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Richard Branson Didn't Go to Space Yesterday, He Just Cruised Through the Upper Atmosphere
It's the battle of the billionaires. Virgin Galactic CEO Richard Branson managed to one up competitor and Blue Origin CEO Jeff Bezos by getting to "space" nine days before Bezos could even climb on board his own rocket. On Sunday, Branson — alongside a crew of six — successfully managed to reach an altitude of 50 miles after being carried to 50,000 feet inside a rocket plane called VSS Unity, att
7h
Hygiene theatre: how excessive cleaning gives us a false sense of security
Covid-19 is a mainly airborne disease. So does our endless disinfecting and hand sanitising serve any purpose – or could it be worse than useless? Claudia, a 26-year-old beauty worker, dreads it when her clients ask to go to the toilet. "It's a whole other thing to clean," she says. "They could have touched anything in there. I have to wipe down the whole thing with antibacterial spray and wipes.
12h
Chinese achieve new milestone with 56 qubit computer
A team of researchers affiliated with multiple institutions in China, working at the University of Science and Technology of China, has achieved another milestone in the development of a usable quantum computer. The group has written a paper describing its latest efforts and have uploaded it to the arXiv preprint server.
4h
Just 25 mega-cities produce 52% of the world's urban greenhouse gas emissions
In 2015, 170 countries worldwide adopted the Paris Agreement, with the goal limiting the average global temperature increase to 1.5°C. Following the agreement, many countries and cities proposed targets for greenhouse gas mitigation. However, the UNEP Emissions Gap Report 2020 shows that, without drastic and strict actions to mitigate the climate crisis, we are still heading for a temperature incr
13h
New electronic paper displays brilliant colours
Imagine sitting out in the sun, reading a digital screen as thin as paper, but seeing the same image quality as if you were indoors. Thanks to research from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, it could soon be a reality. A new type of reflective screen—sometimes described as electronic paper—offers optimal color display, while using ambient light to keep energy consumption to a minimum.
7h
Population-specific diversity within fungi species could enable improved drug discovery
Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin–Madison have discovered that genetically distinct populations within the same species of fungi can produce unique mixes of secondary metabolites, which are organic compounds with applications in medicine, industry and agriculture. The finding could open new avenues for drug discovery and provide a deeper understanding of f
7h
Long Covid: rogue antibody discovery raises hope of blood test
Test could be available from GPs within six months, as scientists warn of 'a lot of damage to a lot of lives' Scientists have raised hopes of a blood test for long Covid after discovering distinctive patterns of rogue antibodies in patients whose symptoms persisted for months. Researchers at Imperial College London identified so-called "autoantibodies" in long Covid patients that were absent in p
15h
Flu jab may reduce severe effects of Covid, suggests study
Analysis of 75,000 coronavirus patients found fewer major health problems among people with flu jab Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage People who are vaccinated against influenza may be partly protected against some of the severe effects of coronavirus, and be less likely to need emergency care, according to a major study. The analysis of nearly 75,000 Covid patients fo
16h
NASA Says a Change in the Moon's Orbit Will Make Flooding on Earth Worse
Tide Pool Starting next decade, scientists say, a "wobble" in the Moon's orbit is about to make coastal flooding here on Earth a whole lot worse. When the wobble begins, American coastal cities may suddenly start to flood three or four times as often as they do now, according to research by NASA and the University of Hawaii that was published in the journal Nature Climate Change last month. In th
6h
Two-thirds of couples start out as friends, research finds
Average length of friendship before relationship turns romantic is 22 months, study says When Harry first met Sally, he asserted men and women could not be friends because the "sex part always gets in the way". But new research suggests roughly two-thirds of couples start out as friends and maintain a platonic relationship for long periods before sparking a romance. Continue reading…
8h
Tucker Carlson's Manufactured America
F irst comes the piece of timber. Then the strip of leather. Then the fence, the mountain, the trees, the river. The pictures whirl, like icons in a Western-themed slot machine, until they land on their final image: the smiling face of Tucker Carlson. This spring, Carlson began hosting a new show on Fox Nation, the network's digital streaming service. Tucker Carlson Today features interviews, one
11h
Trump's Revenge Begins in Georgia
T o many Americans, Brad Raffensperger is one of the heroes of the 2020 election. Georgia's secretary of state, who is a conservative Republican, refused then-President Donald Trump's direct pleas to "find" the votes that would overturn his defeat in the state. "I've shown that I'm willing to stand in the gap," Raffensperger told me last week, "and I'll make sure that we have honest elections." A
11h
Russia Proposes Nuclear Power Plant on Mars
Nuclear Plant The concept of using nuclear power to build out our human presence in other parts of the solar system is as alive as it's ever been. Case in point, a subsidiary of Russia's Roscosmos space agency is now proposing a nuclear power station on Mars, intended to power a future Russian base on the Red Planet, state-run news agency Sputnik reports . The Arsenal Design Bureau, the subsidiar
3h
DNA Has Four Bases. Some Viruses Swap in a Fifth.
All life on Earth rests on the same foundation: a four-letter genetic alphabet spelling out a repertoire of three-letter words that specify 20 amino acids. These basic building blocks — the components of DNA and their molecular interpreters — lie at biology's core. "It's hard to imagine something more fundamental," said Floyd Romesberg, a synthetic biologist at the pharmaceutical company Sanofi.
