When a compound of manganese and sulfide (MnS2) is compressed in a diamond anvil, it transitions from an insulator into a metallic state and back into an insulator. This is accompanied by unprecedented decreases in resistance and volume across an extremely narrow range of pressure changes at room temperatue, say researchers.
Researchers have found a particularly powerful weapon for fighting infection in non-immune system cells' arsenal—a protein that acts like a detergent to wipe out invading pathogens. This intracellular cleanser works much like the way that Ajax cleans dirty dishes or sanitizes a kitchen countertop. It dissolves membranes of invading bacteria that have replicated in the cytosol , the watery interio
In an analysis of over 19,500 orphaned oil and gas wells across the United States, scholars at Resources for the Future (RFF) find that the median cost of plugging and reclaiming a well is $76,000, although that figure can vary widely depending on the age, location, well depth, and other key factors.
On Monday, the air quality in Boston and the greater New England area was so bad that it was only rivaled by the areas in Northern California and Oregon currently on fire. An interactive map from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration showed how smoke from the wildfires out west were being carried across the continental US by winds and the jet stream. In response to the blanket of smo
The rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines is a tremendous scientific response to the current global pandemic. However, vaccines per se do not save lives and restart economies. Their success depends on the number of people getting vaccinated. We used a survey experiment to examine the impact on vaccine intentions of…
It is commonly assumed that cities are detrimental to mental health. However, the evidence remains inconsistent and at most, makes the case for differences between rural and urban environments as a whole. Here, we propose a model of depression driven by an individual's accumulated experience mediated by social networks. The…
Optical cavities confine light on a small region in space, which can result in a strong coupling of light with materials inside the cavity. This gives rise to new states where quantum fluctuations of light and matter can alter the properties of the material altogether. Here we demonstrate, based on…
In our everyday life, we are often exposed to addictive agents like pain killers, tobacco, alcohol, even food, sex, or video games. Although the majority of people will not develop an addiction upon contact with those agents, a part of the population will. What determines whether a person is going…
In 1881 the first significant work on earthworm behavior and ecology was published (1). It was Charles Darwin´s last scientific book and is still a fascinating and rewarding read. In PNAS, Geier et al. (2) use an earthworm taken directly from nature to present a method that allows in situ…
Frontotemporal dementias are a group of fatal and debilitating brain disorders for which there are no cures. Researchers describe how they were able to recreate much of the damage seen in a widely studied form of the disease by growing special types of cerebral organoids in petri dishes. This form of the disease is caused by a genetic mutation in tau, a protein that is a hallmark of Alzheimer's di
New research has identified potential treatment that could improve the human immune system's ability to search out and destroy cancer cells within the body. Scientists have identified a way to restrict the activity of a group of cells which regulate the immune system, which in turn can unleash other immune cells to attack tumours in cancer patients.
The demand for energy consumption, limited availability of fossil fuels, and pollution caused by the energy production industry challenge scientists to find new, more cost-effective, and greener solutions to produce power. Most of the current energy sources are far from being environmentally friendly. In this context, electrochemically assisted generation of chemicals, at first glance, would not b
A toddler who was found dead in Oregon 58 years ago has finally been identified, thanks to a concerted effort involving local, state and national law enforcement, genetic genealogists and a University of Oregon scientist.
In recent years, wildfires on the West Coast have become larger and more damaging. A combination of almost a century of fire suppression and hotter and drier conditions has created a tinderbox ready to ignite, destroying homes and polluting the air over large areas.
A new technology for cellular immunotherapy showed promising anti-tumor activity in the lab against hard-to-treat cancers driven by the once-considered "undruggable" KRAS mutation, including lung, colorectal, and pancreatic.
Researchers discovered that although the brain regulates feeding for pleasure and for hunger through serotonin-producing neurons in the midbrain, each type of feeding is wired by its own independent circuit that does not influence the other type of feeding.
Black holes, detected by their gravitational wave signal as they collide with other black holes, could be the product of much earlier parent collisions. Such an event has only been hinted at so far, but scientists believe we are getting close to tracking down the first of these so-called 'hierarchical' black holes.
