ordered structures from an otherwise disordered chemic
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Direct current stimulation of the brain over Wernicke's area can help people learn new words
Researchers from the Laboratory of Behavioural Neurodynamics at St Petersburg University have studied how different types of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the brain affect the acquisition of new words. Their experiments have shown that cathodal tDCS over Wernicke's area enables subjects to better remember new abstract words – those that refer to non-physical entities and ideas.
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Oldest carbonates in the solar system
A meteorite that fell in northern Germany in 2019 contains carbonates which are among the oldest in the solar system; it also evidences the earliest presence of liquid water on a minute planet. The high-resolution Ion Probe – a research instrument at the Institute of Earth Sciences at Heidelberg University – provided the measurements.
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Researchers study what happens to your body during tailgating
Football watch parties are synonymous with eating fatty foods and drinking alcohol. Have you ever wondered what all of that eating and drinking does to your body? Researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine simulated a tailgating situation with a small group of overweight but healthy men and examined the impact of the eating and drinking on their livers using blood tests and a l
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NUST MISIS scientists develop fastest-ever quantum random number generator
An international research team has developed a fast and affordable quantum random number generator. The device created by scientists from NUST MISIS, Russian Quantum Center, University of Oxford, Goldsmiths, University of London and Freie Universität Berlin produces randomness at a rate of 8.05 gigabits per second, which makes it the fastest random number generator of its kind. The study has been
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Hope for a vaccination against Staphylococcus areus infections?
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ranks among the globally most important causes of infections in humans and is considered a dreaded hospital pathogen. Active and passive immunisation against multi-resistant strains is seen as a potentially valuable alternative to antibiotic therapy. However, all vaccine candidates so far have been clinically unsuccessful. With an epitope-based immunisation, scien
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Bonobos, chimpanzees, and oxytocin
Kyoto University researchers analyze the effects of the hormone oxytocin in our closest primate cousins, bonobos and chimpanzees by tracking their eye movement — a important indicator of social interaction. Similar to other mammals, oxytocin increases eye contact in bonobos. However, the opposite effect is observed in chimpanzees. Therefore, oxytocin could play a modulating role in the social evo
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European eels – one gene pool fits all
European eels spawn in the subtropical Sargasso Sea but spend most of their adult life in a range of fresh- and brackish waters, across Europe and Northern Africa. Using whole-genome analysis, a team of scientists led from Uppsala University provides conclusive evidence that all European eels belong to a single panmictic population irrespective of where they spend their adult life, an extraordinar
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Spontaneous cell fusions amplify genetic diversity within tumors, Moffitt researchers say
Scientists generally believe that cancers lack a powerful and important diversification mechanism available to pathogenic microbes – the ability to exchange and recombine genetic material between different cells. However, in a new article published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers demonstrate that this belief is wrong and that cancer cells are capable of exchanging
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Many junior doctors feel out of their depth with the end-of-life decisions faced during COVID-19 pandemic
In normal times, end-of-life care discussions are most commonly led by senior doctors. However, new research from a busy London hospital shows that the high numbers of deaths taking place in hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic, frequently out-of-hours, is leading to junior (foundation level) doctors having to lead on these difficult discussions with families, often with no formal experience or
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The Lancet Public Health: Modelling study estimates impact of 'test to release' strategy to reduce – or replace – quarantine for contacts of COVID-19 cases
Quarantine time after contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case could potentially be reduced to 7 days without raising the risk of onward transmission of the virus by testing people on the seventh day of quarantine with either a PCR or lateral flow antigen (LFA) test, findings from an English modelling study published today in The Lancet Public Health journal suggest.
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Dire wolves are actually ice age mega-foxes
The giant predators weren't closely related to today's canines, even if they look quite a lot alike. (MAURICIO ANTÓN/) When you picture a dire wolf, the image that comes to mind is probably one of those unbelievably fluffy yet terrifying creatures that inhabited Winterfell in Game of Thrones. And you'd hardly be the only one, fans of the show that fell in love with its otherworldly pups started b
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TikTok Star Sets Up Bed in Tesla to Sleep While Autopilot Drives
Reckless Driving Ever since Tesla decided to advertise its self driving feature as " Autopilot ," drivers have gotten into varying degrees of trouble for letting their vehicles take the reins on the highway — while they take a nap at the wheel. The obvious danger didn't discourage TikTok star Johnathon Cook, whose over one million followers were able to watch him tuck himself in to a cozy bed in
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Earth Has Stayed Habitable for Billions of Years. Exactly How Lucky Did We Get?
