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Nyheder2021juli27

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Exploring topology in biology
When can we say that a certain property of a system is robust? Intuitively, robustness implies that, even under the effect of external perturbations on the system, no matter how strong or random, said property remains unchanged. In mathematics, properties of an object that are robust against deformations are called topological. For example, the letters s, S, and L can be transformed into each othe
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Seeing gun violence as kids ups risk of violent behavior later
The effects on children of witnessing gun violence in real life or in fiction, including using guns themselves, may appear many years later, a new study shows. Whether it's seeing violent behavior with a family or among others in the neighborhood, or in movies, television, or violent video games, the gun use and acceptance among young adults can be traced back to their childhood. More mass shooti
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Exoskeletons Are Causing Problems With Wearers' Brains, Scientists Say
While exoskeletons can seemingly grant wearers superhuman strength on the job or give extra mobility to people with injuries, the assistive robotic devices may also be wreaking havoc on our brains behind the scenes. Instead of the harmonious fusion of man and machine one might expect from an exoskeleton, it turns out that a wearer's brain tends to work overtime in order to coordinate actions with
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Bacteria navigate on surfaces using a 'sense of touch'
Many disease-causing bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa crawl on surfaces through a walk-like motility known as "twitching." Nanometers-wide filaments called type IV pili are known to power twitching, but scientists ignore which sensory signals coordinate the microbes' movements.
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Research identifies potential role of 'junk DNA' sequence in aging, cancer
Researchers at Washington State University have recently identified a DNA region known as VNTR2-1 that appears to drive the activity of the telomerase gene, which has been shown to prevent aging in certain types of cells. Knowing how the telomerase gene is regulated and activated and why it is only active in certain cell types could someday be the key to understanding how humans age and how to sto
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Device cracks milk protein
After gaining world attention by 'unboiling' egg protein, Flinders University scientists have now used an Australian-made novel thin film microfluidic device to manipulate Beta-lactoglobulin (β-lactoglobulin), the major whey protein in cow's, sheep's and other mammals.In the latest application, published in Molecules, College of Science and Engineering experts have combined the capabilities of the
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As US troops leave Afghanistan, what's next?
As the US withdraws its troops in Afghanistan, the question now is whether the Afghan government—or another international force—can stop a resurgent Taliban from using violence to seize power, says Robert Crews. Crews , professor of history in the School of Humanities and Sciences at Stanford University, is the author of Afghan Modern: The History of a Global Nation (Harvard University Press, 201
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A new mathematical model assesses ICU patients' mortality risk
Researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) Department of Mathematics worked in collaboration with the Hospital de Mataró in developing an artificial intelligence-based model for predicting the risk of death of intensive care unit patients according to their characteristics. The model will improve the quality of care in these types of units.
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Yeet! As society changes, the dictionary gets weirder
The summer update to Dictionary.com added hundreds of new words and definitions. Many of them are in areas related to justice, technology, and COVID-19. The new slang terms will leave more than a few people confused. In any given year, new words are added to the dictionary to reflect how society's use of them has changed, often in response to ongoing events. For Summer 2021, more than 1200 new, i
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Sponge's clever structure could improve our buildings
Insights into the structural properties of a sponge could lead to advanced designs for structures that must respond safely to forces from the flow of air or water. The remarkable structural properties of the Venus' flower basket sponge ( E. aspergillum ) might seem fathoms removed from human-engineered structures. However, insights into how the organism's latticework of holes and ridges influence
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Astronomers Detect Moon-Forming Disc Around an Alien Planet
The sky is full of stars, and for the first time in human history, we know what's orbiting some of them. There are more than 4,000 confirmed exoplanets, but just a few have been directly imaged. A young gas giant called PDS 70c is one of them, and now astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have spotted something new: a moon-forming disc around the exoplanet. Mos
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Trailblazing standard set to tackle plastic pellet pollution
Retailers concerned by the ever-growing scourge of marine plastic pollution can, at long last, take practical action to tackle an entirely preventable form of plastic pollution within their supply chains. From July 2021, a first-of-its-kind pellet handling standard will be freely available from the British Standards Institute for use by all companies that either procure plastic goods or directly h
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Monsoon floods leave thousands stranded in India
The Indian Navy and Air Force joined rescue efforts in the western state of Maharashtra on Friday after heavy monsoon rains left thousands stranded in floods and landslides that have killed at least three people.