People who have recovered from COVID-19 retain broad and effective longer-term immunity to the disease, according to a new study. Findings of the study, which is the most comprehensive of its kind so far, have implications for expanding understanding about human immune memory as well as future vaccine development for coronaviruses. For the longitudinal study in Cell Reports Medicine , researchers
Here's a new paper with a surprise: a small molecule that appears to be very effective against malaria, with what may be a high barrier to developing resistance ( C&E News coverage here ). It's from a large multicenter (multicontinent) team, and the chemical matter has its origins at Sanofi. The idea was to search for human homologs of targets that are present in several human blood-borne parasit
The disconnect between how old we feel and how old we want to be can offer insights into the relationship between our views on aging and our health, according to a new study. Subjective age discordance (SAD)—the difference between how old you feel and how old you would like to be—is a fairly new concept in the psychology of aging . However, the work to this point has used SAD to look at longitudi
The 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo have had one notable absence: spectators. The decision to go on with the Games but to forbid fans was announced by organizers earlier this month as a resurgence of COVID-19 prompted Japan to declare a state of emergency in the capital city. The 11th hour shift in policy will deny Tokyo the colorful fanfare typically seen in Olympic host cities and cost organizers
As COVID-19 restrictions begin to ease and people return to the workplace this fall, many young children will return to child care centers, preschools and family child care homes. The University of Illinois Chicago's College of Education is reminding caregivers that they have available free online resources for both early math and early science education.
Nostalgia, defined as a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, has become a growing focus of research in personality and social psychology. Though it may seem counterintuitive, nostalgia has been proven to be a great motivator of future behavior. Take for example, fans of former President Barack Obama. When the 2016 election of President Donald Trump left over half of the United St
Effective branding can not only change how you feel about a company, it can actually change how your brain is wired. Our new series "Your Brain on Money," created in partnership with Million Stories, recently explored the surprising ways brands can affect our behavior. Brands aren't going away. But you can make smarter decisions by slowing down and asking yourself why you're making a particular p
When was the last time you watched a DVD? If you're like most people, your DVD collection has been gathering dust as you stream movies and TV from a variety of on-demand services. But have you ever considered the impact of streaming video on the environment?
Stream Street Outlaws: Memphis on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/street-outlaws-memphis About Street Outlaws: Memphis: Street Outlaws is traveling to the toughest, meanest and wildest streets in the South, as it heads to Memphis to spotlight JJ Da Boss and his team of family and friends who have been racing together for decades. Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDisc
Women leaders must often battle sexist stereotypes that label them 'too emotional' for effective leadership. A surprising new study shows that when they express calm, happy emotions, however, women are perceived as more effective leaders than men. The effect is most pronounced for leaders in top positions in an organization.
From art to religion to land use, much of what is deemed valuable in the United States was shaped centuries ago by the white male perspective. Fish, it turns out, are no exception. A study explores how colonialist attitudes toward native fishes were rooted in elements of racism and sexism. It describes how those attitudes continue to shape fisheries management today, often to the detriment of nati
A new study finds that adults in five Southern cities hold similar views regarding school assignments and the importance of diversity in K-12 schools—despite those cities having very different policies in place to support socioeconomic diversity in their school systems.
In the face of trauma, happiness is resilience: a revolutionary act of thriving despite all odds, rather than wilting or surrendering. Community organizer and activist Miracle Jones offers a heart-to-heart meditation on the role of joy as a form of radical resistance, survival and protection for Black folks in the US and across the world. A warm reminder to embrace the guiding light of hope in the
Backyard trapping of rats and other pests is by far more popular as a conservation activity in urban areas than monitoring pests or native wildlife, according to Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington research just published in the journal People and Nature.
Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) are opportunistic carnivores that primarily feed on invertebrates and fish. In the wild, they eat a variety of food items depending on their life stage and geographic location. For debilitated sea turtles in rehabilitation, part of the healing process is to provide a species-specific, balanced diet that provides nutrition similar to that of a wild diet to a
For the first time, scientists developed 3D scans of shark intestines to learn how they digest what they eat. The scans reveal an intestinal structure that looks awfully familiar — it looks like a Tesla valve. The structure may allow sharks to better survive long breaks between feasts. Considering how much sharks are feared by humans, it is a bit of a surprise that scientists don't know much abou
Older people in the poorest sector of the population were more than twice as likely to feel isolated and lonely during the first lockdown than the richest, finds a new study led by researchers from UCL and the University of Manchester.