6h
Emergency Medicine's Original Sin
Lindsey Kaczmarek gets called an ambulance driver more often than she gets called a paramedic. "That's absolutely not what I do," she told me. What she does do is show up when someone needs medical help, figure out what's wrong with them, and do whatever she can to help them survive the trip to the hospital—in her case, the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. The primary symptom for one in three
10h
Elon Musk Warns Drivers Not To Trust New "Full Self-Driving" Update
Patch Notes Tesla has finally started to roll out the latest version of its "Full Self-Driving" beta, which is its long-awaited assisted driving update that gives Teslas the ability to automatically change lanes and obey traffic lights and stop signs. That's an exciting development on Tesla's journey toward vehicles that are self-driving in technological capacity rather than name . But as Insider
4h
What science has to say about talking to yourself in lockdown | Charles Fernyhough
When none of the usual people are around to have a conversation with, 'private speech' can be helpful as well as fun Camille remembers the first time she noticed talking to herself out loud. "It was almost like, ' Oh, that's my voice', in a way that I wouldn't have thought of it if I'd been speaking in a meeting. I was usually reporting on what I was doing. I might say, ' Go on, take an onion; ta
11h
Elon Musk Goes to Court, Calls Opposing Attorney a "Bad Human Being"
Tesla CEO Elon Musk had to testify today in a lawsuit over his car company's 2016 acquisition of SolarCity, a publicly traded solar energy company that was near bankruptcy at the time. According to the suit, lodged by company shareholders, the acquisition was a waste of Tesla investors' funds — and they want Musk to pay Tesla back what it spent on the purchase. The suit also claims that Musk pers
1h
Scientists: We Could Smash Existing Satellites Into a Killer Asteroid to Knock It Off Course
Planning Ahead For years, scientists have worried about what to do if or when a killer asteroid comes our way. Experts have theorized all sorts of mitigation plans, ranging from knocking it off course with rockets, blasting them with nukes , or even tethering multiple asteroids together . But Airbus scientists commissioned by the European Space Agency (ESA) have a new plan, Space.com reports , an
2h
Can you solve it? Oxford university admissions questions
Brainteasers for budding philosophers UPDATE: Solutions can now be read here. Do you have what it takes to study philosophy at Oxford? Today's three puzzles are 'epistemic logic puzzles', that is, puzzles concerned with reasoning about knowledge. But I know you know I know you know that. All three puzzles have been set in recent years during Oxford university admissions interviews for joint philo
15h
Health campaigners call for an end to the use of the word leper
Derogatory use of the "L-word" has increased during Covid and is said to be further marginalising people with the curable disease Health campaigners are calling for an end to the use of the word leper, saying the language frequently used by politicians and others during the pandemic has made people with leprosy even more marginalised. The metaphor of the socially outcast "leper" has been used oft
15h
Watching the Milky Way's supermassive black hole feed
The supermassive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy, Sagittarius A*, is by far the closest such object to us, about 27,000 light-years away. Although it is not nearly so active or luminous as other galactic nuclei with supermassive black holes, its relative proximity makes it appear much brighter to us than other similar sources and provides astronomers with a unique opportunity to p
7h
WHO Says Gene-Hacking Superhumans Should Be Illegal
After the now-infamous scientist He Jiankui experimentally gene-hacked several human embryos and allowed them to be born as babies, the genetics research community began to scramble to for new ground rules. Now some of those rules are starting to take shape, The Wall Street Journal reports . A special World Health Organization advisory panel issued two new reports on Monday that issue recommendat
1h
Scenes From California's Sugar Fire
The Sugar Fire, part of California's larger Beckwourth Complex Fire, began on July 2 and expanded dramatically over the past weekend. Flames were pushed by strong winds into the town of Doyle, near the Nevada border, destroying multiple structures. The Beckwourth Complex is the state's largest fire incident so far this year, burning more than 130 square miles in Plumas County. With an ongoing dro
4h
Restoring touch in nerves damaged by injury
Tel Aviv University's new and groundbreaking technology inspires hope among people who have lost their sense of touch in the nerves of a limb following amputation or injury. The technology involves a tiny sensor that is implanted in the nerve of the injured limb, for example in the finger, and is connected directly to a healthy nerve. Each time the limb touches an object, the sensor is activated a
6h
Scientists Say World Is Approaching Non-Reversible "Tipping Point" in Plastic Pollution
Plastic Pollution An international team of researchers are ringing the alarm bells, warning that our global plastic pollution problem may be nearing the point of no return. In a new study published in the journal Science , the researchers found that the planet is approaching a tipping point. Plastics are a "poorly reversible pollutant," the team argues, since they degrade very slowly, and are bei
3h
Starwatch: Now is the time to follow the Milky Way
In the northern hemisphere, summer is the best time to see the centre of the galaxy – the combined light of billions of stars This week, and indeed throughout the month, grab a clear night to stay up late and trace out the Milky Way. Northern summer is the best time to see the centre of the galaxy. Continue reading…
16h
Researchers unlock behavior of rare cells that evade antibiotics by 'playing dead'
Researchers have developed a new microfluidic platform to track a very rare type of cell that can survive antibiotic treatments. The results have important implications for microbiologists learning about the cellular control of bacterial physiology and for scientists looking to combat the emerging threat of antibiotic resistance bacteria that can lead to untreatable infections.
7h
Israel Begins Administering World's First COVID Booster Shots
Israel has started to give some of its citizens a third Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine on Monday. The injections, which Axios notes are the first public-facing COVID-19 booster shots to be administered anywhere in the world, are meant to combat the growing surge of delta variant infections in the country due to concerns that existing vaccine protocols might not be good enough to stop it. For
49min
Human environmental genome recovered in the absence of skeletal remains
Ancient sediments from caves have already been proven to preserve DNA for thousands of years. The amount of recovered sequences from environmental sediments, however, is generally low, which confounds the analyses performed with these sequences. A study led by Ron Pinhasi and Pere Gelabert of the University of Vienna and published in Current Biology successfully retrieved three mammalian environme
4h
Richard Branson just flew to the edge of space. Here's what it means for space travel.
The timing could have been better. Yesterday, July 11, British entrepreneur and billionaire Richard Branson shot to the edge of space in a vehicle made by his own company, Virgin Galactic – at a time when much of the world is still battling a deadly pandemic. Yet while receiving a fair amount of criticism, Branson's flight heralds a key step towards making space travel more accessible than ever b
10h
What's a suborbital flight? An aerospace engineer explains
"Suborbital" is a term you'll be hearing a lot as Sir Richard Branson flies aboard Virgin Galactic's VSS Unity winged spaceship and Jeff Bezos flies aboard Blue Origin's New Shepard vehicle to touch the boundary of space and experience a few minutes of weightlessness.