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To grow intestinal bacteria in the lab, goo stiffness matters
In order to mimic intestinal infections, researchers have built and tested a set of hydrogel-based platforms to see if they could make both transplanted cells and bacteria comfy. As a mechanical model of intestinal environments, the lab's soft, medium, and hard polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels were far more welcoming to the cells that normally line the gut than the glass and plastic usually us
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How to Write a Kaleidoscopic Character
Editor's Note: Read Robert McGill's new short story, " Something Something Alice Munro ." " Something Something Alice Munro " is a new short story by Robert McGill. To mark the story's publication in The Atlantic , McGill and Oliver Munday, the design director of the magazine, discussed the story over email. Their conversation has been lightly edited for clarity. Oliver Munday: Your story "Someth
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Pandemic has teens feeling worried, unmotivated and disconnected from school
When the COVID-19 pandemic started, many U.S. teens were more worried about the disruption to their education than the possibility of getting sick. A May 2020 survey of high school students found that they reported academics and work habits to be among their biggest challenges, ahead of mental and physical health. Nearly three-quarters (72%) indicated they were "very much" concerned with how COVID
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AI Advances Mapping of Human Proteome
In 2003 the largest ever international cooperative scientific project was completed, at a cost of about $1 billion – the mapping of the human genome. This came with much fanfare, with the media hyping all the medical benefits that would soon flow. Of course, basic science progress often precedes clinical applications by decades, so the hype was not necessarily wrong, just premature. But it was an
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Daily briefing: Why the Delta variant spreads so fast
Nature, Published online: 22 July 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02032-5 People infected with Delta have a much higher viral load. Plus, repurposed medicines might offer hope for long COVID, and how to create a perfect protocol.
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Indtørret blod afslører doping: Ny dansk metode testes til OL
Forskere fra Københavns Universitet har i samarbejde med Anti Doping Danmark og Norges laboratorium for dopinganalyse udviklet en metode, der via bloddråber let og effektivt kan afsløre atleter, der har taget præstationsfremmende stoffer. Metoden er nu godkendt af verdens internationale dopingorg…
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Visualization of gaseous iodine adsorption on single zeolitic imidazolate framework-90 particles
Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24830-1 Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks are promising as high-capacity iodine adsorbents. Here the authors image the gaseous I2 adsorption on single ZIF-90 particles, clarifying the inter-particle heterogeneity in adsorption reactivity and performance improvement after introduction of linker defects .
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In vivo evolution of an emerging zoonotic bacterial pathogen in an immunocompromised human host
Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24668-7 Bordetella hinzii is an emerging pathogen with zoonotic risk to humans, known to be able to cause respiratory tract infection, bacteremia and endocarditis. Here, applying whole genome sequencing to bacterial isolates, the authors characterize the mechanisms driving adaptive evolution in B. hinzii in a patient wi
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Proximate ferromagnetic state in the Kitaev model material α-RuCl3
Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24722-4 RuCl3 has stood out as a prime candidate in the search for quantum spin liquids; however, its antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperature suggests deviations from typical QSL models. Here, using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, the authors provide a comprehensive determination of the low energy effective H
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Structural basis of intron selection by U2 snRNP in the presence of covalent inhibitors
Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24741-1 Chemical modulation of intron selection has emerged as a route for cancer therapy. Here, structures of the U2 snRNP's SF3B module and of prespliceosome- both in complexes with splicing modulators- provide insight into the mechanisms of intron recognition and branch site inactivation.
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A multi-step nucleation process determines the kinetics of prion-like domain phase separation
Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24727-z The nucleation mechanisms of biological protein phase separation are poorly understood. Here, the authors perform time-resolved SAXS experiments with the low-complexity domain (LCD) of hnRNPA1 and uncover multiple kinetic regimes on the micro- to millisecond timescale. Initially, individual proteins collapse. Nu
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Reverse optogenetics of G protein signaling by zebrafish non-visual opsin Opn7b for synchronization of neuronal networks
Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24718-0 Microbial rhodopsins can be used to control action potentials, while animal opsins can be used to control intracellular signaling pathways. The authors identify Opn7b as constitutively active Gi/o coupled receptor that can be deactivated by light and used to modulate neuronal activity.