In a new study of access to clean and affordable water in Detroit, University of Michigan researchers found that about 10% of the city's population is 'triple burdened', meaning those residents face higher than average rates of poverty, housing cost burden and incomplete plumbing.
Recently, researchers from the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have provided the new idea of co-pumping single-frequency Raman amplifiers. Relevant result was published in Optics Express on May 7.
People who trust science are more likely to believe and disseminate false claims that contain scientific references than are people who don't trust science, a study finds. Reminding people of the value of critical evaluation reduces belief in false claims, but reminding them of the value of trusting science does not. "The critical mindset makes you less gullible." "We conclude that trust in scien
During the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, having to make rent or mortgage payments was significantly associated with health and mental distress, according to new research from the University of Michigan School of Public Health.
An interdisciplinary group of scientists from the universities of Cologne, Koblenz, Tübingen, and Stuttgart has studied the characteristics determining the maximum running speed in animals. The model they developed explains why humans cannot keep up with the fastest sprinters in the animal kingdom. Based on these calculations, the giant spider Shelob from "The Lord of the Rings" would have reached
Researchers from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) decoded for the first time the chromosomal-level genome of a deep-sea gutless tubeworm and how the worm's co-living bacterial partners manufacture organic nutrients for its host so it can survive the extreme habitat. The discovery lays foundation for potential applications such as biomaterial production and microbial growt
A recent study compares the "bouncing behavior"—the underlying spring-like physics of running—in elite-level male runners (sub-four-minute milers) vs. highly trained but not elite runners. Subjects ran on a treadmill instrumented with a pressure plate beneath the belt, so the researchers could see how much time they spent in the air and in contact with the ground. When running, muscles and limbs
An international study led by The University of Western Australia has found that temperate marine ecosystems dominated by marine forests are collapsing into flattened seascapes of short turf algae across the globe.
Finding new solutions to address the challenges posed by plastic waste can dramatically improve global sustainability practices and help achieve a greener future. While many researchers are working to solve this problem on an international scale, a new, multi-institutional team is seeking to turn that waste into a high-performing contributor.
While agricultural production around the world struggles with declining soil health, Australian researchers are investigating production of a sustainable organic nitrogen fertilizer made from aquatic cyanobacterial biomass—ideally suited for badly degraded areas reliant on chemical fertilizers.
One of the greatest challenges in science is the study of the brain's anatomy and cellular architecture. A promising new technique, developed by scientists in Italy, the UK and Germany, is now bringing the microscopic details of the brain into sharper focus even over macroscopic volumes.
Thirty-five years ago, Canadian and American dads were doing a similar amount of child rearing, relative to mothers. Surveys from the mid 1980s showed that Canadian men spent 38% of the time that Canadian women spent on child care, and American men spent 35% of the time that American women spent on child care.
Creeks, rivers and lakes that are fed by melting snow across the U.S. West are already running low as of mid-July 2021, much to the worry of farmers, biologists and snow hydrologists like me. This is not surprising in California, where snow levels over the previous winter were well below normal. But it is also true across Colorado and the Rocky Mountains, which in general received a normal amount
New guidelines educate health care professionals about how to help prevent firearm injuries. Each year, approximately 40,000 people in the United States die because of guns, making firearm-related injuries a leading cause of death for adults and children . According to a recent report , gun violence surged during the COVID-19 pandemic, making 2020 one of the nation's deadliest years for firearm-r
The death toll from floods in central China's Henan province rose to 71 on Tuesday as a tribute at a subway where 14 people died was sealed off in a sign of sensitivity to public criticism of the government's handling of the disaster.
Active management of forests, including timber harvesting to meet silvicultural objectives, can influence the transmission dynamics of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme, anaplasmosis and babesiosis, according to a new study by a team of University of Maine researchers.
This month we've seen some crazy, devastating weather. Perth recorded its wettest July in decades, with 18 straight days of relentless rain. Overseas, parts of Europe and China have endured extensive flooding, with hundreds of lives lost and hundreds of thousands of people evacuated.
PLUS. Om få uger lander første del af FN's klimapanels nye store hovedrapport, der er den sjette i rækken, som opsummerer de videnskabelige aspekter af klimasystemet og klimaforandringer. Mere fokus på ekstremt vejr og opdelinger i regioner er to nye centrale elementer. Nu indledes det politiske slagsm…
Nature, Published online: 26 July 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02060-1 NASA is considering renaming the James Webb Space Telescope, albino opossums are the first gene-edited marsupials and a single chip tests thousands of enzyme mutations at once.