10h
Virgin Galactic shares fall after $500m stock sale announcement
Fundraising decision comes only a day after Richard Branson took a flight to the edge of space Shares in Virgin Galactic have fallen back to earth with a bump after an announcement by the spaceflight firm of its plans to sell up to $500m (£360m) of stock – only a day after the company's founder, Richard Branson, completed a flight to the edge of space. Virgin Galactic's share price had risen by a
4h
Globular clusters NGC 1261 and NGC 6934 investigated in detail
Based on the data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), astronomers have conducted a detailed spectroscopic and photometric study of two Type II globular clusters (GCs), namely NGC 1261 and NGC 6934. Results of the research, published June 30 on arXiv.org, provide essential information regarding the properties of these clusters and could advance our knowledge about the population of Type II GCs.
7h
Cheaters drawn to the opportunity to cheat
A study by the Max Planck Institute for Tax Law and Public Finance shows that dishonestly earned money stinks to some but attracts others. Given the choice, some people consciously seek out situations in which to cheat. For them, lying comes at a lower psychological cost.
7h
Swarm yields new insight into animal migration
Using measurements from ESA's Earth Explorer Swarm mission, scientists have developed a new tool that links the strength and direction of the magnetic field to the flight paths of migrating birds. This is a huge step forward to understanding how animals use Earth's magnetic field to navigate vast distances.
7h
Researchers on quest to understand how different sexes first evolved
For 30 years, University of Tokyo Associate Professor Hisayoshi Nozaki has traveled an hour west of Tokyo to visit the Sagami River and collect algal samples to understand how living things evolved different sexes. Through new analysis of samples collected in 2007 and 2013 from dam lakes along the river, Lake Sagami and Lake Tsukui, researchers identified a species of freshwater algae that evolved
4h
MIT researchers probe why antimatter violates the fundamental symmetry of physics
Imagine a dust particle in a storm cloud, and you can get an idea of a neutron's insignificance compared to the magnitude of the molecule it inhabits. But just as a dust mote might affect a cloud's track, a neutron can influence the energy of its molecule despite being less than one-millionth its size. And now physicists at MIT and elsewhere have successfully measured a neutron's tiny effect in a
14h
Emotions and culture are most important for acceptance of carnivore management strategies
Emotions towards and cultural importance of large carnivores are better predictors of the acceptance of management strategies by local communities than the extent of livestock depredation. This is the result of an interdisciplinary investigation led by Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research. They conducted 100 questionnaires with Maasai pastoralists in Ngorongoro Conservation Area, focusi
8min
Mark Rober's Bioluminescent Shark Dive | Shark Week
Stream Stranger Sharks on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/stranger-sharks-us About Stranger Sharks: @Mark Rober and @Noah Schnapp from Stranger Things are teaming up for the ultimate Shark Week adventure — exploring abandoned undersea ruins and manmade artificial reefs searching for the strangest sharks in the ocean. Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Follow
27min
Neither remdesivir nor HCQ affect viral clearance in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
NOR-Solidarity, an independent, add-on, randomized controlled trial to the World Health Organization (WHO) Solidarity trial, found that neither remdesivir nor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) affected viral clearance in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The WHO Solidarity trial showed no effect of remdesivir or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on mortality but did not assess antiviral effects of these drugs. T
29min
Going rogue: runaway planets roam the galaxy
Scientists discover four rogue planets that are unbound to any star. The discovery was made thanks to tiny microlensing light curves in data from the retired Kepler telescope. There may be billions of such rogue planets in our galaxy. It's a familiar model: a solar system comprised of several planets orbiting a sun. And it's mostly true. However, it's not always true. A study just published in th
43min
Genome editing for food: how do people react?
A research team from the University of Göttingen and the University of British Columbia (Canada) has investigated how people in five different countries react to various usages of genome editing in agriculture. The researchers looked at which uses are accepted and how the risks and benefits of the new breeding technologies are rated by people. The results show only minor differences between the co
50min
Officers' tone of voice reflects racial disparities in policing
The Black Lives Matter movement has brought increasing attention to disparities in how police officers treat Black and white Americans. Now, research published by the American Psychological Association finds that disparity may exist even in subtle differences in officers' tone of voice when they address Black and white drivers during routine traffic stops.
1h
Harnessing the dark side
Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a new way to control and shape optical singularities. The technique can be used to engineer singularities of many shapes, far beyond simple curved or straight lines. It could be used for a wide range of applications from super resolution imaging to optical trapping.
1h
Demonstration of World Record: 319 Tb/s Transmission over 3,001 km with 4-core fiber
Researchers from the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Network Research Institute, succeeded the first S, C and L-bands transmission over long-haul distances in a 4-core optical fiber with standard outer diameter (0.125 mm). The researchers constructed a transmission system that makes full use of wavelength division multiplexing technology by combining differe
1h
Direct flights save lives! New airline routes can increase kidney sharing by more than 7%
It's a supply and demand problem, it's a transportation problem, it's a donor problem – and that just scratches the surface. According to the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, every 9 minutes a new patient is added to the organ waiting list. Every day 17 people die waiting for a kidney transplant. New research in the INFORMS journal Management Science tackles the transportation part o
1h
AAN issues ethical guidance for dementia diagnosis and care
The American Academy of Neurology (AAN), the world's largest association of neurologists with more than 36,000 members, is issuing ethical guidance for neurologists and neuroscience professionals who care for people with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. The new position statement is published in the July 12, 2021 online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Ne
1h
Marijuana legalization linked to temporary decrease in opioid-related emergency visits
States that legalize recreational marijuana experience a short-term decline in opioid-related emergency department visits, particularly among 25- to 44-year-olds and men, according to an analysis led by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. The study shows that even after the temporary decline wears off, recreational cannabis laws are not associated with increases in opioi
1h
Get the Party Started—and Keep It Going—with Drizly
Quarantine proved what we already knew was coming: on-demand delivery is the future of commerce. Jeff Bezos is the world's richest person because he understood that it's much, much more convenient to shop from the comfort of your home than to actually go to a store. Amazon seems to sell virtually everything, but there's one big thing Bezos missed out on: the opportunity to deliver the best alcoho
1h
Shape-memory alloys might help airplanes land without a peep
Having a home near a busy airport certainly has its perks. It is close to many establishments and alleviates the problem of wading through endless traffic to catch flights. But it does come at a cost — tolerating the jarring sounds of commercial airplanes during landing and takeoff. Researchers at Texas A&M University have conducted a computational study that validates using a shape-memory alloy
1h
Crystal clear: Lepidopterans have many ways of being transparent
Butterflies and moths have beautiful wings: The bright flare of an orange monarch, the vivid stripes of a swallowtail, the luminous green of a Luna moth. But some butterflies flutter on even more dramatic wings: Parts of their wing, or sometimes the entire wing itself, are actually transparent.