It took evolution three or four billion years to produce Homo sapiens. If the climate had completely failed just once in that time, then evolution would have come to a crashing halt and we would not be here now. So to understand how we came to exist on planet Earth, we'll need to know how Earth managed to stay fit for life for billions of years. This is not a trivial problem. Current global warmi
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Type 2 Diabetes: New Evidence Underlines the Role of Obesity in Late Complications
Successful weight loss is considered to be an integral part of the therapy for type 2 diabetes. New data from a large-scale observational study carried out at German Institute of Human Nutrition in cooperation with the German Center for Diabetes Research support the current recommendations of physicians. The findings, published in the journal Diabetologia, suggest that obesity and weight gain can
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Expanded PET imaging time window adds flexibility for neuroendocrine tumor patients
The imaging time window of 64Cu-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms can be expanded from one hour to three hours post-injection, according to new research published in the January issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. In a head-to-head comparison of scans performed at the two time intervals, there were no significant dif
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Reviving exhausted immune cells to fight cancer
Eliminating a single gene can turn exhausted cancer-fighting immune cells known as CD8+ T cells back into refreshed soldiers that can continue to battle malignant tumors, a new study led by UT Southwestern researchers suggests. The findings, published online this week in the Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer, could offer a new way to harness the body's immune system to attack cancers.
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Researchers develop a new approach to detect pancreatic cancer
A protein found commonly in human blood might help with the detection of hard-to-diagnose pancreatic tumours. Researchers at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU), the Alfried Krupp Hospital in Essen and the University of Witten/Herdecke have developed approach using the protein's structure and its function as a proxy for this. In a first study in ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science
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Boosted photocatalysis for hydrogen evolution: Reactant supply thru phosphonate groups
Water splitting research for solar hydrogen production has focused on physical processes inside the semiconductor, such as light absorption, charge separation, and chemical processes on the surface that are highly complex and rely on the development of new materials. The concept proposed in this study is design of the electrolyte-photocatalyst interface. The approach of immobilizing functional gro
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Trump's Parting Gift to Joe Biden
Donald Trump's chaotic final days in the White House could present President Joe Biden with a historic opportunity to broaden his base of public support and splinter Republican opposition to his agenda. Recent polls have repeatedly found that about three-fourths or more of GOP voters accept Trump's disproven charges that Biden stole the 2020 election, a number that has understandably alarmed dome
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Stickiness is a weapon some plants use to fend off hungry insects
Imagine the texture of a plant. Many may come to mind—the smooth rubberiness of many tropical houseplants, the impossibly soft lamb's ear, the sharp spines of cacti, or the roughness of tree bark. But stickiness, in the flypaper-stick-to-your-fingers sense, probably isn't at the top of your list.
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COVID-19 vaccine: 1 dose for many or 2 doses for some?
Until COVID-19 vaccine supply increases, "we are better off vaccinating twice as many people" with a first dose only, says Christopher Gill, an infectious disease specialist with vaccine development expertise. To curb the spread of coronavirus, some experts, including Gill , advocate for a vaccination strategy that prioritizes giving as many people as possible their first dose of the COVID-19 vac
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Biden administration must act fast to save migratory birds
On January 5, 2021, the day before the world watched in horror as the U.S. Capitol was assaulted, the Trump administration laid siege to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. The revision is a major blow to conservation efforts, lifting penalties for industries that accidentally cause harm to birds protected under the act.
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Early humans used chopping tools to break animal bones and consume the bone marrow
– Using advanced scientific methods, researchers from Tel Aviv University found that stone tools of the type known as 'chopping tools' were used to break open the bones of animals. – The researchers: "The bones must be broken neatly in two, which requires great skill and precision". – Tools of this type were used for over two million years. They were found in large quantities at prehistoric sites
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Saturn's tilt caused by its moons
Two scientists from CNRS and Sorbonne University working at the Institute of Celestial Mechanics and Ephemeris Calculation (Paris Observatory – PSL/CNRS) have just shown that the influence of Saturn's satellites can explain the tilt of the rotation axis of the gas giant. Their work, published on 18 January 2021 in the journal Nature Astronomy, also predicts that the tilt will increase even further
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Two-photon polymerization of PEGda hydrogel microstructure with low threshold power with green laser
The fabrication of shape-memory hydrogel scaffolds not only requires biocompatibility, micrometre resolution, high mechanical strength, but also requires a low polymerisation threshold in high-water content environment to incorporate microstructures with biological tissues. Towards this goal, scientists from China and australite developed a new hydrogel formula that full fills this goal and demons
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Butterfly wing clap explains mystery of flight
The fluttery flight of butterflies has so far been somewhat of a mystery to researchers, given their unusually large and broad wings relative to their body size. Now researchers at Lund University in Sweden have studied the aerodynamics of butterflies in a wind tunnel. The results suggest that butterflies use a highly effective clap technique, therefore making use of their unique wings. This helps
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A critical review of graphene quantum dots and their application in biosensors
In a paper published in NANO , researchers from Hubei, China discuss the top-down and bottom-up strategies for the synthesis of Graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The respective advantages and disadvantages of these methods are summarized. With regard to some important or novel ones, the mechanisms are proposed for reference. In addition, the application of GQDs in biosensors is highlighted in detail.