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the argument that "99% of COVID patients survive" has been repeatedly used as an excuse to oppose public health measures including mask mandates, lockdowns, and, more recently, vaccines. It asserts that because COVID has a ~99% … Continue reading →
Magnets for healing have a bad rap, one they rightfully deserve . Magnetic snake-oil devices with all sorts of bogus medical claims are as old as magnets themselves. It may have something to do with the fact that magnets seem like magic, exerting and invisible force at a distance. So it's often an easy sell. Also, magnets are real and do produce a real energy field (unlike the non-existent "life
Military planning is a complicated endeavor, calling upon experts in logistics and infrastructure to predict resource availability and technological advancements. Long-range military planning, deciding what to invest in now to prepare armed forces for the world in thirty years' time, is even more difficult.
Chatbots are becoming an integral part of service provision around the world. Chatbots are computer programs designed to simulate a conversation—both voice and text—with human users, especially over the internet. They are described as a never-sleeping, cost-efficient and powerful way to provide basic support to consumers. Chatbots can respond faster to customers and even personalize consumer exper
In late 2019, Indonesia sought to revolutionize the country's education system—long criticized for its focus on rote learning—through a series of ongoing policies dubbed the "Merdeka Belajar" movement, or "Freedom to Learn."
Millions of people in Indonesia, a vast low-lying archipelago in Southeast Asia with the second-longest coastline in the world, live in flood-prone river and coastal areas. Floods and storms are the most common type of disaster affecting Indonesian cities, according to a UN report.
Meditation and mindfulness are useful ways to step back from your problems, get a handle on your anxiety, and even reshape how you think . Yet for those with a packed day, it can be intimidating to find a few minutes to even start. Mindabout was designed to help you surmount those obstacles. It typically lists for $399, and is on sale now for 90% off at just $39.99. Mindfulness In Your Pocket Min
The semiconductor chip shortage has drawn significant attention, and for good reason. Simply put, a growing list of products on the market today are dependent on chipsets to offer key differentiators. Unfortunately, the demand for chips does not seem to be waning – quite the opposite in fact. For instance, global tech market advisory firm ABI Research finds other key users for chipsets, the consu
My question regards primarily to the capabilities of biologically engineered humans as compared to those who undergo cybernetic enhancement. For instance, do you foresee biologically enhanced intelligence even mattering if we were all to have symbiotic AI's hooked up to our brains? For instance, imagine for a second that you could have the memory of a computer: you'd literally be able to store mi
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24901-3 Methods for imaging the 3D cell surface often require physical interaction. Here the authors report the combination of scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and live-cell super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) for the non-invasive topographical imaging of soft biological samples.
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24854-7 Switching of ferrimagnets by current-induced spin-orbit torque is promising for spintronics, due to their high-speed dynamics and small macroscopic magnetization. Switching of perpendicularly magnetized materials, however, requires a bias field for symmetry breaking. Here, Zheng et al demonstrate field-free curr
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24774-6 We know that most splicing reactions take place co-transcriptionally, but how the transcription machinery facilitate splicing of introns is unknown. Here the authors show that the 5′ splice site remains associated with the transcription machinery during intron synthesis through U1 snRNP, providing a basis for th
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24826-x Understanding how individual niches vary can inform ecology and conservation. A study of 45 GPS-tracked white storks across three breeding populations reveals that individual environmental niches are nested, arranged along a specialist-generalist gradient that is highly consistent over time.
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24482-1 COVID-19 is a critical public health threat, but molecular characterizations of patients' immunity is still lacking. Here the authors collected blood from patients with various disease severity, and prefiltered to exclude selected comorbidity, to obtain genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and lipidom
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24781-7 Retinoblastoma is a heritable pediatric cancer driven by mutations in RB1. Here, the authors demonstrate the first patient derived model of retinoblastoma using iPSCs from patients with germline mutations in RB1.