1h
US drilling approvals increase despite Biden climate pledge
Approvals for companies to drill for oil and gas on U.S. public lands are on pace this year to reach their highest level since George W. Bush was president, underscoring President Joe Biden's reluctance to more forcefully curb petroleum production in the face of industry and Republican resistance.
1h
Kids' gun injuries come with massive costs
Hospitalizations to treat pediatric gun injuries are expensive, and US taxpayers and the poor are bearing the price, according to a new study. The average cost of initial hospitalization to treat pediatric gun injuries in the United States is about $13,000 per patient, according to a new study published in PLOS ONE . A total of about $109 million is spent on such hospitalizations in the country e
1h
Sweet success: CABBI demonstrates first precision breeding of sugarcane with CRISPR-Cas9
Two recently published innovations by University of Florida researchers at the Department of Energy's Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation (CABBI) demonstrated the first successful precision breeding of sugarcane by using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing.The work gives researchers a targeted and efficient way to develop new sugarcane varieties with higher productivity, herbicide resi
2h
Childhood lead exposure may adversely affect adults' personalities
A study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, sampled more than 1.5 million people in 269 U.S. counties and 37 European nations. Researchers found that those who grew up in areas with higher levels of atmospheric lead had less adaptive personalities in adulthood — lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness and higher levels of neuroticism.
2h
Sea-level rise solutions
By 2100, sea levels are expected to rise by almost seven feet in the Bay Area. New research shows how traditional approaches to combating sea-level rise can create a domino effect of environmental and economic impacts for nearby communities.
2h
Kate Adamala (U of M) 2: Synthetic Cells: Building Life to Understand It
https://www.ibiology.org/bioengineering/synthetic-cells Dr. Kate Adamala describes what synthetic cells are and how they can teach us the fundamental principles of life. Life on Earth evolved once – this means that all biological systems on our planet are rooted in the same fundamental framework. This framework is extremely complex and we have yet to fully understand the processes inside each liv
2h
Generate brilliant ideas by relaxing your cognitive filters
This article was originally published at Big Think Edge. Your brain is bursting with ideas, and most of them are … weird. You only have to recall the wonderfully bonkers notions of your childhood. Like the time you wanted to teach octopuses to count past eight. Or when you drew a missing poster for your mother's lost voice. Or when you "invented" a cardboard machine to turn clouds into cotton can
2h
Symbionts sans frontieres: Bacterial partners travel the world
This pandemic year has restricted international travel for humans. Not so for some microscopic bacteria in the ocean: They partner up with clams living in the sand beneath the shimmering waters of coastal habitats throughout the globe. According to research by scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen and the University of Vienna now published in PNAS, the bacteria
2h
Virgin Galactic Founder Makes It to Space Aboard His VSS Unity Spacecraft
The billionaire space race is over, and the winner is Virgin Galactic founder Richard Branson. The flamboyant 70-year-old billionaire boarded one of his SpaceShipTwo-class vessels on Sunday, July 11th at Spaceport America in New Mexico. With the help of a carrier aircraft, the VSS Unity rocketed to the edge of space , giving Branson and his fellow passengers a few precious minutes of weightlessne
2h
ExtremeTech Is Hiring!
ExtremeTech is hiring freelance writers, each for five stories per week. You would find, write, and produce these posts yourself, so experience writing tech news and working in a CMS is a must. You enjoy writing, love to research, have a passion for technology, and are committed to a deeper understanding of what's happening in the world around you — as well as what's on the horizon. You have stro
2h
The promise of inclusive sustainability
In this episode of BioScience Talks (https://bioscience-talks.aibs.org/episodes/blackologists-and-the-promise-of-inclusive-sustainability), Yitbarek, Bailey, and Harris join us to discuss this model of inclusive sustainability and the ways in which it can be brought to bear in service of ecosystems and the humans who inhabit them.
2h
Quantum phase transition discovered in a quasi-2D system consisting purely of spins
Pure quantum systems can undergo phase transitions analogous to the classical phase transition between the liquid and gaseous states of water. At the quantum level, however, the particle spins in states that emerge from phase transitions display collective entangled behavior. This unexpected observation offers a new avenue for the production of materials with topological properties that are useful
3h
Writing letters by hand is the best way to learn to read
Handwriting helps people learn reading skills surprisingly faster and significantly better than learning the same material through typing or watching videos, a new study shows. Though writing by hand is increasingly being eclipsed by the ease of using computers, the new study suggests we shouldn't be so quick to throw away the pencils and paper. "…even though they were all good at recognizing let
3h
Can the wrong food ruin an Olympic athlete's performance?
Depending on their discipline, some Olympic athletes could potentially enjoy some junk food without affecting their performance, an expert explains. "Combining the right diet with training is critical for success at the Olympic Games. Without enough food, and thereby energy, an athlete's performance will be far from optimal, regardless of how much they've trained," explains professor Lars Nybo of
3h
Despite less rain, the torrentiality of Mediterranean watercourses has increased
Ana Camarasa, professor of physical geography at the University of Valencia, has compared the rainfall registered in the Júcar Hydrographic Confederation between 1989 and 2018. By analyzing more than 800 rainfalls and more than 140 floods in four Valencian boulevards (including the ravines of Poyo and Carraixet, at the south and north of València) the expert concludes that in the final part of the
3h
Study highlights media's important role in debunking COVID-19 misinformation
A study by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) has found that as the type of COVID-19 misinformation rectified by Singapore's mainstream news media evolved over the course of the pandemic, the role played by the media in debunking those myths became increasingly important to citizens in the nation's fight to manage the outbreak.