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On the trail of active ingredients from marine yeasts
Numerous natural products are awaiting discovery in all kinds of natural habitats. Especially microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi are able to produce diverse natural products with high biomedical application potential in particular as antibiotics and anticancer agents. Researchers from GEOMAR and Kiel University isolated red yeast of the species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa from a deep-sea sedime
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Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells underestimated
A recent McGill study published in Environmental Science and Technology finds that annual methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas (AOG) wells in Canada and the US have been greatly underestimated – by as much as 150% in Canada, and by 20% in the US. Indeed, the research suggests that methane gas emissions from AOG wells are currently the 10th and 11th largest sources of anthropogenic methane
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How South Africa can prepare for a data-driven education system
There are significant disparities in South Africa's education system. Schools are divided into quintiles, from one to five; the poorest, in quintile one, struggle enormously with a lack of resources and support. They also tend to have poorer educational outcomes. That has a direct effect on university admission and outcomes.
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Is the dormancy of flies possible in people?
New research raises a question straight out of science fiction: Is it possible to activate the biological impulse that prompts dormancy in some living creatures in others, such as humans? A new study models what regulates metabolism in an insect called the flesh fly during its dormant, or diapause, phase. The flies enter into a state of massive "metabolic depression" that is regularly punctuated
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European eels: One gene pool fits all
European eels spawn in the subtropical Sargasso Sea but spend most of their adult life in a range of fresh- and brackish waters, across Europe and Northern Africa. How eels adapt to such diverse environments has long puzzled biologists. Using whole-genome analysis, a team of scientists led from Uppsala University provides conclusive evidence that all European eels belong to a single panmictic popu
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European eels: One gene pool fits all
European eels spawn in the subtropical Sargasso Sea but spend most of their adult life in a range of fresh- and brackish waters, across Europe and Northern Africa. How eels adapt to such diverse environments has long puzzled biologists. Using whole-genome analysis, a team of scientists led from Uppsala University provides conclusive evidence that all European eels belong to a single panmictic popu
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Gigantic dinosaur unearthed in Argentina could be largest land animal ever
A team of researchers with Naturales y Museo, Universidad de Zaragoza and Universidad Nacional del Comahue has found evidence that suggests the remains of a dinosaur discovered in Argentina in 2012 may represent a creature that was the largest ever to walk the Earth. In their paper published in the journal Cretaceous Research, the group describes the fossilized remains that have been found so far
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3-D printing to pave the way for moon colonization
A research team from the Skoltech Center for Design, Manufacturing and Materials (CDMM) comprising 2nd year Ph.D. student Maxim Isachenkov, Senior Research Scientist Svyatoslav Chugunov, Professor Iskander Akhatov, and Professor Igor Shishkovsky has prepared an extensive review on the use of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies (also known as 3-D-printing) in crewed lunar exploration. Their pa
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Gigantic dinosaur unearthed in Argentina could be largest land animal ever
A team of researchers with Naturales y Museo, Universidad de Zaragoza and Universidad Nacional del Comahue has found evidence that suggests the remains of a dinosaur discovered in Argentina in 2012 may represent a creature that was the largest ever to walk the Earth. In their paper published in the journal Cretaceous Research, the group describes the fossilized remains that have been found so far
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Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells underestimated
A recent McGill study published in Environmental Science and Technology finds that annual methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas (AOG) wells in Canada and the US have been greatly underestimated—by as much as 150% in Canada, and by 20% in the US. Indeed, the research suggests that methane gas emissions from AOG wells are currently the 10th and 11th largest sources of anthropogenic methane em
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