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24838-7 Despite many reports on nanoparticle-covalent organic frameworks (COF) composites, a universal strategy for the synthesis of monodisperse core-shell structured COF nanocomposites remains challenging. Here, the authors develop a strategy for interfacial growth of highly crystalline COFs on functional nanoparticle
Nature Communications, Published online: 27 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24876-1 BRAF-MAPK activating mutations are reported in histiocytoses—hematological neoplasms with widespread pro-inflammatory myeloid cells. Here, the authors show that an activating mutant BRAF in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells causes an oncogene-induced senescence response leading to myeloid restricted haema
Nature, Published online: 27 July 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02064-x Large increases to the budget of the US National Institutes of Health can spur wide investment, but also increase competition among junior researchers.
IoT-sensorer kan bruges til at indsamle oplysninger om eksempelvis elforbrug og luftkvalitet i et lokale, men ud fra disse simple data kan privatlivsinvaderende informationer også udledes. Det tænker man bare ikke på, lyder det fra ph.d.-studerende og professor ved SDU Software Engineering.
Lumen is a handheld device that you can supposedly use to "hack your metabolism". The science behind it is not convincing. Users are essentially navel-gazing. The post first appeared on Science-Based Medicine .
In the lead-up to the athletics competitions at the Tokyo Olympic Games 2020, Shivani Dave takes look at how advances in running shoe technology are resulting in records being smashed. Talking to Geoff Burns, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Michigan who specialises in biomechanics, Shivani asks how so-called 'super spikes' work and if the mechanical advantage they provide is f
In the lead-up to the athletics competitions at the Tokyo Olympic Games 2020, Shivani Dave takes look at how advances in running shoe technology are resulting in records being smashed. Talking to Geoff Burns, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Michigan who specialises in biomechanics, Shivani asks how so-called 'super spikes' work and if the mechanical advantage they provide is fa
Circe's proprietary microbes have been genetically engineered to transform CO2 and hydrogen gas into valuable carbon-based compounds within their cells via fermentation, consuming the input CO2 rather than emitting it." title="" src="https://external-preview.redd.it/QC-PHFQrbaTA2BSKnI3bzFmjDW0TyL8eCRL0KH26Cdw.jpg?width=640&crop=smart&auto=webp&s=78b29137f8d3cb8ce93dda19377b11ffbbd5346e"> submitte
Mice exposed to the opioid oxycodone before birth experience permanent changes in behavior and gene expression. The new research published in eNeuro highlights a need to develop safer types of painkillers for pregnant women.
Firm acquisition is a complicated process in which acquiring companies often try to smooth the transition by retaining at least one board-level director from the target company. New research from the University of Notre Dame calls into question the wisdom of this move.
Water Vapor Using data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, scientists say they've found the first-ever evidence of water vapor in the atmosphere of Jupiter's moon Ganymede. It's an exciting discovery that supports the theory the moon's massive subsurface ocean could be capable of hosting alien life — and could also give us insights into the habitability of other Jupiter-like systems outside of ou
Engineers have designed amyloid silk hybrid proteins and produced them in engineered bacteria. The resulting fibers are stronger and tougher than some natural spider silk, which is said to be one of the strongest, toughest materials on the Earth. To be precise, the artificial silk—dubbed "polymeric amyloid" fiber—was not technically produced by researchers, but by bacteria that were genetically e
On Aug. 26, 2020, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a pulse of high-energy radiation that had been racing toward Earth for nearly half the present age of the universe. Lasting only about a second, it turned out to be one for the record books — the shortest gamma-ray burst (GRB) caused by the death of a massive star ever seen.