3h
Stem cells turn into beating heart cells faster in space
Researchers joined forces with NASA to turn stem cells into heart muscle cells. In just three weeks, the stem cells became beating cardiac cells while aboard NASA's SpaceX-20 mission. Before trying the real thing on the International Space Station (ISS), the researchers had been using space-simulation machines to enhance the ability of pluripotent , or immature, stem cells to turn into cardiac mu
3h
Mapping extreme snowmelt and its potential dangers
Snowmelt—the surface runoff from melting snow—is an essential water resource for communities and ecosystems. But extreme snow melt, which occurs when snow melts too rapidly over a short amount of time, can be destructive and deadly, causing floods, landslides and dam failures.
3h
Coastal ecosystems worldwide: Billion-dollar carbon reservoirs
Australia's coastal ecosystems alone save the rest of the world costs of around 23 billion US dollar a year by absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems such as seagrass meadows, salt marshes and mangrove forests make an important contribution to mitigating climate change.
3h
How the universe is reflected near black holes
In the vicinity of black holes, space is so warped that even light rays may curve around them several times. This phenomenon may enable us to see multiple versions of the same thing. While this has been known for decades, only now do we have an exact, mathematical expression.
3h
1,500-year-old jawbone sheds light on gorilla-sized lemurs
DNA extracted from a 1,475-year-old jawbone reveals the genetic blueprint for one of the largest lemurs ever. If you've been to the Duke Lemur Center, perhaps you've seen these cute mouse- to cat-sized primates leaping through the trees. Now imagine a lemur as big as a gorilla, lumbering its way through the forest as it munches on leaves. It may sound like a scene from a science fiction thriller,
3h
Improving data-independent acquisition proteomics
Proteomics produces enormous amounts of data, which can be very complex to analyze and interpret. The free software platform MaxQuant has proven to be invaluable for data analysis of shotgun proteomics over the past decade. Now, Jürgen Cox, group leader at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, and his team present the new version 2.0. It provides an improved computational workflow for data-ind
4h
Sea-level rise may worsen existing Bay Area inequities
Rather than waiting for certainty in sea-level rise projections, policymakers can plan now for future coastal flooding by addressing existing inequities among the most vulnerable communities in flood zones, according to Stanford research.
4h
Sensing 'junk' RNA after chemotherapy enhances blood regeneration
Scientists reveal that during hematopoietic regeneration, RNA expressed from a part of the genome considered 'junk DNA' is used by hematopoietic stem cells to get activated and proliferate. The study shows that these so-called transposable elements make RNA after chemotherapy and activate an immune receptor which induces inflammatory signals enhancing hematopoietic stem cell cycling and thus parti
4h
The fine nose of storks
The sharp eyes of an eagle, the extraordinary hearing of an owl – to successfully find food, the eyes and ears of birds have adapted optimally to their living conditions. Until now, the sense of smell has played a rather subordinate role. When meadows are freshly mowed, storks often appear there to search for snails and frogs. Researchers have now studied the birds' behavior and discovered that th
4h
Ecologists develop a novel forensic tool for detecting laundering of critically endangered cockatoos
Ecologists have applied stable isotope techniques to determine whether birds in the pet trade are captive or wild-caught, a key piece of evidence required in many cases to determine whether a trade is legal or not. They have applied this technique to the yellow-crested cockatoo, a critically endangered species from Indonesia/Timor-Leste with a global population of fewer than 2,500.
4h
Shark Bites 'Jackass' Star Poopies | Shark Week
Stream Jackass Shark Week on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/jackass-shark-week-us About Jackass Shark Week: Johnny Knoxville sends Steve-O, Chris Pontius and new Jackass cast members on a Shark Week mission for the ages. They'll dial up a series of shark stunts that test their bravery and threshold of pain as they put common shark myths to the test. Subscribe to Discovery: http:/
4h
Cybersecurity can protect data. How about elevators?
Advanced cybersecurity capabilities are essential to safeguard software, systems, and data in a new era of cloud, the internet of things, and other smart technologies. In the real estate industry, for example, companies are concerned about the potential for hijacked elevators, as well as compromised building management and heating and cooling systems. According to Greg Belanger, vice president of
4h
New study may offer treatment guidance for MIS-C
Children and adolescents with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) who are treated initially with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and glucocorticoids have reduced risk for serious short-term outcomes, including cardiovascular dysfunction, than those who receive an initial treatment of IVIG alone, a new study finds.