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Development of a quantitative prediction algorithm for target organ-specific similarity of human pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids and cells
Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24746-w Quantitative methods to assess the quality of hPSC-derived organoids have not been developed. Here they present a prediction algorithm to assess the transcriptomic similarity between hPSC-derived organoids and the corresponding human target organs and perform validation on lung bud organoids, antral gastric orga
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Heterogeneity-stabilized homogeneous states in driven media
Nature Communications, Published online: 23 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24459-0 Spontaneous symmetry breaking can induce instabilities in natural and engineered systems. Nicolaou et al. show that such instabilities can be prevented by introducing suitable system asymmetry in the form of spatial heterogeneity, relevant for the development of novel control and design techniques.
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Chipkrise skifter karakter: Nu rammes smartphones i stedet for biler
Nye store chipfabrikker i Kina sikrer de nødvendige komponenter til den globale bilproduktion allerede om få uger. Nu begynder producenter af forbrugerelektronik – eksempelvis smartphones – at få problemer med at skaffe tilpas mængder mikrochips. Det kan presse prisen op og betyde færre nye smart…
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Deadly summer of extreme weather
Climate scientists have long warned of severe impacts on the near horizon, and the 21st century has seen more than a few natural disasters made worse or more likely by global warming.
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Meet the Martian meteorite hunters
A team at the Natural History Museum (NHM), London is paving the way for future rovers to search for meteorites on Mars. The scientists are using the NHM's extensive meteorite collection to test the spectral instruments destined for the ExoMars rover Rosalind Franklin, and develop tools to identify meteorites on the surface of the red planet. The project is being presented today (23 July) at the v
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Shedding light on the dark side of firm lobbying
Researchers from George Mason University, University of Manitoba, Colorado State University, and Georgetown University published a new paper in the Journal of Marketing that examines an unintended customer consequence of lobbying, decreased customer satisfaction, and also explains marketing-focused efforts that can help prevent it.
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Southeastern US herbaria digitize three million specimens, now freely available online
A network of over 100 herbaria spread out across the southeastern United States recently completed the herculean task of fully digitizing more than three million specimens collected by botanists and naturalists over a span of 200 years. The project, which was funded by the National Science Foundation, is part of a larger, ongoing effort by natural history institutions worldwide to make their biolo
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Schneider Shorts 23.07.2021 – Aging Rambos
Schneider Shorts 23.07.2021: Pentagon declares war on old age, Cell being sneaky, French authorities not sure how to deal with fraud, with a suicide gene, more coffee, Neanderthals being stupid again and another Austrian genius saving the world from COVID-19.
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Geneticists pinpoint how a mutation causes devastating childhood cancer and successfully target tumor cells with tailored drug
Geneticists have discovered how a specific genetic mutation (H3K27M) causes a devastating, incurable childhood cancer, known as diffuse midline glioma (DMG), and — in lab studies working with model cell types — successfully reverse its effects to slow cancer cell growth with a targeted drug. Their landmark work translates crucial new understanding of the genetics of DMG progression into a highly
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RNA breakthrough creates crops that can grow 50 percent more potatoes, rice
A new RNA breakthrough is allowing plants to yield dramatically more crops and increase drought tolerance, which could have an impact on food scarcity and production as climate change threatens ecosystems. In initial tests, adding a gene encoding for a protein called FTO to both rice and potato plants increased their yield by 50 percent in field tests — and the plants grew significantly larger, p
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Cattle losing adaptations to environment
Researchers have uncovered evidence showing that cattle are losing important environmental adaptations, losses the researchers attribute to a lack of genetic information available to farmers. After examining genetic material stretching back to the 1960s, they identified specific DNA variations associated with adaptations that could one day be used to create DNA tests for cattle — tests that could
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