Credit: John Burek Interest in Alder Lake is running high as we move into the back half of the year and closer to the CPU family's launch date. Alder Lake is intended to be a major step forward for both Intel and x86 CPU design in general. Historically, x86 CPUs have all been based on a cluster of identical CPU cores, in contrast to ARM, which has mixed big and little cores on the same SoC for a
Moonstruck Last week, a Tesla driver noticed that their car was giving off some odd readings as it cruised down the highway: it was confusing the Moon for an endless string of traffic lights. The glitch, which was caught on video by the vehicle's driver and spotted by Interesting Engineering , shows Tesla's Autopilot assisted-driving technology interpret the Moon as yellow traffic light after yel
Stream Bering Sea Gold on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/bering-sea-gold About Bering Sea Gold: In Nome, Alaska, the gold rush is on. Driven by gold fever and sometimes desperate need, miners pilot their ragtag dredges and dive with hoses to suck up gold from the bottom of the frigid, unpredictable Bering Sea. Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Follow Us on
Deforestation results in habitat fragmentation, decreasing diversity, and functional degradation. For mangroves, no data are available on the impact of deforestation on the diversity and functionality of the specialized invertebrate fauna, critical for their functioning. We compiled a global dataset of mangrove invertebrate fauna comprising 364 species from 16 locations,…
Archaeological dental calculus, or mineralized plaque, is a key tool to track the evolution of oral microbiota across time in response to processes that impacted our culture and biology, such as the rise of farming during the Neolithic. However, the extent to which the human oral flora changed from prehistory…
Contact tracing is an essential tool to mitigate the impact of a pandemic, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to achieve efficient and scalable contact tracing in real time, digital devices can play an important role. While a lot of attention has been paid to analyzing the privacy and…
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play fundamental roles in maintaining peripheral tolerance to prevent autoimmunity and limit legitimate immune responses, a feature hijacked in tumor microenvironments in which the recruitment of Tregs often extinguishes immune surveillance through suppression of T-effector cell signaling and tumor cell killing. The pharmacological tuning of Treg…
Localized carbon reduction strategies are especially critical in states and regions that lack top-down climate leadership. This paper illustrates the use of coupled systems in assessments of subnational climate solutions with a case study of Georgia, a state located in the southeastern United States that does not have statewide climate…
Mechanisms controlling myelination during central nervous system (CNS) maturation play a pivotal role in the development and refinement of CNS circuits. The transcription factor THAP1 is essential for timing the inception of myelination during CNS maturation through a cell-autonomous role in the oligodendrocyte lineage. Here, we demonstrate that THAP1 modulates…
There are sex differences in somatosensory sensitivity. Circulating estrogens appear to have a pronociceptive effect that explains why females are reported to be more sensitive to pain than males. Although itch symptoms develop during pregnancy in many women, the underlying mechanism of female-specific pruritus is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that…
Honeybees are renowned for their perfectly hexagonal honeycomb, hailed as the pinnacle of biological architecture for its ability to maximize storage area while minimizing building material. However, in natural nests, workers must regularly transition between different cell sizes, merge inconsistent combs, and optimize construction in constrained geometries. These spatial obstacles…
Despite overall improvements in health and living standards in the Western world, health and social disadvantages persist across generations. Using nationwide administrative databases linked for 2.1 million Danish citizens, we leveraged a three-generation approach to test whether multiple, different health and social disadvantages—poor physical health, poor mental health, social welfare…
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polyesters that are intracellularly accumulated as distinct insoluble granules by various microorganisms. PHAs have attracted much attention as sustainable substitutes for petroleum-based plastics. However, the formation of PHA granules and their characteristics, such as localization, volume, weight, and density of granules, in an individual live bact
Biotic interactions between Africa and Eurasia across the Levant have invoked particular attention among scientists aiming to unravel early human dispersals. However, it remains unclear whether behavioral capacities enabled early modern humans to surpass the Saharo–Arabian deserts or if climatic changes triggered punctuated dispersals out of Africa. Here, we report…
This article draws on official criminal histories for multiple birth cohorts spanning a 17-y difference in birth year to study how social change can alter our understanding of influential theories and policies about criminal offender groups. Arrest histories are linked to comprehensive longitudinal measurement on over 1,000 individuals originally from…
Dragline silk of golden orb-weaver spiders (Nephilinae) is noted for its unsurpassed toughness, combining extraordinary extensibility and tensile strength, suggesting industrial application as a sustainable biopolymer material. To pinpoint the molecular composition of dragline silk and the roles of its constituents in achieving its mechanical properties, we report a multiomics…
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by aorta dilation due to wall degeneration, which mostly occurs in elderly males. Vascular aging is implicated in degenerative vascular pathologies, including AAA. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, by hydrolyzing cyclic nucleotides, play critical roles in regulating vascular structure remodeling and function. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase
Concerns over overexploitation have fueled an ongoing debate on the current state and future prospects of global capture fisheries, associated threats to marine biodiversity, and declining yields available for human consumption. Management reforms have aimed to reduce fishing pressure and recover depleted stocks to biomass and exploitation rates that allow…
APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Correction for "Mutational fitness landscapes reveal genetic and structural improvement pathways for a vaccine-elicited HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody," by Bharat Madan, Baoshan Zhang, Kai Xu, Cara W. Chao, Sijy O'Dell, Jacy R. Wolfe, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Ahmed S. Fahad, Hui Geng, Rui Kong, Mark K. Louder, Thuy Duong…
ECOLOGY Correction for "Predicting future invaders and future invasions," by Alice Fournier, Caterina Penone, Maria Grazia Pennino, and Franck Courchamp, which was first published March 29, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1803456116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 7905–7910). The authors note that due to a technical error in the script that selected the…
NEUROSCIENCE Correction for "Selective filtering defect at the axon initial segment in Alzheimer's disease mouse models," by Xiaqin Sun, Yu Wu, Mingxue Gu, Zhuo Liu, Yuanlin Ma, Jun Li, and Yan Zhang, which was first published September 17, 2014; 10.1073/pnas.1411837111 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 14271–14276). The authors note…
CELL BIOLOGY Correction for "Direction of flagellum beat propagation is controlled by proximal/distal outer dynein arm asymmetry," by Beatrice Freya Lucy Edwards, Richard John Wheeler, Amy Rachel Barker, Flávia Fernandes Moreira-Leite, Keith Gull, and Jack Daniel Sunter, which was first published July 20, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1805827115 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A….