5h
How sea otters stay warm in frigid waters
Researchers have discovered how otters stay warm in frigid temperatures. Sea otters' muscles use enough energy through leak respiration, energy not used to perform tasks, that it accounts for their high metabolic rate, according to a new study. Sea otters are the smallest marine mammal. As cold-water dwellers, staying warm is a top priority, but their dense fur only goes so far. Researchers have
5h
Did you solve it? Oxford university admissions questions
The answers to today's logical conundrums Earlier today I set the following three puzzles, which have all been set during Oxford university admissions interviews for joint philosophy courses. In each case, there is an initial question, which almost all candidates answer correctly. The follow-up questions are more challenging. 1. Stephanie's surprise. Continue reading…
5h
'Perfect' DNA repair fixes problems without a trace
New research digs into the question of how DNA repair works in reproductive cells like sperm and eggs during development. DNA damage occurs dozens or even hundreds of times within each individual developing sperm or egg cell, and the process occurs in organisms ranging from yeast cells to humans. "The DNA repair pathway we studied is effectively perfect, in that it is able to resolve damage with
5h
Sensing "junk" RNA after chemotherapy enhances blood regeneration
Scientists from the MPI-IE reveal that during hematopoietic regeneration, RNA expressed from a part of the genome considered "junk DNA" is used by hematopoietic stem cells to get activated and proliferate. The study published in the scientific journal Nature Cell Biology shows that these so-called transposable elements make RNA after chemotherapy and activate an immune receptor which induces infla
6h
A novel forensic tool for detecting laundering of critically endangered cockatoos
Ecologists from the Conservation Forensics Laboratory of the Research Division for Ecology and Biodiversity at the University of Hong Kong (HKU) have applied stable isotope techniques to determine whether birds in the pet trade are captive or wild-caught, a key piece of evidence required in many cases to determine whether a trade is legal or not. They have applied this technique to the yellow-cres
6h
Hijacked immune activator promotes growth and spread of colorectal cancer
Through a complex, self-reinforcing feedback mechanism, colorectal cancer cells make room for their own expansion by driving surrounding healthy intestinal cells to death – while simultaneously fueling their own growth. This feedback loop is driven by an activator of the innate immune system. Researchers from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the University of Heidelberg discovered this
6h
Naturally abundant venom peptide from ants can activate a pseudo allergic pathway unravelling a novel immunomodulatory pathway of MRGPRX2
Ants are omnipresent, and we often get blisters after an ant bite. But do you know the molecular mechanism behind it? A joint research team have identified and demonstrated a novel small peptide isolated from the ant venom can initiate an immune pathway via a pseudo-allergic receptor MRGPRX2. The study has recently been published in a top journal in Allergy – The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Im
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Progress towards new treatments for tuberculosis
Boosting the body's own disease-fighting immune pathway could provide answers in the desperate search for new treatments for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis still represents an enormous global disease burden and is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide.The study uncovered how cells infected with tuberculosis bacteria can die, and that using new medicines to enhance particular forms of cell death
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First actionable clock that predicts immunological health and chronic diseases of aging
Researchers have created an inflammatory clock of aging (iAge) which measures inflammatory load and predicts multi-morbidity, frailty, immune health, cardiovascular aging and is also associated with exceptional longevity in centenarians. Utilizing deep learning, a form of AI, in studies of the blood immunome of 1001 people, researchers also identified a modifiable chemokine associated with cardiac
6h
Post-pandemic food security
The COVID-19 pandemic has wrecked lives and wreaked havoc on economies around the world. Part of the problem has been our solution to disease. The measures, such as social, business, and educational lockdown and border controls that are aimed at stopping the spread of the novel coronavirus—SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19—have disrupted the supply of agricultural food products to markets and cons
6h
Weird 'supernova shrapnel' star speeds out of the Milky Way
Astronomers have analyzed light data from a piece of supernova shrapnel—a star called LP 40-365—to gain clues about where it came from. About 2,000 light years away from Earth, there is a star catapulting toward the edge of the Milky Way. This particular star, known as LP 40-365, is one of a unique breed of fast-moving stars—remnant pieces of massive white dwarf stars—that have survived in chunks
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Remarkable new insights into the pathology of Usher syndrome
Human Usher syndrome is the most common form of hereditary deaf-blindness. Researchers have now identified a novel pathomechanism leading to Usher syndrome. They have discovered that the Usher syndrome type 1G protein SANS plays a crucial role in regulating splicing process. Furthermore, they have been able to demonstrate that defects in the SANS protein can lead to errors in the splicing of genes
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Tiffany Haddish Dives with Lemon Sharks! | Shark Week
Stream Tiffany Haddish Does Shark Week on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/tiffany-haddish-does-shark-week-us About Tiffany Haddish Does Shark Week: Tiffany Haddish hosts Shark Week! While her fantasy was to uncover the secrets of shark sex sailing on the fanciest yachts, surrounded by friendly sea creatures and pampered by a handsome merman, she's in for the sharkiest of wake-up c
6h
Temozolomide Is Explosive
Here's some surprising information to learn about a drug that's been around for decades. Temozolomide (TMZ) is a chemotherapy agent, used in several intractable conditions such as glioblastoma. It's pretty vicious stuff – the mechanism is through alkylation of guanine residues in DNA, a brute-force approach with numerous side effects – but it does extend life in its target indications, up to a po
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Does the term "neurodiversity" do more harm than good?
There's been a recent push to label those with abnormal neuropsychological behaviors as "neurodiverse" rather than "autistic" or "dyslexic." This is an attempt to both remove the stigma attached to these abnormalities and also to call into question whether there is any such thing as a normal brain. The problem with getting rid of neuropsychological labels, however, is that it risks ignoring those
6h
HKU ecologists develop a novel forensic tool for detecting laundering of critically endangered cockatoos
Ecologists at the University of Hong Kong have applied stable isotope techniques to determine whether birds in the pet trade are captive or wild-caught, a key piece of evidence required in many cases to determine whether a trade is legal or not. They have applied this technique to the yellow-crested cockatoo, a critically endangered species from Indonesia/Timor-Leste with a global population of fe
6h
Danish student solves how the Universe is reflected near black holes
In the vicinity of black holes, space is so warped that even light rays may curve around them several times. This phenomenon may enable us to see multiple versions of the same thing. While this has been known for decades, only now do we have an exact, mathematical expression, thanks to Albert Sneppen, student at the Niels Bohr Institute. The result, which even is more useful in realistic black hol
6h
Songbirds like it sweet!
Whether birds can taste sweet was previously unclear. An international team of researchers has now shown that songbirds, a group containing over 4,000 species, can sense sweetness regardless of their primary diets. The study highlights a specific event in the songbird ancestors that allowed their umami (savoury) taste receptor to recognise sugar. This ability has been conserved in the songbird lin
6h
Scientists develop novel DNA logic circuits
Based on the complementary base pairing rules, a variety of complex secondary structures can be designed and assembled to develop DNA molecular devices with specific functions which play an important role in diverse research fields.
7h
Near the toys and the candy bars
Despite legislation to prevent the marketing of tobacco products to children, tobacco companies have shrewdly adapted their advertising tactics to circumvent the ban and maintain their access to this impressionable–and growing–market share.
7h
Getting to the bottom of all life: Visualizing a protein key to enabling
Photosynthesis is at the core of all life. But what lies at the crux of photosynthesis?Scientists have long known of the specific components of the cell where photosynthesisoccurs, but the precise mechanisms by which these components are maintained remainunknown. Now, the possibility of unprecedented high?resolution visualization using cryoelectronmicroscopy has allowed a team of scientists to rev
7h
How more than 30 years of China's meteorological satellite data is used by the world
China's first meteorological satellite launched in 1988. It was named Fengyun, which roughly translates to 'wind and cloud'. Since then, 17 more Fengyun meteorological satellites were launched, with seven still in operation, to monitor Earth's wind, clouds and, more recently, extreme weather events such as hurricanes and wildfires. With more than 30 years of Earth observational data freely availab
7h
Morocco swelters in a record heatwave
Morocco was hit by a fiery weekend heatwave that saw temperatures reach nearly 50 degrees Celsius (122 degrees Fahrenheit), the country's weather service said on Monday.