CHEMISTRY Correction for "Photochemistry of oxidized Hg(I) and Hg(II) species suggests missing mercury oxidation in the troposphere," by Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Oleg Travnikov, Jeroen E. Sonke, Colin P. Thackray, Daniel J. Jacob, Javier Carmona-García, Antonio Francés-Monerris, Daniel Roca-Sanjuán, A. Ulises Acuña, Juan Z. Dávalos, Carlos A. Cuevas, Martin Jiskra, Feiyue Wang,…
MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for "Embryonic stem cell-derived hematopoietic stem cells," by Yuan Wang, Frank Yates, Olaia Naveiras, Patricia Ernst, and George Q. Daley, which was first published December 15, 2005; 10.1073/pnas.0506127102 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 19081–19086). The authors wish to note the following: "Regarding Fig. S10 in the…
According to a survey conducted by the American Journal of Psychiatry, at least 16-million Americans over the age of 18 use stimulants like Adderall, Ritalin, or Modafinil. Regardless of which stimulants you use, the side effects are commonly the same and they're not very fun. This can include poor impulse control, anxiety, headaches, brain fog, moodiness, bloating, irritability, diminished cogni
Dig In Heaps and heaps of plastic garbage are choking the planet . But thankfully, a scientist duo has an interesting new plan to tackle it: turning plastic garbage into fine cuisine, instead of throwing it into a dump or the ocean. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign bioengineer Ting Lu and Michigan Technological University biologist Stephen Techtmann won an award called the 2021 Future Insi
Inexpensive, convenient silicone wristbands can measure exposure to a class of chemicals that can be harmful during pregnancy, researchers report. The researchers found that the wristbands, when used as passive samplers, have the ability to bind smaller molecular weight semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a similar pattern as active sampling. PAHs are a class of chemicals tha
As the United States flounders to meet its COVID-19 vaccine targets—only 49% of Americans are fully vaccinated to date. The especially contagious Delta variant has the daily number of new cases back on the upswing, with a 171% increase in new cases compared to two weeks ago. Around the world, the situation is even more dire. Despite the fact that experts predict nearly 11 billion doses of vaccine
Most of what we know from prior research about which countries are more unequal than others is based on measures of income inequality. In their new study, "The Wealth Inequality of Nations," appearing in the August 2021 issue of the American Sociological Review, authors Fabian T. Pfeffer and Nora Waitkus show that comparing countries in terms of their wealth inequality instead of income inequality
By uprooting carbon trapped in soil, wild pigs are releasing around 4.9 million metric tonnes (about 5.4 million tons) of carbon dioxide every year worldwide. That's the equivalent of 1.1 million cars. Researchers used predictive population models, coupled with advanced mapping techniques, to pinpoint the climate damage wild pigs cause across five continents. The globe's ever-expanding population
Every spring, the daylight saving time shift robs people of an hour of sleep—and a new study shows that DNA plays a role in how much the "spring forward" time change affects people. People whose genetic profile makes them more likely to be "early birds" the rest of the year can adjust to the time change in a few days, the study shows. But those who tend to be "night owls" could take more than a w
Americans are actually saddled with at least $140 billion in outstanding medical debt, research finds. The study from economist Neale Mahoney indicates a grimmer picture than the earlier $81 billion figure—heavily cited during the last presidential election cycle—which was based on a narrower measure of medical debt and a restricted sample of people. As reported in the Journal of the American Med
Researchers have discovered that bacteria from the plant microbiota are adapted to their host species. They show how root-associated bacteria have a competitive advantage when colonizing their native host, which allows them to invade an already established microbiota.
This article was originally published on Big Think Edge. Problem-solving skills are in demand. Every job posting lists them under must-have qualifications, and every job candidate claims to possess them, par excellence . Young entrepreneurs make solutions to social and global problems the heart of their mission statements , while parents and teachers push for curricula that encourage critical-thi
It seems safe to say that these days, pretty much everyone, smoker and non-smoker alike, is aware that nicotine is bad for you. It's addictive for one thing, and it also has plenty of other negative side-effects on your physical and mental health. But one thing you might not know if you're a smoker is that you don't really have to give up smoking in order to stop using nicotine. Instead, you can
A new study sheds light on how organisms have evolved to address imbalances in sex chromosomes. The study looks at a species of softshell turtle, but the results could help to illuminate an important evolutionary process in many species. The research centers on a process known as sex chromosome dosage compensation.
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) promises to revolutionize the way we produce and use certain parts. Reducing material waste and labor time, metal AM simplifies the steps for creating complex geometry parts when compared to conventional manufacturing methods.
In the longest study to date on the impact of princess media on consumers, new research from BYU professor Sarah Coyne found that children who engaged with princess culture were more likely to later hold progressive views about women and subscribe less to attitudes of toxic masculinity.
A Monash University study into the experiences of school leaders in 2020 found those who engaged in community, communication and compassion-based responses, successfully led their school community through crises and times of uncertainty.
Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have more than doubled over the last 150 years and mitigation of methane emissions will play a vital role in enabling climate change mitigation strategies. Understanding current and future methane inventories at a regional scale will be a key element in developing and implementing successful solutions. Current regional scale isotopic methane data is not ava
In recent years, fluorescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been demonstrated as a promising strategy for constructing sensors. However, most of the research studies on fluorescent MOF sensors have focused on the design and synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) MOF crystals on the order of micrometers and have not exerted the best detection performance of MOF structures. Two-dimensional (2D) M
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have developed a new technology which allows non-contact manipulation of small objects using sound waves. They used a hemispherical array of ultrasound transducers to generate a 3D acoustic field that stably trapped and lifted a small polystyrene ball from a reflective surface. Their technique employs a method similar to laser trapping in biology, but
As California endures an increasingly brutal second year of drought, state water regulators are considering an emergency order that would bar thousands of Central Valley farmers from using stream and river water to irrigate their crops.
A team of Chinese scientists says that it's uncovered the delta variant's secret weapon. Right when things started to look like the COVID-19 pandemic was in its final act — at least in countries with access to vaccines — the delta variant reared its ugly head and started a new surge. Experts have known for a while that the delta variant is more infectious than the original strain of SARS-CoV-2 th
The solutions to today's puzzles Earlier today I set you three 'clueless' Sudoku and an 'almost clueless' Killer Sudoku. For discussion and tips you can read the original column here . For a printable page of all the puzzles click here. Scroll down for the solutions. Continue reading…
A new method uses blood droplets to easily and effectively detect athletes who have taken performance-enhancing drugs. The method received approval from the World Anti-Doping Agency and could be tested at the Tokyo Olympics. We probably only know the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the number of doped athletes. Indeed, studies show that considerably more athletes use performance-enhancing dru
Researchers have identified a rare class of genetic differences transmitted from parents without autism to their affected children with autism and determined that they are most prominent in "multiplex" families with more than one family member on the spectrum. These findings are reported in Recent ultra-rare inherited variants implicate new autism candidate risk genes, a new study published in Nat
Researchers from the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital and the University of Queensland have developed a new formulation based on regulatory T-cell exosomes (rEXS) to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies for choroidal neovascularization therapy.
Lonely, older adults are nearly twice as likely to use opioids to ease pain and two-and-a-half times more likely to use sedatives and anti-anxiety medications, putting themselves at risk for drug dependency, impaired attention, falls and other accidents, and further cognitive impairment, according to a study by researchers at UC San Francisco.
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