7h
When you choose a snack, taste beats health
When it comes to picking a snack, taste has a hidden advantage over healthfulness in the brain's decision-making processes, a new study shows. You dash into a convenience store for a quick snack, spot an apple and reach for a candy bar instead. Poor self-control may not be the only factor behind your choice, new research suggests. That's because our brains process taste information first, before
7h
Species of algae with three sexes that all mate in pairs identified in Japanese river
For 30 years, University of Tokyo Associate Professor Hisayoshi Nozaki has visited the Sagami River to collect algal samples to understand how living things evolved different sexes. The threes sexes of the Pleodorina starrii algae are male, female, and a third sex called bisexual in reference to the fact that it can produce both male and female sex cells in a single genotype and exists due to norm
7h
Urban areas with high levels of air pollution may increase risk of childhood obesity
Children living in urban areas with high levels of air pollution, noise and traffic may be at higher risk of childhood obesity, according to a study by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal)–a centre supported by the "la Caixa" Foundation–and the University Institute for Primary Care Research Jordi Gol (IDIAP Jordi Gol). The study was funded by the La Marató de TV3 Foundation.
7h
Genetic analysis to help predict sunflower oil properties
Skoltech researchers and their colleagues from the University of Southern California have performed genetic analysis of a Russian sunflower collection and identified genetic markers that can help predict the oil's fatty acid composition. The research was published in BMC Genomics.
7h
The big potential of little millet
Since humans began cultivating the land, we've prioritized one type of crop above all others: grain. With high amounts of minerals, protein, and vitamins, cereal grains form the foundation of diets worldwide.
7h
Scientists discover two species of few-electron bubbles in superfluid helium
In a new study, scientists at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have experimentally shown the existence of two species of few electron bubbles (FEBs) in superfluid helium for the first time. These FEBs can serve as a useful model to study how the energy states of electrons and interactions between them in a material influence its properties.
7h
New electronic paper displays brilliant colors
Imagine sitting out in the sun, reading a digital screen as thin as paper, but seeing the same image quality as if you were indoors. It could soon be a reality. A new type of reflective screen – sometimes described as 'electronic paper' – offers optimal color display, while using ambient light to keep energy consumption to a minimum.
7h
Scientists blueprint bacterial enzyme believed to 'stealthily' suppress immune response
Scientists have produced the first fine-detail molecular blueprints of a bacterial enzyme known as Lit, which is suspected to play a 'stealthy' role in the progression of infection by reducing the immune response. Blueprints such as these allow drug designers to uncover potential weaknesses in bacterial arsenals as they seek to develop new therapeutics that may help us win the war against antibiot
7h
A Trojan horse could help get drugs past our brain's tough border patrol
The blood-brain barrier protects the brain and is notoriously hard to get past for drug delivery, making it difficult to treat disorders in the central nervous system. In a mice study, a team of researchers used a novel approach to study the barrier and in detail characterized a Trojan horse technique to help to solve the challenge.
7h
Delaying Aging Would Bring Trillions of Dollars in Economic Gains, Study Finds
People are living longer than ever, but there's growing recognition that longer life expectancy is of little use unless we also delay the physical decline associated with old age. N ew research suggests doing so could be worth trillions of dollars in economic gains. Over the last century, life expectancy has shot up across the world thanks to improvements in medicine, diet, and education. However
7h
Giving a "tandem" boost to solar-powered water splitting
Photoelectrochemical water splitting allows us to produce pure hydrogen from water using solar energy. However, available photocatalyst materials offer low conversion efficiency and insufficient durability. Addressing this problem, scientists from Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, combine TiO2 and 3C-SiC, two promising photocatalysts, in a tandem structure, allowing their water splitting syst
8h
Humans can learn from animals and insects about impact of climate change
If we pay closer attention to how birds, rabbits and termites transform their local living spaces in response to varying climate conditions, we could become much better at predicting what impact climate change will have on them in future.This is according researchers* from the Universities of Montana and Wyoming (USA), Tours (France) and Stellenbosch (South Africa). They examined how animals' abil
8h
Study reveals ways to preserve employee morale during cost-cutting
After cutbacks and layoffs, remaining employees were more likely to feel they were treated fairly if the companies invested in them – and morale was less likely to plunge, according to new research. Those investments can include training for workers, team-building exercises or improving company culture. Even keeping workloads manageable after layoffs can help employees' job attitudes, according to
8h
Tracking Chernobyl's effects on wildlife
Nature, Published online: 12 July 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-01883-2 Evolutionary ecologist Germán Orizaola Pereda analyses how species have been affected, 35 years after the world's worst nuclear accident.
8h
We Might Be Able to Deflect an Asteroid by Sacrificing Satellites
Credit: NASA Some days, it feels like humanity is doing everything it can to hasten the end of the world, from creating weapons that can turn Earth into a nuclear hellscape to pumping formerly sequestered carbon into the atmosphere at ever-increasing rates. Still, these are things we as a species could stop doing if we wanted. We can't just decide not to get wiped out by an asteroid. Stopping a b
8h
Thales: Ancient Greeks built the cosmos with right triangles
Every triangle inscribed inside a circle on its diameter is a right triangle. Upon this discovery, Thales is said to have performed a great ritual sacrifice. Might Thales have believed that the entire cosmos was constructed of right triangles? Thales is credited by the late commentator Proclus, on the authority of Aristotle's student Eudemus, with "discovering" geometrical propositions, some of t
8h
Elsevier says "integrity and rigor" of peer review for 400 papers fell "beneath the high standards expected"
Elsevier says it is reassessing its procedures for special issues after one of its journals issued expressions of concern for six such publications, involving as many as 400 articles, over worries that the peer review process was compromised. The journal, Microprocessors & Microsystems, published the special issues using guest editors. The EoCs vary slightly, but … Continue reading
9h
The Dawn of Space Tourism
A common theme that emerges when writing about science and technology is that often the most important factor in determining if and how a technology is adapted is not the tech itself. Economics is often the overriding factor. People will tend to take the most efficient and least expensive route to any goal. We don't usually do things just because we can. This is why it is so important that the ma
9h
Are you prepared in the event of a natural disaster?
Of course we hope it never happens, but if it does, we want to be prepared. And by "it" we mean a natural disaster. Mother Nature has been handing us some doozies lately—wildfires, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, not to mention a pandemic—and in the unfortunate event that we are in her way, we want to make sure that we are able to ride out the (literal) storm. The Red Cross recommends that you k
10h
Transparent origami glass
Nature Communications, Published online: 12 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24559-x Glass is indispensable but its processing options are limited. Here the authors extend origami techniques to shaping three-dimensional transparent glass by introducing physical cavitation and chemical dynamic bond exchange in the pre-glass polymer-silica nanocomposites.
12h
Structural basis of the membrane intramolecular transacylase reaction responsible for lyso-form lipoprotein synthesis
Nature Communications, Published online: 12 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24475-0 In Gram-positive bacteria, lipoprotein intramolecular transacylase Lit produces a lipoprotein variant with less immunogenicity. As such, Lit can be viewed as a virulence factor. Here, structural and functional characterization of the enzyme provides insight into its catalytic mechanism, setting the stage for fut
12h
Visualizing the strongly reshaped skyrmion Hall effect in multilayer wire devices
Nature Communications, Published online: 12 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24114-8 Skyrmions – nanoscale, topological spin textures – are promising elements for next-generation computing due to their efficient coupling to currents in racetrack devices. Here, Tan et al. examine over 20,000 instances of current induced skyrmion motion to unveil a comprehensive picture of skyrmion dynamics across
12h
Single-nucleus RNA-seq2 reveals functional crosstalk between liver zonation and ploidy
Nature Communications, Published online: 12 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24543-5 Single-cell RNA-seq reveals the cellular heterogeneity in development and disease. Here the authors present a single-nucleus RNA-seq2 that allows deep characterization of nuclei isolated from frozen archived tissues, apply it for transcriptional profiling of individual hepatocytes, and determine a functional cro
12h
Artificial intelligence guided discovery of a barrier-protective therapy in inflammatory bowel disease
Nature Communications, Published online: 12 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24470-5 Traditional drug discovery process use differential, Bayesian and other network based approaches. We developed a Boolean approach for building disease maps and prioritizing pre-clinical models to discover a first-in-class therapy to restore and protect the leaky gut barrier in inflammatory bowel disease.
12h
TSC2 regulates lysosome biogenesis via a non-canonical RAGC and TFEB-dependent mechanism
Nature Communications, Published online: 12 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24499-6 Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multiorgan disease that can lead to hyperactive mTORC1 due to deficient TSC1 or TSC2 protein function. Here, the authors find that despite high mTORC1 activity, TFEB localizes to the nucleus and drives lysosomal gene expression via a non-canonical Rag-dependent mechanism.
12h
Intergenerational nutrition benefits of India's national school feeding program
Nature Communications, Published online: 12 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24433-w India's national school feeding program is the largest of its kind in the world, but the long-term program benefits on nutrition are unknown. Here, the authors show intergenerational program benefits, in that women who received free meals in primary school have children with improved linear growth.
12h
Scientists blueprint bacterial enzyme believed to "stealthily" suppress immune response
Scientists have produced the first fine-detail molecular blueprints of a bacterial enzyme known as Lit, which is suspected to play a "stealthy" role in the progression of infection by reducing the immune response. Blueprints such as these allow drug designers to uncover potential weaknesses in bacterial arsenals as they seek to develop new therapeutics that may help us win the war against antibiot
12h
Video: Så bragede Branson ud til kanten af rummet
Milliardæren Richard Branson tog hul på den nye æra for rumturisme ved at flyve ud til kanten af rummet i flyet VSS Unity. Rumflyet nåede en højde af 80 kilometer og gav passagererne tre minutters vægtløshed, før flyet gled ned til en landing i New Mexico.
14h
"Holistic cardiologist" Dr. Joel Kahn is amplifying misinformation and conspiracy theories about COVID-19 vaccines and VAERS
Dr. Joel Kahn is a "holistic cardiologist." There was a time when he seemed to me at least semi-reasonable, but recently he has been peddling COVID-19 conspiracy theories and antivaccine misinformation, particularly misrepresentation of reports to the VAERS database, which makes this a good time for an update about how antivaxxers are weaponizing VAERS for propaganda purposes. The post first app
14h
Peer review
"Granskning av likar" , referentgranskning, betyder ungefär "granskning av likar", och kallas på svenska även kollegial granskning, kollegial utvärdering, kollegial fack­granskning, eller referee­granskning. Referent­granskning är en del av den … Continued Inlägget Peer review dök först upp på Vetenskap och Folkbildning .
16h
These CBD Prerolls Are Perfect for Altering Your Mood Without Altering Your Mind
Recreational marijuana use is on the rise, aided in part by increasingly lax views on the behavior on the part of lawmakers in the United States. That trend has brought with it a purer, higher quality legal weed than would have been thought possible a few years ago, but that can be a double-edged sword for those of us who are interested in the positive effects of CBD without such high levels of T
17h
High-tech toilets could spread antibiotic-resistant superbugs in hospitals, Japanese study suggests
Water-jet nozzles in electric toilets–commonly used in Japan and other parts of Asia–may be reservoirs for multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) in hospitals, increasing the risk of dangerous germ transmission among patients, according to new research being presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) held online this year.
23h
Hepatitis C vaccine could be rolled out within five years, says Nobel Prize winner who discovered virus
A vaccine to protect against infection with hepatitis C could be in use within 5 years, says Professor Sir Michael Houghton, who won the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology along with three other scientists for discovering the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989. Sir Michael will discuss the development of a vaccine in a special presentation at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiolog
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